Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of the CD11b-CD18 Integrin Major Determinants of the Entry Route. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The adenylate cyclase toxin (AC toxin) is necessary for disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, which has reemerged in the United States over the last two decad...
Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) from Bordetella pertussis can subvert host immune responses allowing bacterial colonization. Here we have examined its adjuvant and immunomodulatory properties and the possible contribution of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), known to be present in purified CyaA preparations. CyaA enhanced antigen-specific interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-10 production and immunoglobulin G1 antibodies to coadministered antigen in vivo. Antigen-specific CD4+-T-cell clones generated from mice immunized with antigen and CyaA had cytokine profiles characteristic of Th2 or type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells. Since innate immune cells direct the induction of T-cell subtypes, we examined the influence of CyaA on activation of dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages. CyaA significantly augmented LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-10 and inhibited LPS-driven tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-12p70 production from bone marrow-derived DC and macrophages. CyaA also enhanced cell surface expression of CD80, CD86, and ...
Vaccines designed to stimulate CTL should be able to deliver protein antigens to the cytoplasm of host cells for processing and presentation by MHC-I. Many systems have been exploited to accomplish cytoplasmic delivery, including viral and bacterial vectors and DNA vaccines (7, 8, 14, 22, 27, 33, 36). There have also been reports demonstrating that antiviral immunity can be primed in mice vaccinated with a recombinant Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin incorporating a CTL epitope from LCMV (11, 29, 31); however, the data demonstrated protection only when the recombinant toxin was injected in the presence of an adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide (29). Therefore, it remains unclear whether the antiviral protection was a result of toxin delivery or adjuvant activity. This report describes the use of a nontoxic, truncated form of anthrax toxin as an epitope delivery system without the use of adjuvant.. We demonstrate that protective immunity against a viral pathogen, LCMV, is generated in BALB/c mice ...
Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase. Penetration into host cells.: Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary, mouse adrenal cortex tumor (Y-1), THP-1 and U-937 cells
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Spermine inhibition of basal and stimulated adenylate cyclase is mediated by the inhibitory GTP-binding protein (Gi). by Carlo Clô et al.
Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory wheezing and post-tussive vomiting. Following the inhalation of respiratory secretions from an infected individual, bacteria enter the upper respiratory tract and adhere to epithelial cells. Several adhesion factors have been implicated: the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae, and pertactin (Prn). Pertussis toxin (Ptx) and adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) have been identified so far as major protein toxins of B. pertussis. PTX is a hexameric AB5-type exotoxin. Catalytic A subunit catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of the Gi subunits of the heterotrimeric G protein, then inhibits multiple downstream pathways. ACT is able to penetrate the cytoplasmic membrane of host cells and becomes activated through the cleavage and the binding of calmodulin (CaM). Activated ACT converts ATP to cyclic AMP and subverts ...
A factor [the feedback regulator (FR)] formed by adipocytes after the stimulation of a cAMP raising hormone has been found to be a potent inhibitor of membrane-bound adenylate cyclase [EC 4.6.1.1.; ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing)]. In a standard assay system using rat adipocyte plasma membrane as the source of adenylate cyclase, the FR inhibited adenylate cyclase by lowering the Vmax without affecting the apparent Km for ATP (0.3-0.6 mM). The apparent Ka for epinephrine (5-6 muM) was also not affected by FR. The inhibitory action of FR was partially countered by Mg2+ ions. An increase in phosphorylation of plasma membrane was observed when FR was present in the incubation system. The concentration required for a 50% inhibition was four times higher when adenosine 5-(beta,gamma-imino) triphosphate [AMP-P(NH)P] replaced ATP as the substrate for adenylate cyclase, implying that adenylate cyclase was inactivated by phosphorylation caused by FR. Increase in FR inhibition obtained by adding low ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Demonstration and Characterization of Opiate Inhibition of the Striatal Adenylate Cyclase. AU - Law, P. Y.. AU - Wu, J.. AU - Koehler, J. E.. AU - Loh, H. H.. PY - 1981/5. Y1 - 1981/5. N2 - Abstract: The conditions in which Leu5‐enkephalin inhibition of striatal adenylate cyclase was observed were defined. It was determined that enkephalin inhibition was dependent on GTP. The apparent Km for GTP in opiate inhibition was determined to be 0.5 and 2 μM when 0.1 mM‐ and 0.5 mM‐ATP were used as substrate. ITP, but not CTP or UTP, could substitute for GTP in the reaction. Though the addition of monovalent cations-Na+,K+, Li+, Cs+, and choline+-stimulated striatal adenylate cyclase activity, enkephalin inhibition of striatal adenylate cyclase did not require Na+ when theophylline was used as the phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Under optimal conditions, i.e., 20 μM‐GTP and 100 mM‐Na+, Leu5‐enkephalin inhibited the striatal adenylate cyclase activity by 23-27%. When the ...
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Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a G-protein coupled receptor binding to its physiological ligand, where the pathway proceeds through inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity and a subsequent decrease in the concentration of cy…
Visualization for given category : Effector, level : Node and node : ____Cyclases____Adenylate cyclases____Adenylate cyclase 8____Adenylate cyclase 8-Homo sapiens ...
Visualization for given category : Effector, level : Node and node : ____Cyclases____Adenylate cyclases____Adenylate cyclase 4____Adenylate cyclase 4-Homo sapiens ...
The effect of exogenously added adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis (strain 114) has been investigated in Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor, chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and several other cells. A partially purified adenylate cyclase was found not to enter cells but, nevertheless, produced large amounts of cAMP in the medium. We could show that this resulted from release of ATP (and not larger molecules). The ATP released by the cells could be (1) directly measured and was replenished after each change of medium; (2) was reciprocally related to the cAMP produced; and (3) was competed for by ATPases present in added serum or by hexokinase and, less effectively, by exoenzymes on the cell surface. The extent of ATP leakage varied widely between different cell lines, being marked in CHO and Y-1 adrenal cells but negligible in transformed lymphocyte lines. The uncertainty of the origin of cAMP found in media of cultured cells requires separate analysis of cell and medium cAMP and an assessment of ATP ...
The effects of Ca2+-calmodulin on adenylate cyclase activity in EGTA-washed, 27000 g particulate fractions of mouse and rat pancreatic islets were studied. Ca2+ (10 microM)-calmodulin (1 microM) stimulated adenylate cyclase activity 53.1 +/- 5.2 (N = 6)% in the particulate fraction of rat islets. Trifluoperazine (50 microM), a specific inhibitor of calmodulin, inhibited the Ca2+-calmodulin activation of the adenylate cyclase activity of this fraction of rat islets. These results confirm previous reports dealing with Ca2+-Calmodulin and rat islet adenylate cyclase [Valverde, Vandermeers. Anjaneyulu & Malaisse (1979) Science 206, 225-227; Sharp, Wiedenkeller, Kaelin, Siegel & Wollheim (1980) Diabetes 29, 74-77]. In contrast, however, Ca2+ (1-100 microM)-calmodulin (1-10 microM) did not stimulate the adenylate cyclase activity in the EGTA-washed particulate fraction of mouse islets, and trifluoperazine (50 microM) did not inhibit the adenylate cyclase activity of this fraction of mouse islets, ...
Inositol phosphate accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity were investigated in the cortex of young and aged ethanol-treated rats. Three months of ethanol treatment of young rats decreased maximal stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation by carbachol by 26%, from 494 ± 76% of basal turnover in control animals to 396 ± 54% in ethanol-treated animals (mean ± SD). In aged rats ethanol-related changes were no longer observed but age-related changes were evident. EC50 was significantly higher than in young animals and maximal stimulation was significantly lower. Basal adenylate cyclase activity in cortical membranes of all groups of animals was not different. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not affected by ethanol treatment, but was higher in aged animals. The activity of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the presence of carbachol was higher in both young and aged ethanol-treated animals, when compared to young controls. These results suggest that both ethanol ...
B pertussis produces numerous virulence factors, including toxins and attachment agents, many of which are antigenic and included in the acellular vaccine. The link of each virulence factor to clinical illness has been difficult to elucidate due to lack of an animal model for experimentation. However, a recently developed model in infant baboons has the potential to address unanswered questions. The bacteria attach to ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, induce ciliary paralysis and local inflammation, and thicken and decrease clearance of secretions. B pertussis is not invasive. Pertussis toxin, necessary but not sufficient to cause clinical pertussis, is secreted by the bacteria and affects G-protein function, which prevents migration of lymphocytes to the area of infection, and inhibits the function of neutrophils, macrophages, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Adenylate cyclase toxin invades phagocytes and induces high levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which impairs ...
Adipocytes of hypothyroid rats display an increased responsiveness to agents which function by inhibiting the production of cyclic AMP. Anti-peptide antisera which selectively recognise the alpha subunit of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding protein (Gi) detected a 40 kDa polypeptide in adipocyte plasma membranes of both euthyroid and hypothyroid rats. Amounts of the alpha subunit of Gi were elevated some 2-fold in the hypothyroid preparations in comparison with the euthyroid controls, when equal amounts of membrane protein of the two treatments were examined. As cells from the hypothyroid animals contained 2.7 times as much membrane protein as those from the control animals, the amounts of alpha subunit of Gi are elevated some 5.6-fold per cell in adipocytes of the hypothyroid animals compared with the euthyroid controls. Amounts of the 36 kDa beta subunit of G-proteins were also elevated in plasma membranes of adipocytes of hypothyroid animals, in this case by some 50% when compared on ...
This study investigates the hypothesis that inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1alpha IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), influence cardiac function by affecting calcium homeostasis and that this effect is mediated by the beta-adrenergic-adenylate cyclase system. After 4 days in culture, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were treated with cytokines (10 ng/ml) for short (2 h) or longer (18 h) times. Myocyte calcium, contractility, and adenylate cyclase were measured under each condition. Anticipated stepwise increases in adenylate cyclase and intracellular calcium were found in controls (non-cytokine-treated) with 10(-7) M isoproterenol, 10(-7) M isoproterenol + 0.1 mM guanosine triphosphate, and 10(-9) M forskolin. Cells in the presence of cytokine for 2 h show increased basal calcium levels but no changes in adenylate cyclase activities, and isoproterenol fails to elevate adenylate cyclase levels or affect contractile shortening. After long-term treatment with IL-1beta or TNF, but ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiple forms of brain adenylate cyclase. T2 - Stimulation by Mn2+. AU - Malamuda, Daniel F.. AU - DiRusso, Concetta C.. AU - Aprille, June R.. PY - 1977/11/23. Y1 - 1977/11/23. N2 - Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase-(cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1) activity in detergent solubilized preparations from mouse brain. While NaF-stimulated activity was decreased by both solubilization and storage at 0-4°C, the ability of the enzyme to be stimulated by Mn2+ was maintained for up to one week. By including Mn+ in the assay of adenylate cyclase in gel fractions after isoelectric focusing, two distinct peaks of enzyme activity (pI1 = 5.8, pI2 = 6.4) were detected, suggesting the existence of more than one type of catalytic subunit in mouse brain cell membranes.. AB - Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase-(cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1) activity in detergent solubilized preparations from mouse brain. While NaF-stimulated activity was decreased by both ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential unmasking of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in cardiac membrane sheets and vesicles. AU - Fleming, J. W.. AU - Besch, H. R.. AU - Jones, L. R.. AU - Watanabe, A. M.. PY - 1978/1/1. Y1 - 1978/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017841068&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017841068&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0017841068. VL - 20. JO - Pharmacologist. JF - Pharmacologist. SN - 0031-7004. IS - 3. ER - ...
Decreased activity of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N) of the adenylate cyclase system is present in cell membranes of some patients with pseudohypoparathyrodism (PHP-Ia) whereas others have normal activity ...
Decreased activity of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N) of the adenylate cyclase system is present in cell membranes of some patients with pseudohypoparathyrodism (PHP-Ia) whereas others have normal activity ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase in glomerular cells. Possible role for inflammatory diseases of the glomerulus. AU - Paietta, Elisabeth M.. AU - Schwarzmeier, J. D.. AU - Simbruner, G.. AU - Latzka, U.. AU - Lubec, G.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Using the adenylate cyclase assay after Ross the authors examined hormone sensitivity of isolated glomerular cells. cAMP production was increased 1.3-1.6-fold by stimulation with isoproterenol, 1.5-1.8 times by prostaglandin E 1 and 1.4-1.5 times by histamine. The isoproterenol reaction could be completely inhibited by propranolol, the histamine effect was abolished by the H2-blocking agent cimetidine. As a control the authors applied sodium fluoride, which directly activates the catalytic adenylate cyclase unit, increasing the activity 1.8-2.7 times (depending on the method of homogenization). These findings could reflect some physiological or pathophysiological implications, which are discussed.. AB - Using the adenylate cyclase ...
Previous studies on immortalized B lymphoblasts from patients with EH and enhanced Na+-H+ exchanger activity have revealed an enhanced activation of PTX-sensitive G proteins.7 This conclusion was mainly based on two findings. First, HT lymphoblasts displayed enhanced [Ca2+]i signals upon stimulation with platelet-activating factor and somatostatin. Pretreatment with PTX strongly reduced these agonist-evoked Ca2+ signals, and the residual Ca2+ responses were no longer different between NT and HT cell lines. Second, both receptor-mediated stimulation and direct (by mastoparan-7) stimulation of GTPγS binding to PTX-sensitive G proteins were significantly increased in HT lymphoblasts.7 Unfortunately, B lymphoblasts apparently do not express functional receptors that are selectively coupled to PTX-insensitive G proteins, eg, Gq or Gs. Therefore, our proposal of a selective enhancement of signal transduction via PTX-sensitive G proteins in HT cell lines was based on circumstantial evidence but could ...
Hudson, T H. and Johnson, G L., "Peptide mapping of adenylate cyclase regulatory proteins that are cholera toxin substrates." (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 3108 ...
Adenylate cyclase type 5 (EC 4.6.1.1) (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 5) (Adenylate cyclase type V) (Adenylyl cyclase 5) (Ca(2+)-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase ...
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P-ARs are coupled by Gs to adenylate cyclase and produce alterations in cellular activity by raising intracellular levels of cyclic AMP (Fig. 3).
An important eukaryotic signal transduction pathway involves the regulation of the effector enzyme adenylate cyclase, which produces the second messenger, cAMP. Previous genetic analyses demonstrated that glucose repression of transcription of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbp1 gene requires the function of adenylate cyclase, encoded by the git2 gene. As mutations in git2 and in six additional git genes are suppressed by exogenous cAMP, these upstream git genes were proposed to act to produce a glucose-induced cAMP signal. We report here that assays of cAMP levels in wild-type and various mutant S. pombe cells, before and after exposure to glucose, show that this is the case. The data suggest that the cAMP signal results from the activation of adenylate cyclase. Therefore these upstream git genes appear to encode a glucose-induced adenylate cyclase activation pathway. Assays of cAMP on a strain carrying a mutation in the git6 gene, which acts downstream of adenylate cyclase, indicate that ...
The time course of cAMP production by S49 cell membranes in the presence of forskolin and a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog can yield information about the regulation of adenylate cyclase by both the inhibitory and stimulatory GTP-binding proteins (Gi and Gs). The time courses are complex and interpretation in terms of the activities of G1 and Gs requires a quantitative hypothesis. We present a general quantitative hypothesis that defines adenylate cyclase as existing in a distribution of two states, active and inactive. Gi and Gs, in their active states, alter the equilibrium of this distribution. Two distinct models are derived based on this hypothesis to accommodate two different proposed mechanisms for the action of Gi to inhibit adenylate cyclase: 1) a direct interaction between Gi and the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase and 2) a direct interaction between Gi and Gs. Perturbations of the regulation of adenylate cyclase by pertussis toxin and phorbol ester are simulated and interpreted ...
integral component of plasma membrane, adenylate cyclase activity, adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, axon midline choice point recognition, cAMP biosynthetic process, retinal ganglion cell axon guidance
PST receptors were purified and characterized in the liver, hepatoma membranes, as well as the signal transduction (55, 62, 63). This receptor appears to mediate the dual signaling mechanism in liver (57). PST stimulation activates pertussis toxin-insensitive G protein (Gαq/11), leading to the activation of phospholipase C b3 isoform (PLC-b3) (69), and therefore mediates the glycogenolytic effect in the liver by increasing cytoplasmic free calcium and stimulating PKC, while the pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein (Gai1,2) leads to the activation of guanylatecyclase (51). In the signaling pathway, hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate by Ca2+-mobilizing hormones leads to the formation of two second messengers i.e., inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). The primary function of InsP3 is to mobilize Ca2+ from intracellular stores (60), whereas DAG stimulates PKC (58).. Active PST receptors were solubilized from rat liver membranes, and these results support the ...
Separation of the catalytic and stimulatory regulatory subunits of rat brain adenylate cyclase.: The catalytic subunit of rat brain adenylate cyclase was separa
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The primary mode of action of forskolin is by increasing the cellular concentrations of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-mediated functions, via activation of the enzyme adenylate cyclase. For details visit our online portal
11/2017 There have been some unexpected changes to the OpenWetWare platform, affecting the formatting of the Banta Lab Website. We are currently working on addressing these issues. A new website is under development and should be launched soon. 10/2017 The Banta Lab is pleased to welcome another new graduate student into the lab group. Nadim Massad has joined the research group this semester. 9/2017 A paper entitled "Block V RTX domain of adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis: A conformationally dynamic scaffold for protein engineering applications" by Bulutoglu and Banta was published in Toxins as an Invited Review for the Special Issue: Adenylate Cyclase (CyaA) Toxin 9/2017 A paper entitled "Catch and release: Engineered allosterically-regulated β-roll peptides enable on/off biomolecular recognition" by Bulutoglu, Dooley, Szilvay, Blenner and Banta was published in ACS Synthetic Biology. 9/2017 A paper entitled "Block V RTX domain of adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis: A ...
11/2017 There have been some unexpected changes to the OpenWetWare platform, affecting the formatting of the Banta Lab Website. We are currently working on addressing these issues. A new website is under development and should be launched soon. 10/2017 The Banta Lab is pleased to welcome another new graduate student into the lab group. Nadim Massad has joined the research group this semester. 9/2017 A paper entitled "Block V RTX domain of adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis: A conformationally dynamic scaffold for protein engineering applications" by Bulutoglu and Banta was published in Toxins as an Invited Review for the Special Issue: Adenylate Cyclase (CyaA) Toxin 9/2017 A paper entitled "Catch and release: Engineered allosterically-regulated β-roll peptides enable on/off biomolecular recognition" by Bulutoglu, Dooley, Szilvay, Blenner and Banta was published in ACS Synthetic Biology. 9/2017 A paper entitled "Block V RTX domain of adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis: A ...
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Plays a role in the perception of pain and in opiate-mediated analgesia. Plays a role in developing analgesic tolerance to morphine. ...
Increases of cAMP are controlled by the enzyme adenylate cyclase (sAC). This enzyme produces cAMP molecules from the cellular energy reservoir adenosyne triphosphate (ATP). In order for the enzyme to assume this catalytic function, it itself has to be activated, e.g. by bicarbonate.. • The opposite process, e.g. the reduction of cAMP levels, is initiated by another enzyme. The protein involved here originates from the family of phosphodiesterases (PDE); to be precise, an isoform of PDE2A. This enzyme must also be activated so that it may reduce the amount of cAMP contained in the mitochondria. This process is performed by molecules which aggregate along an area at the end of the protein, the N-terminus of the PDE2A molecules.. In this manner, the messenger cAMP acts as an enzyme controlled switch which strengthens or weakens the energy metabolism. The "position" of the switch is determined by which of the two enzymes dominates: Adenylate cyclase (sAC) increases the amount of cAMP, ...
Cyclic AMP is an adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3- and 5-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH. cAMP is synthesized from ATP by adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase is located at the cell membranes. Adenylate cyclase is activated by the hormones glucagon and adrenaline and by G protein. Liver adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to glucagon, and muscle adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to adrenaline. cAMP decomposition into AMP is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphodiesterase ...
Withdrawal of mice from chronic ethanol treatment results in a decreased responsiveness of striatal (but not mesolimbic) dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity to stimulation by dopamine. This subsensitivity is not apparent at the time of withdrawal from chronic feeding of ethanol, when animals are still intoxicated, but becomes evident as ethanol is eliminated from the animals. Addition of ethanol in vitro to tissue homogenates from ethanol-withdrawn animals, at concentrations similar to those found in brain at the time of withdrawal, normalizes the response of the adenylate cyclase to dopamine. No difference is evident between control and ethanol-withdrawn animals in stimulation of adenylate cyclase by sodium fluoride. The specificity of the response of striatal adenylate cyclase to stimulation by dopamine, as compared to other transmitters, is unaltered by chronic ethanol feeding. Chronic treatment with ethanol and withdrawal also does not affect the specific binding of spiroperidol in ...
A novel neuropeptide which stimulates adenylate cyclase in rat anterior pituitary cell cultures was isolated from ovine hypothalamic tissues. Its amino acid sequence was revealed as: His-Ser-Asp-Gly-Ile-Phe-Thr-Asp-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Arg-Tyr-Arg-Lys-Gln- Met-Ala- Val-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Ala-Ala-Val-Leu-Gly-Lys …
To synchronize a network of pacemakers in the Drosophila brain, a neuropeptide receptor specifically associates with adenylate cyclase 3 to create a