PURPOSE: Glucose concentrations are elevated in retinal cells in undiagnosed and in undertreated diabetes. Studies of diabetic patients suggest that retinal function adapts, to some extent, to this increased supply of glucose. The aim of the present study was to examine such adaptation in a model of type 2 diabetes and assess how the retina responds to the subsequent institution of glycemic control. METHODS: Electroretinography (ERG) was conducted on untreated Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and congenic controls from 8-22 weeks of age and on ZDFs treated with daily insulin from 16-22 weeks of age. Retinal sections from various ages were prepared and compared histologically and by immunocytochemistry. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS/CONCLUSIONS: Acute hyperglycemia did not have an effect on control rats while chronic hyperglycemia in the ZDF was associated with scotopic ERG amplitudes which were up to 20% higher than those of age-matched controls. This change followed the onset of hyperglycemia with a delay ...
Purpose: : This paper reports on investigation of dark adaptation as a new clinical trial endpoint for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The ultimate goal is to facilitate clinical trials for development of early-stage interventions by validating dark adaptation as a surrogate marker for future vision loss in AMD. Methods: : It has previously been shown that dark adaptation speed is a sensitive biomarker for AMD from its earliest stages, and that the amount of dark adaptation impairment closely correlates with disease severity. We have developed a dark adaptometer specifically tailored for use as a clinical trial endpoint measure. Like other dark adaptometers, our AdaptRx provides for photobleaching of the retina with subsequent measurement of sensitivity recovery. However, it also allows precise control of the primary variables affecting dark adaptation kinetics: intensity of the bleaching light and location of the stimulus for recovery measurements. Furthermore, we have developed a ...
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Drops sets are unquestionably among the most popular intensity techniques ... and they for sure feel effective, but are they? The latest study says "NO!"...
This study investigated the effects of visual adaptation to over-, under- or neither over- nor under-weight images of women on perceived own size, in 18 to 25 year olds. Healthy ...
The paper presents a brief review on how some concepts on the organism general adaptational reactions developed, including their role in increasing the unspecific resistance in the organism. Demonstrated is periodicity of the patterns of anti-stressor type reactions (training, calm and elevated activation) and stress in a wide range of stimulation values. ...
If we are takling about scientificly evolving into a different form in this world, it may be possible but it will most likely be done by us rather than through adaptation (we arent patient enough for it). If we are talking about ascending to heavan/astral planes/etc./etc., we might want to find ...
Saccadic adaptation allows for the gradual compensation of systematic position errors and is traditionally thought to maintain saccadic accuracy despite peripheral changes such as muscle weakness or growth. In the lab it is commonly induced by shifting the target during the saccade. Here we asked whether adaptation can be similarly driven by a mismatch between the requirements of a post-saccadic perceptual task and the saccade landing position. Observers were asked to saccade towards a peripheral letter array. At one particular location in the array they had to perform a letter-discrimination task. In pre- and post-adaptation trials, the central letter in the array had to be discriminated. In adaptation trials, the letter at a fixed eccentric location in the array had to be discriminated, such that saccades had to be shortened or prolonged. In contrast to previous research, only the position of the discrimination-letter within the array changed, while the position of the array itself remained ...
Average OP amplitudes and implicit times in CTRL and diabetic DR or DM subjects in response to ISCEV dim (−2.0 log cd s/m2), Test Flash 1 (−1.4 log cd s/m2), Test Flash 2 (−0.8 log cd s/m2), and ISCEV bright (0.39 log cd s/m2). (A) OP1 amplitudes were significantly reduced compared with CTRL (two-way rmANOVA F(6, 94) = 7.39, P , 0.001) for the DR group with Test Flash 2. With ISCEV bright flashes, OP1 amplitudes showed reductions for DM and DR versus CTRL, and for DM versus DR. (B) OP1 implicit times were significantly delayed compared with CTRL (rmANOVA F[6, 86] = 2.73, P , 0.02) for the DR group with ISCEV dim and for DM and DR versus CTRL for Test Flash 1. (C) OP2 amplitudes were reduced compared with CTRL (rmANOVA F[6, 94] = 3.42, P = 0.006) for DR group with Test Flash 2, and with ISCEV bright for the DM and DR groups versus CTRL and DR versus DM. (D) OP2 implicit times were delayed compared with CTRL and DM (rmANOVA, F[6, 85] = 3.82, P , 0.003) for DR with ISCEV dim, for DM and DR ...
Males with this condition have a cheap cymbalta sensitivity near 504 nm under dark-adapted conditions because of chaep rod cheap cymbalta and a peak sensitivity near 440 nm under light-adapted conditions because of normal blue cone function, Johns CJ Ocular involvement in chronic sarcoidosis.
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Overall, the essays in this collection deal with diverse topics and theoretical concerns of adaptation studies today. They throw light on both often researched and neglected or undervalued works." (Poetics Today, 1 May 2015). "Well-written, suggestively arranged in a series of six sections, A Companion to Literature, Film and Adaptation provides an invaluable resource for anyone interested in debates about the past, present and future of adaptation studies, and why the discipline represents an important advance in the field of interdisciplinary learning … Cartmells collection covers just about every area imaginable within adaptation studies, whether historical, theoretical or otherwise … [It] is a far cry from those collections that simply compare source with target texts; it encompasses comic-books, songs, silent cinema as well as more canonical texts and their cinematic variants. There is something for everyone in this volume." (Post Script, 2014). "Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division ...
Gold - Impulsive Bull Move Post Yellen Dovishness (1hr chart) After a brief flash crash to start the week touching a month low of 1206, Gold recovered soli
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This page deals with Hiromu Arakawas original manga and its direct anime adaptation (titled Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood). For the loose 2003 anime …
Abstract: : Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated a significant improvement in visual resolution during sustained periods of retinal blur. This appears to result from perceptual adaptation designed to restore the perceived contrast of the degraded retinal image. However, it is unclear whether this perceptual adaptation is present in all individuals, or only in certain subgroups, such as those who have been chronically exposed to sustained periods of blur due to uncorrected ametropia. Accordingly, the present study examined blur adaptation in both emmetropic and myopic individuals. Methods: Two experiments will be described. Firstly, the effects of sustained retinal blur on both high and low contrast visual resolution was compared in emmetropes (N=12) and myopes (N=16). Subjects were required to view through +2.50D spherical lenses worn over their distance refractive correction for a continuous 2-hour period. Secondly, 20 subjects having moderate degrees of myopia (mean refractive error = ...
Silvia Scaravaggi: How did you develop your projects togheter? Where is the balance in your collaboration?. Evelina & Dmitry: There is no division of creativity between us: we equally harness each curve of the process and encourage others (namely scientists and sound artists) to also take part. We have far too many inquiries to be able to unfold them alone.. Silvia Scaravaggi: Talking about your works for example Camera Lucida experience already presented in Italy during Netmage 2005 n early all require a certain period of retinal adaptation to the darkness. Without the darkness, the light would be invisible, as would the delicate horizon of converging energy systems from which the light emanates. So which are your favourite environments? Which kind of places satisfy you more to set your works?. Evelina & Dmitry: Because our works transpire in the very outer reaches of perceptual resolution, a highly controlled setting is necessary for each installation one that can easily subtract itself from ...
The |i|Journal of Electronic Imaging|/i| (JEI), copublished bimonthly with the Society for Imaging Science and Technology, publishes peer-reviewed papers that cover research and applications in all areas of electronic imaging science and technology.
A method for compressing test patterns to be applied to scan chains in a circuit under test. The method includes generating symbolic expressions that are associated with scan cells within the scan chains. The symbolic expressions are created by assigning variables to bits on external input channels supplied to the circuit under test. Using symbolic simulation, the variables are applied to a decompressor to obtain the symbolic expressions. A test cube is created using a deterministic pattern that assigns values to the scan cells to test faults within the integrated circuit. A set of equations is formulated by equating the assigned values in the test cube to the symbolic expressions associated with the corresponding scan cell. The equations are solved to obtain the compressed test pattern.
And I think I like him better with the fitted cap on. He aint even gotta try to put the mac on. He just gotta give me that look, when he give me that look. Then the panties comin off, off, un. ...
An Introduction To The Concept Of Unit Test Patterns; Author: Marc Clifton; Updated: 4 Mar 2004; Section: Design and Architecture; Chapter: Development Lifecycle; Updated: 4 Mar 2004
An Introduction To The Concept Of Unit Test Patterns; Author: Marc Clifton; Updated: 4 Mar 2004; Section: Design and Architecture; Chapter: Development Lifecycle; Updated: 4 Mar 2004
A 17-year-old high school cross-country runner has been training aerobically for six months in preparation for the upcoming season. Which of the following adaptations will occur in the muscles during that tie ...
What s a survival tool ? The answer is simple: anything that provides a function you need is a survival tool in the right circumstances. Human ingenuity and adaptation can never be underestimated, but being ready to perform certain functions, with
While the amplitude of OP2 grows and its timing streest as the strength of the stimulus increases conce rta the background light is kept constant (see figure 43. t. Since Nancy scored at the 58th percentile and Dick at the 64th, Dick obviously did much better in the test. t.
Adaptation Adaptation is a term used to describe the ways in which organisms change over time in response to the changing demands of their environment.
The observed shift in the contrast gain function is consistent with previous measures of spatial vision loss with age. For instance, Sloane, Owsley, and Jackson (1988) measured contrast sensitivity for young and old observers with spatial frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 8 c/deg and luminance levels ranging from mesopic to photopic. At a low temporal frequency, the slope of the sensitivity function (inverse of the threshold function) spanning the range of luminance was steeper for older than younger observers at spatial frequencies below 4 c/deg. This means that older observers required more contrast at low luminance levels to detect a sine-wave grating than their younger counterparts. This pattern of contrast sensitivity loss is consistent with a reduction in the contrast gain slope of the underlying mechanism at low spatial frequencies. In addition, suprathreshold measures of spatial vision performance also support a reduction in contrast gain within one (or both) of the pathways. Losses in ...
How do our eyes adjust to daily light levels that vary by almost 11 orders of magnitude? Research shows that, in both vertebrates and invertebrates, signaling proteins are translocated in a light-dependent manner between the photoreceptor cellular compartments where visual transduction takes place, and the rest of the photoreceptor cell. Protein translocation is likely to contribute to photoreceptor light adaptation by adjusting the sensitivity and speed of photoresponse to ever-changing conditions of ambient illumination.. ...
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Table 4: SI units and non SI units and conversion factors. A convenient measure of retinal illuminance is based on the unit of the troland. One troland (Td) of retinal illuminance is produced by an extended source of 1 cd/m2 seen through a pupil of 1 mm2. Thus retinal illuminance E in trolands is given by Equation 9.. Equation 9: E = LA. where L is the luminance in cd/m2 and A is pupil area in mm2. Thus the unit for troland is cd/m2.mm2. If scotopic units are used, luminance is defined as scotopic cd/m2, and the troland is called a scotopic troland.. Inverse Square Law. The illuminance (E) of a surface due to a point source of light is proportional to the luminous intensity (I) of the source in the direction of that surface and inversely proportional to the square of the distance (d) between the surface and the source. The angle θ is the angle of incidence.. Equation 10: E = I/d2. cos θ. Remember, the rule of thumb for all laws dealing with light measurement is that radiation is derived from a ...
The CIE Supplementary System of Photometry, which evaluates lights in terms of comparative brightness relationship at any level, is described. The system introduces the concept of equivalent luminance to describe brightness of a light or an object at any level including mesopic levels. The system develops a photometric model to calculate brightness-related equivalent luminance by using three components of existing photometric and colorimetric quantities (photopic luminance, L, scotopic luminance, L, and chromatic contribution to brightness, c, i.e. brightness-to-luminance ratio (B/L)) with some weighting factors in their combinations that depend on the adaptation level. The use of the system and an example of calculation are also described. Results of testing the system with experimental brightness matching data are given in an appendix.. The publication is written in English, with a short summary in French and German. It consists of 21 pages with 5 figures and 1 table and is readily ...
We have investigated background and bleaching adaptation in vertebrate rods by intracellular recording in the retina of Bufo marinus. Backgrounds and bleaching produce adaptation in photoreceptors and lead to a shift and a compression of the response operating range. Threshold elevation due to backgrounds follows the Rose-DeVries rule at low intensities and the Weber-Fechner rule at high intensities. Threshold elevation due to bleaching is linear almost up to 17% bleached pigment and exponential thereafter. An equivalence can be established between bleaching and backgrounds with respect to threshold elevation, on the one hand, and with respect to response compression, on the other. These equivalences are the same within experimental error. The equivalence, moreover, appears to extend to the complete response curve. These results have implications for psychophysics as well as for photoreceptor transduction.. ...
Adaptation is not simply the price of admission for those audiences, but part of the attraction. That is, an adaptation is not only an invitation to experience a work anew in a different textual and/or medial framework; it is also an experience unto itself. Imagine the various Venn Diagrams that govern an audience-really, the audiences-experiencing a film adaptation like The Player. There are viewers who know that the film is an adaptation when they walk in, and there are viewers who only know that when the film tells them so (in an opening credit that says the "SCREENPLAY BY MICHAEL TOLKIN" is "BASED ON HIS NOVEL") (see Figure 2). There are viewers who miss that credit and dont know that the film is an adaptation at all. There are viewers who have read the book and there are viewers who have read the book twice. There are viewers who have read half the book, and there are viewers who havent read the book at all. And there are viewers who resolve to read the book while watching the film, who ...
The proposed project, Adopting and Demonstrating the Adaptation of Prevention Techniques (ADAPT), has two main goals: first, to assist the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to better understand the processes needed for adapting evidence-based behavioral interventions to fit new conditions or target populations; second, to utilize the CDCs draft adaptation guidance to adapt Jeff Kellys Popular Opinion Leader (POL) for use with adult, seropositive Hispanic men who have sex with other men (MSM). The target population will directly participate in all phases of the intervention adaptation process.. ADAPT, known as ADAPT-POL in El Paso, will include formative research and outcome monitoring. Throughout both periods, the ADAPT-POL staff will conduct process monitoring and evaluation to assess the delivery of the intervention, and to help the CDC understand how the draft adaptation guidance procedures work in a real world setting. Representatives of the target population will ...
The proposed project, Adopting and Demonstrating the Adaptation of Prevention Techniques (ADAPT), has two main goals: first, to assist the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to better understand the processes needed for adapting evidence-based behavioral interventions to fit new conditions or target populations; second, to utilize the CDCs draft adaptation guidance to adapt Jeff Kellys Popular Opinion Leader (POL) for use with adult, seropositive Hispanic men who have sex with other men (MSM). The target population will directly participate in all phases of the intervention adaptation process.. ADAPT, known as ADAPT-POL in El Paso, will include formative research and outcome monitoring. Throughout both periods, the ADAPT-POL staff will conduct process monitoring and evaluation to assess the delivery of the intervention, and to help the CDC understand how the draft adaptation guidance procedures work in a real world setting. Representatives of the target population will ...
Human access to the increasing amount of information and data plays an essential role for the professional level and also for everyday life. While information visualization has developed new and remarkable ways for visualizing data and enabling the exploration process, adaptive systems focus on users behavior to tailor information for supporting the information acquisition process. Recent research on adaptive visualization shows promising ways of synthesizing these two complementary approaches and make use of the surpluses of both disciplines. The emerged methods and systems aim to increase the performance, acceptance, and user experience of graphical data representations for a broad range of users. Although the evaluation results of the recently proposed systems are promising, some important aspects of information visualization are not considered in the adaptation process. The visual adaptation is commonly limited to change either visual parameters or replace visualizations entirely. Further, ...
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Factory built wheels are repeatable. As a lot of the build is done by machine. Handbuilts are not, as most of the process is manual. So a bad handbuilt will be a lot worse than a bad factory build. BUT by the same token, a good factory build (of the same wheel) will most likely not be as good as the best of handbuilts, as the machine is set up to be economic, quick and allow for all variabilty in rim/spoke/hub tolerances of stiffness/size/material and blah. Whereas the handbuilder is not so restricted by time as the machine, and can individually build the wheel based on what parts they actually get, rather than a nominal/worst limit part. There is *some* adaptation on *some* wheel building machines, but not all, and its *unlikely* to be as good or as comprehensive as those made by hand ...
Proton M.D. Syed Zainal Abidin Syed Mohamed Tahir told press today that Proton would be reducing the prices of its cars across the board by 2% to 5%.
Under normal conditions cells are in a homeostatic or steady state. When stimulus arrived to the cell, first the cell will adapt but if this stimulus crosses the boundary of adaptation it will cause cell injury. So cells respond to the stimulus by the following two ways: ...
View Notes - EX1 Terms from BIO 1320 at Texas State. Chapter 1 Key Terms Adaptation: a t rait that increases the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce compared to individuals without the
The 2013 Adaptation Academy is well on its way with an exciting group of participants, asking challenging questions and working through complex issues. Last ...
I apologize for the light level of posting (particularly since so many of you seem to be held in spellbinding suspense, according to my parents), but alot has gone into to making this the most heart-pounding, exhilirating finale ever! Plus I had two exames and a paper this week. Anyways, the doctors decided NOT to…
CAMBRIDGE MA Forty five years ago 834 young people (819 men and 15 women) received their bachelor of science degrees from MIT As one of them I have wondered ever since how we would do in life how
Because not everyone wants to see film adaptations - 4 Feb 2014 by Ben Hewis in Features. Tags: original theatre, new writing, film adaptations
The recent film adaptation of Jill Ciments Heroic Measures doesnt match the original. We quiz her on the transfer from page to screen.
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