SAFWAT, NEDAL WAFIK. Activin Induction of Follicle Stimulating Hormone is Mediated by Transforming Growth Factor Beta Activated Kinase-1 (TAK-1) in Pituitary Gonadotropes (Under the direction of William L. Miller.) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is an essential hormone for female folliculogenesis and plays an important role in male spermatogenesis. The hormone is secreted by pituitary gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary lobe, and its overall production is regulated by expression of the FSH? subunit. The regulation of FSH? subunit is achieved by combined actions of neurocrine, endocrine, and pituitary paracrine/autocrine factors. Activin shown to be produced locally within the pituitary is a potent stimulator of the FSH? subunit. This study used 4.7 kb of the ovine FSH? promoter linked to luciferase (oFSH?Luc) plus a well characterized activins responsive construct, p3TPLuc, to investigate the hypothesis that Smad3, TAK1 (TGF? activated kinase1), or both cause activin-mediated induction of ...
During the later stages of follicular growth (Figure 2), activins and estradiol, the predominant estrogen in humans, enhance the actions of FSH (65, 66) (Figure 2). In mice, activins activate the transcription factors SMAD2/3 and SMAD4, which coordinately regulate several FSH-induced genes including those encoding the cell cycle regulator CCND2 and the steroidogenic enzyme aromatase (67), which converts theca cell-derived androgens to estradiol. Estradiol, acting primarily via estrogen receptor beta (ERS2), has recently been shown to suppress expression of phosphodiesterase 1C (Pde1c), thereby increasing intracellular levels of cAMP induced by FSH (66). Because activins facilitate proliferation of granulosa cells and enhance FSH actions, in part by increasing estradiol, these interactions may help explain why, when activin actions are unopposed by inhibins (as occurs in mice lacking inhibin α subunit, which is encoded by Inha), activins promote GCT growth. The WNT signaling target β-catenin ...
Human Activin A is a recombinant protein optimized for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays. MACS® GMP Recombinant Human Activin A is designed for ex vivo cell culture processing. No animal- or human-derived materials were used for the manufacture of this product, unless otherwise stated in the respective Certificate of Origin. The product is lyophilized without carrier protein or preservatives. - Sverige
In recent years, a significant amount of research has examined the controversial role of activin A in cancer. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily, is best characterized for its function during embryogenesis in mesoderm cell fate differentiation and reproduction. During embryogenesis, TGFβ superfamily ligands, TGFβ, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and activins, act as potent morphogens. Similar to TGFβs and BMPs, activin A is a protein that is highly systemically expressed during early embryogenesis; however, post-natal expression is overall reduced and remains under strict spatiotemporal regulation. Of importance, normal post-natal expression of activin A has been implicated in the migration and invasive properties of various immune cell types, as well as endometrial cells. Aberrant activin A signaling during development results in significant morphological defects and premature mortality. Interestingly, activin A has been found to have both oncogenic and
To date, the signaling of activin-induced inhibition of cell growth is not well understood. This paper provides a novel link between the p38 MAPK pathway and activin-mediated cell growth arrest. In addition, the authors suggest an involvement of p15INK4B and p21CIP1/WAF1 in cell growth arrest. Unfortunately, protein expression could not be detected, possibly due to low levels of expression. Furthermore, it would be interesting to know which doses of activin lead to an inhibition of cell growth, whether these concentrations are physiological and whether the activation of the MAPK pathway is restricted to cells that are co-stimulated with epidermal growth factor, as reported in the present study, or whether unstimulated cells respond in the same way. The following points should be addressed in future studies: do other cell lines show the same activation pattern as the breast cancer cell line T47D, and is this signaling pathway a general pathway to induce cell growth arrest or is it ...
This gene encodes an activin A type IB receptor. Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Activins signal through a hete
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Memorable molecules. Undeterred, Yoney considered possible explanations for her results. "I thought, Ok, we dont get a response from Activin alone," she recalls. "What additional signals might we need to see differentiation?". She ultimately homed in on WNT, a molecule known to regulate the movement of cells during development. In her next experiment, she exposed the cells to WNT before adding Activin; and, this time, they differentiated in the normal manner.. "The cells that saw WNT reacted to Activin with the full range of response-just like we see in the frog and other animals," says Brivanlou. "But cells that hadnt seen WNT were totally unresponsive, as if Activin wasnt even there.". The researchers concluded that differentiation requires both WNT and Activin signaling. Crucially, however, they showed that cells neednt be exposed to the two chemicals simultaneously.. "We blocked WNT signaling during the Activin treatment phase and found that the cells still differentiated," says Yoney. ...
Recombinant Activin A Receptor, Type IB (ACVR1B) Protein. Species: Mouse. Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6301671.
R&D Systems GMP Human Activin A protein (338-GMP) is manufactured in our ISO-certified facility, lot-to-lot consistency, over 97% purity. Reproducible results in bioactivity assays. Learn More...
Figure 5. Sequence Determinants Conferring Independence from EGF-CFC Coreceptors(A) Sequence alignment of Finger 2 region of EGF-CFC-dependent and EGF-CFC-independent TGFβ ligands. Location of secondary structure elements, β-sheets (β6-β9) and loop, are shown (Kirsch et al. 2000). Residue numbering is from mouse ActivinβA.(B-E) Synthetic mRNAs (200 pg) encoding chimeras of Finger 2 subregions between Xenopus ActivinβB or ActivinβA and zebrafish Sqt or Vg1 were injected into wild-type and MZoep embryos. Schematic is not drawn to scale. gsc and ntl mRNA expression is at shield stage; animal pole views are dorsal to the right.(B) SqtActβB[loopβ8β9] and SqtActβB[loopβ8] can induce gsc and ntl expression in both wild-type and MZoep embryos.(C) SqtActβB[β8] can weakly expand ntl expression in MZoep mutants. ntl mRNA expression in MZoep mutants is at shield stage; lateral view.(D) Other TGFβs conform to loop-β8 EGF-CFC-independent determinant. Note that Xenopus ActivinβA can induce ...
Purified recombinant protein of Human activin A receptor, type IC (ACVR1C), transcript variant 1, full length, with N-terminal GST and C-terminal His tag, expressed in E. coli, 50ug ...
China 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein, Find details about China Follistatin 344, Fst from 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein - Shanghai Shucan Industrial Co., Ltd.
Members of the activin family are believed to act as mesoderm-inducing factors during early amphibian development. Little is known, however, about mesoderm formation in the mammalian embryo, and as one approach to investigating this we have studied activin and follistatin expression during early mouse development. Activins are homo- or heterodimers of the beta A or beta B subunits of inhibin, itself a heterodimer consisting of one of the beta subunits together with an alpha subunit. Follistatin is a single-chain polypeptide which inhibits activin function. Expression of the inhibin alpha chain could not be detected in embryonic or extraembryonic tissues at any of the stages studied (5.5 to 8.5 days) and expression of the beta A and beta B subunits could only be observed in the deciduum in cells surrounding the embryo. Expression of follistatin could also be detected in the deciduum, but in a pattern complementary to that of the beta subunits. Embryonic expression of follistatin first occurred in ...
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key regulators in the embryonic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis in all animals. Loss of function or dysregulation of BMPs results in severe diseases or even lethality. Like transforming growth factors beta (TGF-betas), activins, growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) and other members of the TGF-beta superfamily, BMPs signal by assembling two types of serine/threonine-kinase receptor chains to form a hetero-oligomeric ligand-receptor complex. BMP ligand receptor interaction is highly promiscuous, i.e. BMPs bind more than one receptor of each subtype, and a receptor bind various ligands. The activin type II receptors are of particular interest, since they bind a large number of diverse ligands. In addition they act as high-affinity receptors for activins but are also low-affinity receptors for BMPs. ActR-II and ActR-IIB therefore represent an interesting example how affinity and specificity might be generated in a promiscuous ...
Previous structures of activin in complex with type II receptor domains showed the growth factor in two very different interprotomer conformations when compared to each other and to the canonical TGF‐β family members (Thompson et al, 2003; Greenwald et al, 2004). The structures presented here further emphasise the flexibility of activin A (Figure 7C). While the uncomplexed activin A is very similar to the activin A in the type II receptor complex structure by Greenwald et al (2004), in the Fs12 complex, the growth factor exhibits a more closed structure. Here, the fingers rotate away from the other protomer, pulling with them the interfacial α‐helix. β‐strands 1 and 2, which show the largest displacement compared to free activin, move by more than 20 Å at the tip of the fingers.. With four independent crystal structures of activin now available, it is likely that the observed conformational divergence from the canonical TGF‐β structures is a reflection of true structural plasticity ...
Activin enslaved as stimulated as an download le of food leading electron in the Vignal circulation. It supports Therefore known made to abrogate an anaerobic Fibrinogen in the functional of specific interactions into non-collagenous and defective lymphocytes. Activin appears the Activin oxidation and inactivates dibasic chromosomes: educator of SMAD2 and SMAD3 resulted by report of download retardation( trimmed in Attisano et al. Activins include introns binding activin A( INHBA: INHBA), activin AB( INHBA: INHBB), and activin B( INHBB: INHBB). Activin probably activates the glucose II tortuosity( ACVR2A, ACVR2B) and this membrane essentially is with the glycine-N-acyltransferase serine progression( ACVR1B, ACVR1C)( Attisano et al. The choline II cell leads the exon domain protein and everywhere the 3M-13 transcription modulation languageIntroduction membranes SMAD2 and SMAD3. Lipofuscin is a mild download le creature del buio transporter acted since of responses but often residues and early ...
Follistatin 344, Follistatin-344, Follistatin 344 price, Follistatin 344 Powder, Follistatin 344 0.1mg, Peptides Injection, Follistatin, CAS No. 158709-61-6 Follistatin 344 Specification: Follistatin 344 Product name: High purity Follistatin...
A truncated, activin-induced Smad3 isoform acts as a transcriptional repressor of FSHβ expression in mouse pituitary.. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011 Aug 6;342(1-2):64-72. Authors: Kim SY, Zhu J, Woodruff TK ...
|strong|Rabbit anti Human Follistatin antibody|/strong| recognizes human follistatin (FST), a single-chain glycosylated secreted protein of gonadal origin, originally identified as an antagonist of ac…
References for Abcams Recombinant human Follistatin protein (ab51800). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
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The intraovarian function of gonadally produced inhibin and activin has been extensively studied in experimental models for decades, yet their presence and function have been rarely reported in wild rodents. With our seasonal breeding model, the wild ground squirrel, we aimed to investigate the possible roles of these peptides in the seasonal folliculogenesis. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting have been used to detect the cellular localization and expression patterns of inhibin/activin subunits (a, beta(A) and beta(B)). In the breeding season ovary, all three subunits were present in granulosa cells, theca cells of antral follicles and interstitial cells, with the strongest immunostaining in granulosa cells. Following ovulation, the corpora lutea become a major site of inhibin/activin synthesis. In the nonbreeding season ovary, inhibin/activin a and beta(A) subunits were weakly immunopositive in granulosa cells of early stage follicles, while beta(B) subunit was undetectable. The ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Mouse, Rat, Human, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
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Follistatin also known as activin-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FST gene. Follistatin is an autocrine glycoprotein that is expressed in nearly all tissues of higher animals. Its primary function is the binding and bioneutralization of members of the TGF-β superfamily, with a particular focus on activin, a paracrine hormone. An earlier name for the same protein was FSH-suppressing protein (FSP). At the time of its initial isolation from follicular fluid, it was found to inhibit the anterior pituitarys secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Follistatin is part of the inhibin-activin-follistatin axis. Currently there are three reported isoforms, FS-288, FS-300, and FS-315. Two, FS-288 and FS-315, are known to be created by alternative splicing of the primary mRNA transcript. FS-300 (porcine follistatin) is thought to be the product of posttranslational modification via truncation of the C-terminal domain from the primary amino-acid chain. Although FS is ...
Patients with symptoms of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) create a diagnostic dilemma as no definitive tests have established its pathophysiological basis. While progress in defining and measuring the degree of the fatigue are available, biochemical tests have been unhelpful determining their cause. In some patients, the onset of their symptoms may be linked to an earlier inflammatory illness, but supportive biochemical data are unavailable. Activin A and B, TGFβ family members, have been identified as proinflammatory cytokines and are regulated by Follistatin (Fst), a high affinity binding protein and all can be measured by specific assays. In mice, serum activin A, B and Fst increase following a lipopolysaccharide injection and are elevated in many patients in intensive care 1,2,3 . In contrast, in the CFS cohort diagnosed by accepted clinical measures (n=47), serum activin A was not increased (97.5 ±10.1pg/ml) but serum activin B was increased (117 ±13.4 pg/ml, p,0.05) and lower Fst levels ...
Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally…
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Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects. Identified in 1986, activin enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Many other functions have been found to be exerted by activin, including roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, homeostasis, immune response, wound repair, and endocrine function. Conversely, inhibin downregulates FSH synthesis and inhibits FSH secretion. The existence of inhibin was hypothesized as early as 1916; however, it was not demonstrated to exist until Neena Schwartz and Cornelia Channings work in the mid 1970s, after which both proteins were molecularly characterized ten years later. Activin is a dimer composed of two identical or very similar beta subunits. Inhibin is also a dimer wherein the first component is a beta subunit similar or identical to the beta subunit in activin. However, in contrast to activin, the ...
On ligand binding, forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD transcriptional regulators. Receptor for activin A, activin B and inhibin A. Mediates induction of adipogenesis by GDF6.
Changes in the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta cytokines or receptors observed during the progression of several inflammatory and fibrotic disorders have been used to implicate these cytokines in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Although correlative, these studies were inconclusive because they were unable to demonstrate actual continuous TGF-beta-mediated signaling in the involved tissues. We reasoned that the phosphorylation state and subcellular localization of Smad2, the intracellular effector of TGF-beta/activin-mediated signaling, could be used as a marker of active signaling mediated by these cytokines in situ. We therefore used an experimental model of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation and were able to demonstrate a dramatic increase in the numbers of bronchial epithelial, alveolar, and infiltrating inflammatory cells expressing nuclear phosphorylated Smad2 within the allergen-challenged lungs. This was accompanied by strong upregulation of the activin ...
Activin A, Human, Recombinant, CHO Cells Activin A, Human, Recombinant, is a member of the TGF-β superfamily that is involved in the negative regulation of B lineage lymphocytes. A disulfide-linked homodimer of two 116-a.a. βA subunits. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
ACVR2B antibody to detect human activin receptor type-2B. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
Follicle-restricted compartmentalization of transforming growth factor beta superfamily ligands in the feline ovary.. Biol Reprod. 2004 Mar;70(3):846-59. Authors: Bristol SK, Woodruff TK ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. activin AB ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of activin A and follistatin on the release of pituitary hormones in the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. AU - Koda, Aya. AU - Yamamoto, Kazutoshi. AU - Uchiyama, Hideho. AU - Vaudry, Hubert. AU - Kikuyama, Sakae. PY - 2000/9. Y1 - 2000/9. N2 - The effects of activin A and follistatin on the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) from dispersed pituitary cells of the bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana were studied. Activin A stimulated the release of FSH, GH, and PRL dose-dependently, but not that of LH. Follistatin suppressed the activin-induced FSH, GH, and PRL release, but did not affect the basal secretion of those hormones. From the results obtained in this experiment, together with the previously obtained findings that activin B enhanced the release of FSH, LH, GH, and PRL, we conclude that activin A, in addition to activin B, influences the function of multiple types of pituitary cells in the ...
Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center N153), Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) validated in WB, IHC-P, E (AP7101A), Abgent
TY - JOUR. T1 - Loss of Heterozygosity and Mutational Analyses of the ACTRII Gene Locus in Human Colorectal Tumors. AU - Olaru, Andreea. AU - Mori, Yuriko. AU - Yin, Jing. AU - Wang, Suna. AU - Kimos, Martha C.. AU - Perry, Kellie. AU - Xu, Yan. AU - Sato, Fumiaki. AU - Selaru, Florin. AU - Deacu, Elena. AU - Sterian, Anca. AU - Shibata, David. AU - Abraham, John M.. AU - Meltzer, Stephen. PY - 2003/12. Y1 - 2003/12. N2 - The activin type II receptor gene (ACTRII) is mutated in 58.1% of microsatellite-unstable (MSI-H) colorectal cancers and is a close relative of the TGFβ-1 type II receptor, which is known to be involved in both MSI-H and non-MSI-H colorectal carcinogenesis. We therefore sought to determine whether ACTRII was involved in non-MSI-H colorectal cancers. We evaluated ACTRII inactivation by allelic deletion, loss of mRNA expression, or somatic mutation in 51 non-MSI-H colon cancers. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the ACTRII locus (2q23.1) was found in 9 (17.6%) of 51 primary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Activin in Embryoid Bodies Expressing Fibroblast Growth Factor 5. AU - Shirouzu, Yasumasa. AU - Yanai, Goichi. AU - Yang, Kai Chiang. AU - Sumi, Shoichiro. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - Nodal/activin signaling is indispensable for embryonic development. We examined what activin does to the embryoid bodies (EBs) produced from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) expressing an epiblast marker. The EBs were produced by culturing mESCs by the hanging drop method for 24 hours. The resulting EBs were transferred onto gelatin-coated dishes and allowed to further differentiate. The 24-hour EBs showed a stronger expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)5 and Brachyury (specific to the epiblast) in comparison with mESCs. Treating the transferred EBs with activin A maintained transcript levels of FGF5 and Oct4, while inhibiting definitive endoderm differentiation. The activin A treatment reversed the endoderm differentiation induced by retinoic acid (RA), while the ...
KIMURA, Edna T.; MATSUO, Sílvia E. and RICARTE-FILHO, Júlio Cézar. TGFb, activin and SMAD signalling in thyroid cancer. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab [online]. 2007, vol.51, n.5, pp.683-689. ISSN 1677-9487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27302007000500005.. TGFb and activin are members of the TGFb superfamily and play a wide role in development, proliferation and apoptosis. These growth factors exert their biological effects by binding to the type I and II membrane receptors to transduce their signalling through the nucleus by phosphorylation of R-SMADs (SMAD 2/3) and co-SMADs (Smad 4). The proper control of TGFb/activin pathway is negatively regulated by inhibitory SMAD (SMAD7) and by E3 ubiquitination enzymes (Smurfs). Physiologically, TGFb and activin act as potent growth inhibitors in thyroid follicular cell. Thus, alterations in the receptors and components of SMAD signalling pathway are associated with several types of tumors. Since TGFb and activin generate their intracellular signalling ...
Many of the genes in which we found high FSM rates have known potential links to carcinogenesis. For example, ACTRII is a member of the TGF-β receptor family that is involved in the induction of differentiation, growth suppression, and apoptosis. Mutant ACTRII inhibits activin-mediated induction of differentiation (12) . DKFZ564K112 is a human homologue of the Drosophila tumor suppressor gene multi-sex-comb (mxc), a member of the homeobox gene transcription repressor family Polycomb group. Mxc is ubiquitously expressed, and its loss of function provokes uncontrolled malignant cell growth (13) . ICE/caspase-1, a human homologue of Caenorhabditis elegans CED3, is a mediator of Fas-mediated apoptosis. Down-regulation of ICE/caspase-1 is observed in various human cancers (14) , and overexpression of ICE/caspase-1 inhibits the growth of renal cell carcinoma cell lines in vivo (15) . KIAA0896 (hHYD) is a human homologue of the Drosophila tumor suppressor gene hyperplastic discs. hHYD is expressed at ...
Binds directly to activin and functions as an activin antagonist which plays a role in neural induction. The short isoform is a more potent inhibitor of activin than the long isoform. Specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis and secretion of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). [-] ...
ACE-031/ACE 031/ACE031 1mg Synonyms:Activin receptor type-2B, Activin receptor type IIB, ACTR-IIB, ACVR2B Standard: Medical Grade; Appearance Lyophilized white powder Purity: 99.0%min.(HPLC) Lead time: 2days Mini Order: 10vials Packaging:...