Detail záznamu - Long-term adaptation to high doses of morphine causes desensitization of micro-OR- and delta-OR-stimulated G-protein response in forebrain cortex but does not decrease the amount of G-protein alpha subunits - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds is the most current and comprehensive account of research on avian reproduction. It develops two unique themes: the consideration of female avian r...
Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a low temperature by Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15.: We examined physiological adaptations which allow
Immersive, head-mounted virtual reality (HMD-VR) provides a unique opportunity to understand how changes in sensory environments affect motor learning. However, potential differences in mechanisms of motor learning and adaptation in HMD-VR versus a conventional training (CT) environment have not been extensively explored. Here, we investigated whether adaptation on a visuomotor rotation task in HMD-VR yields similar adaptation effects in CT and whether these effects are achieved through similar mechanisms. Specifically, recent work has shown that visuomotor adaptation may occur via both an implicit, error-based internal model and a more cognitive, explicit strategic component. We sought to measure both overall adaptation and balance between implicit and explicit mechanisms in HMD-VR versus CT. Twenty-four healthy individuals were placed in either HMD-VR or CT and trained on an identical visuomotor adaptation task that measured both implicit and explicit components. Our results showed that the overall
Neuronal adaptation is the intrinsic capacity of the brain to change, by various mechanisms, its dynamical responses as a function of the context. Such a phenomena, widely observed in vivo and in...
We examined the neuromuscular adaptations following 3 and 6 weeks of 80 vs. 30% one repetition maximum (1RM) resistance training to failure in the leg extensors. Twenty-six men (age = 23.1 ± 4.7 years) were randomly assigned to a high- (80% 1RM; |i|n|/i| = 13) or low-load (30% 1RM; |i|n|/i| = 13) re …
While some changes in the healthcare delivery model have progressed in recent years, the pandemic has accelerated implementation.
Influence of host resistance on viral adaptation: hepatitis C virus as a case study Anne Plauzolles,1 Michaela Lucas,2,3 Silvana Gaudieri41Centre for Forensic Science, 2School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Harry Perkins Institute, 3School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 4School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, AustraliaAbstract: Genetic and cellular studies have shown that the hosts innate and adaptive immune responses are an important correlate of viral infection outcome. The features of the hosts immune response (host resistance) reflect the coevolution between hosts and pathogens that has occurred over millennia, and that has also resulted in a number of strategies developed by viruses to improve fitness and survival within the host (viral adaptation). In this review, we discuss viral adaptation to host immune pressure via protein-protein interactions and sequence-specific mutations. Specifically, we will present the
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This readme and the code were contributed by Timothee Masquelier [email protected] Aug 2013 This code was used in: Masquelier T and Deco G (2013) Network bursting dynamics in excitatory cortical neuron cultures results from the combination of different adaptive mechanisms. PLoS ONE Feel free to use/modify but please cite us if appropriate. We use the Brian simulator described in: Goodman D, Brette R (2008) Brian: a simulator for spiking neural networks in python. Front Neuroinformatics 2:5 and available at: http://www.briansimulator.org/ This code has been tested with: - Brian 1.4.0 - Python 2.6 - Mac OS and Linux Main file: main.py (should be called like that python -i main.py) Calls param.py to set the parameters (see comments there), launches the simulation and plots the results. The current values in param.py corresponds to the baseline simulation in the paper (1 min of simulated time). Many more options are provided (with no guaranty), eg sparse connectivity, inhomogeneous ...
This readme and the code were contributed by Timothee Masquelier [email protected] Aug 2013 This code was used in: Masquelier T and Deco G (2013) Network bursting dynamics in excitatory cortical neuron cultures results from the combination of different adaptive mechanisms. PLoS ONE Feel free to use/modify but please cite us if appropriate. We use the Brian simulator described in: Goodman D, Brette R (2008) Brian: a simulator for spiking neural networks in python. Front Neuroinformatics 2:5 and available at: http://www.briansimulator.org/ This code has been tested with: - Brian 1.4.0 - Python 2.6 - Mac OS and Linux Main file: main.py (should be called like that python -i main.py) Calls param.py to set the parameters (see comments there), launches the simulation and plots the results. The current values in param.py corresponds to the baseline simulation in the paper (1 min of simulated time). Many more options are provided (with no guaranty), eg sparse connectivity, inhomogeneous ...
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The molecular mechanisms of enzymatic temperature adaptation are dictated by the delicate balance between the stability, flexibility, and activity of the extremophilic enzymes; therefore, identifying the factors that rule the stability-flexibility-activit
Climate adaptation is a major political issue. With its adaptation strategy, the German federal government has established a framework for adaptation measures taken by different social actors. The strategy indicates which fields of action are of particular importance and which goals Germany pursues. The Adaptation Action Plan determines which measures the adaptation strategy
This study describes the anatomy of sterile leaves of Elaphoglossum discolor (Kuhn) C. Chr., E. flaccidum (Fée) T. Moore and E. laminarioides (Bory ex Fée) T. Moore, the most representative species of the genus in the Ecological Park of Gunma in Pará State. It reports the main diagnostic characters and provides new systematic data for the group. In addition, it locates the production and accumulation sites of bioactive compounds to determine possible adaptive strategies of these species in the Amazon rainforest environment. Diagnostic structural features include stoma typology, central veins and margin forms, type of mesophyll, and the presence of schlerenchymatous sheaths in the cortex, among others. Among the bioactive compounds related to defense adaptation are phenolic compounds, which occur in all three species, and alkaloids and mucilage, which are exclusive to E. laminarioides. Of the three species studied, E. laminarioides has features that make it the best suited to the
Using continuous reaction norms to characterize adaptive responses to temperature, the researchers reexamined a recent study that linked rapid adaptation to specific genetic changes. The study, by Holder and Bull, showed that phage populations quickly evolved higher growth rates at higher temperatures. But, Knies et al. explain, these growth rates were correlated with just one temperature point the optimal temperature for the ancestral populations (used at the beginning of the experiment). Knies et al. reexamined phage thermal adaptation by measuring growth rate over a wider range of temperatures, then used a recently developed statistical method to identify the biological determinants of the shifts in the reaction norm shapes, quantify their relative contributions, and identify the genetic basis of the adaptations ...
Behavioral adaptation is the process by which an organism or a species changes its pattern of action to better suit its environment. It is contrasted with structural adaptation, which is the...
We asked whether spatial coding in the visual system is matched to the native blur specific to an individuals HOAs by investigating long-term adaptation to the blur produced by the optics of the eye. Adaptive Optics allow us to cancel the natural aberrations of all subjects, exposing observers to identical aberration patterns and ensuring that any difference across subjects would arise from their own neural processing and their prior neural adaptation. Retinal blur was manipulated by projecting degraded images with known HOAs where realistic blur of different amounts and forms was computer simulated (we used convolved images with the optical point spread function to represent the retinal image quality) using real aberrations from a population. Our results provide strong evidence that spatial vision is calibrated for the specific blur levels present in each individuals retinal image as, for the majority of observers, the level of blur perceived as best-focused was closely predicted by the ...
Physiological adaptations associated with regular anaerobic training that require near maximal force production. These adaptations include increased muscular strength and speed of action; improved muscle buffering capacity and greater tolerance of changes of tissue fluid pH during intense activity; and increased activity of enzymes involved in the ATP-PCr energy system and glycolysis. Anaerobic training at speed also improves efficiency of movement. ...
1750 words Humans are adapted to numerous ecosystems on earth. This is only possible due to how our physiological systems interact with the environment in a homeodynamic way. This allowed us to spread across the globe, far away from our ancestral home of Africa, and thusly certain adaptations evolved in those populations---which was driven by our intelligent…
It is amazing what we, as human beings, can adapt to. The fact that I can now look down at the six-inch scar across my chest and the five inch gash under my arm without revulsion is truly amazing. One month ago I would not change my clothes in the same room that housed…
An adaptation in biology is a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection. An adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation. Adaptations contribute to the fitness and survival of individuals. Organisms face a succession of environmental challenges as they grow and develop and are equipped with an adaptive plasticity as the phenotype of traits develop in response to the imposed conditions. The developmental norm of reaction for any given trait is essential to the correction of adaptation as it affords a kind of biological insurance or resilience to varying environments. ...
My team is conducting a two-year long experiment in Hawaii in collaboration with Dr. Rob Toonen to determine if coral adapt or acclimatize to global change conditions expected at the end of this century. If they can adapt, how fast is the adaptation rate? How do adaptation rates differ among species and geographic locations? Answers to these questions are key to developing strategic coral conservation and management plans. To address these questions, eight species of Hawaiian corals are being studied using a two-part approach: 1) a survey of natural corals found across natural temperature and acidity gradients and 2) a two-year long mesocosm study which will expose corals collected in part 1 to temperature and acidity conditions expected at the end of this century.. ...
Environmental change often requires societies to adapt. In some instances, these adaptations can create feedbacks that amplify the change. Alternatively, other adaptations may dampen the change. We used semi-structured interviews with 240 fishers from nine Tanzanian coastal communities to explore responses to four hypothetical scenarios of increasingly severe declines in their average catch (10%, 20%, 30% and 50%). Overall, a higher proportion of fishers said they would respond to decline using amplifying adaptations (such as fishing harder) than dampening adaptations (such as reducing effort), particularly in the scenarios with lower levels of decline. We used a redundancy analysis to explore whether certain types of responses were related to the fishers socioeconomic characteristics. Fishers that would employ amplifying responses had greater economic wealth but lacked options. Fishers who would adopt dampening responses possessed characteristics associated with having livelihood options. ...
Make the queen a marsupial. She births her children into a marsupial pouch where they can be better protected as they grow, then she has a free womb for impregnation again. She can pass off the older newborns (joeys?) to sterile females for child care as new ones are born. Obviously this would require some significant changes to human fetal development to emphasize the ability to suckle, breathe air, digest milk, prevent infection and excrete waste first, versus the more advanced brain development a human gets prior to birth. But it would allow a human(ish) female to potentially give birth to many more children (and more importantly, a constant stream instead of a large bolus like an octomom situation). So the embryo gestates in the womb for, say, 3 months, then lives in the pouch for another 3 before being large enough to be cared for by another at 6 months. That would allow a queen to have 4 young a year, an almost 4x increase over normal human women, with almost 150 births over a normal ...
For this block of training, youre going to be increasing the intensity of your workouts. This is where the fun really begins. Now that youve laid a solid foundation down, its time to really crank it up a notch.. First up is power-hypertrophy. This is personally one of my favorite workouts. Imagine being able to lift heavy, to feel like a beast in the gym while stimulating sleeve-ripping muscle growth? Thats the beauty of power-hypertrophy. Next up is weekly undulating. This is adapted from the old Russian and Soviet weight-training systems in the early 60s through the 80s and later brought over to the United States. This is one of the BIG reasons why they would kick our butts in the Olympics. There training was bar none the best in the world and far more advanced than anything anyone ever saw.. From there, youre going to jump into synergistic training which is one the easiest ways to increase the adaptation response inside of the muscle cell while increasing your metabolic rate without ...
Hello everybody, I have little DSP (Digital Signal Processing) project going on in college and Id like some tips/code, if you have any. I am implementing an adaptative filter using the LSM algorithm on the Arduino. However, due to the boards limitations, I cant do the real-time adaptative filter so, what Im going to do is just do all the calculation in SimuLink/MATLab on the computer and just export the sound file to filter what I need it to filter. Its not gonna be an adaptative filter anymore, rather, itll just be a regular filter but it will do the trick. What I need help with is how to play the sound files and in which extension it should be. Ive been studying for a while and google, arduino guides and tutorials kind of help but, anyway, Im still suffering because it doesnt want to work. Maybe I have a bad speaker but, either way, if you have any experience with playing sounds with the Arduino or know a good source of information, Id appreciate it. Thanks for your time ...
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature. The purpose of this review is to define the concept of periodized nutrition (also referred to as nutritional training) and summarize the wide variety of methods available to athletes. The reader is referred to several other recent review articles that have discussed aspects of periodized nutrition in much more detail with primarily a focus on adaptations in the muscle. The purpose of this review is not to discuss ...
The physiology of vascular cells depends on stimulating mechanical forces caused by pulsatile flow. Thus, mechano-transduction processes and responses of primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been studied to reveal cell-type specific differences which may contribute to vascular tissue integrity. Here, we investigate the dynamic reorientation response of ECs and SMCs cultured on elastic membranes over a range of stretch frequencies from 0.01 to 1 Hz. ECs and SMCs show different cell shape adaptation responses (reorientation) dependent on the frequency. ECs reveal a specific threshold frequency (0.01 Hz) below which no responses is detectable while the threshold frequency for SMCs could not be determined and is speculated to be above 1 Hz. Interestingly, the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions system, as well as changes in the focal adhesion area, can be observed for both cell types and is dependent on the frequency. RhoA and Rac1 ...
The physiology of vascular cells depends on stimulating mechanical forces caused by pulsatile flow. Thus, mechano-transduction processes and responses of primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been studied to reveal cell-type specific differences which may contribute to vascular tissue integrity. Here, we investigate the dynamic reorientation response of ECs and SMCs cultured on elastic membranes over a range of stretch frequencies from 0.01 to 1 Hz. ECs and SMCs show different cell shape adaptation responses (reorientation) dependent on the frequency. ECs reveal a specific threshold frequency (0.01 Hz) below which no responses is detectable while the threshold frequency for SMCs could not be determined and is speculated to be above 1 Hz. Interestingly, the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions system, as well as changes in the focal adhesion area, can be observed for both cell types and is dependent on the frequency. RhoA and Rac1 ...
Traditionally the study of human adaptation has focused on understanding changes in human behavior induced by changes in the external environment. This paradigm has led to technology solutions that are focused on improving human adaptation by improving the salience of information that the technology provides. However, recent research has shown that human adaptation is strongly impacted by internal human states such as arousal, social context, and goals. The inclusion of internal human states to broaden our understanding of adaptive behavior presents significant theoretical and technical challenges since internal states: occur on multiple time scales (hours, weeks, days), are impacted by a wide variety of physiological feedback mechanisms such as fight or flight, are embedded in highly dynamic parts of the human body such as the brain, and rely critically on not only their current state but also on previous states making them closed loop. Truly mutually adaptive systems will need to take account ...
L Institut fédéral de recherches WSL étudie la forêt, le paysage, la biodiversité, les dangers naturels ainsi que la neige et de la glace. Il fait partie du Domaine des EPF.
L Institut fédéral de recherches WSL étudie la forêt, le paysage, la biodiversité, les dangers naturels ainsi que la neige et de la glace. Il fait partie du Domaine des EPF.
Researchers have fresh insight into an evolutionarily ancient way that cells cope when oxygen levels decline, according to a new study in the October 7th issue of Cell Metabolism. In studies of cells taken from the lining ...
In the first experiment, cells growing in medium supplemented with the two combinations containing a trace element in common died at 2.5 % serum, while for the remaining combinations cell death occurred at a later stage, 0.625 % serum. Cell death was attributed to problems with the procedure of adaptation used in the first experiment, which were identified and corrected in the second experiment. The problems found and the procedure modifications implemented included the use of higher initial cell concentrations to allow the survival of an increased number of cells during the process; avoiding procedures that can be harsh to the cells, such as centrifugation and the use of enzymes (i.e. trypsin) due to a higher sensitivity of cells during adaptation; and allowing enough time in each step of the process for a complete cell adaptation.. After these modifications, in the second experiment, it was possible to observe that cells required a long time to adapt to each level of serum concentration, ...
Temperature profoundly impacts both the phenotypes and distributions of organisms. These thermal effects exert strong selective pressures on behaviour, physiology and life history when environmental temperatures vary over space and time. Despite temperatures significance, progress toward a quantitative theory of thermal adaptation has lagged behind empirical descriptions of patterns and processes.
Whether its a shimmy or strength training, much of the early progress we see with practice is due to neural adaptation rather than actual changes in the strength or size of our muscles. For an Egyptian knee shimmy, the quadriceps and hamstrings are the primary muscle groups we are talking about. Each of these large groups in made up of several smaller muscles and each of these has bundles of muscle fibers that work together. Each of these bundles is controlled by one nerve and that work group of muscle fibers and its nerve is called a motor unit. Check out the picture at the top of this post for an illustration of a motor unit.. When the neural adaptation process starts, the brain and motor units improve the speed and efficiency of their communication. We experience this as our body cooperating with us. On a larger scale, the motor units learn to work together in a more synchronized way. Just like a rowing crew that has all its members in perfect timing to achieve maximum speed, your muscles ...
A direct hybrid adaptive control framework for nonlinear uncertain hybrid dynamical systems is developed. The proposed hybrid adaptive control framework is Lyapunov-based and guarantees partial asymptotic stability with respect to part of the closed-loop system states associated with the hybrid plan.... Full description. ...
Cutting-edge knowledge and current concepts on cold-adapted microorganisms including the major aspects of biodiversity in cold ecosystems, the physiology and molecular adaptation mechanisms, the various biomolecules related to cold adaptation, and the diverse strategies employed to cope with the cold.
We consider a stochastic evolutionary model for a phenotype developing amongst n related species with unknown phylogeny. The unknown tree ismodelled by a Yule process conditioned on n contemporary nodes. The trait value is assumed to evolve along lineages as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. As a result, the trait values of the n species form a sample with dependent observations. We establish three limit theorems for the samplemean corresponding to three domains for the adaptation rate. In the case of fast adaptation, we show that for large n the normalized sample mean isapproximately normally distributed. Using these limit theorems, we develop novel confidence interval formulae for the optimal trait value.. ...
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Stage 1 or the alarm stage is where the body is treated to a new stress You have a massive selection to choose from: a change in movement, a change in weight, and change in length of time. This stress is enough to disrupt the internal equilibrium of the cell. A cascade of physiological events it unleashed . The effected cell puts the call out and gets the body to divert all resources to help it survive. Normal biological house work is put on hold while stress proteins are created to stabilise your cells and the inflammatory response gets to work. Its utter panic!. During stage 2, some call this the resistance or adaptation phase, the stressor has gone: maybe your workout is over or the person trying to kill you is on their lunch break. This heralds the cell trying to get back to normal, to restore homeostasis. But it returns to a new normal, which means its now trying to prepare for a repeat stressful event. In recovering and adapting , the cell has made a fitness adaptation.. To drive this ...
While DNA takes a long time to evolve, the epigenetic programming that activates and silences our DNA is more malleable. Thus humans can exploit epigenetics to adjust rapidly to changing environments, by activating genes that facilitate adaptation to pathogens and climates, etc. Consistent with this, some genomic regions show highly variable methylation across individuals, with evidence that such variation is controlled by alleles at specific genetic loci.
All BYC rules apply. Lets play nice. I am getting ready to celebrate another birthday. And it is getting harder for me to garden. There are ways to...
The concept here is to regularly submit your body to training in the heat prior to an expected hot race. Research shows this can be an effective strategy. Training in heat increases blood plasma volume over time and promotes other positive physiological adaptations to exercising in the heat. It is not a quick fix. Training in the heat the week before a race wont help. Adaptation occur over a 3-4 week time period. Sessions need not be longer than 100 minutes. Acclimation must be maintained otherwise the positive effects begin to diminish ...
Description. James Simmie (Department of Planning, Oxford Brookes University) develops an evolutionary economics approach to adaptation and change in urban economies. Abstract: In this lecture, James Simmie develops one of the evolutionary economics approaches to understanding adaptation and change in the economic trajectories of urban economies. Neo-classical equilibrist versions of resilience and adaptation are rejected in favour of an evolutionary perspective. He argues in particular for an explanation based on why and how local economies adapt through time both to continual mutations and to periodic gales of creative destruction. Simmie focuses on the extent to which the panarchy conceptual framework can suggest testable hypotheses concerning urban and regional resilience. He explores some ...
This report comprises a summary of the contributions made at a conference in 2016. The conference was conveyed to discuss two main questions: (1) how can law and regulation keep up with advances in science and technology, and (2) how can regulated parties cope with flexibility and adaptation in regulatory frameworks. The conference featured more particularly thinking about Planned Adaptive Regulation (PAR). Regulation of risk in sectors marked by rapid advances in science and technology needs to rely on projections of risks, benefits, safety, efficacy, and acceptable quality, with updates and revisions as new knowledge becomes available. In fields of new technologies, it is essential to address potential emerging risks without discouraging healthy risk taking and stifling innovative activities. Planned Adaptive regulation may be needed to keep up with changing science and technology.. Keywords: IRGC ; planned adaptive regulation ; risk governance. Note: This paper should be cited as: IRGC ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Skeletal muscle adaptations following blood flow-restricted training during 30 days of muscular unloading. AU - Cook, Summer B.. AU - Brown, Kimberly A.. AU - Deruisseau, Keith. AU - Kanaley, Jill A.. AU - Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.. PY - 2010/8/1. Y1 - 2010/8/1. N2 - This study evaluated the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow restriction (LLBFR) to attenuate muscle loss and weakness after 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Sixteen subjects (ages 18-50 yr) underwent 30 days of ULLS. Measurements of muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and endurance on the knee extensors and plantar flexors were collected before and after ULLS. Plasma concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were also assessed. During ULLS, eight subjects (5 males, 3 females) participated in LLBFR three times per week (ULLS + Exercise) while eight subjects (4 males, 4 females) did not exercise (ULLS). The blood flow-restricted exercise consisted of dynamic knee extension at ...
The predicted climate change causes deep concerns on the effects of increasing temperatures and changing precipitation patterns on species viability and, in turn, on biodiversity. Models of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) provide a powerful tool to assess the risk of species extinction. However, most PVA models do not take into account the potential effects of behavioural adaptations. Organisms might adapt to new environmental situations and thereby mitigate negative effects of climate change. To demonstrate such mitigation effects, we use an existing PVA model describing a population of the tawny eagle (Aquila rapax) in the southern Kalahari. This model does not include behavioural adaptations. We develop a new model by assuming that the birds enlarge their average territory size to compensate for lower amounts of precipitation. Here, we found the predicted increase in risk of extinction due to climate change to be much lower than in the original model. However, this buffering of climate ...
Here, lignocellulosic bioethanol from renewable feedstocks using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising alternative to fossil fuels owing to environmental challenges. S. cerevisiae is frequently challenged by bacterial contamination and a combination of lignocellulosic inhibitors formed during the pre-treatment, in terms of growth, ethanol yield and productivity. We investigated the phenotypic robustness of a brewing yeast strain TMB3500 and its ability to adapt to low pH thereby preventing bacterial contamination along with lignocellulosic inhibitors by short-term adaptation and adaptive lab evolution (ALE). The short-term adaptation strategy was used to investigate the inherent ability of strain TMB3500 to activate a robust phenotype involving pre-culturing yeast cells in defined medium with lignocellulosic inhibitors at pH 5.0 until late exponential phase prior to inoculating them in defined media with the same inhibitor cocktail at pH 3.7. Adapted cells were able to grow aerobically, ...
Lignocellulosic bioethanol from renewable feedstocks using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising alternative to fossil fuels owing to environmental challenges. S. cerevisiae is frequently challenged by bacterial contamination and a combination of lignocellulosic inhibitors formed during the pre-treatment, in terms of growth, ethanol yield and productivity. We investigated the phenotypic robustness of a brewing yeast strain TMB3500 and its ability to adapt to low pH thereby preventing bacterial contamination along with lignocellulosic inhibitors by short-term adaptation and adaptive lab evolution (ALE). The short-term adaptation strategy was used to investigate the inherent ability of strain TMB3500 to activate a robust phenotype involving pre-culturing yeast cells in defined medium with lignocellulosic inhibitors at pH 5.0 until late exponential phase prior to inoculating them in defined media with the same inhibitor cocktail at pH 3.7. Adapted cells were able to grow aerobically, ferment
Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) is the most widely used nanomaterial for environmental remediation. The impacts of nZVI on terrestrial organisms have been recently reported, and in particular, plant growth was promoted by nZVI treatment in various concentrations. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the detailed physiological and biochemical responses of plants toward nZVI treatment for agricultural application. Here, the effects of nZVI on photosynthesis and related biochemical adaptation of soil-grown Arabidopsis thaliana were examined. After treatment with 500 mg nZVI/kg soil, the plant biomass increased by 38% through enhanced photosynthesis, which was confirmed by the gas-exchange system, carbon isotope ratio and chlorophyll content analysis. Besides, the iron uptake of the plant increased in roots and leaves. The magnetic property measurements and transmission electron microscopy showed that the transformed particles were accumulated in parts of the plant tissues. The accumulation of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cognitive behavioral stress management effects on psychosocial and physiological adaptation in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. AU - Antoni, Michael H. AU - Lechner, Suzanne C. AU - Diaz, Alain. AU - Vargas, Sara. AU - Holley, Heather. AU - Phillips, Kristin. AU - McGregor, Bonnie. AU - Carver, Charles S. AU - Blomberg, Bonnie B. PY - 2009/7/1. Y1 - 2009/7/1. N2 - Background: A diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment are psychologically stressful events, particularly over the first year after diagnosis. Women undergo many demanding and anxiety-arousing treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Psychosocial interventions that promote psychosocial adaptation to these challenges may modulate physiological processes (neuroendocrine and immune) that are relevant for health outcomes in breast cancer patients. Methods: Women with Stages 1-3 breast cancer recruited 4-8 weeks after surgery were randomized to either a 10-week group-based cognitive behavioral ...
Taken together, the evidence strongly supports the notion that the inverted retina and its major consequence (the positioning of the photoreceptors in the outer section of the retina where they are in intimate contact with the choriocapillaris) is a specific adaptation designed to deliver abundant quantities of oxygen to the photoreceptor cells commensurate with their high energy demands--especially in metabolically active groups such as the birds and mammals. Rather than being a case of maladaptation, the inverted retina is probably an essential element in the overall design of the vertebrate visual system.. This conclusion is reinforced by the difficulty of envisaging alternative means of delivering the required amounts of oxygen to the photoreceptor cell layer if the retina had the typical non-inverted design of the sort that might appeal to a tidy-minded engineer. Blood absorbs light strongly, as witnessed by the fact that in the area centralis or macular region--which is the high-visual ...
Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Increasing data suggest that there are sex differences in ventricular and vascular adaptations to aerobic (endurance) exercise, which may be attributed to different physical and physiological features in men and women. }, author={J. Gilbert and C. Banek and A. Bauer and A. Gingery and H. Dreyer}, journal={American journal of physiology. Exercise-Induced Signals for Vascular Endothelial Adaptations: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Nathan T. Jenkins & Jeffrey S. Martin & M. Harold Laughlin & Jaume Padilla Published online: 15 May 2012 # Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012 Abstract This article reviews recent advances in … Placental and vascular adaptations to exercise training before and during pregnancy in the rat Jeff Gilbert, Christopher T Banek, Ashley J. Bauer, Anne Gingery, Hans C. Dreyer Biomedical Sciences T1 - Sex-specific ventricular and vascular adaptations to exercise. Exercise probably acts at various levels in the cardiovascular system. Start ...
Discussion regarding What kinds of adaptations are available to help someone resume driving a spinal cord injury? with Anne Bryden, OT and other experts
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neural oscillations reflect latent learning states underlying dual-context sensorimotor adaptation. AU - Fine, Justin. AU - Moore, Dalton. AU - Santello, Marco. PY - 2017/12. Y1 - 2017/12. N2 - Recent studies have suggested that individuals can form multiple motor memories when simultaneously adapting to multiple, but oppositely-oriented perturbations. These findings predict that individuals detect the change in learning context, allowing the selective initialization and update of motor memories. However, previous electrophysiological studies of sensorimotor adaptation have not identified a neural mechanism supporting the detection of a context switch and adaptation to separate contexts. Here, we tested the hypothesis that such a mechanism is identifiable through neural oscillations measured through EEG. Human participants learned to manipulate an object in two opposite contexts (mass distribution). This task was designed based on previous work showing that people can adapt to ...
Saccadic adaptation allows for the gradual compensation of systematic position errors and is traditionally thought to maintain saccadic accuracy despite peripheral changes such as muscle weakness or growth. In the lab it is commonly induced by shifting the target during the saccade. Here we asked whether adaptation can be similarly driven by a mismatch between the requirements of a post-saccadic perceptual task and the saccade landing position. Observers were asked to saccade towards a peripheral letter array. At one particular location in the array they had to perform a letter-discrimination task. In pre- and post-adaptation trials, the central letter in the array had to be discriminated. In adaptation trials, the letter at a fixed eccentric location in the array had to be discriminated, such that saccades had to be shortened or prolonged. In contrast to previous research, only the position of the discrimination-letter within the array changed, while the position of the array itself remained ...
Author Summary Adaptation in eukaryotes is often assumed to be limited by the waiting time for adaptive mutations. This is because effective population sizes are relatively small, typically on the order of only a few million reproducing individuals or less. It should therefore take hundreds or even thousands of generations until a particular new mutation emerges. However, several striking examples of rapid adaptation appear inconsistent with this view. Here we investigate a showpiece case for rapid adaptation, the evolution of pesticide resistance in the classical genetic organism Drosophila melanogaster. Our analysis reveals distinct population genetic signatures of this adaptation that can only be explained if the number of reproducing flies is, in fact, more than 100-fold larger than commonly believed. We argue that the old estimates, based on standing levels of neutral genetic variation, are misleading in the case of rapid adaptation because levels of standing variation are strongly affected by
Microbes commonly display great genetic plasticity, which has allowed them to colonize all ecological niches on Earth. Bacillus subtilis is a soil-dwelling organism that can be isolated from a wide variety of environments. An interesting characteristic of this bacterium is its ability to form biofilms that display complex heterogeneity: individual, clonal cells develop diverse phenotypes in response to different environmental conditions within the biofilm. Here, we scrutinized the impact that the number and variety of the Rap-Phr family of regulators and cell-cell communication modules of B. subtilis has on genetic adaptation and evolution. We examine how the Rap family of phosphatase regulators impacts sporulation in diverse niches using a library of single and double rap-phr mutants in competition under 4 distinct growth conditions. Using specific DNA barcodes and whole-genome sequencing, population dynamics were followed, revealing the impact of individual Rap phosphatases and arising ...
Skeletal muscle adaptation to fatty acid depends on coordinated actions of the PPARs and PGC1 alpha: implications for metabolic disease.
UK - Adaptation measures to help us cope with climate change have the potential to generate further threats for both local and global ecosystems, according to a new study from the University of East Anglia.
J. Z. YOUNG; Cellular Basis for Long-Term Neuronal Adaptation. Biochem Soc Trans 1 October 1978; 6 (5): 839-841. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0060839. Download citation file:. ...
Advances in bioinformatics and high-throughput genetic analysis increasingly allow us to predict the genetic basis of adaptive traits. These predictions can be tested and confirmed, but the molecular-level changes-i.e. the molecular adaptation-that link genetic differences to organism fitness remain generally unknown. In recent years, a series of studies have started to unpick the mechanisms of adaptation at the molecular level. In particular, this work has examined how changes in protein function, activity, and regulation cause improved organismal fitness. Key to addressing molecular adaptations is identifying systems and designing experiments that integrate changes in the genome, protein chemistry (molecular phenotype), and fitness. Knowledge of the molecular changes underpinning adaptations allow new insight into the constraints on, and repeatability of adaptations, and of the basis of non-additive interactions between adaptive mutations. Here we critically discuss a series of studies that ...
Background: Bacteria employ a variety of adaptation strategies during the course of chronic infections. Understanding bacterial adaptation can facilitate the identification of novel drug targets for better treatment of infectious diseases. Transcriptome profiling is a comprehensive and high-throughput approach for characterization of bacterial clinical isolates from infections. However, exploitation of the complex, noisy and high-dimensional transcriptomic dataset is difficult and often hindered by low statistical power. Results: In this study, we have applied two kinds of unsupervised analysis methods, principle component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA), to extract and characterize the most informative features from transcriptomic dataset generated from cystic fibrosis (CF) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. ICA was shown to be able to efficiently extract biological meaningful features from the transcriptomic dataset and improve clustering patterns of CF isolates. ...
Review for Sudden Change, Sudden Change Under Eye Firming Serum, Eye Treatments. Read more Sudden Change product reviews at Total Beauty.
The media workshop on adaptation to climate change in the Indian Himalayas was organised by Centre for Environment Education & Third Pole as part of the Indian Himalayas Climate Adaptation programme and national mission for sustaining the Himalayas eco-system, to improve creative thinking and effective communication on adaptation to climate change in a local context.. ...
other researchers have recently discovered that the areas of the brain responsible for processing vision or touch can recruit, or take over, areas in which hearing is normally processed, but which receive little or no stimulation in deafness. This is called cross-modal cortical reorganization and reflects a fundamental property of the brain to compensate in response to its environment. According to Dr. Sharma, We find that this kind of compensatory adaptation may significantly decrease the brains available resources for processing sound and can affect a deaf patients ability to effectively perceive speech with their cochlear implants. Cochlear implants are implanted devices that bypass damaged portions of the ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve. Signals generated by the implant are sent by way of the auditory nerve to the brain, which recognizes the signals as sound, according to the National Institutes of Health, which funds Dr Sharmas research. Next, Sharma and colleagues will ...
Dive into the research topics of Phenotypic plasticity, genetic assimilation, and genetic compensation in hypoxia adaptation of high-altitude vertebrates. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Naturally occurring stimuli can vary over several orders of magnitude and may exceed the dynamic range of sensory neurons. As a result, sensory systems adapt their sensitivity by changing their responsiveness or gain. While many peripheral adaptation processes are rapid, slow adaptation processes have been observed in response to sensory deprivation or elevated stimulation. This adaptation process alters neural gain in order to adjust the basic operating point of sensory processing. In the auditory system, abnormally high neural gain may result in higher spontaneous and/or stimulus-evoked neural firing rates, and this may have the unintended consequence as presenting as tinnitus and/or sound intolerance, respectively. Therefore, a better understanding of neural gain, in health and disease, may lead to more effective treatments for these aberrant auditory perceptions. This review provides a concise summary of: (i) evidence for changes in neural gain in the auditory system of animals, (ii) ...
Enthesophytes are bony projections that arise from the sites of ligament, tendon or joint capsule attachment to a bone. They are seen rarely in radiographic findings in young adults, as these bony adaptations are assumed to develop slowly over time. However, in recent years, the presence of an enlarged external occipital protuberance (EEOP) has been observed frequently in radiographs of relatively young patients at the clinic of the lead author. Accordingly, the aim of this project was to assess the prevalence of an EEOP in a young adult population. Analysis involved a retrospective analysis of 218 lateral cervical radiographic studies of 18-30-year-old participants. Group A (n = 108; males = 45, females = 63) consisted of asymptomatic university students, while Group B (n = 110; males = 50, females = 60) were an age-matched mildly symptomatic, non-student population. The external occipital protuberance (EOP) size was defined as the distance from the most superior point of the EOP (origin) to a point on
Background/Purpose Central to the usage of murine types of disease may be the capability to derive reproducible data. deepen after SBR. Bottom line Maintenance of mice in pathogen-free circumstances and restricting gene appearance analysis to specific pets exhibiting morphologic version enhances awareness and specificity of data produced from this model. These refinements will minimize experimental lead and variability to improved knowledge of the complicated procedure for intestinal adaptation. model continues to be invaluable in regards to to translation of the complex, multifactorial adaptation response into identification of key molecular targets for subsequent, more mechanistic experiments employing cell culture 4,5. During this time period, several modifications in operative technique, perioperative animal care, and refinements in basic science methodology have evolved. As a direct consequence of improved skills in multiple molecular methods and assays, we have noted significant ...
Summer Biomechanics, Bioengineering and Biotransport Conference, June 29 - July 3, National Harbor, Maryland, (2016). The effects of gender and core stability on temporal-spatial gait parameters during short-term adaptation to 20% increase in backpack load carriage Link ...
7. Answer C. While low serum albumin is common with liver disease, it does not weaken the existing structures of the body. Weakness of the esophageal wall is not the problem. Since the esophageal vessels lie close to the surface, under the mucous membranes, the esophageal wall does not support them at the inner surface. The liver is located to the right of the esophagus. When it enlarges, it is more likely to compromise expansion of the right lung than to affect the esophagus. The fibrosed liver obstructs flow through portal vessels, which normally receive all blood circulating from the gastrointestinal tract. The increased pressure in portal vessels shunts some of the blood into the lower pressure veins around the lower esophagus. Since these veins are not designed to handle the high-pressure portal blood flow, they develop varicosities, which often rupture and bleed. Enlargement of the liver does not displace the esophagus ...
In Chrysopidae, apart from the morphofunctional type of larvae that exhibit the trash-carrying behavior, there are the so-called naked larvae, along with a few cases of morphologically and ethologically intermediate stages (11). Trash-carrying extant larvae tend to possess morphological characters that increase the potential for ensnaring debris, as well as forming a defined space for the trash packet components (4). There is evidence suggesting that these adaptations evolved several times within Chrysopidae (12). Such adaptations are present in the fossil, as a gibbous (humped) body, adapted for moving while carrying great loads. However, two of these adaptations are strikingly peculiar. H. diogenesi has: (i) pairs of dorsal setigerous tubercles, but these are extremely elongated, tubule-shaped; and (ii) setation on the tubular tubercles, but representing a special system for ensnaring the trash packet components. In extant trash-carrying larvae, the lateral tubercles are often much more ...
Second, the data show a consistent decrease in threshold when adapting and test patterns have different forms. This effect is statistically significant (two-way ANOVA, 5.83 , F(1,16) , 8.83, P , 0.05) in three of the eight conditions. We interpret this result in light of the adaptation aftereffect reported by Clifford and Weston (2005). Adaptation to a concentric pattern induces subsequent random patterns to appear radial, and vice versa. Thus, in trials containing for example a radial pattern and a random one after adaptation to a concentric pattern, subjects are biased and perceive a radial pattern in both intervals. This tendency is visible in the analysis of errors made in these experiments: when subjects chose the wrong interval, they did not indicate seeing a radial or concentric pattern with equal probability (50%), as would be expected in the absence of aftereffect, but overwhelmingly (78% on average) indicated the pattern opposite to the adaptation pattern. Moreover, we compared the ...
Dr. Boehlert specializes in applied economics and policy analysis, with a focus on water resources and climate change. He has extensive experience analyzing the effects of changes in water availability and allocation, climate change impacts and adaptation responses, the economic impacts of environmental regulations, and the costs of damages to natural resources. He is collaborating on the Joint Programs analysis of water and energy resources with a focus on development in Africa.. ...
Stroke survivors experience severe muscle wasting during the chronic phase of recovery, with implications for strength, function and general health. Although resistive exercise training effectively combats this problem, it is unknown whether sub-optimal protein intake limits the observed gains in skeletal muscle growth. Skeletal muscle adaptations may occur when resistive training (RT) is combined with... Read More → ...
The current proposal seeks renewal of the Yale Child Health Research Career Development Program (YCHRCDP) in the Department of Pediatrics at Yale University Sch...
246. Ruiz-Ramos, M., Ferrise, R., Rodriguez, A., Lorite, I. J., Bindi, M., Carter, T. R., Fronzek, S., Palosuo, T., Pirttioja, N., Baranowski, P., Buis, S., Cammarano, D., Chen, Y., Dumont, B., Ewert, F., Gaiser, T., Hlavinka, P., Hoffmann, H., Höhn, J. G., Jurecka, F., Kersebaum, K. C., Krzyszczak, J., Lana, M., Mechiche-Alami, A., Minet, J., Montesino, M., Nendel, C., Porter, J. R., Ruget, F., Semenov, M. A., Steinmetz, Zacharias, Stratonovitch, P., Supit, I., Tao, F., Trnka, M., de Wit, A., Rötter, R. P. 2017. Adaptation response surfaces for managing wheat under perturbed climate and CO2 in a Mediterranean environment. Agricultural Systems. Download ...
Adaptation is a mechanism by which cortical neurons adjust their responses according to recently viewed stimuli. Visual information is processed in a circuit formed by feedforward (FF) and feedback (FB) synaptic connections of neurons in different cortical layers. Here, the functional role of FF-FB streams and their synaptic dynamics in adaptation to natural stimuli is assessed in psychophysics and neural model. We propose a cortical model which predicts psychophysically observed motion adaptation aftereffects (MAE) after exposure to geometrically distorted natural image sequences. The model comprises direction selective neurons in V1 and MT connected by recurrent FF and FB dynamic synapses. Psychophysically plausible model MAEs were obtained from synaptic changes within neurons tuned to salient direction signals of the broadband natural input. It is conceived that, motion disambiguation by FF-FB interactions is critical to encode this salient information. Moreover, only FF-FB dynamic synapses operating
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endocrine control of body composition in infancy, childhood, and puberty. AU - Veldhuis, Johannes D. AU - Roemmich, James N.. AU - Richmond, Erick J.. AU - Rogol, Alan D.. AU - Lovejoy, Jennifer C.. AU - Sheffield-Moore, Melinda. AU - Mauras, Nelly. AU - Bowers, Cyril Y.. PY - 2005/2. Y1 - 2005/2. N2 - Body composition exhibits marked variations across the early human lifetime. The precise physiological mechanisms that drive such developmental adaptations are difficult to establish. This clinical challenge reflects an array of potentially confounding factors, such as marked intersubject differences in tissue compartments; the incremental nature of longitudinal intrasubject variations in body composition; technical limitations in quantitating the unobserved mass of mineral, fat, water, and muscle ad seriatim; and the multifold contributions of genetic, dietary, environmental, hormonal, nutritional, and behavioral signals to physical and sexual maturation. From an endocrine ...
Researchers have fresh insight into an evolutionarily ancient way that cells cope when oxygen levels decline, according to a new study in the October 7th issue of Cell Metabolism, a Cell Press publication. In studies of cells taken from the lining of human pulmonary arteries, they show that a microRNA a tiny bit of RNA that regulates the activity of particular genes and thus the availability of certain proteins allows cells to shift their metabolic gears, in a process known as the Pasteur effect.. While the discovery is a fundamental one, the researchers say it could point to new ways to tackle diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease.. The Pasteur effect is really best defined as the way by which cells adapt to low oxygen concentrations, said Joseph Loscalzo of Brigham and Womens Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Cells do that by switching from mitochondrial metabolism to glycolysis.. Normally, cells produce high-energy molecules such as ATP through components known as ...
One of the significant findings of the study was that the most highly enriched functional grouping across all three stresses was for genes encoding transcription factors (Figure 1). This was also evident for the subset of genes that are upregulated by all the stresses, with 5 out of 30 being transcription factors. These include genes encoding the ubiquitously expressed AP-1 family members Jun and Fos, as well as Myc, Egr-1 and Maff (Figure 1). Some of these have previously been reported to be p38 pathway targets [4]. For example, p38 may regulate jun transcription via MEF2 and ATF2, two direct substrates of p38, whereas fos and egr-1 can be regulated by other p38 substrates, such as ternary complex factors (TCFs) [1, 2, 4]. The enrichment for transcription-factor genes indicates that cells require an extensive program of new gene expression for long-term adaptation to stress.. For the future it will be important to determine how the p38-mediated gene-expression profiles differ between cell types ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early collateral and microvascular adaptations to intestinal artery occlusion in rat. AU - Unthank, Joseph L.. AU - Nixon, J. Craig. AU - Burkhart, Harold M.. AU - Fath, Steven W.. AU - Dalsing, Michael C.. PY - 1996/9/1. Y1 - 1996/9/1. N2 - The technique to repeatedly observe exactly the same vessels in the rat intestine was used to investigate vascular compensation during the 1st wk after abrupt arterial ligation. A collateral-dependent tissue region was created by ligation of three to four sequential intestinal arteries. At the center of the collateral-dependent region, arterial pressure decreased from 96 ± 3.7 to 29 ± 2.5 mmHg, and intestinal blood flow fell ∼80% during maximal dilation initially postligation. One week later, pressure and blood flow at the center had increased 31 and 250%, respectively. Relative to preligation values, the only compensatory adaptation was an enlargement (31 ± 11%) of the collateral arteries located between normal tissue and the center; no ...
Adaptation is not simply the price of admission for those audiences, but part of the attraction. That is, an adaptation is not only an invitation to experience a work anew in a different textual and/or medial framework; it is also an experience unto itself. Imagine the various Venn Diagrams that govern an audience-really, the audiences-experiencing a film adaptation like The Player. There are viewers who know that the film is an adaptation when they walk in, and there are viewers who only know that when the film tells them so (in an opening credit that says the SCREENPLAY BY MICHAEL TOLKIN is BASED ON HIS NOVEL) (see Figure 2). There are viewers who miss that credit and dont know that the film is an adaptation at all. There are viewers who have read the book and there are viewers who have read the book twice. There are viewers who have read half the book, and there are viewers who havent read the book at all. And there are viewers who resolve to read the book while watching the film, who ...
Psychiatry is medicines sentinel guard. If it can resist over-medicalization so can the rest of medicine. Saving normal is a mirror for all physicians.
Neural adaptation may be one reason investors pile into stocks with obvious problems. Or why an incumbent underestimates the threat of something new. Another form of data blindness results from a series of false positive alerts, like fire alarms, that discourage people from taking decisive action. This is one reason perfectly good cyber security alerts often go unheeded. Unfortunately, overwhelming data volumes force many projects to spend most of their resources processing and charting data, with little left to focus on decisions. Data blindness can result from many factors, some neurological, others cultural. Collectively, these factors impede our ability to act logically.. Here are three ways to recognize and overcome it: 1. Focus on the decision, not the technology. Businesses spent more than $31 billion globally on big data technology in 2013, and that number is growing quickly. One study, from ABI Research, found that just 27% of organizations described their big data initiatives as ...
Motor adaptation is an important factor in the recovery of function following motor deficits associated with neural damage due to stroke, injury or aging. Such...
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The proposed project, Adopting and Demonstrating the Adaptation of Prevention Techniques (ADAPT), has two main goals: first, to assist the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to better understand the processes needed for adapting evidence-based behavioral interventions to fit new conditions or target populations; second, to utilize the CDCs draft adaptation guidance to adapt Jeff Kellys Popular Opinion Leader (POL) for use with adult, seropositive Hispanic men who have sex with other men (MSM). The target population will directly participate in all phases of the intervention adaptation process.. ADAPT, known as ADAPT-POL in El Paso, will include formative research and outcome monitoring. Throughout both periods, the ADAPT-POL staff will conduct process monitoring and evaluation to assess the delivery of the intervention, and to help the CDC understand how the draft adaptation guidance procedures work in a real world setting. Representatives of the target population will ...
The proposed project, Adopting and Demonstrating the Adaptation of Prevention Techniques (ADAPT), has two main goals: first, to assist the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to better understand the processes needed for adapting evidence-based behavioral interventions to fit new conditions or target populations; second, to utilize the CDCs draft adaptation guidance to adapt Jeff Kellys Popular Opinion Leader (POL) for use with adult, seropositive Hispanic men who have sex with other men (MSM). The target population will directly participate in all phases of the intervention adaptation process.. ADAPT, known as ADAPT-POL in El Paso, will include formative research and outcome monitoring. Throughout both periods, the ADAPT-POL staff will conduct process monitoring and evaluation to assess the delivery of the intervention, and to help the CDC understand how the draft adaptation guidance procedures work in a real world setting. Representatives of the target population will ...
In addition, the results from an enhanced ready biodegradability test according to OECD 301B, conducted with non-adapted, domestic activated sludge as inoculum are available (BASF SE, 2012). Elimination of the test item was determined to be 0.9% after 28 days based on CO2 evolution. Based on DOC removal, 83% of the substance was eliminated after 28 days, which is, however, interpreted to be likely due to adsorption to the sludge and/or test vessels. Additional experimental data are available from a CO2 evolution test conducted similar to OECD 301B (BASF AG, 1997; report no. 97/0028/22/1) with non-adapted, domestic activated sludge as inoculum. The substance was degraded to approximately 50% after 39 days of incubation. However, the plateau phase of the biodegradation curve was not reached after 39 days. The biodegradation curve still showed an upward trend indicating that the biodegradation of the molecule was not completed. ...
There is an increasingly urgent need to understand and predict how organisms will cope with the environmental consequences of global climate change. Adaptation in any form can be mediated by genetic adaptation and/or by phenotypic plasticity. Disentangling these two adaptive processes is critical in understanding and predicting adaptive responses to environmental change. Usually, disentangling genetic adaptation from phenotypic plasticity requires common garden experiments conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. While these experiments are powerful, it is often difficult to translate the results into natural populations and extrapolate to naturally occurring phenotypic variation. One solution to this problem is provided by the many examples of invasive species that exhibit wide phenotypic variation and that reproduce asexually. Besides selecting the appropriate in situ model, one must carefully choose a relevant trait to investigate. Ecomorphology has been a central theme in ...
Andrews and Thomson consider depression an adaptation because it supposedly helps the sufferer solve problems. But an evolutionary adaptation is more than something that is merely useful. Biologists consider a trait adaptive only if that behavior, and the genes producing it, enhance an individuals fitness-the average lifetime output of offspring. It is this genetic advantage, and the evolutionary changes in behavior it promotes, that is the essence of adaptation by natural selection. To demonstrate that depression is an evolved adaptation, then, we must show that it enhances reproduction.. Andrews and Thomson dont do this, or even try. And if they did try, they probably wouldnt succeed, for everything we know about depression suggests that rather than enhancing fitness, it reduces it. The most obvious issue is suicide, a word that, curiously, does not appear in Andrews and Thomsons text. Statistics show that those with major depression are 20 times more likely to kill themselves than are ...