Arcanobacterium pyogenes Pyolysin: member of thiol-activated cytolysin family; isolated from Arcanobacterium pyogenes; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank U84782
Looking for Bacterionema? Find out information about Bacterionema. A genus of bacteria in the family Actinomycetaceae; characteristically cells are rods with filaments attached and produce filamentous microcolonies;... Explanation of Bacterionema
As base substitutions within domain V of the 23S rRNA can result in ML resistance (17), sequencing of this gene region in these A. pyogenes isolates was undertaken. Primers 23S-1 (5′-AGTTCCGACCTGCACGAATGGC-3′) and 23S-2 (5′-GTTCGTCCGTCCCGGTCCTCTC-3′) were used to amplify a product of 728 bp, equivalent to bases 1953 to 2680 of the E. coli 23S rRNA gene (GenBank accession no. U70214 ), from the four macrolide-resistant and three macrolide-susceptible A. pyogenes isolates. The sequences of the PCR products were determined by using automated DNA sequencing.. Mutations were identified by aligning the sequences using CLUSTAL W (13), with the sequence of the MLsA. pyogenes isolate BBR1 being designated the wild type. Of the other MLs isolates, OX-5 has a wild-type sequence and OX-9 has a G2137T substitution (E. coli numbering). As OX-9 is MLs, it is unlikely that the G2137T change contributes to ML resistance, and it probably represents a naturally occurring polymorphism in the 23S rRNA ...
ID K0ZJ08_9ACTO Unreviewed; 534 AA. AC K0ZJ08; DT 28-NOV-2012, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 28-NOV-2012, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 38. DE RecName: Full=Chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000577}; GN Name=dnaA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00377}; GN ORFNames=HMPREF9241_00388 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJZ87760.1}; OS Actinomyces turicensis ACS-279-V-Col4. OC Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Actinomycetales; Actinomycetaceae; OC Actinomyces. OX NCBI_TaxID=883077 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJZ87760.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000003994}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJZ87760.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000003994} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ACS-279-V-Col4 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJZ87760.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000003994}; RG The Broad Institute Genome Sequencing Platform; RA Earl A., Ward D., Feldgarden M., Gevers D., Saerens B., RA Vaneechoutte M., Walker B., Young S.K., Zeng Q., Gargeya S., RA ...
ID A0A0X8K3S2_9ACTO Unreviewed; 207 AA. AC A0A0X8K3S2; DT 13-APR-2016, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 13-APR-2016, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 10. DE RecName: Full=Superoxide dismutase {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000414}; DE EC=1.15.1.1 {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000414}; GN ORFNames=AXE84_11840 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AME00013.1}; OS Actinomyces oris. OC Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Actinomycetales; Actinomycetaceae; OC Actinomyces. OX NCBI_TaxID=544580 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AME00013.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000067270}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AME00013.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000067270} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=T14V {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AME00013.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000067270}; RA Wen L., He K., Yang H.; RL Submitted (FEB-2016) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. CC -!- FUNCTION: Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the CC cells and which are toxic to biological systems. CC {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU000414}. CC -!- CATALYTIC ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Terrabacteria group; Actinobacteria; Actinobacteria; Actinomycetales; Actinomycetaceae; ...
Bovi-Sera Serum Antibodies from Colorado - For use as an aid in the prevention and treatment of enteric and respiratory conditions in cattle and sheep caused by Arcanobacterium pyogenes, E. coli, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida and Salmonella typhimurium. Administer IM or subcut.
57) Abstract:. The invention relates to veterinary Microbiology and can be used in bacteriological laboratories for the preparation of diagnostic kits. The strain obtained using traditional microbiological techniques from the urine of pigs with clinical signs of urocystic and pyelonephritis. The strain is deposited in the Institute of culture collections of microorganisms GMCVB Vector number 0699. Expressed antigenic properties and the ability to quickly and easily multiply on artificial and natural environments make use of this strain as a reference strain in the preparation of diagnostic kits. The invention relates to the field of veterinary Microbiology, epizootiology and can be used in bacteriological laboratories.. In the claimed invention was set the task of finding a strain of bacteria, easy and fast breeding on natural and artificial nutrient media and has marked antigenic properties.. Known strains of Actinobaculum (Corynebacterium, Eubacterium, Actinomyces) suis allocated M. A. Soltys, ...
Corynebacterium (/kɔːrˈaɪnəbækˌtɪəriəm/, /kɔːrˈɪnə-/) is a genus of bacteria that are gram-positive and aerobic. They are bacilli (rod-shaped), and in some phases of life they are, more particularly, club-shaped, which inspired the genus name (coryneform means "club-shaped"). They are widely distributed in nature in the microbiota of animals (including the human microbiota) and are mostly innocuous. Some are useful in industrial settings such as C. glutamicum. Others can cause human disease, including most notably diphtheria, which is caused by C. diphtheriae. As with various species of a microbiota (including their cousins in the genera Arcanobacterium and Trueperella), they usually are not pathogenic but can occasionally opportunistically capitalize on atypical access to tissues (via wounds) or weakened host defenses. The genus Corynebacterium was created by Lehmann and Neumann in 1896 as a taxonomic group to contain the bacterial rods responsible for causing diphtheria. The ...
Immunological adjuvants obtainable from already-known water-soluble adjuvants containing peptidoglycane fragments, which include saccharide units formed from N-acetylglucosamine and from an N-acyl-muramic acid wherein the acyl group is a glycolyl or acetyl group and to the muramyl group there are attached peptide chains, by modification of said already-known water-soluble adjuvants so that they bear acylating groups derived from physiologically-acceptable carboxylic polyacids, especially carboxylic diacids, and wherein preferably the acylating groups themselves include free carboxylic acid groups, for instance being derived from phthalic acid or succinic acid.
The invention relates to a process for the preparation of fast-dissolving pharmaceutical preparations from difficultly soluble active substances, wherein an aqueous suspension is made from the active substance and one or more water-soluble adjuvants and then the resulting aqueous suspension is processed, with removal of the water, by methods conventional per se, to form solid pharmaceutical preparations. The invention also relates to fast-dissolving pharmaceutical preparations of active substances having a dissolution rate of at least 70% after 30 minutes, prepared in accordance with the process of the invention.
Arcanobacterium haemolyticum ATCC ® BAA-1784™ Designation: Vitek 1656 TypeStrain=False Application: Quality control strain
Arcanobacterium haemolyticum ATCC ® BAA-1784™ Designation: Vitek 1656 TypeStrain=False Application: Quality control strain
en] The activity of the D-alanyl-D carboxypeptidase from the penicillin-resistant Streptomyces albus G is not or very little affected by penicillins and related antibiotics. The molecular basis for the mechanism of action of penicillin is discussed. The Streptomyces albus G D-alanyl-D carboxypeptidase appears as a model for the study of a mechanism of penicillin resistance that does not involve the enzymatic degradation of the antibiotic. Vancomycin and ristocetin are shown to inhibit the hydrolysis of sensitive peptides by the Streptomyces albus G D-alanyl-D carboxypeptidase and the mechanism of inhibition is discussed ...
The reactions of beta-lactamases of Actinomadura R39 and Streptomyces albus G with clavulanate proceed along branched pathways. Both enzymes perform the hydrolysis of this beta-lactam with rather high efficiencies (kcat. = 18s-1 and 52s-1 respectively). If large clavulanate/enzyme ratios are used, complete inactivation of the enzymes is observed. At lower ratios, inactivation is only partial. Irreversible inactivation occurs after 400 and 20000 turnovers for the A. R39 and S. albus G enzymes respectively. With the A. R39 beta-lactamase, a transiently inhibited complex is also formed that remains undetectable with the S. albus G beta-lactamase. Kinetic models are presented and studied for the interaction between clavulanate and both enzymes. A tentative general reaction scheme is also discussed.. ...
Corynebacterium matruchotii is a species of bacteria in the genus Corynebacterium. Corynebacteria occur within the normal flora of the human body. Corynebacterium matruchotii are Gram positive bacilli with long filaments and short, thick terminal ends. C. matruchotii is a bacterium of significance within the oral cavity and comprises the central filament of "corn-cob formations" (formations in which Streptococcus sanguinis bacteria bind to and surround C. matruchotii to create a corn-cob appearance). C. matruchotii can be isolated from dental plaque, although is it not known to be associated with the etiology of dental diseases. "Corynebacterium". List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature. Retrieved 22 February 2017. Paster, B. J.; Boches, S. K.; Galvin, J. L.; Ericson, R. E.; Lau, C. N.; Levanos, V. A.; Sahasrabudhe, A.; Dewhirst, F. E. (15 June 2001). "Bacterial Diversity in Human Subgingival Plaque". Journal of Bacteriology. 183 (12): 3770-3783. ...
The urinary microbiota was shown to contain: a total of 217 bacterial isolates from 77 different genera were isolated from OAB patients, while 66 bacterial isolates from 33 different genera were isolated from control patients. Organisms isolated solely from OAB patient urines included Actinobaculum schaalii, Aerococcus urinae, Arthrobacter cumminsii, and Oligella urethralis; each has been reported to cause UTI ...
1) De Meester F, et al. (1987) The active sites of the beta-lactamases of Streptomyces cacaoi and Streptomyces albus G.. Biochem J 244(2):427-32 PubMed: 2822004 ...
1) Dehottay P, et al. (1987) Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the Streptomyces albus G beta-lactamase precursor.. Eur J Biochem 166(2):345-50 PubMed: 3038538 ...
FX Reconciliations Accountant where your main responsibility will be to reconcile the companies foreign exchange transactions. You will also be responsible for the positing of journal entries, and general maintenance of the ledgers.
Introduction. Trueperella pyogenes (previously, Corynebacterium pyogenes) is an opportunistic pathogen, causing suppurative infections in a wide range of hosts, including avians (Barbour et al., 1991) and domestic animals (Addo et al., 1977). It is known to spread hematogenously to cause abscesses and suppurative lesions in various organs and tissues (Tolle et al., 1983). This organism has been reported to cause liver abscesses in large animals like cattle (Narayananet al., 1998), but its role as an etiological agent for hepatic abscesses in birds like pigeons is yet to be established. The present study reports the isolation and characterization of Trueperella pyogenes from a hepatic abscess in an american fan tailed pigeon.. Materials and Methods. A commercial flock of American-fan tailed pigeons from Thrissur, Kerala was presented with heavy morbidity and mortality. A detailed post-mortem examination of a representative bird, revealed air-sacculitis accompanied by hepatitis and abscesses on ...
Tindall 2019 Tindall BJ. Arachnia propionica (Buchanan and Pine 1962) Pine and Georg 1969 (Approved Lists 1980), Propionibacterium propionicum corrig. (Buchanan and Pine 1962) Charfreitag et al. 1988 and Pseudopropionibacterium propionicum (Buchanan and Pine 1962) Scholz and Kilian 2016 and the nomenclatural consequences of changes in the taxonomy of the genus Propionibacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2019; 69:2612-2615. ...
Granuloma containing necrotic debris in the center and surrounded by macrophages, giant cells, and epithelioid cells in the periphery (H&E stain, X200). Bacteriological methods and Results. Abscess contents from different areas of the lungs were aseptically collected and plated on blood agar and MacConkey media, and incubated aerobically at 37°C. Culture plates were examined daily for 3 days. The growth was classified as heavy, moderate, and light. Three or less colonies were considered insignificant, and probably contaminants. The bacteria were identified based on colony morphology, Gram stain, classic biochemical tests, CAMP test (Quinn et al., 1994, Funke and Bernard, 2011), and by using a commercial bacterial identification system: "API Coryne" (bioMerieux Inc., Durham, NC, USA). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done against 12 drugs using the disk diffusion method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), and the zone sizes were interpreted as per ...
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Research Limited (reg no. 2742969) is a charity registered in England with number 1021457 , Legal , Cookie Policy , Data Sharing Unless otherwise stated the content of this website is copyright Genome Research Limited, licenced under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. URI: ; retrieved at 03.29 am, 13th December 2017. ...
This chapter deals with aerobically growing, asporogenous, irregularly shaped, non-partially acid-fast, Gram-positive rods generally called coryneforms. Genera mainly covered include Corynebacterium, Turicella, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Dermabacter, Helcobacillus, Rothia, Exiguobacterium, Oerskovia, Cellulomonas, Cellulosimicrobium, Microbacterium, Curtobacterium, Leifsonia, Pseudoclavibacter, Auritidibacter, Arcanobacterium, Trueperella, and Gardnerella. Information is presented on epidemiology and transmission, clinical significance, direct examination, isolation procedures, and identification of coryneforms. Taxa are described in detail with emphasis on identification tools for the clinical microbiologist. Finally, antimicrobial susceptibility testing procedures and resistance patterns of coryneforms are outlined.
Strains from subclinical mastitis, from the genital tract and tonsils of cattle, from tonsils of a goat and a cat and from the crop and the respiratory tract of canaries were found to constitute a new streptococcal species, for which the name Streptococcus pluranimalium sp. nov. is proposed. Sequencing of 16S rRNA showed that Streptococcus thoraltensis and Streptococcus hyovaginalis were its closest known phylogenetic relatives. The new species showed some phenotypic resemblance to the poorly described species Streptococcus acidominimus, but whole-cell protein analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the new species was only distantly related to the type strain of S ...
The licences you must have and the transport conditions you must follow for bringing non-specified animal pathogens or carriers into the UK.
five structurally related heptadecapeptides rich in hydrophobic amino acids have been discovered in the venom of the bumblebee megabombus pennsylvanicus. we have named them bombolitin i (ile-lys-ile-thr-thr-met-leu-ala-lys-leu-gly-lys-val-leu-ala-his-val-nh2 ), bombolitin ii (ser-lys-ile-thr-asp-ile-leu-ala-lys-leu-gly-lys-val-leu-ala-his-val-nh2 ), bombolitin iii (ile-lys-ile-met-asp-ile-leu-ala-lys-leu-gly-lys-val-leu-ala-his-val-nh2 ), bombolitin iv (ile-asn-ile-lys-asp-ile-leu-ala-lys-leu-va ...
Complete article is available online.. PDF version is available online.. Trueperella abortisuis is a gram-positive bacterium that has been previously identified in aborted porcine feti and placentae located in Asia and Europe. Routine microbiological screening of extended boar semen from a US mid-Atlantic stud identified delayed growth of very small white colonies on both brain-heart infusion and sheep-blood agars after 48 to 72 hours incubation at 37°C under aerobic conditions. Isolate identification was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, with T abortisuis identified (MALDI biotyper score = 2.103). After storage at 16°C and 72 hours post collection, total and progressive motility parameters had decreased in extended semen samples positive for T abortisuis. Further work is needed to elucidate the role T abortisuis may play in extended boar semen quality, extended semen longevity, and sow reproductive performance.. Keywords: ...
The microflora of 55 patients with leprosy skin ulcers was studied and related to a weighted inflammatory score (IS). The control group consisted of 18 ulcers with different underlying pathology. Leprosy ulcers were characterized by the exclusive presence of two types of branching gram-positive rods; a particular interesting proposal is that Mycobacterium leprae share common antigens with these unusual leprosy ulcer associated organisms and group G beta-hemolytic streptococci. In the leprosy group, corynebacteria and branching rods accounted for 97% of gram-positive bacilli and Bacillus species constituted only 3%. In the control group, B. species formed 50% of gram-positive rods; the rest were corynebacteria (p = 0.03). In the leprosy group, one third of the gram-positive bacteria were branching rods; none of them was acid fast. Ten of them were identified as Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, and the remaining 7 could not be identified. The IS of leprosy patients was lower than in the control group. The
TY - CHAP. T1 - Diseases caused by actinomyces species. AU - Booth, James. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - The genus Actinomyces consists of facultatively anaerobic and obligately anaerobic gram-positive filamentous rods that microscopically resemble the hyphae of the eukaryotic fungi. Actinomyces are true bacteria (prokaryotic). They should not be confused with the aerobic "actinomycetes", which includes Nocardia and related bacteria that they resemble microscopically. The most common infection due to Actinomyces is actinomycosis, although this term can be applied to similar infections caused by other species, such as Propionibacterium propionicum.. AB - The genus Actinomyces consists of facultatively anaerobic and obligately anaerobic gram-positive filamentous rods that microscopically resemble the hyphae of the eukaryotic fungi. Actinomyces are true bacteria (prokaryotic). They should not be confused with the aerobic "actinomycetes", which includes Nocardia and related bacteria that they resemble ...
IRMNG (2018). Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Hansen 1968) Collins et al., 1989. Accessed at: http://www.irmng.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=10032442 on 2020-09-28 ...
Die Vermehrung von Streptomyces albus unter Nutzung von Stoffwechselendprodukten und Leibessubstanzen einer absterbenden Para-B-Kultur führt zu Rückwirkungen auf die Salmonellen. Bezogen auf den...
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Actinomadura pelletieri.
[124 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Bifidiobacterium Bifidum Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Bifidiobacterium Bifidum Revenue,...
[Arg15, Asp16, 25, Pro18, 21, 23, Val22, Ile24]-Beta-Amyloid-Protein (15-25), 10 mg. The undecapeptide RDLPFFPVPID (iA��11) has a similar degree of hydrophobicity as the native amyloid ��-peptide (A��); but with a low propensity to adopt a
Definition of Corynebacterium haemolyticum. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
BACKGROUND: In the female genital tract, up to 30% of Papanicolaou (Pap)-stained cervicovaginal smears of intrauterine device (IUD) users are positive for actinomyces-like organisms (ALOs). Many clinicians believe that no therapeutic intervention is necessary if women with ALOs are without symptoms. However, there are no recommendations for the procedure in ALO-positive women with need for a routine IUD exchange. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective study, the incidence of ALOs was compared in ALO-positive women with a routine IUD exchange according to two new procedures: Group 1 (n=19), insertion of a new IUD immediately after removal of the index device, and Group 2 (n=19) IUD removal and reinsertion after 3-5 days. A Pap smear was obtained at intervals of 6 weeks and 12, 24 and 36 months after reinsertion. RESULTS: The cytological examination carried out after 6 weeks proved to be negative for ALOs in all cases. After 36 months, smears were more often positive for ALOs in women with immediate ...
A method for converting compactin to pravastatin is described. Compactin is provided and contacted with an agent derived from Actinomadura under conditions in which the agent converts compactin to pravastatin. Also described are an Actinomadura strain, an Actinomadura cell free extract, an Actinomadura hydroxylase, and a method for lowering cholesterol levels in mammals.
Mandelic acid (MA), an important component in pharmaceutical syntheses, is currently produced exclusively via petrochemical processes. Growing concerns over the environment and fossil energy costs have inspired a quest to develop alternative routes to MA using renewable resources. Herein we report the first direct route to optically pure MA from glucose via genetic modification of the L-phenylalanine pathway in E. coli. The introduction of hydroxymandelate synthase (HmaS) from Amycolatopsis orientalis into E. coli led to a yield of 0.092 g/L S-MA. By combined deletion of competing pathways, further optimization of S-MA production was achieved, and the yield reached 0.74 g/L within 24 h. To produce R-MA, hydroxymandelate oxidase (Hmo) from Streptomyces coelicolor and D-mandelate dehydrogenase (DMD) from Rhodotorula graminis were co-expressed in an S-MA-producing strain, and the resulting strain was capable of producing 0.68 g/L R-MA. Finally, phenylpyruvate feeding experiments suggest that HmaS is a
7-Chloro-8-methoxytetracycline isolated from antibiotic ES-119 and antibiotic Tet. 7 which are produced by fermentation of mutants of Actinomadura brunnea, namely Actinomadura brunnea var. antibiotica, ATCC 53108 and Actinomadura brunnea var antibiotica ATCC 53180 and its use as an antibiotic against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms are disclosed.
Microdialysis is a minimally invasive sampling technique that can be used to continuously monitor drug concentrations in the ECF of tissues that are accessible to microdialysis probe placement. The free drug concentration at the site of drug action in tissues is a critical determinant of the intensity of the drugs effect, and therefore monitoring tissue free drug concentration may be more informative than monitoring plasma drug concentrations.. We compared microdialysis sampling from blood and tissues to conventional sampling methods in a nonhuman primate model at steady state during a continuous infusion of zidovudine and after a bolus dose of zidovudine. The pharmacology of this nucleoside analog has been previously characterized in our animal model and the CSF penetration was 0.21 (Klecker et al., 1987; Collins et al., 1988; Balis et al., 1989). Zidovudine (mol. wt., 267) is well tolerated, lipophilic, and minimally protein bound, and a sensitive and specific assay for its detection and ...
In this symposium, Karen Kramer delivered a beautiful paper just before mine on teen pregnancy, and I had some great conversation with session participants and attendees, that has further evolved my own thinking on this issue. I want to say something just a little provocative:. While I think teen pregnancy should be avoided, culturally we overstate its dangers and consequences because we have a real problem with young people reproducing. This can lead young girls to overlook potentially more serious issues like sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and cervical cancer, all of which girls and women are at risk for if they use only hormonal contraception and have otherwise unprotected sex.. Let me explain two important points here. First, in most industrialized nations we are not set up well to support young mothers because of the way families are isolated, yet social support is a strong predictor of birth weight, postpartum depression, and labor progression (Collins et al. 1993; Feldman et al. ...
In this symposium, Karen Kramer delivered a beautiful paper just before mine on teen pregnancy, and I had some great conversation with session participants and attendees, that has further evolved my own thinking on this issue. I want to say something just a little provocative:. While I think teen pregnancy should be avoided, culturally we overstate its dangers and consequences because we have a real problem with young people reproducing. This can lead young girls to overlook potentially more serious issues like sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and cervical cancer, all of which girls and women are at risk for if they use only hormonal contraception and have otherwise unprotected sex.. Let me explain two important points here. First, in most industrialized nations we are not set up well to support young mothers because of the way families are isolated, yet social support is a strong predictor of birth weight, postpartum depression, and labor progression (Collins et al. 1993; Feldman et al. ...
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Actinomadura coerulea.
Supplemental source of probiotics including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum organisms. *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
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Actinomyces, aktinomycety - rod grampozitivn ch, p ev n anaerobn ch ty inkovit ch bakteri . CoJeCo.cz - Va e v eobecn encyklopedie
Solution for In each reaction box, place the best reagent and conditions from the list below.Br1)2)Br HNa, NH3 (NaNH2 (excess)ВНз/THFCH3BrNaBH4HBrH2, Lindlars…
Many female terrestrial mammals undergo postpartum estrus (PPE), a state of heightened sexual attractiveness to male conspecifics relative to females not in PPE (REF females). PPE and REF females of several species may use over-marks to maintain territories and attract and indicate interest in males as potential mates. In our first two experiments, we determined if the response of male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, to the top- and bottom-scent donors of a same-sex over-mark was affected by the reproductive state of the scent donors. We found that after exposure to a same-sex over-mark in which the female scent donors were in the same reproductive state, males spent more time investigating the mark of the top-scent female. Males, however, spent more time investigating the mark of the PPE female to that of a female not in PPE, independent of the position of either females scent mark in the over-mark. The third and fourth experiments determined if the response of males to the female scent donor