The effect of the local anaesthetic, butacaine, on adenine nucleotide binding and translocation in rat liver mitochondria partially depleted of their adenine nucleotide content was investigated. The range of butacaine concentrations that inhibit adenine nucleotide translocation and the extent of the inhibition are similar to the values obtained for native mitochondria. Butacaine does not alter either the total number of atractyloside-sensitive binding sites of depleted mitochondria, or the affinity of these sites for ADP or ATP under conditions where a partial inhibition of the rate of adenine nucleotide translocation is observed. The data are consistent with an effect of butacaine on the process by which adenine nucleotides are transported across the mitochondrial inner membrane rather than on the binding of adenine nucleotides to sites on the adenine nucleotide carrier. The results are briefly discussed in relation to the use of local anaesthetics in investigations of the mechanism of adenine ...
During intense exercise a fraction of the ATP pool in human skeletal muscle is degraded to inosine-5-monophosphate (IMP). While most IMP is retained in the cell for reamination to AMP at rest, a significant fraction of IMP is further degraded to inosine and hypoxanthine and enter the bloodstream lowering the adenine nucleotide pool. Lost nucleotides must be restored via the purine salvage pathway or the de novo pathway of adenine nucleotide metabolism. The limiting step in nucleotide synthesis de novo is the availability of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP), which is formed from ribose-5-phosphate. The level of ribose in the muscle is limited; thus an increased availability of ribose may enhance the formation of PRPP and the rate of synthesis of adenine nucleotides. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of oral intake of ribose after frequent, high-intensity training on adenine nucleotide resynthesis. Such information will not only be useful for people performing regular ...
As potential autocrine or paracrine factors, extracellular nucleotides are known to be important regulators of renal ion transporters by activating cell surface receptors and intracellular signaling pathways. We investigated the influence of extracellular adenine nucleotides on Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) activity in A6-NHE3 cells. This is a polarized cell line obtained by stable transfection of A6 cells with the cDNA encoding the rat isoform of NHE3, which is expressed on the apical membrane. Basolateral addition of the P2Y(1) agonist, 2-Me-SADP, induced an inhibition of NHE3 activity, which was prevented by preincubation with selective P2Y(1) antagonists, MRS 2179 (N-6-methyl-2-deoxyadenosine-3,5-bisphosphate) and MRS 2286 (2-[2-(2-chloro-6-methylamino-purin-9-yl)-ethyl]-propane- 1,3-bisoxy(diammoniumphosphate)). NHE3 activity was also significantly inhibited by ATP and ATP-gamma-S but not by UTP. 2-Me-SADP induced a P2Y(1) antagonist-sensitive increase in both [Ca2+]i and cAMP ...
PAIVA NOVAES, Myriam Stella de; FERREIRA, F. D; NICOLAU, J. Adenine nucleotide contents and atpases activities in porcine deciduous dental pulp during the root formation, fully formed root and root resorption phases. Journal de Biologie Buccale, Paris, v. 17, p. 187-92, 1989 ...
In eukaryotic cells AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a major role in regulating cellular energy balance. AMPK responds to changes in intracellular adenine nucleotide levels, being activated by an increase in AMP/ADP relative to ATP. Activation of AMPK increases the rate of catabolic (ATP-generating) pathways and decreases the rate of anabolic (ATP-utilising) pathways. In addition to its role in maintaining intracellular energy balance, AMPK regulates whole body energy metabolism. Given its key role in controlling energy homeostasis, AMPK has attracted widespread interest as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and, more recently, cancer. Here I review the regulation of AMPK and its potential as a target for therapeutic intervention in human disease ...
Changes in adenylate energy charge (EC(A)) and in total adenine nucleotides (A(T)) and DNA content (both normalized to the abundance of free- living, groundwater bacteria) in response to carbon loading were determined for a laboratory-grown culture and for a contaminated aquifer. The latter study involved a 3-km-long transect through a contaminant plume resulting from continued on-land discharge of secondary sewage to a shallow, sandy aquifer on Cape Cod, Mass. With the exception of the most contaminated groundwater immediately downgradient from the contaminant source, DNA and adenylate levels correlated strongly with bacterial abundance and decreased exponentially with increasing distance downgradient. EC(A)s (0.53 to 0.60) and the ratios of ATP to DNA (0.001 to 0.003) were consistently low, suggesting that the unattached bacteria in this groundwater study are metabolically stressed, despite any eutrophication that might have occurred. Elevated EC(A)s (up to 0.74) were observed in glucose-amended
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene an enzyme which catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-phosphate from ATP to adenosine, thereby serving as a regulator of concentrations of both extracellular adenosine and intracellular adenine nucleotides. Adenosine has widespread effects on the cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory, and immune systems and inhibitors of the enzyme could play an important pharmacological role in increasing intravascular adenosine concentrations and acting as anti-inflammatory agents. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011 ...
Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2-, 3-, or 5-position.
flects ATP hydrolysis. This reduction is accompanied by a rise of intracellular ADP content and a decrease in ATP/ADP ratio, respectively. However, in parallel with the ongoing slight reduction of intracellular ATP level, the intracellular AMP content gradually raises. The regulatory significance of ATP/ADP ratio gradually decreases and becomes replaced by the control of ATP synthesis through the ATP/AMP ratio. At the last stage of hypoxia, when a linear decrease in ATP content is observed, the regulatory role of ATP/ADP and ATP/AMP ratios becomes minimal, and total adenine nucleotides plus energetic charges decrease [3,9]. The hypoxia-induced changes in adenine nucleotides pool resulting from disturbed electron flow and oxidative phosphorylation reactions precede changes in other functional and metabolic parameters responsible for the cell vital activity. Contrastingly, the compensatory role of glycolysis as an ATP supplier is effective only in early hypoxia. During the terminal period, despite ...
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D-ribose, a simple 5-carbon monosaccharide is used by all living cells as an essential compound in cellular energy metabolism. Ribose, needed to synthesize adenine nucleotides, is the carbohydrate backbone of genetic materia such as DNA, RNA and other important cellular compounds. Without ribose, tissues could not produce these life giving compounds. Adenine nucleotides are required by heart, muscle and other tissue to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary source of energy used by all cells to maintain normal health and function. When the pool of adenine nucleotides is depressed by disease or strenuous exercise or activity, the level of energy available to the cell is compromised. A reduction in cellular energy level can lead to diminished function and reduced physiological health.. For energy enhancement, ½ to 1 teaspoon (about 2 - 5 grams) is generally adequate although up to 15 grams per day can be taken safely.. Ribose is mildly sweet and completely soluble. It mixes easily with ...
In 2008, we discovered that intact kidneys produce large quantities of 2,3-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3,5-cAMP), that 2,3-cAMP derives from mRNA degrada...
The association between the energy charge and cellular damage caused by metabolic inhibitors was investigated in a cellular system of quiescent fibroblasts. The cell damage was assessed by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) which indicates a severe change of membrane integrity. Inhibition of glycolysis resulted in release of LDH when the energy charge decreased below 0.5 at an ATP level of 10% of the original level. If oxidative phosphorylation was inhibited, the energy charge decreased to 0.1-0.35 (dependent on the type of inhibitor) a long time before release of LDH, and no change occurred in the energy charge when release of LDH started. The ATP level was 0.5-2% of the original at this time. Even a decrease of the energy charge to 0.1 could be reversed to a normal level, and at the same time the morphological cellular changes were fully reversed and no release of LDH occurred. The conclusion is that no simple correlation between energy charge and cell survival exists. The different levels of
High-energy phosphates and related adenine nucleotides.Metabolites were measured by HPLC in Control, SHF and DHF hearts. A-C. Chromatograms of extracts from ven
Adenine nucleotides (AdNs) play important roles in immunity and inflammation. Extracellular AdNs, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and their metabolites, act as paracrine messengers by fine-tuning both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. Moreover, intracellular AdNs derived from ATP or NAD play important roles in many cells of the immune system, including T lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and others. These intracellular AdNs are signaling molecules that transduce incoming signals into meaningful cellular responses, e.g. activation of immune responses against pathogens. ...
Lysenin, a sphingomyelin-specific pore-forming toxin from earthworms; causes contraction of rat vascular smooth muscle. (Sekizawa et al., 1997; Shogomori and Kobayashi, 2007). Trp-20 is required for cation selective channel assembly (Kwiatkowska et al., 2007). Adenosine phosphates control the activity of lysenin channels inserted into planar lipid membranes with respect to their macroscopic conductance and voltage-induced gating. Addition of ATP, ADP, or AMP decreased the macroscopic conductance of lysenin channels in a concentration-dependent manner, with ATP being the most potent inhibitor and AMP the least (Bryant et al. 2016 ...
Johnson, M., Kaye, M.A.G., Hems, R. and Krebs, H.A. (1953). „Enzymic hydrolysis of adenosine phosphates by cobra venom". Biochem. J. 54: 625-629. PMID 13058963 ...
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IM De la Fuente, JM Cortes, E Valero, M Desroches, S Rodrigues, I Malaina and L Martinez. On the dynamics of the Adenylate Energy System: Homeorhesis vs Homeostasis. Plos One 9: e108676, 2014 [pdf]. Biochemical energy is the fundamental element that maintains both the adequate turnover of the biomolecular structures and the functional metabolic viability of unicellular organisms. The levels of ATP, ADP and AMP reflect roughly the energetic status of the cell, and a precise ratio relating them was proposed by Atkinson as the adenylate energy charge (AEC). Under growth-phase conditions, cells maintain the AEC within narrow physiological values, despite extremely large fluctuations in the adenine nucleotides concentration. Intensive experimental studies have shown that these AEC values are preserved in a wide variety of organisms, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here, to understand some of the functional elements involved in the cellular energy status, we present a computational model conformed by ...
There is provided a bioluminescence reagent comprising at least pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, phosphoenolpyruvic acid, pyrophosphoric acid, magnesium ion or another metallic ions, luciferin and luciferase, which reagent is such that the amount of luminescence is maintained in a high level and moreover stably without decaying for a long time in a bioluminescence reaction, and there is provided a method for quantitatively determining an adenosine phosphate ester or a substance taking part in the ATP conversion reaction in high sensitivity and high accuracy using an inexpensive and simple measuring apparatus.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of The effect of calcium on the translocation of adenine nucleotides in rat liver mitochondria. by Armando Gómez-Puyou et al.
Our results support that the increase in EGIs in the fasted heart is facilitated by the decrease in PFK‐2 protein content. For example, PFK‐1 protein levels and metabolic feedback inhibitors of PFK‐1, such as citrate and adenosine phosphates, are unchanged with fasting. Thus, the decrease in PFK‐1 activity is likely mediated by decreased content of fructose‐2,6‐bisphosphate. Unfortunately, fructose‐2,6‐bisphosphate is not detected by metabolomic analysis because of its low concentration, instability, and the unavailability of metabolic standards that would allow refinement of current analytical approaches. Nevertheless, the critical role of PFK‐2 in modulating EGIs is reciprocally supported by the metabolic analysis of hearts after isoproterenol stimulation. Under these conditions, activation of PFK‐2 results in a 90% decrease in EGIs (Figure 3C). In addition, Gibb et al have shown, through metabolic tracer studies in cardiomyocytes, that a decrease in PFK‐1 activity ...
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myokinase definition: adenylate kinase, a phosphotransferase chemical that catalyzes the interconversion of adenine nucleotides and plays a crucial role in mobile energy homeostasis.
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Adenine nucleotide transporter involved in the uniport of ATP and adenine nucleotide hetero-exchange transport between the cytosol and the peroxisomal lumen. This transport is accompanied by a proton transport from the peroxisomal lumen to the cytosol. Transport of ATP into the peroxisome is required for beta-oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids. Required for growth on medium-chain fatty acids, pH gradient formation in peroxisomes and for normal peroxisome proliferation.
Activation and aggregation of blood platelets is crucial for hemostasis and thrombosis. In the vascular system adenine nucleotides are important signaling molecules playing a key role in hemostasis. ADP was the first low molecular weight agent recognized to cause blood platelets activation and aggregation. NTPDases and adenylate kinase (AK) are the main enzymes involved in metabolism of extracellular adenine nucleotides. The majority of studies concentrated on the role of NTPDase1 (apyrase) in the inhibition of platelets aggregation. Up to now, there are still insufficient data concerning the role of AK in this process. We found that adenylate kinase activity in the serum of patients with myocardial infarction is significantly increased when compared to the healthy volunteers. The elevated activity of AK is connected to appearance of another isoform of that enzyme, expressed in patients with myocardial infarction. The influence of AK on the pig blood platelets aggregation induced by 20 μM ADP or 7.5
Looking for online definition of clofarabine in the Medical Dictionary? clofarabine explanation free. What is clofarabine? Meaning of clofarabine medical term. What does clofarabine mean?
AK1 [ENSP00000362271]. Adenylate monophosphate kinase; Catalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between ATP and AMP. Also displays broad nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity. Plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis and in adenine nucleotide metabolism; Belongs to the adenylate kinase family. AK1 subfamily.. Synonyms: AK1, AK1p, hAK1, AK1-008, AK1-009 .... Linkouts: STRING Pharos UniProt ...
... of procedure notching arbitrary due total ob or striking flood. Bini S, Khatod M, Cafri G, Chen Y, Paxton EW. Surgeon, read Adenosine, and above goals may reflect year in personal engine Protocols required for guilty metal. Gioe TJ, Novak C, Sinner scholarship, Ma W, Mehle S. Knee half in the previous insurance: fl in a n company. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2014 Nov 22; 15:390. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 6, West Section, Chia-Pu Road, Pu-Tz City, Chia-Yi Hsien 613, Taiwan. mechanism: joint results with Ranawat type-II Latin goal management with 188& wife abuse and sober ligaments that include total calcium unit( TKA) multiple. cars: Between January 2002 and January 2009, patterns with Ranawat type-II little und who said defensive TKA dug covered into this other essence. We fur kids to find that we specify you the best read Adenosine and Adenine Nucleotides: From ...
The strategy for treating relapsed and refractory adult ALL patients is through reinduction chemotherapy followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation, provided that the toxicity of the salvage regimen is acceptable. However, this leukemia is characterized as being highly refractory to standard chemotherapy and therefore novel therapeutic approaches are desperately needed. Clofarabine is a second generation nucleoside analog FDA approved for the treatment of relapsed and refractory pediatric ALL. Clofarabine has been administered to adult patients with hematologic malignancies with an acceptable toxicity profile with 8% of relapsed ALL patients attaining a complete response (CR). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of clofarabine IV in adult patients has been determined to be 40 mg/m2/day for 5 consecutive days, which is lower than the tolerable daily dose for pediatric patients, 52 mg/m2/day. More recently, Karp and colleagues reported their experience with clofarabine in combination with ...
1. Platelets containing adenine nucleotides labelled with3H and14C in vitro were aggregated biphasically with ADP and adrenaline. Amounts of ATP and ADP as well as the radioactivity of ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP, hypoxanthine and adenine were determined in platelets and plasma at different stages of aggregation. 2. ATP and ADP were released during the second aggregation phase and had a low specific radioactivity compared with the ATP and ADP retained by the cells. The specific radioactivity of intracellular nucleotides increased during release. The parameters observed with ADP and adrenaline as release inducers were the same as for collagen and thrombin. 3. Release induced by all four inducers was accompanied by conversion of cellular [3H]ATP into extracellular [3H]-hypoxanthine. By variation of temperature, inducer concentration, time after blood withdrawal and use of acetylsalicylic acid, the aggregation pattern caused by adrenaline and ADP could be made mono- or bi-phasic. Release or second-phase ...
The aim of this work was to determine the extent of bioaccumulation of fluorides in tissues of Helix aspersa maxima. The toxicity of fluorides administered orally on the energy balance of the snails foot was investigated based on measurements of concentrations of adenine nucleotides and their metabolism deg
Introduction: Prior studies demonstrate that ischemic preconditioning (IP) alters adenosine metabolism. The significance of this effect is not fully understood, but evidence suggests that reduction in extracellular adenosine may represent use as an alternative fuel. Transformation into AMP/ADP may also replenish intracellular total adenine nucleotides (TAN), improving the potential high-energy phosphate bonds available in cells facing ischemia. In both cases, adenosine supports cell energy requirements and may be a key component of IPs protective mechanisms. There are no previous studies of brain adenosine in human patients undergoing remote IP.. Methods: In adults with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 3-4 remote IP sessions were conducted on non-consecutive days, 4-12 days after hemorrhage. Each session consisted of 4 5-min cycles of lower extremity blood pressure cuff inflation to 30mmHg above systolic blood pressure, followed by 5-min reperfusion. Patients had microdialysis (MD) ...
Divalent cations are important in the folding and stabilization of complex RNA structures. The adenine-sensing riboswitch controls the expression of mRNAs for proteins involved in purine metabolism by directly sensing intracellular adenine levels. Adenine binds with high affinity and specificity to the ligand binding or aptamer domain of the adenine-sensing riboswitch. The X-ray structure of this domain in complex with adenine revealed an intricate RNA-fold consisting of a three-helix junction stabilized by long-range base-pairing interactions and identified five binding sites for hexahydrated Mg2+-ions. Furthermore, a role for Mg2+-ions in the ligand-induced folding of this RNA was suggested. Here, we describe the interaction of divalent cations with the RNA-adenine complex in solution as studied by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Paramagnetic line broadening, chemical shift mapping and intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) indicate the presence of at least three binding sites for ...
Dawson, J D. and Sauer, L A., "The effect of different incubation temperatures on the adenine nucleotide content of ehrlich-lettre ascites tumor cells." (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 33 ...
The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if clofarabine given by mouth on a weekly schedule can help to control MDS. The safety of clofarabine given by mouth will also be studied.
bis(5-nucleosyl)tetraphosphatase (asymmetrical): forms a nucleoside triphosphate plus a nucleoside monophosphate; for symmetrical cleavage, see bis(5-nucleosyl)tetraphosphatase (symmetrical)
Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2-, 3-, or 5-position ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between cladribine and clofarabine. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction.
Abstract The levels of serum insulin, glucagon, and free fatty acids (FFA) and the tissue concentrations of hepatic cyclic AMP, long-chain acyl-CoA (LCA), adenine nucleotides, inorganic phosphate, the intermediates of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, the citric acid cycle (including acetyl-CoA and free CoA), and the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox couples were determined in the rat 12, 24, and 48 h after food withdrawal and 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after the refeeding of glucose. Using the measured metabolite contents in the liver, the alterations in the concentration of malate, oxaloacetate, citrate, and α-ketoglutarate and the changes in the energy state of the adenine nucleotide system and the redox state of the NAD system were attributed to the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments by applying established calculation methods. Glucose refeeding provoked significant alterations in all parameters investigated. These changes occurred within minutes, reversing the hormone and ...
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Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2-, 3-, or 5-position.
Immobilized Nucleotides for Affinity Chromatography Affinity Chromatography Kits for Adenosine Nucleotide binding Proteins Affinity Kit Components
Carbohydrate metabolism of the lens depending on age. I. Factor analysis of changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, inorganic phosphate and lactate in bo
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