Very-long-chain and branched-chain fatty acyl-CoAs are high affinity ligands for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha).: Very-long-ch
To elucidate cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance induced by excess dietary fat, we studied conscious chronically high-fat-fed (HFF) and control chow diet-fed rats during euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (560 pmol/l plasma insulin) clamps. Compared with chow diet feeding, fat feeding significantly impaired insulin action (reduced whole body glucose disposal rate, reduced skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, and decreased insulin suppressibility of hepatic glucose production [HGP]). In HFF rats, hyperinsulinemia significantly suppressed circulating free fatty acids but not the intracellular availability of fatty acid in skeletal muscle (long chain fatty acyl-CoA esters remained at 230% above control levels). In HFF animals, acute blockade of beta-oxidation using etomoxir increased insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake, via a selective increase in the component directed to glycolysis, but did not reverse the defect in net glycogen synthesis or glycogen synthase. In clamp HFF animals, etomoxir did not
The antidiabetic efficacy of first-line insulin sensitizers (e.g., metformin, glitazones) is accounted for by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) activate AMPK, but their putative antidiabetic efficacy is masked by their beta-oxidized or esterified lipid …
The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. This isozyme preferentially utilizes arachidonate as substrate. The absence of this enzyme may contribute to the mental retardation or Alport syndrome. Alternative splicing of this gene generates multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016 ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acyl-CoA binding protein is an essential protein in mammalian cell lines. AU - Knudsen, Jens. AU - Færgeman, Nils J.. PY - 2002/12/15. Y1 - 2002/12/15. N2 - In the present work, small interference RNA was used to knock-down acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) in HeLa, HepG2 and Chang cells. Transfection with ACBP-specific siRNA stopped growth, detached cells from the growth surface and blocked thymidine and acetate incorporation. The results show that depletion of ACBP in mammalian cells results in lethality, suggesting that ACBP is an essential protein.. AB - In the present work, small interference RNA was used to knock-down acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) in HeLa, HepG2 and Chang cells. Transfection with ACBP-specific siRNA stopped growth, detached cells from the growth surface and blocked thymidine and acetate incorporation. The results show that depletion of ACBP in mammalian cells results in lethality, suggesting that ACBP is an essential protein.. KW - Acetates. KW - ...
In the present work, small interference RNA was used to knock-down acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) in HeLa, HepG2 and Chang cells. Transfection with ACBP-specific siRNA stopped growth, detached cells from the growth surface and blocked thymidine and acetate incorporation. The results show that depletion of ACBP in mammalian cells results in lethality, suggesting that ACBP is an essential protein.. ...
Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP6 localizes in the phloem and affects jasmonate composition.: Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN6 (AtACBP6)
Benzoyl-CoA is a common intermediate in the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of many aromatic substrates. Two enzymes and ferredoxin of the central benzoyl-CoA pathway in Thauera aromatica have been purified so far. Benzoyl-CoA reductase reduces the aromatic ring with reduced ferredoxin yielding cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carbonyl-CoA [Boll, M. & Fuchs, G. (1995) Eur. J. Biochem. 234, 921-933]. Dienoyl-CoA hydratase subsequently adds one molecule of water and thereby produces 6-hydroxycyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA [Laempe, D., Eisenreich, W., Bacher, A., & Fuchs, G. (1998) Eur. J. Biochem. 255, 618-627]. Here two new enzymes, which convert this intermediate to the noncyclic product 3-hydroxypimelyl-CoA, were purified from T. aromatica and studied. 6-Hydroxycyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA dehydrogenase is an NAD(+)-specific beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase that catalyzes 6-hydroxycyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA + NAD(+) --| 6-oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA + NADH + H(+). 6-Oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA
Acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS; fatty acid:CoA ligase, AMP binding forming, EC 6.2.1.3) catalyzes the formation of acyl-CoA thioesters from free fatty acids in the presence of CoA, ATP, and Mg2+. This activation is a critical step in fatty acid metabolism in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In fact, fatty acyl-CoAs represent important bioactive compounds, which are involved in many cellular processes in addition to serving as substrates for lipid biosynthesis and β-oxidation (Schulz, 1991).. Recent published papers have confirmed the importance of ACSs in various organisms. In Escherichia coli, ACS plays a pivotal role in the uptake of long-chain fatty acids and in regulating of the global transcriptional regulator FadR (Black et al., 1997). The E. coli ACS gene was cloned and its sequence is found to have a segment of 25 highly conserved amino acid residues that Black et al. (1997) proposed as a signature motif common to the family of fatty ACSs. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the activation of ...
DBI - DBI (untagged)-Human diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein) (DBI), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA hydratase: involved in anaerobic metabolism of benzoyl-CoA in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica; N-terminal amino acid sequence in first source
hsa:84320 no KO assigned , (RefSeq) ACBD6; acyl-CoA binding domain containing 6 (A) MASSFLPAGAITGDSGGELSSGDDSGEVEFPHSPEIEETSCLAELFEKAAAHLQGLIQVA SREQLLYLYARYKQVKVGNCNTPKPSFFDFEGKQKWEAWKALGDSSPSQAMQEYIAVVKK LDPGWNPQIPEKKGKEANTGFGGPVISSLYHEETIREEDKNIFDYCRENNIDHITKAIKS KNVDVNVKDEEGRALLHWACDRGHKELVTVLLQHRADINCQDNEGQTALHYASACEFLDI VELLLQSGADPTLRDQDGCLPEEVTGCKTVSLVLQRHTTGKA ...
Complete information for ACBD3 gene (Protein Coding), Acyl-CoA Binding Domain Containing 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
PAC275Hu01, ACOX; PALMCOX; SCOX; Peroxisomal Acyl-Coenzyme A Oxidase 1; Straight-chain acyl-CoA oxidase | Products for research use only!
The mission of the Womens Finance CRG is to provide a safe space for women to share their financial knowledge, research topics of interest, set financial goals, and become financially independent and well informed. The Womens Finance CRG meets on the third Thursday of every month and is sponsored by the Office of Equality and Diversity, the Womens and Gender Studies program, and CoAS. ...
கொழுப்பு அமிலங்கள், அல்லது கொழுப்பு அமிலத்தின் மீதங்கள் கொழுப்பு அமில தொகுப்பு எனப்படும் செயல்முறை மூலம் அசிட்டைல்- CoA உடன் மெலோனைல்-CoA அல்லது மெதில்மெலோனைல்-CoA தொகுதிகளை முன்தொடராகக் கொண்ட சங்கிலித் தொடர் நீட்சியாக்கத்தினால் கொழுப்பு அமில தொகுப்பு எனப்படும் செயல்முறை மூலம் தயாரிக்கப்பட்ட வேறுபட்ட மூலக்கூறுகளின் தொகுதியாகும்.[6][7] இவை ஐதரோகார்பன் சங்கிலி யால் ...
Pig kidney general acyl-CoA dehydrogenase is markedly stabilized against loss of flavin and activity in 7.3 M-urea or at 60 degrees C upon reduction with sodium dithionite or octanoyl-CoA. Electron transferring flavoprotein is similarly stabilized, whereas egg white riboflavin-binding protein loses flavin more readily on reduction. These and other data support the anticipated correlation between the kinetic stability of the holoproteins and the oxidation-reduction potential of their bound flavins. ...
Methylmalonyl Coenzyme A mutase Lysates available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Methylmalonyl Coenzyme A mutase Lysate catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (fatty acid: CoA ligase, AMP-forming; (EC 6.2.1.3)) catalyzes the formation of fatty acyl-CoA by a two-step process that proceeds through the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate. Fatty acyl-CoA represents bioactive compounds that are involved in protein transport, enzyme activation, protein acylation, cell signaling, and transcriptional control in addition to serving as substrates for beta oxidation and phospholipid biosynthesis. Fatty acyl-CoA synthetase occupies a pivotal role in cellular homeostasis, particularly in lipid metabolism. Our interest in fatty acyl-CoA synthetase stems from the identification of this enzyme, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase (LCFA) by microarray analysis. We found this enzyme to be differentially expressed by |i|Leishmania donovani|/i| amastigotes resistant to antimonial treatment. In the present study, we confirm the presence of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase gene in the genome of clinical isolates of |i|Leishmania donovani|/i| collected from the
Has greatest activity toward short branched chain acyl-CoA derivative such as (s)-2-methylbutyryl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and 2-methylhexanoyl-CoA as well as toward short straight chain acyl-CoAs such as butyryl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA. Can use valproyl-CoA as substrate and may play a role in controlling the metabolic flux of valproic acid in the development of toxicity of this agent (By similarity).
An LC-MS-based method was used to determine whether platelets isolated from patients with FRDA exhibit differentiable metabolism compared with healthy controls. Isotopologue analysis showed a marked decrease in glucose incorporation with a concomitant increase in palmitate-derived acyl-CoA thioesters in FRDA platelets compared with controls. These findings demonstrate that platelets can be used as a surrogate tissue for in vivo biomarker studies to monitor new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of FRDA.. Read more: Stable isotopes and LC-MS for monitoring metabolic disturbances in Friedreichs ataxia platelets. ...
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Wax esters occur widely among bacteria, plants and mammals. Due to their special properties, they have many applications such as lubricants, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, ink, polishes and candles. They are also considered as potential biofuels and biolubricants in the future. Wax ester producing enzymes synthesize wax esters from alcohols and fatty acyl coenzyme A thioesters. There are three gene families encoding enzymes capable of synthesizing wax esters. Two of them exist in plans; the jojoba-like wax synthase (WS), and the bifunctional wax synthase/diacylglycerol acyl transferase (WS/DGAT). We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among and between WS and WS/DGAT, based upon primary sequence homology of the encoded proteins. Nine candidate genes were chosen for experimental characterization in yeast and Arabidopsis seed. In yeast heterologous expression system, three of the expressed gene products were detected immunologically, Arabidopsis WS At5g55340, a maize WS and a moss WS.
Binds medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters with very high affinity and may function as an intracellular carrier of acyl-CoA esters. It is also able to displace diazepam from the benzodiazepine (BZD) recognition site located on the GABA type A receptor. It is therefore possible that this protein also acts as a neuropeptide to modulate the action of the GABA ...
Triacylglycerol (TAG) is a major component of lipid storage in yeast. The acyl CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) that catalyzes the final and rate-limiting step in the production of TAG is rather interesting. Consequently, cloning and analysis of the gene-encoding TAG synthase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (DGA1), of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidiobolus fluvialis DMKU-RK253 were undertaken. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of DGA1 from R. fluvialis DMKU-RK253 (RfDGA1) showed similarity with the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) from other organisms. The cDNA of RfDGA1 was cloned into the yeast expression vector pYES2 and heterologously overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the transformants showed a 1.6-fold increase in lipid content compared with the wild-type strain harbouring the pYES2 empty vector. Furthermore, DGA1 overexpression in R. fluvialis DMKU-RK253 resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in lipid content when compared with the wild-type
Acyl-CoA thioesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), providing the potential to regulate intracellular levels of acyl-CoAs, free fatty acids and CoASH. Active on long chain acyl-CoAs ...
Acyl-CoA thioesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), providing the potential to regulate intracellular levels of acyl-CoAs, free fatty acids and CoASH. Has acyl-CoA thioesterase activity towards medium (C12) and long-chain (C18) fatty acyl-CoA substrates. Can also hydrolyze 3-hydroxyphenylacetyl-CoA (in vitro). May play a role in controlling adaptive thermogenesis.
B: The influence of substrate and products on Them1 dimerization was determined by … Substrate specificities Belinostat molecular weight We next examined the thioesterase activities of Them1 and of THEM1a and THEM1b using acetyl-CoA (Fig. 3A) and palmitoyl-CoA (Fig. 3B) as substrates. Acot12, Them1, THEM1a, and THEM1b each hydrolyzed acetyl-CoA molecules, with values of Km and Vmax (Table 1) for Them1, THEM1a, and THEM1b that were each somewhat higher than for Acot12 (Km = 34.1 �� 2.1 ��M; Vmax = 57.2 �� 4.4 nmol/min/mg). As was the case for Them1, THEM1a and THEM1b exhibited robust thioesterase activity toward palmitoyl-CoA, with similar Km values for each but with Them1 exhibiting a higher value of Vmax compared with THEM1a and THEM1b (Table 1). However, as has been previously reported (18), Acot12 had no appreciable palmitoyl-CoA thioesterase activity (Fig.. 3B). Table 1 also lists for Them1 the steady-state enzymatic constants for a variety of acyl-CoA molecular species. These ...
Last updated on November 19, 2018 at 17:16. You should know the MRTs very well (use flashcards), and also know what reaction is impaired in a few diseases. You can be asked questions about the smallest things, and some questions can be so vague youre not even sure what theyre asking. You should always ask teachers to clarify questions you dont understand. However, if you know the MRTs well, and know most of whats written here, you should at least pass. In some topics, you might only need to know the summary. For each cofactor should you memorize 4 reactions that needs these cofactors. You are going to be asked about one or two diseases.. I recommend these flashcards: http://www.cram.com/flashcards/biochemistry-1-8719205. You are going to get a question about ATP calculation, like "What is the ATP gain of degradation of hexanoyl-CoA to O2 and H2O?". They can ask you about degradation of fatty acids, ketone bodies or intermediates in the glycolysis or TCA. The first two are very well explained ...
H2O + hexanoyl-CoA ,=, adenosine 3,5-bisphosphate + 2 H(+) + hexanoyl-4-phosphopantetheine Last modified: 2016-05-27. Chemically balanced: yes. ...
Formula: C14H18N2O8MW: 342. 31CAS: 23646-68-6MDL: MFCD01457171TNP: TNP004214-NITROPHENYL PALMITATE (4-NITROPHENYL HEXADECANOATE; LogP: 2....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Widespread and enzyme-independent Nε-acetylation and Nε-succinylation of proteins in the chemical conditions of the mitochondrial matrix. AU - Wagner, Gregory R.. AU - Payne, R. Mark. PY - 2013/10/4. Y1 - 2013/10/4. N2 - Background:The mechanisms initiating protein acylation in mitochondria are unknown. Results:The pH and acyl-CoA concentrations of the mitochondrial matrix are sufficient to cause protein lysine acetylation and succinylation. Conclusion:Protein acylation in mitochondria may be a nonenzymatic event facilitated by the alkaline pH and high acyl-CoA concentrations. Significance:The mitochondrial deacylases SIRT3 and SIRT5 may have evolved to regulate nonenzymatic protein acylation.. AB - Background:The mechanisms initiating protein acylation in mitochondria are unknown. Results:The pH and acyl-CoA concentrations of the mitochondrial matrix are sufficient to cause protein lysine acetylation and succinylation. Conclusion:Protein acylation in mitochondria may be a ...
Looking for online definition of acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase in the Medical Dictionary? acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase explanation free. What is acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase? Meaning of acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase medical term. What does acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase mean?
Long chain fatty acid synthetases (LACSs) activate the fatty acid chains produced by plastidial de novo biosynthesis to generate acyl-CoA derivatives, important intermediates in lipid metabolism. Oilseeds, like sunflower, accumulate high levels of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in their seeds to nourish the embryo during germination. This requires that sunflower seed endosperm supports very active glycerolipid synthesis during development. Sunflower seed plastids produce large amounts of fatty acids, which must be activated through the action of LACSs, in order to be incorporated into TAGs. We cloned two different LACS genes from developing sunflower endosperm, HaLACS1 and HaLACS2, which displayed sequence homology with Arabidopsis LACS9 and LACS8 genes, respectively. These genes were expressed at high levels in developing seeds and exhibited distinct subcellular distributions. We generated constructs in which these proteins were fused to green fluorescent protein and performed transient expression ...
The elevation of synthesis and export of fatty acids from the chloroplast following N deprivation could indicate that TAG is assembled from fatty acids that are synthesized de novo. This step would require the activation of the fatty acids by a long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. In fact, increased abundance of RNA encoding a putative long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase was observed, and the respective protein has been identified in the lipid droplet proteome (Moellering and Benning, 2010). However, another enzyme that could contribute to the changing spectrum of fatty acids is a putative phospholipid/glycerol acyltransferase, for which the transcript level decreased during N deprivation. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases are likely to play a key role in determining the fate of fatty acids in the cell (Shockey et al., 2002). Regulation of the respective genes could be a major factor in controlling the flux of fatty acids toward glycerolipid synthesis and their degradation by β-oxidation.. Major ...
Biotin is an essential vitamin in plants and mammals, functioning as the carbon dioxide carrier within central lipid metabolism. Bacterial pimeloyl-CoA synthetase (BioW) acts as a highly specific substrate-selection gate, ensuring the integrity of the carbon chain in biotin synthesis. BioW catalyzes the condensation of pimelic acid (C7 dicarboxylic acid) with CoASH in an ATP-dependent manner to form pimeloyl-CoA, the first dedicated biotin building block. Multiple structures of Bacillus subtilis BioW together capture all three substrates, as well as the intermediate pimeloyl-adenylate and product pyrophosphate (PPi), indicating that the enzyme uses an internal ruler to select the correct dicarboxylic acid substrate. Both the catalytic mechanism and the surprising stability of the adenylate intermediate were rationalized through site-directed mutagenesis. Building on this understanding, BioW was engineered to synthesize high-value heptanoyl (C7) and octanoyl (C8) monocarboxylic acid-CoA and C8 ...
Cellular metabolites, such as acyl-CoA, can modify proteins, leading to protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs). One such PTM is lysine succinylation, which is regulated by sirtuin 5 (SIRT5). Although numerous proteins are modified by lysine succinylation, the physiological significance of lysine succinylation and SIRT5 remains elusive. Here, by profiling acyl-CoA molecules in various mouse tissues, we have discovered that different tissues have different acyl-CoA profiles and that succinyl-CoA is the most abundant acyl-CoA molecule in the heart. This interesting observation has prompted us to examine protein lysine succinylation in different mouse tissues in the presence and absence of SIRT5. Protein lysine succinylation predominantly accumulates in the heart whenSirt5is deleted. Using proteomic studies, we have identified many cardiac proteins regulated by SIRT5. Our data suggest that ECHA, a protein involved in fatty acid oxidation, is a major enzyme that is regulated by SIRT5 and ...
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Acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3 (ACBD3) is involved in the maintenance of Golgi structure and function through its interaction with the integral membrane protein. However, the clinical significance and biological role of ACBD3 in breast cancer remain unclear. Herein, we found that the mRNA and …
Predicted to have protein kinase A regulatory subunit binding activity. Predicted to be involved in steroid biosynthetic process. Predicted to localize to the Golgi membrane. Is expressed in brain; genitourinary system; gut; and lung. Orthologous to human ACBD3 (acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3 ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes the mitochondrial enzyme methylmalonyl Coenzyme A mutase. In humans, the product of this gene is a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme which catalyzes the isomerization of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA, while in other species this enzyme may have different functions. Mutations in this gene may lead to various types of methylmalonic aciduria. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
BioAssay record AID 144067 submitted by ChEMBL: Tested for Inhibitory concentration against human N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) in radiochemical HPLC end point assay with peptide GNAASARR-NH2 and [3H]myristoyl-CoA radioligand at 1 uM; ND=Not determined.
Mouse polyclonal Methylmalonyl Coenzyme A mutase antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human and Rat. Referenced in 2 publications and 1…
1NTI: Subtle structural response to ligand binding revealed by residual dipolar coupling refined NMR structures of acyl coenzyme A binding protein
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Involved in the first step of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor formation in all eukaryotes. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of at least five subunits (PIG-A, PIG-H, PIG-C, GPI1 and PIG-P). PIG-A subunit is the catalytic subunit. In some species, the long-chain acyl groups of the phosphatidyl group are partly replaced by long-chain alkyl or alk-1-enyl groups ...
Atmospheric oxygen: Useful for more than just breathing.... (NB: If you attended the ENV Zuckerman Symposium last month, you will have seen the 10-minute preview version of this talk. Whether or not you were at Zuckerman, please come along for the extended version, detailing the exciting research activities that the COAS CRAM Group have been and will be getting up to). ...