Selectively attending to task-relevant sounds whilst ignoring background noise is one of the most amazing feats performed by the human brain. Here, we studied the underlying neural mechanisms by recording magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses of 14 healthy human subjects while they performed a near-threshold auditory discrimination task vs. a visual control task of similar difficulty. The auditory stimuli consisted of notch-filtered continuous noise masker sounds, and of 1020-Hz target tones occasionally () replacing 1000-Hz standard tones of 300-ms duration that were embedded at the center of the notches, the widths of which were parametrically varied. As a control for masker effects, tone-evoked responses were additionally recorded without masker sound. Selective attention to tones significantly increased the amplitude of the onset M100 response at 100 ms to the standard tones during presence of the masker sounds especially with notches narrower than the critical band. Further, attention ...
The book starts out with a chapter on acoustics, and the rest of the book focuses on the anatomy and physiology of the peripheral systems in a rather traditional manner: from caudal through rostral levels, ending with the descending auditory system. Note that these chapters, for the most part, review topic areas that are best considered basic research and are not translational in nature. However, the final section attempts to tie perception to the underlying physiologic responses, and chapters are parsed into stimulus factors (such as intensity, frequency, binaural stimulation, and complex sounds). ...
Physical tradeoffs may in some cases constrain the evolution of sensory systems. The peripheral auditory system, for example, performs a spectral decomposition of sound that should result in a tradeof
Background: This paper reviews the physiological correlates of arousal to develop a comprehensive and collective understanding of the physiological co..
The present results provide behavioral evidence that stimuli can be processed by a mechanism that is selective for particular combinations of spectral and temporal modulation frequencies. We trained listeners to discriminate the depth of spectral, temporal, or upward spectrotemporal modulation and tested the generalization of their learning to the trained conditions of the other groups as well as to the depth discrimination of downward spectrotemporal modulation and the detection of upward spectrotemporal modulation. Three influences of training were dependent on the spectrotemporal characteristics of the trained stimulus. First, and most importantly, there was no generalization of training-induced improvement to the untrained depth-discrimination conditions. Learning on isolated spectral (0.5 cyc/oct; 0 Hz) or temporal (0 cyc/oct; 32 Hz) modulation did not generalize to either direction of spectrotemporal modulation (0.5 cyc/oct; ±32 Hz), even though the spectrotemporal conditions shared one ...
Our brain needs to constantly fuse sensory information detected by our multiple senses in order to produce a seamless coherentre presentation of the world. Rather than being the exception, this binding process is ubiquitous to sensory-motor integration and isimplicated in most cognitive functions. Its impairment is a cause of various pathologies, such as schizophrenia or autism. Multisensoryprocessing operates on all brain levels from primary cortices over subcortical structures up to higher associative centers, while thesmallest operational units are single multisensory neurons.. In an interdisciplinary effort, we combine optical developments, genetics and neuro-computation to obtain new insights into the activityof brain-wide neural circuits that process multisensory information. To reduce the complexity, we study the small transparent brain ofzebrafish larvae as a model system. We focus on gaze stabilization as an inherently multisensory model task that is conservedamong all vertebrates. This ...
The most comparable evidence for human tonotopy is strikingly consistent with that of the monkey: an fMRI study that quantified tonotopy using the same statistical method as Bulkin and Groh (2011) identified ∼18% of the IC as tonotopic (Ress and Chandrasekaran, 2013); other studies reported evidence of tonotopy, although they did not quantify its scope (Geniec and Morest, 1971; De Martino et al., 2013). If the human IC is only sparsely tonotopic and variable across subjects (Ress and Chandrasekaran, 2013), it will be challenging to place a single array of electrodes with any consistency in a tonotopic region. Indeed, plans for the upcoming second clinical trial include the implantation of multiple arrays of electrodes (Lim and Lenarz, 2015) and this may increase the likelihood that the electrodes span sites with a range of different BFs.. A second issue that emerged from the physiological mapping study was that tuning of IC neurons to sound frequency was quite broad. For sounds of moderate ...
May 25, 2014 Meowing can be a sweet and loving communication with you, but it can also become obnoxious. Your felines language is composed of a number of vocalizations, scent signals and body postures. Because we humans do not have a...
serge baghdassarians / boris baltschun. auditorium. auditorium is an installation consisting of several related works translating sound through illumination and animation. the led-displays of guitar pedal tuners become the surface for the projection of letters, words and sentences. these words refer to different forms of auditory activity such as tuning and memorising and point to the regulative powers of musical systems.. each word becomes a number of tone names which cannot be heard but are to be imagined.. ...
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I suppose this is self-evident to many people, but I have found that doing everything I can to focus my brain on the visual and auditory stimulation...
High performance diaphragm pump, easy-to-use solution for small benchtop desiccators. It is portable and low sound level during operation with below 45 dB(A).
Report on the Computational Auditory Scene Analysis Workshop Malcolm Slaney, Dan Ellis, Dave Rosenthal Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 19 and 20th, 1995. The first workshop on Computational Auditory Scene Analysis (CASA) was held August 19 and 20th at the 1995 IJCAI (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence) in Montreal. Organized by Hiroshi Okuno and David Rosenthal, the workshop was attended by about thirty people doing work on scientific and engineering models of human audition and signal processing. Perhaps the workshop will best be remembered as the largest gathering to date of people interested in computer models of auditory scene analysis (ASA). The attendees were nearly evenly split between those that are interested in understanding human auditory perception and those that want to solve problems in auditory perception, perhaps using some of the techniques of auditory scene analysis. Al Bregman served as keynote speaker for the conference. His book, Auditory Scene ...
The auditory cortex is the most highly organized processing unit of sound in the brain. This cortex area is the neural crux of hearing, and-in humans-language and music. The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts: the primary, secondary, and tertiary auditory cortex. These structures are formed concentrically around one another, with the primary cortex in the middle and the tertiary cortex on the outside. The primary auditory cortex is tonotopically organized, which means that neighboring cells in the cortex respond to neighboring frequencies.[23] Tonotopic mapping is preserved throughout most of the audition circuit. The primary auditory cortex receives direct input from the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and thus is thought to identify the fundamental elements of music, such as pitch and loudness. An evoked response study of congenitally deaf kittens used local field potentials to measure cortical plasticity in the auditory cortex. These kittens were stimulated and ...
We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to study the large-scale organization of ferret auditory cortex in response to complex sounds. Cortical responses were collected during continuous stimulation by sequences of sounds with varying frequency, period, or interaural level differences. We used a set of stimuli that differ in spectral structure, but have the same periodicity and therefore evoke the same pitch percept (click trains, sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones, and iterated ripple noise). These stimuli failed to reveal a consistent periodotopic map across the auditory fields imaged. Rather, gradients of period sensitivity differed for the different types of periodic stimuli. Binaural interactions were studied both with single contralateral, ipsilateral, and diotic broadband noise bursts and with sequences of broadband noise bursts with varying level presented contralaterally, ipsilaterally, or in opposite phase to both ears. Contralateral responses were generally largest and ipsilateral
In Pressl. Basura GL, Koehler S, and Shore SE. . Stimulus-timing dependence of auditory-somatosensory plasticity in auditory cortex neurons after noise induced temporary threshold shifts and tinnitus. Journal of Neurophysiology: In Press, 2015. Article featured on JNP homepage.
TY - GEN. T1 - On the synthesis of multiple frequency tone burst stimuli for efficient high frequency auditory brainstem response. AU - Ellingson, Roger M.. AU - Dille, Marilyn L.. AU - Leek, Marjorie R.. AU - Fausti, Stephen A.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - The development and digital waveform synthesis of a multiple-frequency tone-burst (MFTB) stimulus is presented. The stimulus is designed to improve the efficiency of monitoring high-frequency auditory-brainstem-response (ABR) hearing thresholds. The pure-tone-based, fractional-octavebandwidth MFTB supports frequency selective ABR audiometry with a bandwidth that falls between the conventional click and single-frequency tone-burst stimuli. The MFTB is being used to identify high frequency hearing threshold change due to ototoxic medication which most generally starts at the ultra-highest hearing frequencies and progresses downwards but could be useful in general limitedbandwidth testing applications. Included is a Mathcad® implementation and ...
A novel method is presented for creating a probability map from histologically defined cytoarchitectonic data, customised for the anatomy of individual fMRI volunteers. Postmortem structural and cytoarchitectonic information from a published dataset is combined with high resolution structural MR images using deformable registration of a region of interest. In this paper, we have targeted the three sub-areas of the primary auditory cortex (located on Heschls gyrus); however, the method could be applied to any other cytoarchitectonic region. The resulting probability maps show a significantly higher overlap than previously generated maps using the same cytoarchitectonic data, and more accurately span the macroanatomical structure of the auditory cortex. This improvement indicates a high potential for spatially accurate fMRI analysis, allowing more reliable correlation between anatomical structure and function. We validate the approach using fMRI data from nine individuals, taken from a published ...
The most common active mode-locking technique places a standing wave electro-optic modulator into the laser cavity. When driven with an electrical signal, this produces a sinusoidal amplitude modulation of the light in the cavity. Considering this in the frequency domain, if a mode has optical frequency ν, and is amplitude-modulated at a frequency f, the resulting signal has sidebands at optical frequencies ν − f and ν + f. If the modulator is driven at the same frequency as the cavity-mode spacing Δν, then these sidebands correspond to the two cavity modes adjacent to the original mode. Since the sidebands are driven in-phase, the central mode and the adjacent modes will be phase-locked together. Further operation of the modulator on the sidebands produces phase-locking of the ν − 2f and ν + 2f modes, and so on until all modes in the gain bandwidth are locked. As said above, typical lasers are multi-mode and not seeded by a root mode. So multiple modes need to work out which phase to ...
Sound is dynamic and as such has temporal and spectral content. The auditory system extracts the spectral aspects and the temporal ones in parallel in the cochlea and auditory nerve. For frequencies below about 1.5 kHz, the spectral and temporal representations of sound are potentially redundant and both represent the pitch of speech and music. Auditory temporal processing determines our understanding of speech, our appreciation of music, being able to localize a sound source, and to listen to a person in a noisy crowd. The underlying basic capabilities of the auditory system include precise representation of sound onsets and offsets, representing gap durations in sound, and being able to code fast amplitude- and frequency- modulations of sound. The co-occurrence of such onsets and modulations of sound determine auditory objects and allow separating those from other auditory streams. Problems with precise temporal representations of sound occur in auditory neuropathy and multiple sclerosis and lead to a
Sound is dynamic and as such has temporal and spectral content. The auditory system extracts the spectral aspects and the temporal ones in parallel in the cochlea and auditory nerve. For frequencies below about 1.5 kHz, the spectral and temporal representations of sound are potentially redundant and both represent the pitch of speech and music. Auditory temporal processing determines our understanding of speech, our appreciation of music, being able to localize a sound source, and to listen to a person in a noisy crowd. The underlying basic capabilities of the auditory system include precise representation of sound onsets and offsets, representing gap durations in sound, and being able to code fast amplitude- and frequency- modulations of sound. The co-occurrence of such onsets and modulations of sound determine auditory objects and allow separating those from other auditory streams. Problems with precise temporal representations of sound occur in auditory neuropathy and multiple sclerosis and lead to a
Visual and auditory stimulation at 3 frequencies in the alpha-band range caused an analgesic effect in participants exposed to experimental pain, according
A method and device for detecting dichroic and/or birefringent narrow spectral features in a sample is described. The method includes the steps of providing a beam of light having an optical frequency bandwidth which is narrow compared to the width of the narrow spectral feature and having a center frequency ωc which lies near the narrow spectral feature, polarization phase modulating a beam of light with a single RF frequency to provide a pure FM spectrum having upper and lower sidebands in which either the carrier and sidebands have been polarized with respect to one another, exposing the sample containing the narrow spectral feature to the polarized modulated light so that the FM sidebands probe the narrow spectral feature, polarization analyzing and then photodetecting the light emerging from the sample to detect a RF beat at the specific RF frequency used for the polarization phase modulation, and electronically monitoring the amplitude of the RF beat signal to indicate the strength of the narrow
A method for providing broad-band antireflective surface layers on a chemically durable borosilicate glass which comprises phase-separating the glass by heat treatment at 630 -660 C., removing a siliceous surface layer from the glass, and treating the glass in an aqueous solution containing both H+ ions and F- ions for a time sufficient to produce the antireflective surface layer, is described. Antireflective surface layers exhibiting reflectances as low as 0.5% throughout the wavelength range from about 0.4-2.0 microns have been produced.
BPSK signals in this modem design are demodulated synchronously, and synchronous detectors require a reference carrier for phase determination. Since the BPSK transmitter suppresses its carrier in its balanced modulator, there is no clearly defined reference present in a BPSK signal. The demodulator must therefore synthesize a BPSK reference carrier from sideband components present in the composite BPSK signal. If viewed in the time domain, the carrier of a signal whose phase shifts by 180 degree intervals may be extracted by taking the absolute value of the BPSK waveform voltage and filtering the result. A full-wave rectifier can be used to perform the absolute value function. The rectification process yields a waveform of constant phase and frequency twice that of the BPSK suppressed carrier. In the frequency domain, the rectifier may be thought of as being a non-linear circuit that mixes the upper and lower BPSK sidebands producing the algebraic sum of those sidebands. Dividing the frequency ...
Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee..………………Clear!..................... KA-CHUNK!!!!!!!...... Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep…… Beep………………… You know what this sounds like. You know exactly what this sounds like. Youve heard it on practically every hospital TV show, every movie in which someone is rescued near death in a spaceship with a sickbay…over, and over, and over. And its…
Personally everything anyone needs to know about BFS has already been researched and written up in BFS in a Nutshell. And that document has been stickied and prominently posted here on this very website for nearly ten years. I just find it rather silly that people are still seeking answers and still pushing for more research when we all know *beep* well they are going to find what every oldtimer here already knows. That is why I choose not to participate, and why I am guessing a lot of people choose not to participate. The #1 rule when you truly do accept your BFS is stop self testing and researching and obsessing so much about neurology! So by very definition participating in a study like this is such a backwards slide for most of us that I would consider it to be emotionally and mentally damaging. In any case, you are asking why people choose not to participate and that is why for a lot of us. I already know why I have BFS. I already know what BFS is. And I choose not to go back into the ...
Need metronome for music practice. Use Best Metronome online. Its a free metronome and its online so there is no need to install anything. Its precise, user friendly and natural. Get it now.
Functions and Calculus, an essential link between Algebra and Number, is one of the strands of the Project Maths Course in the Irish curriculum.
Debbie, what you are describing sounds very much like what most BFSers call "exercise intolerance". It is very common with BFS. Some of your other symptoms may or may not be related to BFS. I have seen many posts where people describe exactly what you have with ALL of your symptoms and were diagnosed with BFS. If you havent seen a neurologist yet, go see one so you can have peace of mind and KNOW that its only BFS once and for all. Guessing will only keep youre mind going in circles and yes, time is on your side with BFS but how long do you want to guess and wonder "what if"...? I am in that boat and have been for almost 2 years now and I can tell you, it sucks. There are no good neuros where I live and I am just a big baby and am too scared to go. Its aguy thing... we are ALWAYS sicker than you girls, whether its the flu, a cold, a stomach ache or anything... all men are whiners and I am the biggest one! Ha-ha!! I drive my wife nuts when I am sick with my whining and complaining... dont ...
White Noise and Ear Buds/Headphones: Blocking out distractions is HUGE. After using white noise with ear buds for so many years, youd think Id remember just how effective it is in helping me focus, but no. I tend to not use them for weeks, then plug in the ear buds out of desperation, and discover that WOW, I just had a monumentally productive writing session! My favorite white noise app (and website) is Simply Noise. They have three types of white noise (in addition to rain and other sounds): white, pink, and brown. For my ear, brown is the soothing one, while white and pink are grating. Everyone is different. I like setting the high oscillation feature, which turns the volume up and down in a wave-like pattern. Somehow that aids in concentrating too. The app has a timer, too, so you can set the white noise to run for, say 30 minutes, and then shut off. Thats been very helpful in keeping me from staying so deep into the rabbit hole that I forget carpool duty or other crucial things ...
With powerful JBL Signature Sound, a sleek, contemporary look and smart, touch-control features, the JBL LIVE 500BT is perfect for any on-the-go lifestyle. Prepare to hit the streets with an innovative listening experience, optimized for Google Assistant and Amazon Alexa, as well as Ambient Aware and TalkThru technologies. With TalkThru, music temporarily pauses at the touch of a button, lowering speech and amplifying sound to make it easy to chat with a friend without removing the headphones. In Ambient Aware mode, listeners can control the amount of background noise they want to let in, to stay keyed into their surroundings when its needed most, such as walking in a busy intersection, dodging through a crowd of people or having an ear out for the family dog playing in the park.
With powerful JBL Signature Sound, a sleek, contemporary look and smart, touch-control features, the JBL LIVE 500BT is perfect for any on-the-go lifestyle. Prepare to hit the streets with an innovative listening experience, optimized for Google Assistant and Amazon Alexa, as well as Ambient Aware and TalkThru technologies. With TalkThru, music temporarily pauses at the touch of a button, lowering speech and amplifying sound to make it easy to chat with a friend without removing the headphones. In Ambient Aware mode, listeners can control the amount of background noise they want to let in, to stay keyed into their surroundings when its needed most, such as walking in a busy intersection, dodging through a crowd of people or having an ear out for the family dog playing in the park.
We research how listeners use sounds in order to learn about, and interact with their surroundings. Our work is based on behavioral methods (psychophysics), eye tracking and functional brain imaging (MEG, EEG and fMRI). We are based at the Ear Institute. MEG and fMRI scanning is conducted at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging. We are also affiliated with the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience.. By studying how brain responses unfold in time, we explore how representation that are useful for behaviour arise from sensory input and dissociate automatic ,stimulus-driven, processes from those that are affected by the perceptual state, task and goals of the listener. Examples of the questions we address in our experiments are: How do listeners detect the appearance or disappearance of new auditory objects (sound sources) in the environment? What makes certain events pop-out and grab listeners attention even when it is focused elsewhere while the detection of other events requires directed ...
Das BfS steht im Fokus der Öffentlichkeit. Medien berichten häufig über die Arbeit des BfS. Eine kleine, nicht repräsentative Auswahl an Zeitungsartikeln, die sich mit der Arbeit des BfS auseinandersetzen und Aspekte sachlich und anschaulich darstellen, haben wir Ihnen hier zusammengestellt.. ...
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Is multisensory instruction EFFECTIVE? Is it good for ALL Kids? Learn what the research says about multisensory instruction and multisensory learning.
The Korg TM50 is a perfect pitch and rhythm training device allowing use of the metronome and tuner simultaneously The Korg TM50 allows you to use the tuner and metronome simultaneously Since this single unit is all you need for both pitch and rhythm tra
Reverse My Tinnitus Review - Discover How To get Rid Of Tinnitus Naturally Tinnitus is the sensation of hearing certain noises for example ringing, buzzing or any other sounds in a continual or intermittent type, and in a different range of loudness, if you find no actual real audio to listen for. The sounds are usually heard once the background .... Read More » ...
Ernst, M.O., Bresciani, J.-P., & Drewing, K., 2004. Feeling what you hear: Auditory signals can modulate the perception of tactile taps. Perception, 33(Suppl. 1), p 143-143 ...
Tonotopy, the orderly representation of sound frequency is a fundamental organizing principle of the auditory system. However, the mechanisms by which precise t...
WASHINGTON, March 24, 2009 - The Federal Communications Commission on Tuesday outlined the procedures by which parties wishing to provide written or oral
in front of a sound name, such as "^weapons/explode3.wav" tells the sound engine that it is a distance based sound. The left channel of the .wav is the near sound that will play when the sound originates close to you, and the right channel is the far sound that will play when the sound originates far from you. If the ^ mark is not used in the soundscript the sound is treated as stereo with no directionality or distance. This is a different feature than the sndlvl entry to control attenuation. This distant variant feature allows you to play two different sounds (but using only one file) and cross-fading between the two depending on how far away the sound originates. Currently the fade distances are hardcoded to begin at 20 feet (240 world units) and end at 110 feet (1320 world units) and cannot be changed in a mod. ...
... ,Crystal Metronome 1.4.6 is Tempo markings. Measures. Subdivisions including eighth notes and triplets
Combines the Real and Imaginary data sets to one array for exporting to the Simepr.exe program. You must use this feature to Optimize or Tune an FT spectrum. This feature has no meaning for a CW spectrum. Only a symmetric spectrum which is centered in the data array will produce a Fourier transform which is purely either Real or Imaginary depending on the harmonic with the exception of noise. A first derivative CW spectrum will produce a purely Imaginary display after an FFT+1. To simulate the FT of non-symmetric and/or non-centered spectra, this feature has been added. Because the spectral information is compressed into the low frequency region of an FT by the exponential linewidth function, the high frequency region may be discarded. This now empty space of the Imaginary array is used to hold the low frequency information of the Real array. You will be prompted for n, the frequency value (data point) for combination. This number should be above the region of significant low frequency spectral ...
Beloved masters, there is a Light Path that will lead you out of the density into the LIGHTNESS OF THE SPIRITUAL REALMS. The key that allows you to traverse this sacred path is within you, and it is called your Energy Signature or your Soul Song. Your vibrational patterns or energetic signature has resonance, cadence, tones and vibrancy, just like a song; and your original Soul Song was in perfect harmony with the Celestial Soul Song of the universe. Each dimension has a unique resonance and an identifiable harmonic sound pattern. Your physical existence is a reality focused on harmony and balance or the lack thereof; and the further you move into density, the more discordant your vibrational patterns become. In your material plane reality you habitually focus on tangible things which have substance or density, a time/space orientation of cause and effect. That each of you is the creator of your own reality is gradually permeating the mass consciousness belief patterns. As you refine your ...
Im an artist experimenting with cross-sensory perception and the uncharted territories of the senses. Im exploring the sense of smell along with new technologies. raewynturner.co.nz ...
My Answer: The highly specialized nature of eukaryotic cells limit its ability to survive elsewhere independently. Most specialized cells belong to particular part of an organism where what they need to survive on is in abundance (erythrocytes + iron in bloodstream) whereas prokaryotic cells can thrive independently because they dont require particular substances to live. Eukaryotic cells on the contrary are highly competent cells that are performing many higher level functions such as reasoning(neurons) and the breakdown of ethanol after alcohol consumption by hepatocytes (liver cells) ...
BLB: Yes, thats a very insightful question, and I can definitely say it surfaced quite early on, when I was playing drums in bands as a teenager. The relation of sound and space became extremely present for me at this time, and maybe for a number of reasons continues today. Essentially, playing the drums introduced me, or taught me, how sound and space interact - of course, this is clear on an acoustic level, and yet I can also recall this realization was somewhat of a startling epiphany: that moment of first transporting the drums to another space, another location, to perform in front of people, and suddenly feeling the drums differently. It was suddenly as if it was an entirely different instrument, a different sound, which really broke open my relation to my actions as a drummer - this acoustical challenge in a way forced a recognition and negotiation with space you might say, through the moment of playing the drums. This simple experience opened up my understanding of making sound to that ...
The quality of the advance calculations can be evaluated quickly by reading off the 1,800 measuring probes of the BfS. They measure radioactivity in the environment around the clock. If a cloud spreads differently than expected, this is shown by the measurements in real time. The BfS can correct its prognoses on this basis - and the Federal Länder can review their protective measures and change them if necessary.. ...
Someone actually asked this question about a week ago: Beeping sound every 5 seconds, it wont turn on The two Apple links I posted in my answer there are relevant here. Beeping at startup is an issue with RAM; 3 beeps indicates that the system has checked your installed RAM, but finds it unacceptab... - MacBook Core 2 Duo
Scientists in Japan have identified a number of different sounds that babies make if they are hungry, sad or in pain.One day they think they will be able to produce hand-held baby monitors which can t...
A periodic alteration in some parameter of a signal. For example, a sine wave can have its amplitude changed (amplitude modulation or AM) or its frequency (frequency modulation or FM).. Amplitude modulation ...
Changing the source and intensity of the auditory signal to six trained cats responding to meaningful auditory stimuli permits exogenous and endogenous processes in the auditory evoked potential to be separated. For short-latency exogenous processes, latency and amplitude depend on the parameters of the physical stimulus. However, the amplitude and shape of longer-latency endogenous processes are essentially independent of the location and intensity of the signal source and seem to be invariant concomitants of the significance of the signal. ...
So happy to have found this forum! So much info I can read about the problem I had for more than 10 years. Recently the other ear started to bother me....
Hmmm, whats this, a controvertial statement? ;-) Its not too far fetched to suppose that perceptual processes at the lowest levels are actively modulated by attentional absorption such as in your example. However, this modulation is probably not as severe as that experienced at the cognitive level; I get your point. Claire_Pich wrote: Like a microphone, the ear reacts to the incoming acoustic stimuli without discrimination. ...
Just to ask the trivially obvious, did you completely reboot your Mac since then? And another obvious thing, have you checked the volume and mute status (System Preference=>Sound)?. If you have, Id suggest, in addittion to Hovseps suggestion, that you reset the PRAM as well. To do this, shut down the MacBook, then switch it on and press the Command+Option+P+R simoultaneously until you hear the "ping" (I guess you may not hear it if the problem persists...), then keep the keys down for another cycle, then let the Mac start up normally.. ...
Tinnitus is a perceived sensation of sound in the absence of an external acoustic stimulus; often described as a ringing, hissing, buzzing, or whooshing ...
Find right answers right now! What is the the number of octaves in the range from 20 Hz to 40 kHz ? More questions about Chemistry, what
Looking for a great offer at Sangha by Octave in Suzhou, China? Here youll find 18 Offers at this Mr & Mrs Smith Hotel and were always adding more. If youre looking for an excuse for a getaway, youll find one right here...
well need to know from someone who knows forsure, im a big guy about 6.3 265lbs i have a huge upper body but im not that tone at all i wont to get to...
Listeners in complex auditory environments can benefit from the ability to use a variety of spatial and spectrotemporal cues for sound source segregation. Probing these abilities is an essential part of gaining a more complete understanding of why listeners differ in navigating the auditory environment. Two fundamental processes that can impact the auditory systems of individual listeners are aging and hearing loss. One difficulty with uncovering the independent effects of age and hearing loss on spatial release is the commonly observed phenomenon of age-related hearing loss. In order to reveal the effects of aging on spatial hearing, it is essential to develop testing methods that reduce the influence of hearing loss on the outcomes. The statistical power needed for such testing generally requires a larger number of participants than can easily be tested using traditional behavioral methods. This work describes the development and validation of a rapid method by which listeners can be categorized in
Author: Kayser, C et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2009-12; Title: Multisensory interactions in primate auditory cortex: fMRI and electrophysiology
It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that
A major challenge for sensory processing in the brain is considering stimulus context, such as stimulus probability, which may be relevant for survival. Excitatory neurons in auditory cortex, for example, adapt to repetitive tones in a stimulus-specific manner without fully generalizing to a low-probability deviant tone ("oddball") that breaks the preceding regularity. Whether such stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) also prevails in inhibitory neurons and how it might relate to deviance detection remains elusive. We obtained whole-cell recordings from excitatory neurons and somatostatin- and parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in layer 2/3 of mouse auditory cortex and measured tone-evoked membrane potential responses. All cell types displayed SSA of fast ("early") subthreshold and suprathreshold responses with oddball tones of a deviant frequency eliciting enlarged responses compared with adapted standards. SSA was especially strong when oddball frequency matched neuronal preference. In ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spontaneous activity in the statoacoustic ganglion of the chicken embryo. AU - Jones, Timothy A.. AU - Jones, Sherri M.. PY - 2000/3/30. Y1 - 2000/3/30. N2 - Statoacoustic ganglion cells in the mature bird include neurons that are responsive to sound (auditory) and those that are not (nonauditory). Those that are nonauditory have been shown to innervate an otolith organ, the macula lagena, whereas auditory neurons innervate the basilar papilla. In the present study, single-unit recordings of statoacoustic ganglion cells were made in embryonic (E19, mean = 19.2 days of incubation) and hatchling (P6- P14, mean = 8.6 days posthatch) chickens. Spontaneous activity from the two age groups was compared with developmental changes. Activity was evaluated for 47 auditory, 11 nonauditory, and 6 undefined eighth nerve neurons in embryos and 29 auditory, 26 nonauditory, and 1 undefined neurons in hatchlings. For auditory neurons, spontaneous activity displayed an irregular pattern [discharge ...
G130 - 06 Standard Test Method for Calibration of Narrow- and Broad-Band Ultraviolet Radiometers Using a Spectroradiometer , calibration, ultraviolet, radiometer, narrow-band, broad-band,
A wireless neural prosthetic device for a primary auditory cortex of a patient includes either a speech processor or a stimulating device for receiving and processing information and a wireless electrode arranged in the primary auditory cortex having a plurality of electrical contacts. The electrode can be arranged in the patients primary auditory cortex and each of the plurality of electrical contacts independently outputs electrical discharges in accordance with the processed electrical signals. The plurality of electrical contacts can be arranged to approximately tonotopically match the primary auditory cortex.
How do arousal-related changes in sensory representations impact the ability of the pyramidal cell population to discriminate frequencies? At face value, the reduction in sparseness of activated cells and broadening of frequency tuning should increase overlap in cell ensembles activated by different frequencies. This implies that increased arousal would degrade rather than improve frequency discrimination. To address this, we analyzed interneuronal correlations that contribute to population coding: signal correlations (rsignal), a measure of tuning similarity between pairs of neurons and noise correlations (rnoise), a measure of how much the trial-to-trial response variability of a pair of neurons is correlated (19, 20). Consistent with previous studies in the auditory cortex (21⇓⇓-24), mean rsignal and rnoise values were small and positive (n = 4,938 cell pairs, 8 experiments, Fig. 2 C and D1). Interneuronal correlations were significantly modulated by arousal (Fig. 2C, 2-way ANOVA, ...
Stimulus modality, also called sensory modality, is one aspect of a stimulus or what we perceive after a stimulus. For example, the temperature modality is registered after heat or cold stimulate a receptor. Some sensory modalities include: light, sound, temperature, taste, pressure, and smell. The type and location of the sensory receptor activated by the stimulus plays the primary role in coding the sensation. All sensory modalities work together to heighten stimuli sensation when necessary. Multimodal perception is the ability of the mammalian nervous system to combine all of the different inputs of the sensory nervous system to result in an enhanced detection or identification of a particular stimulus. Combinations of all sensory modalities are done in cases where a single sensory modality results in ambiguous and incomplete result. Integration of all sensory modalities occurs when multimodal neurons receive sensory information which overlaps with different modalities. Multimodal neurons are ...
A study was conducted to determine whether newborn infants organize auditory streams in a manner similar to that of adults. A series of three experiments investigated the ability of three- to four-day-old infants to discriminate repeated rising and falling four-tone sequences in two configurations of source timbre and spatial position. It was hypothesized that if the sequences were organized into two auditory streams on the basis of timbre and spatial position, one of the configurations should be discriminable from its reversal, while the other should not. The sequences were tested with different pitch and temporal intervals separating the tones. Sequences were discriminated for the first configuration by adults at both fast tempo/small interval and slow tempo/large interval combinations, while only the latter was discriminated by newborns as measured with a non-nutritive, high-amplitude sucking paradigm. Neither adults nor infants could discriminate the sequence reversals for the second ...
The objective of this study is to test the feasibility and physiological effect of low-frequency (1 Hz) acoustic stimulation delivered during nocturnal NREM sleep in epilepsy patients. The long-term goal is to develop this protocol for daily, long-term use in a home setting, for nocturnal seizure and IED ...
The disclosure herein describes a system for conducting automatically an audiometric test using a data processing means, in which are stored a series of tone frequencies, amplitude levels and time periods, and including a circuitry enabling the application of stimuli to a subject. Depending on each response received from the subject in answer to a given tone frequency, the apparatus will (1) continue the test utilizing a different amplitude level for the same tone frequency, (2) register the minimum threshold of the tone frequency, (3) continue the test utilizing a different tone frequency, or (4) register an aberration. The apparatus also enables the application of a vocal test to a subject in which the subject must indicate which word in a series of displayed words was heard.
I had mixed success with it. My goal was to program it to beep after seven minutes, wait a minute, beep again, and lather rinse repeat that for the amount of time it would take me to run five miles. (You know, cause I take those walking breaks.) So, wading through the teensy menu screens, my first thought was that would count as "an alert". Ah, silly me! I dutifully programmed it to beep after what I thought would be seven minutes. There was something in there about 1 minute, too, so I figured I had it all figured out. Off I go. Pant, pant, pant. I glance down at the thing as minute seven approaches…approaches…and goes right on by without beeping. Shit. I start punching buttons. Grrrr. Then all of the sudden, beep beep beep beep beep beep. Its not stopping. beep beep beep beep SHUT UP! SHUT UP! I HATE YOU! Grrrr. I turned that puppy off, all the way off, and back on. And it still remembered exactly where I was on this run - it hadnt reset the distance, the time, or anything. But at least ...
When two sounds are presented in quick succession, the neural response to the second sound can decrease relative to when it is presented alone. Previous two-tone experiments have not determined whether the frequency tuning of cortical suppression was determined by the receptive field of the neuron or the exact relationship between the frequencies of the two tones. In the first experiment, it is shown that forward suppression does depend on the relationship between the two tones. This confirmed that cortical forward suppression is frequency specific at the shortest possible timescale ...
The inferior colliculus is a part of the midbrain that serves as a main auditory (sound) center for the body. It acts as the channel for almost all auditory signals in the human body. Its primary roles are signal integration, frequency recognition, and pitch discrimination.
Periodotopic organization in the inferior colliculus of chinchillas revealed by c-fos labelling due to electrical and acoustical stimulation ...
The auditory system is responsible for detecting, encoding, and deciphering hearing. The inferior colliculus (IC) is a major relay hub situated in the midbrain, that is subdivided into a central nucleus, and surrounding dorsal and lateral cortices. The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) is organized tonotopically based on a frequency gradient and strictly processes auditory information. In contrast, recent studies show that the lateral cortex of the inferior colliculus (LCIC) is actually multimodal, receiving inputs from not just auditory sources, but also somatosensory and visual structures. The precise organization of patterned inputs to the LCIC and their development has yet to be fully established. Mounting evidence suggests a modular LCIC framework with surrounding extramodular zones that provide an anatomical substrate for input-output arrays. Previously, a series of histochemical and immunocytochemical stains including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), cytochrome oxidase (CO), glutamic
If you are a school psychologist, you know this type of student. They do really well on spatial reasoning and non-verbal reasoning subtests. They dont do so well on measures of short term auditory memory or short-term auditory working memory. What this means is that in a nice, quiet testing environment, without distractions, they can barely remember number sequences, and stumble when asked to repeat short sentences and passages. If you happen to administer a cognitive test, like the WISC-IV, during some of the verbal sub-tests, they will forget what you just asked them, or even forget what they were going to say. Sometimes you know they know it, but they just can retrieve the information from long-term verbal memory. If you administer the WJ-III cognitive assessment, they often will perform poorly on the Cognitive Efficiency cluster, and as a result, will receive an overall cognitive score that is more of a reflection of their short-term memory and attention difficulties than their ability to ...
THE EFFECT OF VARYING THE STIMULUS INTENSITY (LOUDNESS) ON THE RECALL OF 9-DIGIT SEQUENCES WAS STUDIED USING 2 PRESENTATION RATES. AT 1 DIGIT/SEC AND WITH INSTRUCTIONS FOR 3, 3, AND 3 REHEARSAL GROUPING, STIMULUS INTENSITY WAS FOUND TO BE A VARIABLE ONLY IN THE CASE OF THE LAST 3 DIGITS, WHICH ACCORDING TO REHEARSAL INSTRUCTIONS WERE UNREHEARSED. NO EFFECT WAS FOUND ON THE 1ST 6 REHEARSED DIGITS. AT 4 DIGITS/SEC, A RATE TOO FAST FOR SYSTEMATIC REHEARSAL, THE STIMULUS INTENSITY AFFECTED THE RECALL OF THE 1ST 6 AND THE LAST 3 DIGITS. THE RESULTS ARE DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO THE QUESTION OF WHETHER OR NOT THE STIMULUS AND REHEARSAL MEMORY TRACES SHOULD BE REGARDED SEPARATELY. THE QUESTION OF PRESENTATION RATE AND PERFORMANCE IS ALSO DISCUSSED.. ...
Certain aspects relate to providing an at least one audio source to at least one user. Certain aspects relate to selectively modifying an at least one first sound source to be provided to the at least one user, wherein the at least one first sound source is combined with an at least one second sound source, and wherein the selectively modifying is performed relative to the at least one audio source based at least in part on at least some specific information of the at least one first sound source. Other aspects relate to selectively modifying the at least one first sound source to be provided to the at least one user relative to the at least one second sound source based at least in part on at least some specific information of the at least one first sound source.
Intensity - The amount of energy transported by a wave across a unit area per unit of time. The intensity of a sound wave determines the loudness of the sound. The unit of intensity is (W/m2) The lowest intensity the human ear can detect is 10-12 W/m2 The highest intensity the human ear can detect is 1 W/m2 Therefore, the sound range of intensity if 10-12 W/m2 to 1 W/m2 If you increase the intensity of a sound wave by about 10 times, the sound will sound about twice as loud as the original. Sound intensity levels are specified on a logarithmic scale. Unit = bel, named after Alexander Graham Bell. The unit decibel (dB) is more commonly used. (1 dB = 1/10 bel) The sound level is defined in terms of its intensity. Sound level = 10dB * log(I/Io) Io = Standard reference intensity, usually the minimum intesnity audible to a good human ear = 1.0 x 10-12 W/m2 ...
This thesis is concerned with the cross-modal and synaesthetic perception of musical and visual stimuli. Each of these types of perception has been researched separately, and a hypothesis is presented here that accounts for both cross-modal matching and the development of synaesthesia. This hypothesis claims that sensory information can be evaluated in another modality by using a scale of comparison in that modality. The first set of experiments examines normal subjects performing cross-modal matching with coloured circles and auditory stimuli that vary in complexity. It is shown that subjects use a variety of scales of comparison from both visual and auditory modalities to form matches. As the stimuli increase in complexity, the individual variation in cross-modal matching also increases. The second set of experiments examines matching performance using higher order stimuli, by having subjects evaluate fragments of melodies and complete melodies on affective and descriptive adjective scales. ...
In this auditory decision‐making task, subjects had to internally estimate category boundaries to determine the correct response to an auditory tone. The task was designed to examine the choice outcome and uncertainty in categorizing the auditory stimulus in comparison to the internal boundary. Subjects correctly classified tones in 78% of trials with decision uncertainty evident in decreased accuracy as the tone frequency got closer to the defined threshold. A phasic SN dopaminergic neuronal response was seen beginning ~50 msec after the auditory stimulus and peaking at ~400 msec. Decision outcome significantly predicted this phasic response while inclusion of uncertainty and prior trial experience significantly improved the fit of a general linear model when added as explanatory variables.. The role of dopamine signaling in decision making has mainly been investigated in terms of reinforcement learning and reward theory. SN neurons release dopamine in a phasic fashion when presented with an ...
Both reviewers agree that this manuscript has merit in that it connects the responses properties of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons to the representation of vowels. Previous models that attempted to explain neural coding for vowels are inadequate in that they fail at high sound levels and in the presence of background noise. The model proposed in this manuscript may overcome these limitations. The basis of the model is the tuning of many IC neurons to a range of amplitude modulation frequencies. It is possible that the hypothesis advanced in this manuscript might lead to a novel and compelling explanation of vowel encoding. The reviewers have suggested many improvements to the manuscript. Many of were aimed at promoting greater clarity; in particular, for this manuscript to be accessible to as wide an audience as possible, that authors should keep jargon to a minimum and carefully explain technical terms (related to vowel perception) as they arise. One reviewer identified two problems of a more ...
In discussing parallels between the auditory cortex and the cortical processing of other sensory modalities, we cannot ignore the fact that for most neuroscientists the standard model of sensory...
With headphone listening, the naturally occurring left/right asymmetry in head and ear shapes can produce frequency-dependent variations in the perceived location of a sound source. In this paper, this phenomenon is studied by determining the interaural level differences required to center a set of narrow-band stimuli with different center frequencies. It is shown that the perceived asymmetry varies from one listener to another. Some of the asymmetry can be explained with asymmetry in...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of an auditory cue on chewing cycle kinematics. AU - Wintergerst, Ana M.. AU - Buschang, Peter H.. AU - Hutchins, Bob. AU - Throckmorton, Gaylord S.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - Objectives: This study analysed the systematic and random effects of a rhythmic auditory cue on chewing cycle kinematics. Methods: The chin movements of 25 subjects (19-35 years of age) with normal class I occlusion were recorded at 100 Hz (Optotrak® Northern Digital) during two natural gum chewing (2.5 g) sequences to determine the chewing rate of each subject. Another sequence was recorded with the subjects chewing at their natural rate following an audible cue. Multilevel modeling procedures were used to evaluate differences between natural chewing with and without an audible cue. Results: Differences were found between experimental conditions for excursions, velocities and cycle shape. When chewing with the audible cue velocities were slower and there was less excursion of the chin ...
The reasons for tinnitus and other auditory perceptions can vary, so can the difficulties a person may have because of them. Owing to this, there isnt a single treatment or management strategy that works for everybody. It is widely said that nothing can be done about tinnitus. This is not true. While there is no way turn the sound of tinnitus off, there are numerous ways that someone who finds their tinnitus troublesome and/or distressing can reduce the impact of it. Strategies for managing tinnitus involve using methods to break the negative cycle of tinnitus and help the process of habituation. Put simply this means helping the brain to no longer think the tinnitus is important to listen to. Tinnitus management looks at the way the brain is involved in this perception of sound. It is important for a person to see the relationship between the physical, mental and emotional impact of tinnitus and how this can help habituate them to their tinnitus, just like any other sounds in the environment ...
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The contents of this article are subject to worldwide copyright protection and reproduction in whole or part, whether mechanical or electronic, is expressly forbidden without the prior written consent of the Publishers. Great care has been taken to ensure accuracy in the preparation of this article but neither Sound On Sound Limited nor the publishers can be held responsible for its contents. The views expressed are those of the contributors and not necessarily those of the publishers.. Web site designed & maintained by PB Associates & SOS. ...
In one subject (BMS), we attempted to see whether the observed OFRs could be quantitatively accounted for by our subtractive model (Equation 3). To obtain the data required for such an analysis, we ran Experiments 1B through 1D using stimuli that all had the same total size (approximately 25° × 25°) but comprised abutting strips of variable height. Panel A of Figure A1 shows the normalized TF tuning (like in Experiment 1B) obtained for 0.5-cpd sinusoidal gratings arranged in 0.4°- (pink open diamonds), 1.6°- (blue open squares), or 6.2°- (green filled diamonds) high strips.12 Although gratings strip heights differed 16-fold, their tuning was similar: The response is a separable function of TF and strip height. The strongest OFRs were recorded at 18.6 cycles/s.13 Panel B of Figure A1 shows the SF tuning curves (like in Experiment 1C) for filtered noise stimuli whose strip heights ranged from 0.1° to 25° in two-octave increments (see the Figure A1 insert for symbol definition). All ...
Intelligible crosstalk in microwave radio systems employing single-sideband modulation is substantially eliminated by phase-modulating the AM carrier-wave prior to its modulation by the baseband signal. The phase-modulation may comprise a periodic signal, such as a single sinusoidal tone or pseudo-random noise, or it may comprise an aperiodic signal such as a truly random noise. In this latter event, the coding signal is transmitted to the receiving location to ensure proper demodulation of the encoded signal.
Description of problem: The sound level setting net saved between sessions Version-Release number of selected component (if applicable): How reproducible: Always Steps to Reproduce: 1.Login to a KDE session 2.Set the sound level as you want it 3.Logout and login again Actual results: The soundlevel will be set at full at the new login Expected results: Sound level from previous session remembered Additional info ...
People T_Vision is a broad-band application research project. It provides a distributed virtual globe as a multimedia interface to visualize any kind of data related to a geographic region. The virtual globe is modeled from high-resolution spatial data and textured with high-resolution satellite images. A T_Vision database and real-time rendering system has been developed to handle this huge amount of data. Seam-less links between different levels of detail allow contin-uous zooming from a global view down to recognizable features of only a few centi-meters in size. The virtual globe can display many types of data, including biological, sociological, economical, and others. This project is based on the concept of a transparent and worldwide broad-band, networked topography and surface data bank. Because it is impossible for a single location to store and maintain the huge amount of high-resolution data necessary for such a visualization application, the system automatically establishes an ATM ...
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This book systematically details the basic principles and applications of head-related transfer function (HRTF) and virtual auditory display (VAD), and reviews the latest developments in the field.
Tinnitus is often described as ringing in the ears; often times the sounds heard,are not just confined to ringing. Many times, this condition causes sufferers to hear hissing, roaring, clicking or buzzing sounds. The sounds can vary in volume and pitch, from low to high and can be heard in one or both ears. This year, nearly 24 million Americans have suffered from Tinnitus, having lasted 5 minutes or more; On average 1 in 5 Americans are affected by Tinnitus. It is important to remember that Tinnitus is not a disease it is a symptom that there is something wrong in the auditory system. The auditory system includes our ear, auditory nerve connecting the inner ear to the brain that process sound ...
Sounds connect. Two or more beings present in sound to each other constitute co-presence. Sounding is one of several means of co-presence, but unlike others, it involves vibrating at the same or sympathetic frequencies, an auditory aura forming a basis for a sound community. What might the study of animal sound communication contribute to a study of sound and sociality? Birds communicate in songs and calls that create and maintain order and that sustain their group. Musicians coordinate their sound by "tuning in" to each other and listening to each others sound presences. Musicians feel community strongly during peak music-making experiences. Sounding co-presence is an interdependent, resonant, relational way of being in and knowing the world. How might sound exchanges model participatory democratic communities and social justice? This second of four lectures by musicologist Dr. Jeff Todd Titon is an exploration of sound and community. Titon is the spring 2016 chairholder of ETSUs Wayne G. ...
Glossary of commonly used Occupational Therapy terms. Adaptive Response: An action that is appropriate and successful in meeting some environmental demand. Adaptive responses demonstrate adequate sensory integration and drive all learning and social interactions.. Auditory: Language processing skills: the abilities of listening and verbally communicating, acquired as one hears and perceives sounds and interacts with the environment.. Auditory Figure-Ground: The ability to discriminate between sounds in the foreground and background, so that one can focus on a particular sound or voice without being distracted by other sounds.. Auditory Perception: The ability to receive, identify, discriminate, understand, and respond to sounds.. Bilateral Coordination: The ability to use both sides of the body together in a smooth, simultaneous, and coordinated manner.. Bilateral Integration: The neurological process of integrating sensations from both body sides; the foundation for bilateral ...