The mechanisms by which adaptive phenotypes spread within an evolving population after their emergence are understood fairly well. Much less is known about the factors that influence the evolutionary accessibility of such phenotypes, a pre-requisite for their emergence in a population. Here, we investigate the influence of environmental quality on the accessibility of adaptive phenotypes of Escherichia colis central metabolic network. We used an established flux-balance model of metabolism as the basis for a genotype-phenotype map (GPM). We quantified the effects of seven qualitatively different environments (corresponding to both carbohydrate and gluconeogenic metabolic substrates) on the structure of this GPM. We found that the GPM has a more rugged structure in qualitatively poorer environments, suggesting that adaptive phenotypes could be intrinsically less accessible in such environments. Nevertheless, on average approximately 74% of the genotype can be altered by neutral drift, in the ...
This activity guides the analysis of a published scientific figure from a study that investigated physiological and genetic adaptations in the Bajau, a group of people who traditionally do freediving.. ...
This activity guides the analysis of a published scientific figure from a study that investigated physiological and genetic adaptations in the Bajau, a group of people who traditionally do freediving.. ...
There is an interesting article on evolvability which I wrote a bit more about here. It is by Massimo Pigliucci and titled, Is Evolvability Evolvable, for which the whole PDF is available online. Pigliucci discusses definitions of evolvability as well as different ideas about the origins of evolvability. Here is the abstract: In recent years,…
Classifying evolution as an ontogeny relieves the environment from having to account for phenotypes, something the authors insist that it cannot do. They assert, ". . . multiple levels of internal constraints on possible phenotypes make the notion of evolution as the product of external selection operating on phenotypic variations generated at random radically untenable." In a developmental model of evolution, however, the environment doesnt bestow medals of fitness on adaptive phenotypes, but functions as it does in ontogeny. A developmental model of evolution demotes the environment, subordinating it to the needs of ontogenetic programs. In this supportive role, it can function well or poorly, and in so doing facilitate or retard phenotypic expression. Nature in this model cannot select, as in the Darwinian model; it can only nurture or neglect. The environment does not pick any particular path, but it will feed or starve whoever ventures ...
Under normal conditions cells are in a homeostatic or steady state. When stimulus arrived to the cell, first the cell will adapt but if this stimulus crosses the boundary of adaptation it will cause cell injury. So cells respond to the stimulus by the following two ways: ...
Advances in bioinformatics and high-throughput genetic analysis increasingly allow us to predict the genetic basis of adaptive traits. These predictions can be tested and confirmed, but the molecular-level changes-i.e. the molecular adaptation-that link genetic differences to organism fitness remain generally unknown. In recent years, a series of studies have started to unpick the mechanisms of adaptation at the molecular level. In particular, this work has examined how changes in protein function, activity, and regulation cause improved organismal fitness. Key to addressing molecular adaptations is identifying systems and designing experiments that integrate changes in the genome, protein chemistry (molecular phenotype), and fitness. Knowledge of the molecular changes underpinning adaptations allow new insight into the constraints on, and repeatability of adaptations, and of the basis of non-additive interactions between adaptive mutations. Here we critically discuss a series of studies that ...
Many clinicians are not adequately aware of the reasons that individuals with obesity struggle to achieve and maintain weight loss,1 and this poor awareness precludes the provision of effective intervention.2 Irrespective of starting weight, caloric restriction triggers several biological adaptations designed to prevent starvation.3 These adaptations might be potent enough to undermine the long-term effectiveness of lifestyle modification in most individuals with obesity, particularly in an environment that promotes energy overconsumption. However, they are not the only biological pressures that must be overcome for successful treatment. Additional biological adaptations occur with the development of obesity and these function to preserve, or even increase, an individuals highest sustained lifetime bodyweight. For example, preadipocyte proliferation occurs, increasing fat storage capacity. In addition, habituation to rewarding neural dopamine signaling develops with the chronic overconsumption ...
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature. The purpose of this review is to define the concept of periodized nutrition (also referred to as nutritional training) and summarize the wide variety of methods available to athletes. The reader is referred to several other recent review articles that have discussed aspects of periodized nutrition in much more detail with primarily a focus on adaptations in the muscle. The purpose of this review is not to discuss ...
Author Summary The environment humans inhabit has changed many times in the last 100,000 years. Migration and dynamic local environments can lead to genetic adaptations favoring beneficial traits. Many genes responsible for these adaptations can alter disease susceptibility. Genes can also affect disease susceptibility by varying randomly across different populations. We have studied genetic variants that are known to modify disease susceptibility in the context of worldwide migration. We found that variants associated with 11 diseases have been affected to an extent that is not explained by random variation. We also found that the genetic risk of type 2 diabetes has steadily decreased along the worldwide human migration trajectory from Africa to America.
Transforming raw materials into industrial inputs involves process technologies and machineries which have over the years been imported at exorbitant costs. In addressing this, and in consonance with Councils mandate to advise on adaptation of machinery and processes for raw materials utilization, a number of technologies have been developed specifically for processing raw materials as industrial inputs ...
Description. James Simmie (Department of Planning, Oxford Brookes University) develops an evolutionary economics approach to adaptation and change in urban economies. Abstract: In this lecture, James Simmie develops one of the evolutionary economics approaches to understanding adaptation and change in the economic trajectories of urban economies. Neo-classical equilibrist versions of resilience and adaptation are rejected in favour of an evolutionary perspective. He argues in particular for an explanation based on why and how local economies adapt through time both to continual mutations and to periodic gales of creative destruction. Simmie focuses on the extent to which the "panarchy" conceptual framework can suggest testable hypotheses concerning urban and regional resilience. He explores some ...
The field of molecular evolution, which includes genome evolution, is devoted to finding variation within and between groups of organisms and explaining the processes responsible for generating this variation
The field of molecular evolution, which includes genome evolution, is devoted to finding variation within and between groups of organisms and explaining the processes responsible for generating this variation
Get info about Concordia Seminary evolutionary biology. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
While studying any subject in a new country has its benefits, there are a few particular subjects which really do require learning in a new environment. Read on to find out what they are.
If we are takling about scientificly evolving into a different form in this world, it may be possible but it will most likely be done by us rather than through adaptation (we arent patient enough for it). If we are talking about ascending to heavan/astral planes/etc./etc., we might want to find ...
Learning and adaptation are considered to be stochastic in nature by most modern psychologists and by many engineers. Markov chains are among the simplest and best understood models of stochastic processes and, in recent years, have frequently found application as models of adaptive processes. A number of new techniques are developed for the analysis of synchronous and asynchronous Markov chains, with emphasis on the problems encountered in the use of these chains as models of adaptive processes. Signal flow analysis yields simplified computations of asymptotic success probabilities, delay times, and other indices of performance. The techniques are illustrated by several examples of adaptive processes. These examples yield further insight into the relations between adaptation and feedback ...
Using continuous reaction norms to characterize adaptive responses to temperature, the researchers reexamined a recent study that linked rapid adaptation to specific genetic changes. The study, by Holder and Bull, showed that phage populations quickly evolved higher growth rates at higher temperatures. But, Knies et al. explain, these growth rates were correlated with just one temperature point the optimal temperature for the ancestral populations (used at the beginning of the experiment). Knies et al. reexamined phage thermal adaptation by measuring growth rate over a wider range of temperatures, then used a recently developed statistical method to identify the biological determinants of the shifts in the reaction norm shapes, quantify their relative contributions, and identify the genetic basis of the adaptations ...
Genome-Wide Scan for Adaptive Divergence and Association with Population-Specific Covariates mathieu gautier doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/023721 In population genomics studies, accounting for the neutral covariance structure across population allele frequencies is critical to improve the robustness of genome-wide scan approaches. Elaborating on the BayEnv model, this study investigates several modeling extensions i) to improve the estimation accuracy…
The genomics revolution has expanded from its origins in molecular biology to impact upon every discipline in the life sciences, including ecology. Several lines of ecological research can now be profitably addressed using genomics technology, including issues of nutrient cycling, population structure, life-history variation, trophic interaction, stress responses, and adaptation to environmental change.
While DNA takes a long time to evolve, the epigenetic programming that activates and silences our DNA is more malleable. Thus humans can exploit epigenetics to adjust rapidly to changing environments, by activating genes that facilitate adaptation to pathogens and climates, etc. Consistent with this, some genomic regions show highly variable methylation across individuals, with evidence that such variation is controlled by alleles at specific genetic loci.
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Ability to see at night or in low lighting depends on adaptation in which the pupil of the eye dilates, visual purple increases, and the intensity threshold of the retina is lowered. A decrease in the oxygen content of the … Continue reading →. ...
Animal adaptations are fun structure to learn for students. They are aware of many but might not have connected that these structures are what scientists call adaptations. Students will use Plan your 60-minute lesson in Science with helpful tips from Ellen Herman
Overall, the essays in this collection deal with diverse topics and theoretical concerns of adaptation studies today. They throw light on both often researched and neglected or undervalued works." (Poetics Today, 1 May 2015). "Well-written, suggestively arranged in a series of six sections, A Companion to Literature, Film and Adaptation provides an invaluable resource for anyone interested in debates about the past, present and future of adaptation studies, and why the discipline represents an important advance in the field of interdisciplinary learning … Cartmells collection covers just about every area imaginable within adaptation studies, whether historical, theoretical or otherwise … [It] is a far cry from those collections that simply compare source with target texts; it encompasses comic-books, songs, silent cinema as well as more canonical texts and their cinematic variants. There is something for everyone in this volume." (Post Script, 2014). "Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division ...
I will be implementing an Exchange 2000 server in a new environment. Right now, mailguard is enabled on the Cisco PIX. Does anyone know what this will do if the only mail received on this connector...
View Notes - homo-heterosporous[1] from BIOL 240 at S.F. State. Are there risks (disadvantages) to being homothallic? Are there benefits (adaptive advantages) to being heterothallic? Are there risks
By Communications and Marketing. How does one start a totally new field of science? Just ask Kansas State Universitys Loretta Johnson, associate professor, and Michael Herman, professor, both in the Division of Biology.. Ten years ago, Johnson and Herman teamed up to start research in the new area of ecological genomics. To celebrate launching this new field of science, the Kansas State University Ecological Genomics Institute is hosting a special 10th anniversary symposium from Oct. 26-28 at the Kansas City Marriott on the Plaza.. The development of ecological genomics came from seemingly unrelated research programs. Hermans research had focused on the genetics of development in a roundworm called Caenorhabditis elegans, and Johnsons research had centered on the ecology and root systems of prairie grasses.. "We both saw that by collaborating and learning from one another we could forge a new area to learn how ecological interactions are dictated by organisms genomes, or the collection of ...
An enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology is to understand how individuals and populations adapt to fluctuating environments. Here we present an integro-differential model of adaptive dynamics in a phenotype-structured population whose fitness landscape evolves in time due to periodic environmental oscillations. The analytical tractability of our model allows for a systematic investigation of the relative contributions of heritable variations in gene expression, environmental changes and natural selection as drivers of phenotypic adaptation. We show that environmental fluctuations can induce the population to enter an unstable and fluctuation-driven epigenetic state. We demonstrate that this can trigger the emergence of oscillations in the size of the population, and we establish a full characterisation of such oscillations. Moreover, the results of our analyses provide a formal basis for the claim that higher rates of epimutations can bring about higher levels of intrapopulation heterogeneity, whilst
Regulation and Environmental Adaptation of Photosynthesis: An Attractive Theme for Structural Life Science Co-sponsored by GDRI-IPB (CNRS, France ...
Biological and artificial evolutionary systems exhibit varying degrees of evolvability and different rates of evolution. Such quantities can be affected by various factors. Here, we review some evolutionary mechanisms and discuss new developments in biology that can potentially improve evolvability or accelerate evolution in artificial systems. Biological notions are discussed to the degree they correspond to notions in Evolutionary Computation. We hope that the findings put forward here can be used to design computational models of evolution that produce significant gains in evolvability and evolutionary speed.. ...
Adaptive evolution of anti-viral siRNAi genes in bumblebees Sophie Helbing , Michael Lattorff doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/017681 The high density of frequently interacting and closely related individuals in social insects enhance pathogen transmission and establishment within colonies. Group-mediated behavior supporting immune defenses tend to decrease selection acting on immune genes. Along with low effective population sizes this…
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations. Species acquire many of their unique characteristics through biological adaptation, which involves the selection of naturally occurring variations in populations. Biological adaptations include changes in structures, behaviors, or physiology that enhance survival and reproductive success in a particular environment ...
In this paper, we seek to test two hypotheses that could, in principle, account for this deceleration. (H1) The observed deceleration indicates that the rate of evolutionary adaptation is truly slowing down. This occurs as the evolving population approaches a fitness peak or plateau because the remaining number of beneficial mutations, their marginal effect, or both become progressively smaller. This hypothesis assumes that fitness values of the chronologically ordered population samples are both qualitatively and quantitatively transitive; i.e., they follow a strict competitive hierarchy, such that the cumulative fitness improvement relative to the ancestor could be predicted from the incremental gains over the constituent time intervals. (H2) The rate of adaptation continues at the initial rapid pace, and the apparent deceleration is an artifact of using the ancestor as the common yardstick to measure adaptation. Under this hypothesis, fitness values are non-transitive. Consequently, the total ...
Adaptive evolution refers to changes within species as a result of stimuli in the environment, and one example is Hypericum perforatum, also known as St. Johns wort. This plant now has latitudinal...
A map is crucial for all travelers, from fun-seeking vacationers to serious scientific researchers. This months article is a map of the Engineered Adaptability series and highlights the places future articles will stop en route to its destination-a design-based framework that explains adaptability. To keep everyone traveling together, the articles will decipher information from peer-reviewed forums and supply an orientation so readers know where theyre headed.. Where Adaptability Goes, Evolutionary Theory Follows. Adaptability is a characteristic of all living things. If organisms couldnt adapt to changing environments, then evolutionary theory would have nothing to work with. Evolutionists struggle to explain how adaptability could emerge since a creature cannot adapt until it is already adaptable. Evolution assumes that adaptability mysteriously arose through random genetic mutations that somehow proved advantageous. Evolutionary theory offers a naturalistic explanation for the origin of ...
Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a low temperature by Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15.: We examined physiological adaptations which allow
Climate change and its effects on habitats are unquestionably affecting life history traits and the distribution of many living organisms. Plasticity and genetic adaptation are important mechanisms by which species can respond to changes in their environment and, in the context of recent rapid climate change, such responses could ameliorate the negative consequences of this disturbance. However, the effectiveness and generality of plasticity versus adaptive responses to rapid changes are still a matter of scientific debate and clearly deserve further investigation, which we propose to address in a successful African small mammal, the striped mouse. The striped mouse has split into two species some 2.9 million years ago during a period of marked climate oscillation, and at present its various populations occupy much diversified environments ranging from arid to humid. The striped mouse has recently benefited from many studies resulting in a very good understanding of its biology and on which this ...
... , The organic view of social behaviour, Evolutionary theory versus environmental adaptation
An adaptation in biology is a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection. An adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation. Adaptations contribute to the fitness and survival of individuals. Organisms face a succession of environmental challenges as they grow and develop and are equipped with an adaptive plasticity as the phenotype of traits develop in response to the imposed conditions. The developmental norm of reaction for any given trait is essential to the correction of adaptation as it affords a kind of biological insurance or resilience to varying environments. ...
FIG. 3. Threshold shift of GSIR due to A456V. A comparison of wild-type and mutant enzyme kinetics is shown in A, and the relative β-cell glucose phosphorylation rate (rel. BGPR) is plotted in B as a function of blood glucose. The wild-type/wild-type threshold for GSIR is by definition 5 mmol/l (GSIR-5) and, in this study, is reached at ∼25.7% of the hypothetical maximum of the BGPR. The apparent GSRI-5 for A456V is calculated as 1.5 mmol/l based on adaptation of both GK alleles to low glucose when the rel. BGPR is ∼25.7%. ...
In the current scenario of global change, the impact of anthropogenic stressors is affecting the aquatic ecosystems, especially essential microorganisms such as phytoplan..
Speaker: Dr. Frank Rosenzweig Affiliation: University of Montana Host: Dr. Marc Meneghini Date & Time: April 1st - 2PM Place: Donnelly Centre Red Seminar Room
Several results of this study can be generalized. Qualitatively, phenotypes that are accessible only from mutations of large effect will be present in populations subjected to sudden environmental change, but will be absent in populations subjected to slower change. In our simulation, the large initial drop in fitness associated with the sudden change in environment pushes lineages very far from their ancestral adaptive peak and disperses them to different distant points on an adaptive landscape. Since there has been a sudden and large change in environment, the lineages suffer large drops in fitness. In our model, this corresponds to the structures melting. In this case, almost any change that produces an increase in stability will be beneficial, regardless of how dissimilar the structure is from the parental type, since all melted structures will have large and inevitable fitness costs with small differences between them, and fitness gains early in adaptation will be driven largely by gains in ...
Cutting-edge knowledge and current concepts on cold-adapted microorganisms including the major aspects of biodiversity in cold ecosystems, the physiology and molecular adaptation mechanisms, the various biomolecules related to cold adaptation, and the diverse strategies employed to cope with the cold.
Customer-focused services such as calibration, repairs or regional product adaptations are provided by Kistler Tech Centers in Germany, the US, China...
Find information about Carleton College evolutionary biology. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
Learn about Pensacola Junior College evolutionary biology. Completion of an accredited nursing program or other medical training can qualify you to start working in a private hospital immediately.
Learn about Kansas Wesleyan University evolutionary biology. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
Adaptation Adaptation is a term used to describe the ways in which organisms change over time in response to the changing demands of their environment.
This page deals with Hiromu Arakawas original manga and its direct anime adaptation (titled Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood). For the loose 2003 anime …
Author Summary Adaptation in eukaryotes is often assumed to be limited by the waiting time for adaptive mutations. This is because effective population sizes are relatively small, typically on the order of only a few million reproducing individuals or less. It should therefore take hundreds or even thousands of generations until a particular new mutation emerges. However, several striking examples of rapid adaptation appear inconsistent with this view. Here we investigate a showpiece case for rapid adaptation, the evolution of pesticide resistance in the classical genetic organism Drosophila melanogaster. Our analysis reveals distinct population genetic signatures of this adaptation that can only be explained if the number of reproducing flies is, in fact, more than 100-fold larger than commonly believed. We argue that the old estimates, based on standing levels of neutral genetic variation, are misleading in the case of rapid adaptation because levels of standing variation are strongly affected by
Résumé : Evolutionary rescue (ER) is the process by which a population, initially destined to extinction due to environmental stress, avoids extinction via adaptive evolution. One of the widely observed pattern of ER (especially in the study of antibiotic resistance) is that it is more likely to occur in mild than in strong stress. This may be due either to purely demographic effects (extinction is faster in strong stress) or to evolutionary effects (adaptation is harder in strong stress). Disentangling the two and predicting the likelihood of ER has important medical or agronomic implications, but also has a strong potential for empirical testing of eco-evolutionary theory, as ER experiments are widespread (at least in microbial systems) and fairly rapid to perform ...
Identifying the genetic basis of adaptive phenotypes can be a significant step towards understanding how that phenotype evolved. With the increased availability of interspecific molecular data, an approach to uncover such genes has been to search for signatures of adaptive evolution at the molecular level. Many analyses have adopted a candidate gene approach, focusing on genes with important developmental roles. One such candidate gene is ASPM, which is involved in neurogenesis and associated with major neurological disorders [1]. The molecular evolution of ASPM has been investigated for a decade (see electronic supplementary material, table S1), under the hypothesis that it contributes to primate brain evolution. A recent study by Xu et al. [2] extends the taxonomic scope by demonstrating that ASPM evolved adaptively in cetaceans. However, descriptive studies of patterns of selection are now being supplanted by those that explicitly test for gene-phenotype associations. Using such an approach, ...
It is sometimes claimed that the pace of human evolution should have slowed as cultural adaptation supplanted genetic adaptation. The high empirical number of recent adaptive variants would seem sufficient to refute this claim. It is important to note that the peak ages of new selected variants in our data do not reflect the highest intensity of selection, but merely our ability to detect selection. Due to the recent acceleration, many more new adaptive mutations should exist than have yet been ascertained, occurring at a faster and faster rate during historic times. Adaptive alleles with frequencies under 22% should then greatly outnumber those at higher frequencies. To the extent that new adaptive alleles continued to reflect demographic growth, the Neolithic and later periods would have experienced a rate of adaptive evolution more than 100 times higher than characterized most of human evolution. Cultural changes have reduced mortality rates, but variance in reproduction has continued to fuel ...
We have investigated patterns of selection and local adaptation in soil bacteria sampled over the course of 2 years. Our leading results are: (i) most variation in fitness in our dataset is explained by differences among genotypes, in comparison with environments or genotype-by-environment interactions; (ii) though small, G × E variation is significant, even among genotypes that would otherwise be identified as identical through conventional sequence analysis, and sufficient to generate strong divergent selection among the most disparate environments; (iii) temporal adaptation can be substantial, especially relative to spatial variation, and more complex than we would expect from simple models of directional selection. Below we discuss these observations and what they mean for understanding how selection works in natural communities of microbes.. The main effect of genotype contributed close to 70% of the variation in fitness in our experiment, dwarfing that contributed by the average effect of ...
In Chrysopidae, apart from the morphofunctional type of larvae that exhibit the trash-carrying behavior, there are the so-called "naked larvae," along with a few cases of morphologically and ethologically intermediate stages (11). Trash-carrying extant larvae tend to possess morphological characters that increase the potential for ensnaring debris, as well as forming a defined space for the trash packet components (4). There is evidence suggesting that these adaptations evolved several times within Chrysopidae (12). Such adaptations are present in the fossil, as a gibbous (humped) body, adapted for moving while carrying great loads. However, two of these adaptations are strikingly peculiar. H. diogenesi has: (i) pairs of dorsal setigerous tubercles, but these are extremely elongated, tubule-shaped; and (ii) setation on the tubular tubercles, but representing a special system for ensnaring the trash packet components. In extant trash-carrying larvae, the lateral tubercles are often much more ...
Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds is the most current and comprehensive account of research on avian reproduction. It develops two unique themes: the consideration of female avian r...
We have previously shown that the protein translation error rate (mistranslation rate) in mycobacteria is unusually high. Importantly, manipulation of the error rate, both up and down, appears to have profound effects on antibiotic phenotypic resistance. We have shown that mycobacterial strains with high error rates have remarkable phenotypic resistance to the antibiotic rifampicin, and the opposite is true for high fidelity mutants. We are interested in investigating the basic mechanism for these observations, and identifying other potentially adaptive phenotypes that arise from low translational fidelity. ...
Researcher Konstantinos Voskarides, Ph.D., of the University of Cyrpus Medical School, noted that populations living in very low temperatures, like in Denmark and Norway, had among the highest incidences of cancer in the world.. Now, in a new paper in the advanced online edition of the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution, he has advanced a new hypothesis: there is an evolutionary relationship that exists between adaptation at extreme environmental conditions-like cold and high altitude-and increased cancer risk in humans.. "The findings of this study provide evidence that genetic variants found to be beneficial in extreme environments, can also predispose for cancer," said Voskarides. "Cell resistance at low temperatures and at high altitude probably increases the probability for malignancy. This effect hardly could be filtered out by natural selection since most cancers appear later on in age after most people have their children.". Voskarides focused on the effect of low temperatures, ...
Adaptation is not simply the price of admission for those audiences, but part of the attraction. That is, an adaptation is not only an invitation to experience a work anew in a different textual and/or medial framework; it is also an experience unto itself. Imagine the various Venn Diagrams that govern an audience-really, the audiences-experiencing a film adaptation like The Player. There are viewers who know that the film is an adaptation when they walk in, and there are viewers who only know that when the film tells them so (in an opening credit that says the "SCREENPLAY BY MICHAEL TOLKIN" is "BASED ON HIS NOVEL") (see Figure 2). There are viewers who miss that credit and dont know that the film is an adaptation at all. There are viewers who have read the book and there are viewers who have read the book twice. There are viewers who have read half the book, and there are viewers who havent read the book at all. And there are viewers who resolve to read the book while watching the film, who ...
2.7 × 10-77) between the initial viremia of survivors (4.02 log10 genome equivalents [GEQ]/ml) and nonsurvivors (6.18 log10 GEQ/ml). At the population level, patient viral loads were higher on average in July than in November, even when accounting for outcome and time since onset of symptoms. This decrease in viral loads temporally correlated with an increase in circulating EBOV-specific IgG antibodies among individuals who were suspected of being infected but shown to be negative for the virus by PCR.. CONCLUSIONS. Our results indicate that initial viremia is associated with outcome of the individual and outbreak duration; therefore, care must be taken in planning clinical trials and interventions. Additional research in virus adaptation and the impacts of host factors on EBOV transmission and pathogenesis is needed.. ...
Cummings, M. E., J. Larkins-Ford, C. R. L. Reilly, R. Y. Wong, M. Ramsey, and H. A. Hofmann. 2008. Sexual and social stimuli elicit rapid and contrasting genomic responses. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 275: 393-402 ...
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Question 1: Batesian mimicry is a form of ________ typified by a situation where a harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a common predator. ...
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An important category of rogue genetic data that utterly defies evolutionary predictions is the common occurrence of taxonomically restricted genes, otherwise known as orphan genes. These are now being discovered in the sequencing of all genomes.. Many multicellular animals share similar sets of genes that produce proteins that perform related biochemical functions. This is a common feature of purposefully engineered systems. In addition to these standard genes, all organisms thus far tested also have unique sets of genes specific to that type of creature.. The authors of a recent review paper, published in Trends in Genetics, on the subject of orphan genes stated, Comparative genome analyses indicate that every taxonomic group so far studied contains 10-20% of genes that lack recognizable homologs [similar counterparts] in other species.1. These orphan genes are also being found to be particularly important for specific biological adaptations that correspond with ecological niches in ...
The Strepsiptera are one of the strangest insect groups, little known to most people, and hardly seen even by entomologists unless they make a special effort to study them. All are obligate endoparasites in other insects and, as so often in parasitic groups, there are many unique morphological and biological adaptations. Their relationship to other orders is still not clear;
Hi! Im Laura and I am a recovering history major who has re-channeled all of my passion for learning about the history of different countries to learning about their food culture. That doesnt mean every dish on here is strictly authentic, but it does mean that even my adaptations are not undertaken lightly. My goal is to show you-by doing-that these dishes are possible in your kitchen. Including desserts because I have quite the sweet tooth! Read More… ...
We can identify an athletic body by analysis of their skeletons because bones show remarkably rapid adaptation to both the intensity and direction of strains. Put under stress through physical exertion - such as long-distance walking or running - they gain in strength as the fibers are added or redistributed according to where strains are high
What s a survival tool ? The answer is simple: anything that provides a function you need is a survival tool in the right circumstances. Human ingenuity and adaptation can never be underestimated, but being ready to perform certain functions, with
We tend to assume that all characteristics of plants and animals are adaptations that have arisen through natural selection, but many are not
A new addition to the tequila category, Ochos new Curado is created by infusing slow-cooked agave fibres in 100% agave tequila. Ocho tequila founder (as w
Unlike human visitors, Antarcticas plants and animals dont require high-tech gear. How have these organisms adapted to thrive-not just survive-in such an extreme environment?
The 2013 Adaptation Academy is well on its way with an exciting group of participants, asking challenging questions and working through complex issues. Last ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
With advancements in equipment design and exercise complexity, weve become focused on results. But are we losing sight of specific physiological adaptations and emotional/psychological changes that merit review? This session addresses key considerations
A method and system of adaptive power control. Characteristics of a specific integrated circuit are used to adaptively control power of the integrated circuit.
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Following the pioneering experiment of Rozen et al. (2002), a number of studies have measured the distribution of the fitness effects of beneficial mutations that are substituted by selection when a single genotype is challenged with adapting to a novel environment. These studies have shown that beneficial mutations of relatively large effect are substituted by selection when populations are challenged with a stressful environment (Bull et al. 2000; Barrett et al. 2006), whereas beneficial mutations with small effects are substituted by selection when populations are challenged with relatively benign environments (Rozen et al. 2002; Hegreness et al. 2006; Perfeito et al. 2007). In agreement with these experiments, and with studies that have measured the fitness effects of beneficial mutations that are substituted over entire adaptive walks (Lenski and Travisano 1994; Novella et al. 1995; Bull et al. 1997; Elena et al. 1998; Elena and Lenski 2003; Schoustra et al. 2009; Hall et al. 2010), we find ...
Experimental and directed evolution using microbes offer powerful methods for uncovering processes of evolution across the tree of life. The goal of such experiments is to generate mutational diversity, either through propagation of microbes in stressful conditions (experimental evolution) or through artificial introduction of mutations into their genomes (directed evolution). In the case of multiple resulting mutations, each is then reverse engineered into the ancestral genotype individually to determine how it changes the phenotype of interest. This thesis presents the results of one experimental evolution project (evolution of viral thermostability under increasing temperatures) and one directed evolution project (diversification of toxin-antitoxin protein pairs in bacteria), including both evolutionary and single-mutation analyses. In both cases, I found that mutations may persist in a population due to their pleiotropic effects on traits other than the focal one of the study. My thesis ...
Organisms adapt readily to regularly varying environments, for instance, by adjusting to the daily light cycles by using internal circadian clocks. Real problems arise when environmental fluctuations are irregular. Organisms can adapt to sudden changes in chemical composition, local temperature, or illumination by sensing the changes and responding appropriately, for example, by switching phenotype or behavior. But there is a cost: each individual must maintain active sensory machinery.. Population diversity offers an alternate way to adapt to randomly fluctuating environments. Different subsets of the total population may be well-adapted to different types of environments. In genetically clonal populations, phenotypic diversity is generated by stochastic phenotype-switching mechanisms (1-9). Examples include flagellin phase variation in Salmonella enterica (6); microsatellite length variation (slipped-strand mispairing), controlling the expression of contingency genes in Haemophilus influenzae ...
The adaptive responses of organisms are thought to be a driving force for evolution. The characteristic traits of organisms, such as physiology, morphology, and behavior, impact organisms fitness in any particular environment, and are selected during the process of evolution. To understand the mechanisms of environmental adaptation, researchers have generally examined the traits of organisms that have evolved in nature. One of the best-known examples is the shape of the beaks of Darwins finches, which are related to the feeding habitats of each species (Grant 2003; Lamichhaney et al. 2015). However, it is laborious to clarify the precise roles of a particular trait in environmental adaptation, because adaptation is ultimately the output resulting from multiple traits, and because the natural environment includes fluctuating features.. The genetic basis of environmental adaptation is even more complicated. Recent progress in next generation sequencing (NGS) technology enables us to examine the ...
For my last blog during my tenure at the Florida Keys Wild Bird Rehabilitation Center, I decided to focus on adaptations birds evolved for flight. Even though birds arent the only animals that can fly (bats and many insects can fly), part of the reason we are fascinated by them is because of this ability to take to the air. Using their own faculties and without technology, birds can fly almost anywhere in the world. Most of us have imagined what it would be like to be a bird, soaring through the sky, free to go anywhere at any time. But how are birds able to fly and we humans cannot? Over the past 150 million years, birds have evolved many adaptations to not only make flight possible, but to optimize their aerial abilities. Some of these adaptations, like wings, are more obvious, while others are hidden beneath their bodys surface.. Gravity pulls all matter, including animals, towards the earth. Birds overcome this force through unique adaptations. These adaptations are focused on mechanisms ...
A review: We are presenting the mathematics of the simplest case of rmns, that is a single selection pressure targeting a single gene. The derivation of the equations is done in the context of an empirical example of rmns, that of a bacteria evolving resistance to an antibiotic. This empirical example can be found at http://isites.harvard.edu/...Papers/Weinreich-et-al-2006.pdf. In the Weinreich paper he measured the mutations which evolved resistance to a particular antibiotic. There were a wide variety of variants which evolved resistance but all had in common in that it took 5 mutations to evolve high resistance to the antibiotic. The first beneficial mutation determined the evolutionary trajectory for that variant and the next 4 beneficial mutations required for that evolutionary trajectory. The derivation for the mathematics of rmns for this problem will be done in general terms. That is that a sequence of mutations A,B,C,D and E occur where each ensuing beneficial mutation gives increasing ...
Temperature profoundly impacts both the phenotypes and distributions of organisms. These thermal effects exert strong selective pressures on behaviour, physiology and life history when environmental temperatures vary over space and time. Despite temperatures significance, progress toward a quantitative theory of thermal adaptation has lagged behind empirical descriptions of patterns and processes.
Covers the genetic, developmental, and ecological mechanisms of evolutionary change, the major features of evolutionary history as revealed by phylogenetic and paleontological studies, and material on adaptation, molecular evolution, co-evolution, and human evolution.
Covers the genetic, developmental, and ecological mechanisms of evolutionary change, the major features of evolutionary history as revealed by phylogenetic and paleontological studies, and material on adaptation, molecular evolution, co-evolution, and human evolution.
Genomic Hotspots for Adaptation: The Population Genetics of Mullerian Mimicry in Heliconius erato: Wing pattern evolution in Heliconius butterflies provides som
Page 3 of 5 - The Long Term Evolution Experiment ( Ltee ) - posted in Best all time threads.: So, you must show how many mutations are neutral in the difference between man and chimps and how it will decrease the time I calculated.Please, using numbers.ANY value higher than zero will decrease your result.I dont know specifically what this value is, but then I dont have to. Why? Because YOU are the one basing your entire argument on the ASSUMPTION that it is equal to zero, the onu...
Pál, Csaba and Papp, Balázs (2017) Evolution of complex adaptations in molecular systems. NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, 1. pp. 1085-1092. ISSN 2397-334X Bódi, Zoltán and Farkas, Zoltán and Nevozhay, D. and Kalapis, Dorottya and Lázár, Viktória and Csörgő, Bálint and Nyerges, Ákos and Szamecz, Béla and Fekete, Gergely and Papp, Balázs and Pál, Csaba (2017) Phenotypic heterogeneity promotes adaptive evolution. PLOS BIOLOGY, 15 (5). pp. 1-26. ISSN 1544-9173 Szappanos, Balázs and Fritzemeier, J. and Csörgő, Bálint and Lázár, Viktória and Lu, X. and Fekete, Gergely and Herczeg, Róbert and Nagy, István and Pál, Csaba and Papp, Balázs (2016) Adaptive evolution of complex innovations through stepwise metabolic niche expansion. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 7. pp. 1-10. ISSN 2041-1723 Karcagi, Ildikó and Draskovits, Gábor and Umenhoffer, Kinga and Fekete, Gergely and Kovács, Károly and Méhi, Orsolya Katinka and Balikó, Gabriella and Szappanos, Balázs and Győrfy, Zsuzsanna and ...
Thanks Massimo, I think thats an interesting point and it helps me to understand where youre coming from. However, lets take the example of human aggression. First, there is plenty of archaeological and anthropological evidence of inter-specific aggression in humans. Second, there is sound evolutionary theory reasoning from first principles regarding the existence of adaptations for the regulation of aggression and how they should operate (e.g. Parker 1974). Third, there is a host of empirical studies that reveal the operation of such adaptations at the hormonal, psychological, and behavioral level (e.g. Jon Archers excellent work on the challenge hypothesis, and also experimental work by Aaron Sell). Maybe you meant to use the rape example as an illustration of hypotheses you believe are weak, which is fine. Independently of whether the rape hypothesis is correct, this does not show that ev psych hypotheses in general are less testable than gene-culture coevolutionary models, or that they ...
Like any other adaptation, locomotor adaptations are influenced by the ancestry of the species being considered. Consequently, primate species have evolved a wide number of solutions to the the same basic problem. In the case of locomotion, this has lead to a wide and varied locomotor repertoire. In previous posts I looked at how the…
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The overall objective of this thesis was to understand better the mechanisms that shape the diversity in colour vision of fish, and to explore the adaptive significance of this divergence. Among the vertebrates, teleost ...
سال انتشار: ۱۳۸۵ محل انتشار: سیزدهمین کنفرانس مهندسی پزشکی ایران تعداد صفحات: ۸ نویسنده(ها): A Vahdati - F Ghalichi - چکیده: : It is currently believed that the
What Role Does DNA Play in Adaptation?. Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is the substance that contains genetic information about a living organism. It helps shed light on the previously mysterious mechanisms behind Darwinian evolution. Darwin argued that an adaptation is a change in an organism that makes it more ...
Behavioral adaptation is the process by which an organism or a species changes its pattern of action to better suit its environment. It is contrasted with structural adaptation, which is the...