The mechanisms by which adaptive phenotypes spread within an evolving population after their emergence are understood fairly well. Much less is known about the factors that influence the evolutionary accessibility of such phenotypes, a pre-requisite for their emergence in a population. Here, we investigate the influence of environmental quality on the accessibility of adaptive phenotypes of Escherichia colis central metabolic network. We used an established flux-balance model of metabolism as the basis for a genotype-phenotype map (GPM). We quantified the effects of seven qualitatively different environments (corresponding to both carbohydrate and gluconeogenic metabolic substrates) on the structure of this GPM. We found that the GPM has a more rugged structure in qualitatively poorer environments, suggesting that adaptive phenotypes could be intrinsically less accessible in such environments. Nevertheless, on average approximately 74% of the genotype can be altered by neutral drift, in the ...
This activity guides the analysis of a published scientific figure from a study that investigated physiological and genetic adaptations in the Bajau, a group of people who traditionally do freediving.. ...
There is an interesting article on evolvability which I wrote a bit more about here. It is by Massimo Pigliucci and titled, Is Evolvability Evolvable, for which the whole PDF is available online. Pigliucci discusses definitions of evolvability as well as different ideas about the origins of evolvability. Here is the abstract: In recent years,…
It is amazing what we, as human beings, can adapt to. The fact that I can now look down at the six-inch scar across my chest and the five inch gash under my arm without revulsion is truly amazing. One month ago I would not change my clothes in the same room that housed…
Classifying evolution as an ontogeny relieves the environment from having to account for phenotypes, something the authors insist that it cannot do. They assert, . . . multiple levels of internal constraints on possible phenotypes make the notion of evolution as the product of external selection operating on phenotypic variations generated at random radically untenable. In a developmental model of evolution, however, the environment doesnt bestow medals of fitness on adaptive phenotypes, but functions as it does in ontogeny. A developmental model of evolution demotes the environment, subordinating it to the needs of ontogenetic programs. In this supportive role, it can function well or poorly, and in so doing facilitate or retard phenotypic expression. Nature in this model cannot select, as in the Darwinian model; it can only nurture or neglect. The environment does not pick any particular path, but it will feed or starve whoever ventures ...
After reviewing the effects of mutations upon Functional Coding ElemenTs (FCTs), Michael Behes recent review article in Quarterly Review of Biology…
Under normal conditions cells are in a homeostatic or steady state. When stimulus arrived to the cell, first the cell will adapt but if this stimulus crosses the boundary of adaptation it will cause cell injury. So cells respond to the stimulus by the following two ways: ...
Advances in bioinformatics and high-throughput genetic analysis increasingly allow us to predict the genetic basis of adaptive traits. These predictions can be tested and confirmed, but the molecular-level changes-i.e. the molecular adaptation-that link genetic differences to organism fitness remain generally unknown. In recent years, a series of studies have started to unpick the mechanisms of adaptation at the molecular level. In particular, this work has examined how changes in protein function, activity, and regulation cause improved organismal fitness. Key to addressing molecular adaptations is identifying systems and designing experiments that integrate changes in the genome, protein chemistry (molecular phenotype), and fitness. Knowledge of the molecular changes underpinning adaptations allow new insight into the constraints on, and repeatability of adaptations, and of the basis of non-additive interactions between adaptive mutations. Here we critically discuss a series of studies that ...
Many clinicians are not adequately aware of the reasons that individuals with obesity struggle to achieve and maintain weight loss,1 and this poor awareness precludes the provision of effective intervention.2 Irrespective of starting weight, caloric restriction triggers several biological adaptations designed to prevent starvation.3 These adaptations might be potent enough to undermine the long-term effectiveness of lifestyle modification in most individuals with obesity, particularly in an environment that promotes energy overconsumption. However, they are not the only biological pressures that must be overcome for successful treatment. Additional biological adaptations occur with the development of obesity and these function to preserve, or even increase, an individuals highest sustained lifetime bodyweight. For example, preadipocyte proliferation occurs, increasing fat storage capacity. In addition, habituation to rewarding neural dopamine signaling develops with the chronic overconsumption ...
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature. The purpose of this review is to define the concept of periodized nutrition (also referred to as nutritional training) and summarize the wide variety of methods available to athletes. The reader is referred to several other recent review articles that have discussed aspects of periodized nutrition in much more detail with primarily a focus on adaptations in the muscle. The purpose of this review is not to discuss ...
Author Summary The environment humans inhabit has changed many times in the last 100,000 years. Migration and dynamic local environments can lead to genetic adaptations favoring beneficial traits. Many genes responsible for these adaptations can alter disease susceptibility. Genes can also affect disease susceptibility by varying randomly across different populations. We have studied genetic variants that are known to modify disease susceptibility in the context of worldwide migration. We found that variants associated with 11 diseases have been affected to an extent that is not explained by random variation. We also found that the genetic risk of type 2 diabetes has steadily decreased along the worldwide human migration trajectory from Africa to America.
Transforming raw materials into industrial inputs involves process technologies and machineries which have over the years been imported at exorbitant costs. In addressing this, and in consonance with Councils mandate to advise on adaptation of machinery and processes for raw materials utilization, a number of technologies have been developed specifically for processing raw materials as industrial inputs ...
Description. James Simmie (Department of Planning, Oxford Brookes University) develops an evolutionary economics approach to adaptation and change in urban economies. Abstract: In this lecture, James Simmie develops one of the evolutionary economics approaches to understanding adaptation and change in the economic trajectories of urban economies. Neo-classical equilibrist versions of resilience and adaptation are rejected in favour of an evolutionary perspective. He argues in particular for an explanation based on why and how local economies adapt through time both to continual mutations and to periodic gales of creative destruction. Simmie focuses on the extent to which the panarchy conceptual framework can suggest testable hypotheses concerning urban and regional resilience. He explores some ...
The field of molecular evolution, which includes genome evolution, is devoted to finding variation within and between groups of organisms and explaining the processes responsible for generating this variation
The field of molecular evolution, which includes genome evolution, is devoted to finding variation within and between groups of organisms and explaining the processes responsible for generating this variation
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating lowered oxygen tension. Hypoxia, defined as a decline in O2 levels below normoxic levels of 20.8 - 20.95%, results in metabolic adaptation at both the cellular and organismal level ...
Get info about Concordia Seminary evolutionary biology. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
While studying any subject in a new country has its benefits, there are a few particular subjects which really do require learning in a new environment. Read on to find out what they are.
09/27/18 - We present a meta-learning approach for adaptive text-to-speech (TTS) with few data. During training, we learn a multi-speaker mod...
If we are takling about scientificly evolving into a different form in this world, it may be possible but it will most likely be done by us rather than through adaptation (we arent patient enough for it). If we are talking about ascending to heavan/astral planes/etc./etc., we might want to find ...
The molecular mechanisms of enzymatic temperature adaptation are dictated by the delicate balance between the stability, flexibility, and activity of the extremophilic enzymes; therefore, identifying the factors that rule the stability-flexibility-activit
Learning, knowledge, research, insight: welcome to the world of UBC Library, the second-largest academic research library in Canada.
Learning and adaptation are considered to be stochastic in nature by most modern psychologists and by many engineers. Markov chains are among the simplest and best understood models of stochastic processes and, in recent years, have frequently found application as models of adaptive processes. A number of new techniques are developed for the analysis of synchronous and asynchronous Markov chains, with emphasis on the problems encountered in the use of these chains as models of adaptive processes. Signal flow analysis yields simplified computations of asymptotic success probabilities, delay times, and other indices of performance. The techniques are illustrated by several examples of adaptive processes. These examples yield further insight into the relations between adaptation and feedback ...
Microbes commonly display great genetic plasticity, which has allowed them to colonize all ecological niches on Earth. Bacillus subtilis is a soil-dwelling organism that can be isolated from a wide variety of environments. An interesting characteristic of this bacterium is its ability to form biofilms that display complex heterogeneity: individual, clonal cells develop diverse phenotypes in response to different environmental conditions within the biofilm. Here, we scrutinized the impact that the number and variety of the Rap-Phr family of regulators and cell-cell communication modules of B. subtilis has on genetic adaptation and evolution. We examine how the Rap family of phosphatase regulators impacts sporulation in diverse niches using a library of single and double rap-phr mutants in competition under 4 distinct growth conditions. Using specific DNA barcodes and whole-genome sequencing, population dynamics were followed, revealing the impact of individual Rap phosphatases and arising ...
African countries are on a move to development and there is need of great care for sustainable use of available resources. Supply systems for both urban and semi-urban regions are susceptible to the increasing risks arising from population growth, resource depletion, non-sustainable use, improper management, environmental and climatic risks. The research collaboration presented in this project provide a unique opportunity to address the adaptation of sustainable resource supply to avoid prescribed risks to urban and semi-urban developments. The project has similar objectives as the RARSUS project but in this case focusing on Mali.. The project aims at establishing a long-standing research-based higher education cooperation between Germany and the African partners in the area of sustainable resource supply management in urban and semi-urban regions. Alongside the project-related objectives, the initiated collaboration is expected to generate different synergies and mutual benefits by linking, ...
Using continuous reaction norms to characterize adaptive responses to temperature, the researchers reexamined a recent study that linked rapid adaptation to specific genetic changes. The study, by Holder and Bull, showed that phage populations quickly evolved higher growth rates at higher temperatures. But, Knies et al. explain, these growth rates were correlated with just one temperature point the optimal temperature for the ancestral populations (used at the beginning of the experiment). Knies et al. reexamined phage thermal adaptation by measuring growth rate over a wider range of temperatures, then used a recently developed statistical method to identify the biological determinants of the shifts in the reaction norm shapes, quantify their relative contributions, and identify the genetic basis of the adaptations ...
Genome-Wide Scan for Adaptive Divergence and Association with Population-Specific Covariates mathieu gautier doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/023721 In population genomics studies, accounting for the neutral covariance structure across population allele frequencies is critical to improve the robustness of genome-wide scan approaches. Elaborating on the BayEnv model, this study investigates several modeling extensions i) to improve the estimation accuracy…
The genomics revolution has expanded from its origins in molecular biology to impact upon every discipline in the life sciences, including ecology. Several lines of ecological research can now be profitably addressed using genomics technology, including issues of nutrient cycling, population structure, life-history variation, trophic interaction, stress responses, and adaptation to environmental change.
While DNA takes a long time to evolve, the epigenetic programming that activates and silences our DNA is more malleable. Thus humans can exploit epigenetics to adjust rapidly to changing environments, by activating genes that facilitate adaptation to pathogens and climates, etc. Consistent with this, some genomic regions show highly variable methylation across individuals, with evidence that such variation is controlled by alleles at specific genetic loci.
To add a link to an uploaded journal article pdf, review the instructions that will arrive in an email following each successful use of the upload form (more help on hypertext links in Help ...
If we are trying to keep global warming to 2 degrees Celsius or less but 4 degrees is possible even within some of our lifetimes, which world do we prepare for? Talks at todays session on adaptation took on the problem of the multiple futures that decision-makers have to face. Mark Stafford-Smith of CSIRO in Australia talked specifically about long-term decisions - such as planting and managing forests - where the best option depends on which way the climate goes later this century. If you expect strong mitigation that holds down warming, then you try to preserve todays forests and nurse them through, protecting them from fire and other threats. Read more. ...
Ability to see at night or in low lighting depends on adaptation in which the pupil of the eye dilates, visual purple increases, and the intensity threshold of the retina is lowered. A decrease in the oxygen content of the … Continue reading →. ...
Animal adaptations are fun structure to learn for students. They are aware of many but might not have connected that these structures are what scientists call adaptations. Students will use Plan your 60-minute lesson in Science with helpful tips from Ellen Herman
The forces influencing evolutionary adaptations are undoubtedly governed by historic constraints: an organisms past constrains its future. To what degree, however, do prior mutations and ancestral phenotypes shape future evolutionary pathways? Did life in the past function or evolve similarly to life today?
Overall, the essays in this collection deal with diverse topics and theoretical concerns of adaptation studies today. They throw light on both often researched and neglected or undervalued works. (Poetics Today, 1 May 2015). Well-written, suggestively arranged in a series of six sections, A Companion to Literature, Film and Adaptation provides an invaluable resource for anyone interested in debates about the past, present and future of adaptation studies, and why the discipline represents an important advance in the field of interdisciplinary learning … Cartmells collection covers just about every area imaginable within adaptation studies, whether historical, theoretical or otherwise … [It] is a far cry from those collections that simply compare source with target texts; it encompasses comic-books, songs, silent cinema as well as more canonical texts and their cinematic variants. There is something for everyone in this volume. (Post Script, 2014). Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division ...
Organisms evolve. Organizations evolve. How can you understand your organization within the context of the business ecosystem? By understanding the competitive landscape, adaptive peaks, the role of mutability and how to exploit niches.
I will be implementing an Exchange 2000 server in a new environment. Right now, mailguard is enabled on the Cisco PIX. Does anyone know what this will do if the only mail received on this connector...
View Notes - homo-heterosporous[1] from BIOL 240 at S.F. State. Are there risks (disadvantages) to being homothallic? Are there benefits (adaptive advantages) to being heterothallic? Are there risks
By Communications and Marketing. How does one start a totally new field of science? Just ask Kansas State Universitys Loretta Johnson, associate professor, and Michael Herman, professor, both in the Division of Biology.. Ten years ago, Johnson and Herman teamed up to start research in the new area of ecological genomics. To celebrate launching this new field of science, the Kansas State University Ecological Genomics Institute is hosting a special 10th anniversary symposium from Oct. 26-28 at the Kansas City Marriott on the Plaza.. The development of ecological genomics came from seemingly unrelated research programs. Hermans research had focused on the genetics of development in a roundworm called Caenorhabditis elegans, and Johnsons research had centered on the ecology and root systems of prairie grasses.. We both saw that by collaborating and learning from one another we could forge a new area to learn how ecological interactions are dictated by organisms genomes, or the collection of ...
An enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology is to understand how individuals and populations adapt to fluctuating environments. Here we present an integro-differential model of adaptive dynamics in a phenotype-structured population whose fitness landscape evolves in time due to periodic environmental oscillations. The analytical tractability of our model allows for a systematic investigation of the relative contributions of heritable variations in gene expression, environmental changes and natural selection as drivers of phenotypic adaptation. We show that environmental fluctuations can induce the population to enter an unstable and fluctuation-driven epigenetic state. We demonstrate that this can trigger the emergence of oscillations in the size of the population, and we establish a full characterisation of such oscillations. Moreover, the results of our analyses provide a formal basis for the claim that higher rates of epimutations can bring about higher levels of intrapopulation heterogeneity, whilst
Discussion regarding What kinds of adaptations are available to help someone resume driving a spinal cord injury? with Anne Bryden, OT and other experts
Regulation and Environmental Adaptation of Photosynthesis: An Attractive Theme for Structural Life Science Co-sponsored by GDRI-IPB (CNRS, France ...
Biological and artificial evolutionary systems exhibit varying degrees of evolvability and different rates of evolution. Such quantities can be affected by various factors. Here, we review some evolutionary mechanisms and discuss new developments in biology that can potentially improve evolvability or accelerate evolution in artificial systems. Biological notions are discussed to the degree they correspond to notions in Evolutionary Computation. We hope that the findings put forward here can be used to design computational models of evolution that produce significant gains in evolvability and evolutionary speed.. ...
Adaptive evolution of anti-viral siRNAi genes in bumblebees Sophie Helbing , Michael Lattorff doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/017681 The high density of frequently interacting and closely related individuals in social insects enhance pathogen transmission and establishment within colonies. Group-mediated behavior supporting immune defenses tend to decrease selection acting on immune genes. Along with low effective population sizes this…
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations. Species acquire many of their unique characteristics through biological adaptation, which involves the selection of naturally occurring variations in populations. Biological adaptations include changes in structures, behaviors, or physiology that enhance survival and reproductive success in a particular environment ...
In this paper, we seek to test two hypotheses that could, in principle, account for this deceleration. (H1) The observed deceleration indicates that the rate of evolutionary adaptation is truly slowing down. This occurs as the evolving population approaches a fitness peak or plateau because the remaining number of beneficial mutations, their marginal effect, or both become progressively smaller. This hypothesis assumes that fitness values of the chronologically ordered population samples are both qualitatively and quantitatively transitive; i.e., they follow a strict competitive hierarchy, such that the cumulative fitness improvement relative to the ancestor could be predicted from the incremental gains over the constituent time intervals. (H2) The rate of adaptation continues at the initial rapid pace, and the apparent deceleration is an artifact of using the ancestor as the common yardstick to measure adaptation. Under this hypothesis, fitness values are non-transitive. Consequently, the total ...
Adaptive evolution refers to changes within species as a result of stimuli in the environment, and one example is Hypericum perforatum, also known as St. Johns wort. This plant now has latitudinal...
A map is crucial for all travelers, from fun-seeking vacationers to serious scientific researchers. This months article is a map of the Engineered Adaptability series and highlights the places future articles will stop en route to its destination-a design-based framework that explains adaptability. To keep everyone traveling together, the articles will decipher information from peer-reviewed forums and supply an orientation so readers know where theyre headed.. Where Adaptability Goes, Evolutionary Theory Follows. Adaptability is a characteristic of all living things. If organisms couldnt adapt to changing environments, then evolutionary theory would have nothing to work with. Evolutionists struggle to explain how adaptability could emerge since a creature cannot adapt until it is already adaptable. Evolution assumes that adaptability mysteriously arose through random genetic mutations that somehow proved advantageous. Evolutionary theory offers a naturalistic explanation for the origin of ...
Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a low temperature by Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15.: We examined physiological adaptations which allow
Climate change and its effects on habitats are unquestionably affecting life history traits and the distribution of many living organisms. Plasticity and genetic adaptation are important mechanisms by which species can respond to changes in their environment and, in the context of recent rapid climate change, such responses could ameliorate the negative consequences of this disturbance. However, the effectiveness and generality of plasticity versus adaptive responses to rapid changes are still a matter of scientific debate and clearly deserve further investigation, which we propose to address in a successful African small mammal, the striped mouse. The striped mouse has split into two species some 2.9 million years ago during a period of marked climate oscillation, and at present its various populations occupy much diversified environments ranging from arid to humid. The striped mouse has recently benefited from many studies resulting in a very good understanding of its biology and on which this ...
Geoeconomics in relation to evolutionary theory, The organic view of social behaviour, Evolutionary theory versus environmental adaptation
Mimicry has had a significant historical influence as a tractable system for studying adaptation and is known to play a role in speciation. Here, we discuss recent theoretical treatment of adaptive walks to local adaptive peaks and contrast this with the adaptive landscape of mimicry. Evolution of n …
The fraction of reinforcing cis eQTL that have experienced recent selective sweeps in the laboratory strain lineage can be estimated from the distributions of θ values (Fig. S3). At the eQTL cutoffs used above, we found that θ was lower than expected by chance for approximately 78 genes (14.4% of reinforcing pairs), implying the action of selective sweeps in these regions. For eQTL triplets, approximately 56 genes (18.0% of reinforcing triplets) showed similar deficits of variation. At more permissive eQTL cutoffs, over 100 genes had lower θ than expected. Because many sweeps may be too recent (after divergence of the five strains) or too ancient (because of mutation accumulation) to be detected, these are likely substantial underestimates of the extent of sweeps affecting gene expression in the laboratory strain lineage.. Analyzing θ in the two classes of reinforcing eQTL (Fig. 1 and Fig. S1) separately is also informative. In this case, the appropriate set of opposing pairs for comparison ...
An adaptation in biology is a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection. An adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation. Adaptations contribute to the fitness and survival of individuals. Organisms face a succession of environmental challenges as they grow and develop and are equipped with an adaptive plasticity as the phenotype of traits develop in response to the imposed conditions. The developmental norm of reaction for any given trait is essential to the correction of adaptation as it affords a kind of biological insurance or resilience to varying environments. ...
FIG. 3. Threshold shift of GSIR due to A456V. A comparison of wild-type and mutant enzyme kinetics is shown in A, and the relative β-cell glucose phosphorylation rate (rel. BGPR) is plotted in B as a function of blood glucose. The wild-type/wild-type threshold for GSIR is by definition 5 mmol/l (GSIR-5) and, in this study, is reached at ∼25.7% of the hypothetical maximum of the BGPR. The apparent GSRI-5 for A456V is calculated as 1.5 mmol/l based on adaptation of both GK alleles to low glucose when the rel. BGPR is ∼25.7%. ...
In the current scenario of global change, the impact of anthropogenic stressors is affecting the aquatic ecosystems, especially essential microorganisms such as phytoplan..
Speaker: Dr. Frank Rosenzweig Affiliation: University of Montana Host: Dr. Marc Meneghini Date & Time: April 1st - 2PM Place: Donnelly Centre Red Seminar Room
Several results of this study can be generalized. Qualitatively, phenotypes that are accessible only from mutations of large effect will be present in populations subjected to sudden environmental change, but will be absent in populations subjected to slower change. In our simulation, the large initial drop in fitness associated with the sudden change in environment pushes lineages very far from their ancestral adaptive peak and disperses them to different distant points on an adaptive landscape. Since there has been a sudden and large change in environment, the lineages suffer large drops in fitness. In our model, this corresponds to the structures melting. In this case, almost any change that produces an increase in stability will be beneficial, regardless of how dissimilar the structure is from the parental type, since all melted structures will have large and inevitable fitness costs with small differences between them, and fitness gains early in adaptation will be driven largely by gains in ...
Cutting-edge knowledge and current concepts on cold-adapted microorganisms including the major aspects of biodiversity in cold ecosystems, the physiology and molecular adaptation mechanisms, the various biomolecules related to cold adaptation, and the diverse strategies employed to cope with the cold.
Customer-focused services such as calibration, repairs or regional product adaptations are provided by Kistler Tech Centers in Germany, the US, China...
Find information about Carleton College evolutionary biology. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
Learn about Pensacola Junior College evolutionary biology. Completion of an accredited nursing program or other medical training can qualify you to start working in a private hospital immediately.
Learn about Kansas Wesleyan University evolutionary biology. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
Adaptation Adaptation is a term used to describe the ways in which organisms change over time in response to the changing demands of their environment.
The Chairs office coordinates of planning EEBs programs in teaching, research, and other functions. Responsibilities include:. ...
This page deals with Hiromu Arakawas original manga and its direct anime adaptation (titled Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood). For the loose 2003 anime …