Protein acylation is the post-translational modification of proteins via the attachment of functional groups through acyl linkages. Protein acylation has been observed as a mechanism controlling biological signaling.[2] One prominent type is fatty acylation, the addition of fatty acids to particular amino acids (e.g. myristoylation, palmitoylation or palmitoleoylation).[3] Different types of fatty acids engage in global protein acylation.[4] Palmitoleoylation is an acylation type where the monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleic acid is covalently attached to serine or threonine residues of proteins.[5][6] Palmitoleoylation appears to play a significant role in trafficking and targeting and function of Wnt proteins.[7][8]. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Widespread and enzyme-independent Nε-acetylation and Nε-succinylation of proteins in the chemical conditions of the mitochondrial matrix. AU - Wagner, Gregory R.. AU - Payne, R. Mark. PY - 2013/10/4. Y1 - 2013/10/4. N2 - Background:The mechanisms initiating protein acylation in mitochondria are unknown. Results:The pH and acyl-CoA concentrations of the mitochondrial matrix are sufficient to cause protein lysine acetylation and succinylation. Conclusion:Protein acylation in mitochondria may be a nonenzymatic event facilitated by the alkaline pH and high acyl-CoA concentrations. Significance:The mitochondrial deacylases SIRT3 and SIRT5 may have evolved to regulate nonenzymatic protein acylation.. AB - Background:The mechanisms initiating protein acylation in mitochondria are unknown. Results:The pH and acyl-CoA concentrations of the mitochondrial matrix are sufficient to cause protein lysine acetylation and succinylation. Conclusion:Protein acylation in mitochondria may be a ...
Six long chain fatty acid esters of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) acylated enzymatically were used for determining their antiproliferative action in comparison to precursor compounds (quercetin, Q3G and six fatty acids namely, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexanoic acids) using HepG2 cells. Long chain fatty acid esters of Q3G showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation (approximately 85% to 90%) compared to the precursor compounds and two prescribed anticancer-drugs (Sorafenib and Cisplatin) after 6 hrs and 24 hrs by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA topoisomerase II inhibition. Among the six fatty acid esters of Q3G, oleic acid ester (OA-Q3G) displayed the greatest anti-proliferation action and upon further investigation showed significant regulation of expression of genes involved in cell cycle, growth, survival and apoptosis at gene and protein level. Overall, results of the study suggest strong potential of these ...
Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is an essential component in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It can stimulate the innate immune system via Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD2), leading to the release of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically investigated. The lipid A species were isolated and identified by matrix assisted laser ionization desorption-time of flight/tandem mass spectrometry. N-Phenyl naphthylamine uptake assay and antibiotic susceptibility test showed that membrane permeability of these strains were different. The lower the number of acyl chains in lipid A, the stronger the membrane permeability. LPS purified from these strains were used to stimulate human or mouse macrophage cells, and
Colored grains are rich sources of anthocyanins that could play an important role in the prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress. Bearing in mind that cereals are widely grown crops, anthocyanins-rich colored grains could be used as a functional food ingredient that...
Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. bottom 96-well plates were purchased from Corning Incorporated (Edison NY USA). Quercetion-3-fatty acids 25.6% saturated fatty acids 5.6% EPA 22.9% DHA by weight). LDL isolated from human plasma (in 150 mM NaCl 0.01% EDTA pH 7.4) was purchased from EMD Chemicals Inc. (Gibbstown NJ USA). Free fatty acids were purchased from Nu-Check-prep Inc. (Waterville MN USA). All other chemicals were purchased from Fisher Scientific. 2.2 Synthesis of Fatty Acid Acylated Derivatives of Q3G Synthesis of fatty acid esters of Q3G (phenolipids) was carried out through enzymatic esterification of Q3G separately with stearic acid (STA) oleic acid (OLA) linoleic acid (LNA) α-linolenic acid (ALA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as acyl donors as previously described [14] (Figure 1). Briefly Q3G (500 mg) and each acyl donor were added into a reaction vessel containing dried 3 ? molecular ...
A variety of cysteine-containing, lipid-modified peptides are found to be S-acylated by cultured mammalian cells. The acylation reaction is highly specific for cysteinyl over serinyl residues and for lipid-modified peptides over hydrophilic peptides. The S-acylation process appears by various criteria to be enzymatic and resembles the S-acylation of plasma membrane-associated proteins in various characteristics, including inhibition by tunicamycin. The substrate range of the S-acylation reaction encompasses, but is not limited to, lipopeptides incorporating the motifs myristoylGC- and -CXC(farnesyl)-OCH3, which are reversibly S-acylated in various intracellular proteins. Mass-spectrometric analysis indicates that palmitoyl residues constitute the predominant but not the only type of S-acyl group coupled to a lipopeptide carrying the myristoylGC- motif, with smaller amounts of S-stearoyl and S-oleoyl substituents also detectable. Fluorescence microscopy using NBD-labeled cysteinyl lipopeptides ...
Protein acylation is critical for many cellular functions across all domains of life. In bacteria, lipoproteins have important roles in virulence and are targets for the development of antimicrobials and vaccines. Bacterial lipoproteins are secreted from the cytosol via the Sec pathway and acylated on an N-terminal cysteine residue through the action of three enzymes. In Gram-negative bacteria, the Lol pathway transports lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Here, we demonstrate that the Aat secretion system is a composite system sharing similarity with elements of a type I secretion systems and the Lol pathway. During secretion, the AatD subunit acylates the substrate CexE on a highly conserved N-terminal glycine residue. Mutations disrupting glycine acylation interfere with membrane incorporation and trafficking. Our data reveal CexE as the first member of a new class of glycine-acylated lipoprotein, while Aat represents a new secretion system that displays the substrate lipoprotein on the cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myristylation and palmitylation of HSV-1 UL11 are not essential for its function. AU - Baird, Nicholas L.. AU - Starkey, Jason L.. AU - Hughes, David J.. AU - Wills, John W.. PY - 2010/2/5. Y1 - 2010/2/5. N2 - All herpesviruses encode a homolog of the herpes simplex virus type-1 UL11 tegument protein. Deletion of UL11 disrupts virus envelopment, causes capsid accumulation within the cytoplasm, and reduces virus release. UL11 requires acylation with myristate and palmitate for membrane binding, lipid raft trafficking, and accumulation at the site of virus envelopment. Thus, it was predicted that acylation of UL11 would be necessary for efficient virion production, similar to HIV-1 Gag which requires myristylation for virus production. Accordingly, recombinant viruses were created to express UL11 derivatives that are not acylated, are partially acylated, or contain foreign acylation signals. Unexpectedly, the non-acylated UL11 rescued some growth defects of a UL11-null mutant, even ...
The lens fiber major intrinsic protein (otherwise known as aquaporin-0 (AQP0), MIP26 and MP26) has been examined by mass spectrometry (MS) in order to determine the speciation of acyl modifications to the side chains of lysine residues and the N-terminal amino group. The speciation of acyl modifications to the side chain of one specific, highly conserved lysine residue (K238) and the N-terminal amino group of human and bovine AQP0 revealed, in decreasing order of abundance, oleoyl, palmitoyl, stearoyl, eicosenoyl, dihomo-γ-linolenoyl, palmitoleoyl and eicosadienoyl modifications. In the case of human AQP0, an arachidonoyl modification was also found at the N-terminus. The relative abundances of these modifications mirror the fatty acid composition of lens phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. This lipid class would be expected to be concentrated in the inner leaflet of the lens fiber membrane to which each of the potential AQP0 lipidation sites is proximal. Our data evidence a broad lipidation ...
A first simple step to judge if the reaction is successful would be to run the reaction mixture on a gel. There is evidence that, in spite of a bigger mass, acylated ACP can travel faster than apo or holoACP in an SDS-PAGE, due to active binding of the SDS detergent molecules to the hydrophobic acyl chain which increases the charge to mass ratio of the entire molecule, thus, facilitating faster migration (fig. 5) (2,7). On the other hand it is possible to run the reaction mixture also on a native gel and compare the migration pattern of the proteins. The potein that would migrate faster than apoACP in SDS PAGE but slower than it in a native page (separation by mass) would be the acylated ACP (fig. 6). Supposing that just a fraction of the ACP interacts to produce the acylated derivative, bands for both hexanoyl-ACP and apo/ holoACP were also expected. Dimerization of holo-ACP would also generate and additional band) Although this approach isnt quantitative, it would give a hint about the ...
4BD0: Neutron and X-Ray Crystal Structures of a Perdeuterated Enzyme Inhibitor Complex Reveal the Catalytic Proton Network of the Toho-1 Beta-Lactamase for the Acylation Reaction.
4BD1: Neutron and X-Ray Crystal Structures of a Perdeuterated Enzyme Inhibitor Complex Reveal the Catalytic Proton Network of the Toho-1 Beta-Lactamase for the Acylation Reaction.
Acylation is the term given to substituting an acyl group such as CH-3CO- into another molecule. An acyl group is a hydrocarbon group attached to a carbon-oxygen double bond ...
And TNF-a were analysed by flow cytometry. LPS with acylation defects induced significant higher 23388095 TNF-a and IL-12 synthesis at 2 h and 4 h
Ferulic acid acylation of oligosaccharides catalyzed by feruloyl esterases (FAE) is a promising route to produce feruloylated oligosaccharides. However, modulation of FAE synthetic properties is a key step to improve the acylation. The efficiency of H. insolens FAE to catalyze the feruloylation in six different surfactantless microemulsions reaction systems was evaluated. The highest yield (57%) w ...
Ferulic acid acylation of oligosaccharides catalyzed by feruloyl esterases (FAE) is a promising route to produce feruloylated oligosaccharides. However, modulation of FAE synthetic properties is a key step to improve the acylation. The efficiency of H. insolens FAE to catalyze the feruloylation in six different surfactantless microemulsions reaction systems was evaluated. The highest yield (57%) w ...
img src=http://openwetware.org/images/5/53/Reaction.PNG width=431 height=251 alt=N-acylation reaction title=Scheme of the N-acylation reaction used to incorporate the hydrophobic modifications in the oligonucleotides. An amino group present in the oligonucleotide reacts with the carboxylic group present in the molecule containing the hydrophobic groups with the help of HATU and HOAt activators., ,p, Oligonucleotides still attached to the CPG beads were ordered from Biomers, with the 5-amino-C6-modifier and the Monomethoxytrityl (MMT) group still on. The nucleotide sequence was the following: 5-CGCGGATGGCGATGCGCGCAC-3.,/p, ,p, The amino-C6-modifier confers the amino group necessary for the attachment of the hydrophobic modifications. ,/p, ,img src=http://openwetware.org/images/b/b4/Amino_modifier.png width=233 height=42 alt=N-acylation reaction title=Amino-C6-modifier., ,p, The MMT group was then removed and the Fmoc-L-dap(Palmitate)-OH molecule (Cas nº 724785-41-5) was ...
Involved with EC 6.3.2.4, EC 6.3.2.7 or EC 6.3.2.13, EC 6.3.2.8 and EC 6.3.2.9 in the synthesis of a cell-wall peptide. -!- Also catalyzes the reaction when the C-terminal residue of the tripeptide is meso-2,4-diaminoheptanedioate (acylated at its L-center), linking the D-Ala--D-Ala to the carboxy group of the L-center. -!- Formerly EC 6.3.2.15 ...
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Trifluoromethanesulfonic Acid as Acylation Catalyst: Special Feature for C- and-or O-Acylation Reactions. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effect of diet composition on circulating acylated ghrelin levels in healthy women. A randomized cross-over study of three experimental treatments was performed. A total of 11 healthy young women of normal body weight completed the study. All 11 subjects consumed three iso-energetic meals of different macronutrient composition, a balanced meal (50% carbohydrates, 30% fat and 20% protein), a high-fat meal (45% carbohydrates, 45% fat and 10% protein) and a high-protein meal (45% carbohydrates, 20% fat and 35% protein), for breakfast on separate days. The test meals were administered 1 month apart. Blood samples were withdrawn immediately before and at 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the test meal for measurement of plasma acylated ghrelin, as well as serum glucose, insulin and triacylglycerol (triglyceride) levels. Acylated ghrelin fell significantly after ingestion of both the balanced and high-protein meals. Ghrelin persisted at ...
I have done a friedel crafts acylation reaction to 4-chloro phenol using benzoyl chloride. Now my reaction mixture contains o-acylated product and probably unreacted phenol. both of which contain phenolic OH group. Now how can I separate the unreacted phenol from the acylated product. I doubt whether base extraction can do it because both the components phenol and its acylated product have phenolic OH. Is there any other way such that I can remove the unreacted phenol and get the pure acylated product ...
Here the chlorobenzamide group is coupled onto the molecule before the indole-forming step, eliminating the need for carboxylate protection. The synthesis starts with (5), a β-sulfonate modified aryl hydrazine. Acylation of aryl hydrazines normally occurs preferentially at the β-nitrogen. In contrast, The sulfonate group of (5) is electron-withdrawing, reducing the nucleophilicity of the β-nitrogen and favoring acylation at the α-position [2]. The α-acyl-arylhydrazine (6) can therefore be prepared from (5) by pyridine-catalyzed acylation with 4-chlorobenzoic acid chloride. This process is mechanistically equivalent to the pyridine-catalyzed acylation of the previous synthesis. Afterward, the sulfonate is readily hydrolyzed by treatment with dilute acid ...
Vaccinia virus (VV) is a large DNA virus belonging to the Orthopoxvirus family. The viral replicative life cycle takes place solely within the cytoplasm of a mammalian host cell. The VV genome contains 196 open reading frames which are expressed in a highly regulated and temporal fashion in order to bring about the production of a mature virion. In the process of viral replication many VV proteins are synthesized that require posttranslational modifications to become functional. A few of these modifications include, glycosylation, ADP-ribosylation, phosphorylation, fatty acid acylation, and proteolytic processing. This last modification is especially important with regard to the structural proteins of the virus in that they undergo prysis for an infectious virus particle to be formed, a common theme in viral systems. In order to understand these events in more detail, three abundant virion protein constituents 4a, 4b, and 25K were chosen as models for study. The three main questions we wanted to ...
The erythrocyte Rh antigens contain an Mr = 32,000 integral protein which is thought to contribute in some way to the organization of surrounding phospholipid. To search for possible fatty acid acylation of the Rh polypeptide ...
QM:QM models, where QM is a fast molecular orbital method, offers advantages over standard quantum mechanics: molecular mechanics (QM:MM) models, especially in the description of charge transfer and mutual polarization between layers. The ONIOM QM:QM scheme also allows for reactions across the layer boundary, but the understanding of these events is limited. To explain the factors that affect cross-boundary events, a set of proton transfer processes, including the acylation reaction in serine protease, have been investigated. For reactions inside out, that is, when a group breaks a bond in the high layer and forms a new bond with a group in the low layer, QM methods that are overbinding relative to the QM method, for example, Hartree-Fock versus B3LYP, can severely overestimate the exothermicity of the reaction. This might lead to artificial reactivity across the QM:QM boundary, a phenomenon called model escape. The accuracy for reactions that occur outside in, that is, when a group in the ...
tRNA acylation levels of exponentially growing MG1655 and MG1655relA::HTF measured by northern blotting analysis. Total tRNA was extracted from cells growing in MOPS minimal medium with 0.2% glucose as the carbon source before and after isoleucine starvation. A fraction of the purified tRNA was deacylated (by 100 mM Tris-HCL [pH 9]) and charged and uncharged samples were separated by urea PAGE and transferred to a membrane. tRNAileTUV, tRNAasnUTVW and tRNAtrpT were detected by hybridization with radiolabeled tRNA-specific DNA oligonucleotide probes.
The chemoselective acylation of primary aliphatic amines has been achieved in under ten minutes (and for aromatic amines under 120 min) using vibration ball-milling, avoiding undesirable solvents which are typically employed for such reactions (e.g.DMF). Under optimised conditions, the synthesis of amides in
Aryl Narasaka acylation is realized by the catalysis of chiral rhodium complex which is in situ formed of [Rh(CO)2Cl]2 and phosphoramidite ligand. Computational studies show that the storioanl stain is about 12.58 kcal mol-1, which efficiently accelerate the C-Si bond cleavage.
Lipase-catalyzed acylation of galactosides.30 mM of aromatic galactosides were reacted with an equivalent amount of donor substrates with Novozym 435 (20 mg/mL)
Takeo Kawabata and co-workers from Kyoto University have reported in ACIE on the synthesis of multifidosides through a regioselective acylation. ACIE paper
beta-Lactamase I catalyses the hydrolysis of penicillins by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. A procedure was developed for determining the rate constants for the acylation and deacylation steps for the good substrates benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin; this depends on determining the fraction of enzyme that is present as acyl-enzyme in the steady state. ...
Amino Acyl Transfer RNA: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
CBLs determine the cellular localization of their interacting protein kinases (DAngelo et al., 2006; Xu et al., 2006; Cheong et al., 2007). The resulting CBL/CIPK complexes exert important functions at the plasma membrane by regulating the activity of ion channels and H+-ATPases (Xu et al., 2006; Fuglsang et al., 2007). The aims of this study were to investigate the potential dual lipid modification of CBL proteins by myristoylation and acylation and to unravel the influence of these lipid modifications on the functional regulation of processes decoding calcium signals. Our studies identify myristoylation and S-acylation by palmitic and stearic acids as essential modifications for calcium sensor function and report novel steps in the plasma membrane transport of acylated CBL proteins and in the membrane targeting of CBL/CIPK complexes. Importantly, our observation that the lipid modification status of the CBL protein determines the targeting of preassembled CBL/CIPK complexes provides a novel ...
Partial purification and characterization of acetyl coenzyme A: taxa-4(20),11(12)-dien-5alpha-ol O-acetyl transferase that catalyzes the first acylation step of taxol biosynthesis ...
Ghrelin, Mice, Regulation, Secretion, Insulin, Plasma, Administration, Acylation, Glucose, Cells, Mouse, Antigen, Axis, Growth Hormone, Hormone, Igf-i, Injection, Reports, Stomach, T-antigen
If I used Autobean on GWT client to serialise my POJO (sent out thro RequestBuilder) but I plan to use say, groovy, perl or php to service that request, I would need to know the serialization format of Autobean.. What is and where can I get the JSON format spec for Autobean?. ...
Švehlı́ková, Vanda, Bennett, Richard N., Mellon, Fred A., Needs, Paul W., Piacente, Sonia, Kroon, Paul A. and Bao, Yongping (2004) Isolation, identification and stability of acylated derivatives of apigenin 7-O-glucoside from chamomile (Chamomilla recutita [L.] Rauschert). Phytochemistry, 65 (16). pp. 2323-2332. ISSN 1873-3700 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serine protease acylation proceeds with a subtle re-orientation of the histidine ring at the tetrahedral intermediate. AU - Zhou, Yanzi. AU - Zhang, Yingkai. PY - 2011/2/7. Y1 - 2011/2/7. N2 - The acylation mechanism of a prototypical serine protease trypsin and its complete free energy reaction profile have been determined by Born-Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations with umbrella sampling.. AB - The acylation mechanism of a prototypical serine protease trypsin and its complete free energy reaction profile have been determined by Born-Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations with umbrella sampling.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78751489563&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78751489563&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1039/c0cc04112b. DO - 10.1039/c0cc04112b. M3 - Article. C2 - 21116528. AN - SCOPUS:78751489563. VL - 47. SP - 1577. EP - 1579. JO - Chemical Communications. JF - Chemical ...
The mixed acylation of cellulose with fatty acids and acetic anhydride was accomplished in an excess of fatty acid, thus avoiding the addition of a toxic solvent. The experimental design enabled the parameters of a model reaction with octanoic acid to be optimized. The products contained both acetyl and octanoyl acyl groups in a 2.4/1 ratio and the maximum degree of substitution (DS) was 2.2. The use of fatty acids higher than C8 resulted in a decrease of the DS. The model reaction was applied to the esterification of four lignocellulosic wastes (LW). Their reactivity was comparable to that of cellulose when no pretreatment was used. A solvent-exchange pretreatment improved the acylation of LW by about 60%, whereas that of cellulose was increased by more than 400%. The hydrophobic character of the esterified products was confirmed.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ureas in Organic Synthesis. XIII. Reactions of 1,3-Disubstituted Ureas with Acetic Acid Derivatives. AU - Shtrykova, Victoria Victorovna. AU - Bakibaev, A. A.. PY - 1997/4. Y1 - 1997/4. N2 - Reaction of 1,3-disubstituted ureas with the derivatives of acetic acid yields depending on the substrate structure and process conditions either acetamides or N-acetylureas. Addition of urea inhibits N-acylation.. AB - Reaction of 1,3-disubstituted ureas with the derivatives of acetic acid yields depending on the substrate structure and process conditions either acetamides or N-acetylureas. Addition of urea inhibits N-acylation.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031328205&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031328205&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0031328205. VL - 33. SP - 460. EP - 463. JO - Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry. JF - Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry. SN - 1070-4280. IS - 4. ER - ...
Polysaccharide esters (cellulose and starch) are among the first polymeric materials applied commercially. The way of producing these technically relevant derivatives, mainly the carboxylic acid esters of C2 to C4 acids, have not been changed significantly during their history of manufacture. The investigation of new acylation methods and strategies of analysis was revived during the last decade by the search for tailored, biocompatible, material for specific fields of application, e.g., biotechnology, sensor technique and medicine. Unconventional solvents were developed for completely homo-geneous acylation reaction applying state of the art techniques of modern organic chemistry for polysaccharide modification. This book will provide a first comprehensive summary of acylation methods in a very practical manner. Detailed structure analysis is indispensable for the evaluation of structure-property-relationships. Spectroscopic methods in particular FTIR- and NMR spectroscopy including two ...
Ceramide, a key intermediate in sphingolipid metabolism, is synthesized by acylation of sphinganine followed by dehydrogenation of dihydroceramide to ceramide. Using radioactive sphinganine, we have examined the site and topology of dihydroceramide synthesis in well-characterized subcellular fractions from rat liver. [4,5-3H]Sphinganine was introduced as a complex with BSA and was metabolized to [4,5-3H]dihydroceramide upon incubation of rat liver homogenates or microsomes with fatty acyl CoA. Conditions were established in a detergent-free system in which dihydroceramide synthesis was not limited by either substrate availability or by amounts of microsomal protein or reaction time. The distribution of dihydroceramide synthesis was found to exactly parallel that of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker upon subfractionation of microsomes, and no endogenous activity was detected in either purified Golgi apparatus or plasma membrane fractions. Limited protease digestion demonstrated that ...
Identification of components of the intracellular transport machinery of acylated proteins by a genome-wide RNAi screen [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by Julia Ritzerfeld : IDENTIFICATIO N O F CO M PO NENTS O F TH E INTRACELLU LAR TRANSPO RT M ACH INERY O F ACYLATED PRO TEINS BY A GENO M E‐W IDE RNAI SCREEN DISSERTATIO N submitted to the Combined Faculties for the Natural Sciences and for Mathematics of the Ruperto Caro la University of Heidelberg, Germany for the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences Julia Ritzerfeld
Catalyzes the N-acylation of UDP-3-O-(hydroxytetradecanoyl)glucosamine using 3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-ACP as the acyl donor. Is involved in the biosynthesis of lipid A, a phosphorylated glycolipid that anchors the lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane of the cell. Prefers (3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-ACP over (3R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl-ACP as the acyl donor in vitro, which is consistent with the structure of E.coli lipid A that contains over 95% (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoate at the 2 and 2 positions.
BYK-P 104 S Chemistry of 1,3-Dithiane ADISI Alkenes and Alkynes II Docking Analysis of various Social Networking sites Enzymatic acylation of di- and trisaccharides with fatty acids: choosing the appropriate enzyme, support and solvent Computational Studies of Subtilisin-Catalyzed Transesterification of Sucrose: Importance of Entropic Effects Effect of the Immobilization Method of Lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus on Sucrose Acylation Comparative Surface Activities of Di and Trisaccharide Fatty Acid Esters Describing partially unfolded states of proteins from sparse NMR data Describing Partially Unfolded States of Proteins from Sparse NMR Ddata Towards the prediction of protein interaction partners using physical docking
and I-C (compounds of Formula I where R1 = Z-CEb-N(R2)(R3)), the hydroxy group of compound of Formula I-B (compounds of Formula I where R = Z-CH2OH) was converted to A2, a phihalimide group, following the procedures as described in Scheme 5 fin: the conversion of compound of Formula VII to compound of Formula VL Reaction of compound of Formula I-C* under conditions described in Scheme 4 afforded compound of Formula I-C. Reaction of compound of Formula I- C with but not limited to various alkylating agents, various aldehydes/ketones under reductive animation conditions, various acylating agents such as acetic anhydride, benzoyi chlorides, or with caiboxyiic acids in the presence of EDC or DCC with HOBT or HOAT, or with sulphonylating agents such as Ts2O or MeSC^Cl afforded compounds of Formula I-C * \ For example, in a typical preparation of compounds of Formula I-C (compounds of Formula I where R1 = Z^-CHT-NO^XR3)), a compound of Formula I-C is treated with a suitable acylating agent in ...
Researchers in Brazil found that women with fibromyalgia had decreased levels of acylated ghrelin, which were related to pain intensity.
Researchers in Brazil found that women with fibromyalgia had decreased levels of acylated ghrelin, which were related to pain intensity.
BioAssay record AID 213359 submitted by ChEMBL: Rate constant of acylation on trypsin was determined at 10 percent and at 95 minutes for maximum inhibition and no enzyme activity was recovered over the 2 h-time.
Lysine acetylation refers to addition of an acetyl moiety to the epsilon‐amino group of a lysine residue and is important for regulating protein functions in various organisms from bacteria to humans
Fat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, dietary TAG is hydrolyzed to fatty acids (FA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) by pancreatic lipase. These products are then emulsified with the help of phospholipids (PL) and bile acids (BA) present in bile to form micelles. Free FAs and MAGs are taken up by the enterocyte where they are rapidly resynthesized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to form TAG. PLs from the diet as well as bile - mainly LPA - too are absorbed by the enterocyte and are acylated to form phosphatidic acid (PA), which is also converted into TAG. Absorbed cholesterol (CL) is acylated to cholesterol esters (CE). Within the ER, TAG joins CE and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) to form chylomicrons that enter circulation through the lymph ...
Fat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, dietary TAG is hydrolyzed to fatty acids (FA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) by pancreatic lipase. These products are then emulsified with the help of phospholipids (PL) and bile acids (BA) present in bile to form micelles. Free FAs and MAGs are taken up by the enterocyte where they are rapidly resynthesized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to form TAG. PLs from the diet as well as bile - mainly LPA - too are absorbed by the enterocyte and are acylated to form phosphatidic acid (PA), which is also converted into TAG. Absorbed cholesterol (CL) is acylated to cholesterol esters (CE). Within the ER, TAG joins CE and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) to form chylomicrons that enter circulation through the lymph ...
Plays a role in lysophospholipid acylation. Transfers fatty acids to the 1-position via an enzyme-bound acyl-ACP intermediate in the presence of ATP and magnesium. Its physiological function is to regenerate phosphatidylethanolamine from 2-acyl-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (2-acyl-GPE) formed by transacylation reactions or degradation by phospholipase A1.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Offers a method dedicated to stoichiometry quantification. StoichiolyzeR proposes a package leaning on the combined exploitation of information related to precursor and fragment ions data gathered from data-independent acquisitions (DIAs). This application is an approach which is able to consider peptides that include multiple lysine residues to census site-specific acylation stoichiometry.
Chitosan has many unique physical and chemical properties, acylation, sulfation and oxidation, grafting and crosslinking of hydroxyethyl, hydroxymethyl.
1. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 11783-11791. Concerted Amidation of Activated Esters: Reaction Path and Origins of Selectivity in the Kinetic Resolution of Cyclic Amines via NHC and Hydroxamic Acid Co-Catalyzed Acyl Transfer Allen, S. E.; Hsieh, S.-Y.; Gutierrez, O.; Bode, J. W.; Kozlowksi, M. C. 2. Organometallics, 2
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