TY - JOUR. T1 - A fish oil diet induces mitochondrial uncoupling and mitochondrial unfolded protein response in epididymal white adipose tissue of mice. AU - Bhaskaran, Shylesh. AU - Unnikrishnan, Archana. AU - Ranjit, Rojina. AU - Qaisar, Rizwan. AU - Pharaoh, Gavin. AU - Matyi, Stephanie. AU - Kinter, Michael. AU - Deepa, Sathyaseelan S.. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. N2 - White adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of obesity driven insulin resistance. Dietary conditions that alter fat mass are known to affect white adipocyte mitochondrial function, however, the impact of high calorie diets on white adipocyte mitochondria is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of a diet rich in saturated or polyunsaturated fat on mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), a retrograde signaling response that maintains mitochondrial homeostasis, in epididymal WAT (eWAT). Mice were fed a low fat diet (LFD), saturated fat diet (SFD) or ...
MicroRNAs are emerging as new mediators in the regulation of adipocyte physiology and have been approved to play a role in obesity. Despite several studies have focused on microRNA expression profiles and functions in different metabolic tissues, little is known about their response to nutritional interventions in white adipose tissue during obesity stages, and whether they differ in this response to weight-reduction strategy is poorly understood. Our objectives were to study the dysregulation of some miRNAs in subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue during weight change, expansion/reduction; in response to both a high-fat diet and switching to a normal diet feeding, and to evaluate them as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for early obesity management A hundred 6-week-old male Wister rats were randomly divided into a normal diet group (N.D), a high-fat diet group (H.F.D), and a switched to a normal diet group (H.F.D/N.D). At the beginning and at intervals 2 weeks, serum lipid, hormone
TY - JOUR. T1 - FGF-10 is a growth factor for preadipocytes in white adipose tissue. AU - Yamasaki, Masahiro. AU - Emoto, Hisayo. AU - Konishi, Morichika. AU - Mikami, Tadahisa. AU - Ohuchi, Hideyo. AU - Nakao, Kazuwa. AU - Itoh, Nobuyuki. PY - 1999/4/29. Y1 - 1999/4/29. N2 - FGF-10 is a mesenchymal factor affecting epithelial cells during pattern formation. However, the expression and physiological role of FGF-10 in adults remains to be elucidated. We examined the expression of FGF-10 mRNA in a variety of adult rat tissues, and found to be most abundant in white adipose tissue. In white adipose tissue, FGF-10 mRNA was expressed in preadipocytes but not in mature adipocytes. The expression in white adipose tissue during postnatal development was also examined. The expression level was low at postnatal day 10 (P10). However, FGF-10 mRNA was abundantly detected later on (P28 and P48) when white adipose tissue growth was stimulated. We also examined the activity of recombinant FGF-10 for primary ...
Increasing the thermogenic capacity of adipose tissue to enhance organismal energy expenditure is considered a promising therapeutic strategy to combat obesity. Here, we report that expression of MKK6, a p38MAPK activator, is elevated in white adipose tissue of obese individuals.. Using knockout animals and shRNA, we show that Mkk6 deletion increases energy expenditure and thermogenic capacity of white adipose tissue, protecting mice against diet-induced obesity and the development of diabetes. Deletion of Mkk6 increases T3-stimulated UCP1 expression in adipocytes, thereby increasing their thermogenic capacity. Mechanistically we demonstrate that, in white adipose tissue, p38 is activated by an alternative pathway involving AMPK, TAK and TAB.. Our results identify MKK6 in adipocytes as a potential therapeutic target to reduce obesity.. ...
Effect of dietary fat modification on subcutaneous white adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in patients with metabolic syndrome.: Our data suggest that the LFHC
Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces "white adipocytes" with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP4 transgene in white adipocytes of mice gives rise to reduced WAT mass and white adipocyte size along with an increased number of a white adipocyte cell types with brown adipocyte characteristics comparable to those of beige or brite adipocytes. These changes correlate closely with increased energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, and protection against diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Conversely, BMP4-deficient mice exhibit enlarged white adipocyte morphology and impaired insulin sensitivity. We ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Obesity modulates the expression of haptoglobin in the white adipose tissue via TNFα. AU - Chiellini, C.. AU - Bertacca, A.. AU - Novelli, S. E.. AU - Görgün, C. Z.. AU - Ciccarone, A.. AU - Giordano, A.. AU - Xu, H.. AU - Soukas, A.. AU - Costa, M.. AU - Gandini, D.. AU - Dimitri, R.. AU - Bottone, P.. AU - Cecchetti, P.. AU - Pardini, E.. AU - Perego, L.. AU - Navalesi, R.. AU - Folli, F.. AU - Benzi, L.. AU - Cinti, S.. AU - Friedman, J. M.. AU - Hotamisligil, G. S.. AU - Maffei, M.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Increase in adipose mass results in obesity and modulation of several factors in white adipose tissue (WAT). Two important examples are tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and leptin, both of which are upregulated in adipose tissue in obesity. In order to isolate genes differentially expressed in the WAT of genetically obese db/db mice compared to their lean littermates, we performed RNA fingerprinting and identified haptoglobin (Hp), which is significantly upregulated ...
BACKGROUND Beige adipose tissue is associated with improved glucose homeostasis in mice. Adipose tissue contains β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), and this study was intended to determine whether the treatment of obese, insulin-resistant humans with the β3-AR agonist mirabegron, which stimulates beige adipose formation in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SC WAT), would induce other beneficial changes in fat and muscle and improve metabolic homeostasis.METHODS Before and after β3-AR agonist treatment, oral glucose tolerance tests and euglycemic clamps were performed, and histochemical analysis and gene expression profiling were performed on fat and muscle biopsies. PET-CT scans quantified brown adipose tissue volume and activity, and we conducted in vitro studies with primary cultures of differentiated human adipocytes and muscle.RESULTS The clinical effects of mirabegron treatment included improved oral glucose tolerance (P , 0.01), reduced hemoglobin A1c levels (P = 0.01), and improved ...
BACKGROUND. Beige adipose tissue is associated with improved glucose homeostasis in mice. Adipose tissue contains β3 adrenergic receptors (β3-AR), and this study was intended to determine whether the treatment of obese, insulin-resistant humans with the β3AR agonist mirabegron, which stimulates beige adipose formation in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SC WAT), would induce other beneficial changes in fat and muscle, and improve metabolic homeostasis. METHODS. Before and after β3AR agonist treatment, oral glucose tolerance tests and euglycemic clamps were performed, and histochemistry and gene expression profiling were performed from fat and muscle biopsies. PET CT scans quantified brown adipose tissue volume and activity and we conducted in vitro studies with primary cultures of differentiated human adipocytes and muscle.RESULTS. Clinical effects of mirabegron treatment included improved oral glucose tolerance (P,0.01), reduced hemoglobin A1c (P=0.01), and improved insulin sensitivity ...
Talk Page}} ==2018== ===A Renewable Source of Human Beige Adipocytes for Development of Therapies to Treat Metabolic Syndrome=== Cell Rep. 2018 Dec 11;25(11):3215-3228.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.037. Su S1, Guntur AR1, Nguyen DC1, Fakory SS1, Doucette CC1, Leech C1, Lotana H1, Kelley M1, Kohli J1, Martino J2, Sims-Lucas S3, Liaw L4, Vary C4, Rosen CJ4, Brown AC5. Author information Abstract Molecular- and cellular-based therapies have the potential to reduce obesity-associated disease. In response to cold, beige adipocytes form in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and convert energy stored in metabolic substrates to heat, making them an attractive therapeutic target. We developed a robust method to generate a renewable source of human beige adipocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Developmentally, these cells are derived from FOXF1+ mesoderm and progress through an expandable mural-like mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) to form mature beige adipocytes that display a ...
Obesity is an increasingly prevalent disease regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Emerging studies indicate that immune cells, including monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes, regulate metabolic homeostasis and are dysregulated in obesity. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) can regulate adaptive immunity and eosinophil and alternatively activated macrophage responses, and were recently identified in murine white adipose tissue (WAT) where they may act to limit the development of obesity. However, ILC2s have not been identified in human adipose tissue, and the mechanisms by which ILC2s regulate metabolic homeostasis remain unknown. Here we identify ILC2s in human WAT and demonstrate that decreased ILC2 responses in WAT are a conserved characteristic of obesity in humans and mice. Interleukin (IL)-33 was found to be critical for the maintenance of ILC2s in WAT and in limiting adiposity in mice by increasing caloric expenditure. This was associated with recruitment of uncoupling protein 1
The overall goal of this study was to evaluate and apply the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for fecal bacteria modeling. Methods were developed to characterize fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) from livestock, human, and wildlife sources to use as input in the model. Model. sensitivity to predict FCB concentration was evaluated for the model parameters and input. parameters using both SWAT 2000 and 2005 versions. Sensitivity of input parameters generally,. ranked as Bacteria concentration ? TBACT > Wildlife source loads > Livestock stocking rate ? Livestock manure production rate > BACTKDQ for SWAT 2000 whereas it was ranked as. BACTKDQ > TBACT > Bacteria concentration > WDLPQ > WDLPS for SWAT 2005. Sensitivity. of model and input parameters were found changed from SWAT 2000.. The SWAT (2005) model was calibrated and validated for daily flow, sediment, and fecal. bacteria concentration using one year of measured data (January to December, 2004). The SWAT. model predicted results with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipolysis defect in white adipose tissue and rapid weight regain. AU - Kasher-Meron, Michal. AU - Youn, Dou Y.. AU - Zong, H.. AU - Pessin, J. E.Jeffery E.. PY - 2019/8. Y1 - 2019/8. N2 - Weight regain after weight loss is a well-described phenomenon in both humans and animal models of obesity. Reduced energy expenditure and increased caloric intake are considered the main drivers of weight regain. We hypothesized that adipose tissue with obesity memory (OM) has a tissueautonomous lipolytic defect, allowing for increased efficiency of lipid storage. We utilized a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, which was subjected to 60% caloric restriction to achieve lean body weight, followed by a short period of high-fat diet (HFD) rechallenge. Agematched lean mice fed HFD for the first time were used as the control group. Upon rechallenge with HFD, mice with OM had higher respiratory exchange ratios than lean mice with no OM despite comparable body weight, suggesting higher utilization ...
Reducing RIP140 expression in macrophage alters ATM infiltration, facilitates white adipose tissue browning and prevents high fat diet-induced insulin ...
Obesity has a profound adverse impact on health. In this study, we present evidence for high-fat diet (HFD)-induced emergence of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). We studied adult males f
Altered Lipid Metabolism in Residual White Adipose Tissues of Bscl2 Deficient Mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Streambanks can be a significant source of sediment and phosphorus to aquatic ecosystems. Although the streambank-erosion routine in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has improved in recent versions, the recently developed routine in SWAT 2012 has undergone limited testing, and the lack of site or watershed specific streambank data increases the uncertainty in the streambank-erosion predictions. There were two primary objectives of this research: (1) modify and test the 2012 SWAT streambank-erosion routine on composite streambanks, and (2) compare SWAT default and field-measured channel parameters and assess their influence on predicted streambank erosion. Three modifications were made to the SWAT 2012 streambank-erosion routine: (1) replacing the empirical effective shear stress equation with a process-based equation, (2) replacing bankfull width and depth measurements with top width and streambank height, and (3) incorporating an area-adjustment factor to account for non-trapezoidal ...
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is recognized by its pivotal role on cardiovascular regulation and more recently also on metabolism. Angiotensin-(1-7) has b...
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The line states in part: "If xinetd was compiled with tcpwrapper flag enabled". Does anyone know how one might know if this is the case? - KitchM 00:18, 24 March 2010 (EDT) When I started xinetd according to instructions I got this message in everything.log: "Port not specified and cant find service: swat with getservbyname" Portnumber was not set in the default SWAT configuration file /etc/xinetd.d/swat. I added the line "port = 901". When I restarted xinetd I got the message "service/protocol combination not in /etc/services: swat/tcp". I selected an unassigned number and added the line "swat 1001/tcp" in /etc/services. I changed port number to 1001 in /etc/xinetd.d/swat. Now I could log into SWAT on http://localhost:1001. Erlhel 18:45, 7 April 2012 (EDT) ...
Callie Briggs’s support of the SWAT Kats is no secret, even though the masked duo’s identities are to her. When the SWAT Kats disappear, trouble arises in Megakat City, and Callie must rely on a …
Callie Briggs’s support of the SWAT Kats is no secret, even though the masked duo’s identities are to her. When the SWAT Kats disappear, trouble arises in Megakat City, and Callie must rely on a …
The linear motor driving the target for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment has been redesigned to improve its reliability and performance. A new coil-winding technique is described which produces better magnetic alignment and improves heat transport out of the windings. Improved field-mapping has allowed the more precise construction to be demonstrated, and an enhanced controller exploits the full features of the hardware, enabling increased acceleration and precision. The new user interface is described and analysis of performance data to monitor friction is shown to allow quality control of bearings and a measure of the ageing of targets during use.. ...
Objective: Based on its role as an energy storage compartment and endocrine organ, white adipose tissue (WAT) fulfils a critical function in the maintenance of whole-body energy homeostasis. Indeed, WAT dysfunction is connected to obesity-related type 2 diabetes triggered at least partly by an inflammatory response in adipocytes. The pseudokinase tribbles (TRB) 3 has been identified by us and others as a critical regulator of hepatic glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes and WAT lipid homeostasis. Therefore, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that the TRB gene family fulfils broader functions in the integration of metabolic and inflammatory pathways in various tissues.. Research Design and Methods: To determine the role of TRB family members for WAT function, we profiled the expression patterns of TRB1-3 under healthy and metabolic stress conditions. The differentially expressed TRB1 was functionally characterized in loss-of-function animal and primary adipocyte models.. Results: Here we ...
Swat Fuel WARNING: Do Not Buy Swat Fuel Until You Read This Review! Does Swat Fuel Work? Learn More About Its Ingredients And Side Effects From Our Expert.
IFNβ promoters associated with IRF3 are reduced in MEFs from DEAF1−/− mice.A, MEFs from wild type mice (black bars) or DEAF1−/− mice (white bars) were
Several years ago, the Tactical Operations Technology Working Group identified the need for an affordable and realistic training environment specifically
Scientists have developed a unique therapeutic strategy, using genetic information initially uncovered in fruit fly studies, that stops an aggressive and deadly form of leukemia in laboratory models of the disease.
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Accumulation of visceral adipose tissue correlates with elevated inflammation and increased risk of metabolic diseases. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control its pathological expansion. Transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) has been implicated in polarizing macrophages towards an inflammatory phenotype. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking Irf5, when placed on a high-fat diet, show no difference in the growth of their epididymal white adipose tissue (epiWAT) but they show expansion of their subcutaneous white adipose tissue, as compared to wild-type (WT) mice on the same diet. EpiWAT from Irf5-deficient mice is marked by accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages, higher collagen deposition that restricts adipocyte size, and enhanced insulin sensitivity compared to epiWAT from WT mice. In obese individuals, IRF5 expression is negatively associated with insulin sensitivity and collagen deposition in visceral adipose tissue. Genome-wide
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcriptional Response of White Adipose Tissue to Withdrawal of Vitamin B3. AU - Shi, Wenbiao. AU - Hegeman, Maria A.. AU - Doncheva, Atanaska. AU - van der Stelt, Inge. AU - Bekkenkamp‐Grovenstein, Melissa. AU - van Schothorst, Evert M.. AU - Brenner, Charles. AU - Boer, Vincent C.J.. AU - Keijer, Jaap. PY - 2019/4/16. Y1 - 2019/4/16. N2 - SCOPE: Distinct markers for mild vitamin B3 deficiency are lacking. To identify these, the molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to vitamin B3 withdrawal are examined.METHODS AND RESULTS: A dietary intervention is performed in male C57BL/6JRccHsd mice, in which a diet without nicotinamide riboside (NR) is compared to a diet with NR at the recommended vitamin B3 level. Both diets contain low but adequate level of tryptophan. Metabolic flexibility and systemic glucose tolerance are analyzed and global transcriptomics, qRT-PCR, and histology of epididymal WAT (eWAT) are performed. A decreased insulin sensitivity and a shift from ...
Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only a static storage site for energy; it is also a dynamic tissue that is actively involved in metabolic reactions and produces humoral factors, such as leptin and adiponectin, which are collectively referred to as adipokines. Additionally, because there is much evidence that obesity-induced inflammatory changes in WAT, which is caused by dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines involving tumor necrosis factor-|i|α|/i| and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, contribute to the development of insulin resistance, WAT has attracted special attention as an organ that causes diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases. Exercise training (TR) not only leads to a decrease in WAT mass but also attenuates obesity-induced dysregulated expression of the inflammation-related adipokines in WAT. Therefore, TR is widely used as a tool for
SWAT 3: Close Quarters Battle is a tactical shooter, developed by Sierra Northwest and published by Sierra Entertainment for Microsoft Windows-based PCs. It is the seventh installment of the Police Quest series. As the first first-person shooter of the Police Quest series, SWAT 3 received a new game engine with cell and portal technologies for simulation of environments and advanced AI and ballistics. The developers spent some time consulting with LAPD SWAT, including a real-life SWAT element leader and LAPD SWAT founder Daryl Gates in order to create an accurate, realistic simulation. Most of the animations in the game were motion captured from a real-life SWAT officer. Unlike many other first-person shooter games, SWAT3 places an emphasis on realistic police methods and tactics, including proper room clearance, use of less-lethal weaponry, ordering compliance and arresting enemies rather than shooting on sight, and differentiating between authorized and unauthorized use of lethal force. SWAT 3 ...
In this new paper, we report that CD137, a cell surface protein used in several studies as a marker for beige adipocytes, is detectable at the protein in beige adipocytes in vivo or in vitro, and its expression is not upregulated by adrenergic stimulation or cold exposure, as expected for a beige cell marker. Moreover, CD1377 knock-out mice showed elevated levels of thermogenic markers, including UCP1, increased numbers of beige adipocyte precursors, and expanded UCP1-expressing cell clusters in inguinal WAT after chronic cold exposure. CD137 knock-out mice also showed enhanced cold resistance. These results indicate that CD137 functions as a negative regulator of "browning" in white adipose tissue, and call into question the use of this protein as a functional marker for beige adipocytes.. The paper has just been published in The Journal of Biological Chemistry.. ...
The manner in which white adipose tissue (WAT) expands and remodels directly impacts the risk of developing metabolic syndrome in obesity. Preferential accumulation of visceral WAT is associated with increased risk for insulin resistance, whereas subcutaneous WAT expansion is protective. Moreover, pathologic WAT remodeling, typically characterized by adipocyte hypertrophy, chronic inflammation, and fibrosis, is associated with insulin resistance. Healthy WAT expansion, observed in the "metabolically healthy" obese, is generally associated with the presence of smaller and more numerous adipocytes, along with lower degrees of inflammation and fibrosis. Here, we highlight recent human and rodent studies that support the notion that the ability to recruit new fat cells through adipogenesis is a critical determinant of healthy adipose tissue distribution and remodeling in obesity. Furthermore, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the identity of tissue-resident progenitor populations in ...
White adipose tissue is mainly located in the hipodermis of the skin, i.e. it is subcutaneous. In humans, there area differences between men and women regarding the subcutaneous areas where white fat is more abundantly stored. In the inner part of the body, white fat is abundant in the mesenteries and intraperitoneal, and it is present, but less abundant, in the bone marrow and around inner organs. Hipodermis is a major storage location of white fat, but it is also an isolating layer that protect from low temperatures. Furthermore, instead of storage, white fat in the palm of feet and hands is intended for protecion against mechanical stress. White adipose tissue is one of the tissues that can increase and decrease its volumen dramatically during the adult period. This is mainly caused by the increase in size of the adipocytes, as well as the recruitment of new adipocytes by proliferation of precursor cells. In athletes, the white fat may be up to 2 to 3 % of the body weight, whereas an obese ...
The graphic to the left is from the web site of the Lima, Ohio, SWAT team. In January 2008, the team stormed the home of Tarika Wilson and Anthony Terry during an ordinary drug investigation. A member of the SWAT team shot and killed Wilson -- an unarmed 26-year old -- also blowing a finger off the one-year old son she was holding. Another member of the SWAT team killed two family dogs on a different floor. The police department removed the graphic from the web site following the incident. Wilsons killer was charged with two misdemeanors, acquitted, and continues to work for the Lima police department, though not for the SWAT team. ...
Females are in general more insulin sensitive than males. To investigate if this is a direct effect of sex-steroids (SS) in white adipose tissue (WAT), we developed a male mouse model over expressing the aromatase enzyme, converting testosterone (T) to estradiol (E2), specifically in WAT (Ap2-arom mice). Adipose tissue E2 levels were increased while circulating SS levels were unaffected in male Ap2-arom mice. Importantly, male Ap2-arom mice were more insulin sensitive compared with WT mice and exhibited increased serum adiponectin levels and upregulated expression of Glut4 and Irs1 in WAT. The expression of markers of macrophages and immune cell infiltration was markedly decreased in WAT of male Ap2-arom mice. The adipogenesis was enhanced in male Ap2-arom mice, supported by elevated Pparg expression in WAT and enhanced differentiation of pre-adipocyte into mature adipocytes. In summary, increased adipose tissue aromatase activity reduces adipose tissue inflammation and improves insulin ...
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.. Obesity has become an epidemic in the United States and the western world1. Individuals living with obesity have a higher risk of developing other diseases such high blood pressure, diabetes, heart attack, and even some types of cancers1. Normally, the food that we eat is converted into energy that we use for activities in our daily life. However, with the large portion sizes that are present in our diets today, not all the food we eat is needed for our basic energy needs. Moreover, western diet is usually full of fatty calories that remain unutilized in our body and stored in the form of white fat. Accumulation of this white fat may lead to obesity. In addition, some individuals are genetically more sensitive to weight gain which makes them susceptible to obesity even with normal diet2-6. Insulin is an important hormone in our body that helps us utilize the food that contains glucose, proteins, and fat ...
The nervous system plays a critical role in controlling obesity. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which serves as the principal initiator of lipid mobilization (lipolysis) in white adipose tissue in mammals including, of course, humans, is being studied for its role in obesity reversal. How the sympathetic and sensory nerves find their adipose tissue targets during development and adipose tissue transplants is also being researched. In addition, the role of the sensory innervation of white adipose tissue for control of lipolysis and/or sensation of the degree of adiposity is being studied to understand its role in obesity reversal. Finally, the effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activation or inactivation on obesity-related normal and pathological respiratory function also are being examined ...
Obesity is an increasing health problem worldwide, and nonsurgical strategies to treat obesity have remained rather inefficient. We here show that acute loss of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in adipocytes results in an increased rate of apoptotic adipocyte death and increased numbers of M2 macrophages in white adipose tissue. Mice with adipocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency have reduced adipocyte numbers and are resistant to obesity induced by a high-fat diet or leptin deficiency. In addition, adipocyte-specific TAK1-deficient mice under a high-fat diet showed increased energy expenditure, which was accompanied by enhanced expression of the uncoupling protein UCP1. Interestingly, acute induction of adipocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency in mice already under a high-fat diet was able to stop further weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Thus, loss of TAK1 in adipocytes reduces the total number of adipocytes, increases browning of white adipose tissue, and may be an attractive strategy to treat ...
In postmenopausal women, obesity is a risk factor for the development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer driven by estrogen. After menopause, aromatization of androgen precursors in adipose tissue is a major synthetic source of estrogen. Recently, in mouse models and women, we identified an obesity-inflammation-aromatase axis. This obesity induced inflammation is characterized by crown-like structures (CLS) consisting of dead adipocytes encircled by macrophages in breast white adipose tissue. CLS occur in association with NF-κB activation, elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators and increased aromatase expression. Saturated fatty acids released from adipocytes have been linked to obesity-related white adipose tissue inflammation. Here we found that stearic acid, a prototypic saturated fatty acid, stimulated Akt-dependent activation of NF-κB resulting in increased levels of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2) in macrophages leading, in turn, to the induction of ...
GLP-1, an important incretin hormone plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. However, the therapeutic use of native GLP-1 is limited due to its short half-life. We recently developed a novel GLP-1 mimetics (supaglutide) by genetically engineering recombinant fusion protein production techniques. We demonstrated that this formulation possessed long-lasting GLP-1 actions and was effective in glycemic control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes rodent models. Here, we investigated the effects of supaglutide in regulating energy homeostasis in obese mice. Mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 months to induce obesity and then subjected to supaglutide treatment (300 μg/kg, bi-weekly for 4 weeks), and placebo as control. Metabolic conditions were monitored and energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry (CLAMS). Cold tolerance test was performed to evaluate brown-adipose tissue (BAT) activities in response to cold challenge. Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance
Comments are welcomed and encouraged. The purpose of comments on our site is to expand knowledge, engage in thoughtful discussion, and learn more from readers. Criticism and skepticism can be far more useful than praise and unflinching belief. Theres an art and science to critical thinking and how to conduct yourself. Theres a multitude of fallacious appeals we could spell out, but a good rule of thumb is not to attack the person, attack the ideas. Dont look for the flaws in the person, look for the flaws in the hypothesis. Lets keep the brawling to movies depicting minor league hockey teams and political "news" shows. Thank you for adding to the discussion ...
Interesting. Im a fatty. A weight reduced fatty (went from 310 to 250 lbs through a combination of low carb and some resistance training), but still a fatty. I find the best way to shut down non-terminating hunger and increase energy for the rest of the day is to engage in a quick session of intense resistance training. Its like it almost instantaneously changes my phenotype from that of an obese person to one of a lean person. The thought of food is disgusting after intense resistance training. It is only after intense resistance training that I know what it feels like to be a skinny food adverse ectomorph (i.e. a hardgainer). Eventually Glut 4s on the surface of my skeletal muscle tissue downregulate and my phenotype reverts back to that of an obese person. Ive been thinking of engaging in resistance training every single day for this reason. It might not be ideal for recovery, but it might be a great idea if I want to drop the rest of my excess weight, leptin levels be damned ...
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The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
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Redistribution of white adipose tissue is a long-term symptom of several chronic diseases. Although the roles of adipocytes in acute illness have been thoroughly studied, how or why short-term responses of adipose tissue to disease sometimes produce long-term redistribution, and the causal relationship between the anatomical changes and the associated metabolic syndromes are poorly understood. The present paper reviews explanations for the redistribution of adipose tissue after infection with HIV, and in Crohns disease; both conditions that share the peculiarity of selective expansion of certain adipose depots while others are depleted. HIV adipose tissue redistribution syndrome (HARS) develops gradually after several months of infection with the HIV both in untreated patients and in those taking protease inhibitors and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Some current theories about the causes of HARS are critically assessed, and reasons presented for implicating local interactions ...
In addition to energy storage and insulation, the white adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ responsible for the secretion of a high number of adipocyte-originated signaling molecules. These...