Four lichen acids, physodalic acid (F1), physodic acid (F2), 3-hydroxyphysodic acid (F3), and isophysodic acid (F4), were isolated from Hypogymnia physodes methanol extract using preparative reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and their structures were determined by UV, MS, H-1 NMR and C-13 NMR. This is the first report on the isolation of F4 from H. physodes. Isolated rat thymocytes were cultivated with increasing F1-F4 concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 mu g/well) and proliferative activity, viability, ROS (reactive oxygen species) production and MMP (mitochondrial membrane potential) disturbances were evaluated. Obtained results show significantly decreased thymocytes proliferation was observed when cells were treated with F1 (1 mu g, p LT 0.05; 10 mu g; p LT 0.001), F2 (10 mu g, p LT 0.05) and F3 compound (10 mu g, p LT 0.05). Significantly increased cytotoxicity was detected when cells were incubated with F1 (1 mu g, p LT 0.05; 10 mu g, p LT 0.01), F2 (10 mu ...g, p LT 0.05) and ...
Define carbocyclic. carbocyclic synonyms, carbocyclic pronunciation, carbocyclic translation, English dictionary definition of carbocyclic. adj. Having a ring composed exclusively of carbon atoms, as benzene. adj containing a closed ring of carbon atoms Adj. 1. carbocyclic - having or relating...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis and Anti-HIV Activity of Carbocyclic 2,3-Didehydro-2,,3-dideoxy 2,6-Disubstituted Purine Nucleosides. AU - Vince, Robert. AU - Hua, Mei. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - (±)-cis-[4-[(2,5-Diamino-6-chloropyrimidinyl)amino]-2-cyclopentenyl]carbinol (5a) was synthesized from 2-amino-4,6-dichloropyrimidine and cis-4-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopentenylamine (2a) by subsequent preparation of the 5-[(4-chlorophenyl)azo] derivative of the resulting pyrimidine (3a) and reduction of the azo moiety with zinc and acetic acid. The carbocyclic analogue of 2′,3/-didehydro-2′,3′-dideoxy 2-amino-6-chloropurine (6a) and the corresponding 8-azapurine (9a) were prepared from 5a. The carbocyclic 2′,3/-didehydro-2′,3′-dideoxy analogues of guanine (7a) and 2,6-diaminopurine (8a), and 8-azaguanine (10a) and 8-aza-2,6-diaminopurine (11a) were prepared from 6a and 9a, respectively. The corresponding 2′,3′-saturated series of 2-amino-6-substituted-purine carbocyclic nucleosides was prepared ...
The introduction of the bioisosteric nitrogen at position 9 of the anthrapyrazole ring structure and the concomitant removal of ring hydroxy substituents cause a number of physicochemical effects that are likely to be relevant in terms of biological activity.. The presence of the aza substituent abolishes self-aggregation phenomena occurring both for MX and LX. This is interesting, because self-aggregated species tend to precipitate from aqueous media causing obvious undesired consequences upon administration (Powis and Kovach, 1983). In addition, the aggregation phenomena subtract part of the drug from the pharmacologically relevant interactions. The reason for lack of aggregation probably rests in the protonation equilibria involving the pyridine nitrogen, which are significant at physiological pH. In fact, although the carbocyclic analogs can easily stack their neutral planar portion one onto the other with the charged side-chains oriented in opposite directions, the same process cannot occur ...
The (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of the carbocyclic analogues of (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2-deoxyuridine (C-BVDU) and 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (C-IDU) were synthesized by separate routes. Both the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of C-BVDU and C-IDU were markedly inhibitory to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication. (+)-C-BVDU and (+)-C-IDU were as inhibitory to HSV-1 as the racemic (+/-)-C-BVDU and (+/-)-C-IDU, respectively, whereas the (-)-enantiomers were only 10-fold less active. Also, the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of C-BVDU were equally inhibitory to the growth of murine mammary carcinoma cells transformed by the HSV-1 or HSV-2 thymidine kinase (TK) gene (designated FM3A TK-/HSV-1 TK+ and FM3A TK-/HSV-2 TK+). The (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of C-BVDU and the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of C-IDU had a remarkably similar affinity for HSV-1 TK [Ki, 0.09 and 0.19 microM for (+)-C-BVDU and (+)-C-IDU and 0.16 and 0.19 microM for (-)-C-BVDU and (-)-C-IDU, respectively]. The inhibition of HSV-1 TK by BVDU, IDU, ...
The use of a mesogenic compound having a terminal end chain comprising carbon, oxygen, or sulphur, which has at least one pendent C¿1-4?alkyl, C¿1-4?alkoxy or a cycloalkyl ring, arranged no more than 6 atoms from the end of the chain e ...
What is described is a compound of formula I wherein X is an ethene, or an unsubstitiited or substituted arene or heteroarene; Y is a bond, an ethene, or an unsubstituted or substituted arene or heteroarene; Z is S or O; L is a linear or ...
After considerable fiddling, Ive finally managed to update the phylogeny and host-association matrix for the most common lichen photobiont, Trebouxia. The methods are similar to those used in my previous post on Nostoc rbcX sequences, to the extent that the same script can used to run both analyses. It was modified to use algal species names rather than host names when analysing Trebouxia, to colour the clades in the tree, and to count the number of times each photobiont lineage has been sampled from each lichen genus. All the steps required for this analysis can be see here. All of the files that were generated are available here.. I had previously built a tree from 1840 ITS sequences and identified lineages corresponding to ten named species and five unnamed species. Since then, there have been a number of important papers that have expanded the known diversity of the group and begun to codify the novel lineages. My current ITS tree (PDF version here) has 2335 sequences and includes 12 named ...
Heterocyclic compound - Comparison with carbocyclic compounds: The molecules of organic chemical compounds are built up from a framework or backbone of carbon atoms to which are attached hydrogen (H), oxygen, or other heteroatoms. Carbon atoms have the unique property of being able to link with one another to form chains of atoms. When the ends of the chains are joined together into a ring, cyclic compounds result; such substances often are referred to as carbocyclic or alicyclic compounds. Substitution of one or more of the ring carbon atoms in the molecules of a carbocyclic compound with a heteroatom gives a heterocyclic compound. A typical carbocyclic compound
Disclosed herein is an improvement in a method for distinguishing cells in a biological sample by staining with a dye, wherein the improvement comprises employing as the dye a compound of the formula ##STR1## wherein G is O or S; R1, R3, and R5 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, amino, styryl, bis(diaryl)vinylene, and ##STR2## wherein R is hydrogen or alkyl; Z represents the elements necessary to complete a basic heterocyclic ring system of the type used in cyanine dyes; n is 0 or 1; R2 is hydrogen or, taken together with either R1 or R3, represents the elements needed to complete an aromatic or a carbocyclic ring system; R4 is hydrogen or, taken together with either R3 or R5, represents the elements needed to complete an aromatic or a carbocyclic ring system; and X- is an anion.
Get Question Papers of Last 10 Years Which class are you in? Billed $59.95 today then every 12 months. To solve this, stand on the glowing spot to the south to make a shining bridge materialize and play the Command Melody. The variables in the algebra can be used to represent the unknown quantities which are coupled in such a way to rewrite the equations. Clickable political map of the World locating all countries of the World with their political boundaries. Class 5 Class 6 Class 7 Class 8 Class 9 Class 10 Class 11 Class 12. Resend OTP. Formal Letters. Other Methods for Carbocyclic Construction: Aspidodispermine … Get one on one guidance from top exam experts as your personal coach to align your preparation strategy. This can be clear by looking at the energy profile diagram for a reaction, R→P. To start using our services, its enough to place a request like I need a writer to do my assignment or Please, write an essay for me. We have a convenient order form, which you can complete ...
Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts) thallus: fruticose (fruticous), shrub-like, beard-like thallus: continuous, diffuse, effuse [th] upper surface: grey(ish) [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: present [th margin] cilia, cilioid structures: absent [th upper surface] isidia, isidioid structures: absent [th upper surface] soredia, soralia, soralioid structures: absent [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: squamulose ascomata: absent , present ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid hymenial ascoma [mm]: (low) 0.3 (high) 0.6 [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present asci: lecanoralean [asc] tholus: thickened [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: with amyloid tube, ring (= Collema-, Micarea-, Porpidia-, Psora-types etc) secondary metabolites: present secondary metabolites: atranorin , norstictic acid , stictic acid primary photobiont: present secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent , ...
Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts) thallus: crustose (crustaceous) episubstratal unspecified thallus: cracked, fissured, fractured, rimose , compartimentized areolate, squamulate [th] upper surface: grey(ish) , brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) , white(ish) , brown(ish) grey , red(dish) brown (if pale: orange brown) [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: present [th margin] cilia, cilioid structures: absent [th upper surface] isidia, isidioid structures: absent [th upper surface] soredia, soralia, soralioid structures: absent , present [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: smooth, plane , verrucose, warted , bullate [th] medulla amyloidity: absent ascomata: present ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid hymenial ascoma [mm]: (low) 0.5 (high) 0.5 (max) 1.2 ascoma: sessile, superficial [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: plane, flat, flattened, expanded , subconvex, slightly convex , convex [ascm, if apoth] disc, ...
Enzyme Inhibitors - Compounds of formula (I), are aurora kinase inhibitors: wherein X is -N-, -CH2-N-, -CH2-CH-, or -CH-; R1 is a radical of formula (IA) wherein Z is -CH2-, -NH-, -0-, -S(O)- -S-, -S(O)2 or a divalent monocyclic carbocyclic or heterocyclic radical having 3-7 ring atoms; Alk is an optionally substituted divalent C1-C6 alkylene radical; A is hydrogen or an optionally substituted monocyclic carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring having 5-7 ring atoms; r, s and t are independently 0 or 1, provided that when A is hydrogen then at least one of r and s is 1; R2 is halogen, -CN, -CF3, -OCH3, or cyclopropyl; and R3 is a radical of formula (IB) wherein Q is hydrogen or an optionally substituted phenyl or monocyclic heterocyclic ring with 5 or 6 ring atoms; Z&It;1, is -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O)2-, -O-, -SO2NH-, -NHSO2-, NHC(═O)NH, -NH(C═S)NH-, Or -N(R4)-wherein R4 is hydrogen, C1-C3 alkyl, cycloalkyl, or benzyl; and Alk&It;1, and Alk&It;2, are, independently, optionally substituted divalent C1-C3 ...
Iceland moss is a type of lichen consisting of a symbiosis of fungi and algae. They form a co-operative of the two species from which both benefit. The fungal part takes care of providing water and minerals, while the algal part forms biological material with the help of photosynthesis. Iceland moss contains a high proportion of water-soluble polysaccharides together with special lichen acids that do not exist anywhere in nature except in lichens. Numerous scientific studies have been carried out on the efficacy of the above materials. The principal results are as follows: Anti-oxidant effects Efficacy against bacteria Efficacy against viruses Efficacy against tumour growth Strengthens the immune system
A dye-donor element for thermal dye transfer comprising a support having on one side thereof a near-infrared absorbing dye comprising a dithiolene-nickel(II) complex dispersed in a polymeric binder, and on the other side thereof a slipping layer comprising a lubricant, the dye having the formula: ##STR1## wherein each R 1 , R 2 , R 3 and R 4 independently represents a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having from 1 to about 10 carbon atoms; a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group having from about 6 to about 10 carbon atms; a substituted or unsubstitutted heterocyclic group; or R 1 and R 2 may be combined together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form a 5- or 6-membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; or R 3 and R 4 may be combined together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached to form a 5- or 6-membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring.
Abacavir is a carbocyclic nucleoside analog RTI, which has been shown to be safe and well tolerated by HIV-infected patients (Saag et al., 1998; Hughes et al., 1999; Kumar et al., 1999). Studies have shown that abacavir can enter rat brain and monkey CSF (Daluge et al., 1997); however, this is the first study to examine the mechanisms of abacavir transport into both mammalian brain and CSF. This is important when we consider the complex relationship between drug concentrations in the brain and CSF and also that several anti-HIV drugs are now given in parallel to patients, so abacavir might compete with other drugs for transport into the brain.. Figures 1, 2, 6, and 7 illustrate that intact [14C]abacavir can cross the BBB and confirms a study that found intact abacavir in rat brain 2 h after intraperitoneal administration (Daluge et al., 1997). Figure 6 also confirms that there was little dissociation of the14C label from abacavir during its passage through the cerebral circulation and that ...
1YM2: Structure-based design, synthesis, and memapsin 2 (BACE) inhibitory activity of carbocyclic and heterocyclic peptidomimetics
PURPOSE: For the accurate diagnosis of organic acidopathies, quantification of urinary organic acid should be done and we should know the normal ranges of each organic acid excreted in the urine. The amount of organic acids excreted in the urine shows wide variability according to ethnic group, diet and age. We have quantified 82 organic acids to make a Korean reference value. METHODS: Organic acid concentrations were quantified with gas chromatography and the individual acids identified with mass spectrometry in urine specimens from members of the healthy Korean population of ages of one day to more than 12 years, subdivided into four age groups : neonatal period(-2 mon), infantile period(-2 year), childhood period(-12 year) and adolescent and adulthood(over 12 years). For isolation of organic acids from urine, we used solvent extraction method with ethylacetate. Derivatization was done with MSTFA(N-methyl-N-trimethylsilylfluoroacetamide). The library and four points quantification curve for ...
In symbiotic systems, patterns of symbiont diversity and selectivity are crucial for the understanding of fundamental ecological processes such as dispersal and establishment. The lichen genus Nephroma (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution and is thus an attractive model for the study of symbiotic interactions over a wide range of spatial scales. In this study, we analyze the genetic diversity of Nephroma mycobionts and their associated Nostoc photobionts within a global framework. The study is based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences of fungal symbionts and tRNA(L) (eu) (UAA) intron sequences of cyanobacterial symbionts. The full data set includes 271 Nephroma and 358 Nostoc sequences, with over 150 sequence pairs known to originate from the same lichen thalli. Our results show that all bipartite Nephroma species associate with one group of Nostoc different from Nostoc typically found in tripartite Nephroma species. This conserved association appears to have been
##STR1## The present invention relates to compounds of formula (I), in which formula, n is an integer from 1-7; and R1 and R2, which may be the same or different, stand for hydrogen, or lower alkyl (but with the proviso that when n=1, R1 and R2 cannot simultaneously be hydrogen, nor can R1 and R2 simultaneously be an alkyl group independently chosen from methyl, ethyl and normal-propyl, and when n=2, R1 and R2 cannot simultaneously be methyl), or lower cyclo-alkyl, or, taken together with the carbon (starred in formula I) bearing the hydroxyl group, R1 and R2 can form a saturated or unsaturated C3 -C9 carbocyclic ring; and R3 and R4 represent either simultaneously hydrogen, or when taken together constitute a bond, such that a double bond connects carbons 22 and 23; including diastereoisomeric forms (e.g. E or Z configuration of the 22,23-double bond; R or S configuration at the starred carbona atom) of the compounds of formula (I), in pure form or in mixtures. The present compounds find use in both the
A novel Ferrier-type carbocyclization is reported. It involves a carbohydrate-derived lactone acetal synthesized from methyl α-d-glucopyranoside, which upon treatment with excess vinylmagnesium bromide provides a highly substituted carbocyclic product as a single stereoisomer. The yield is greatly increased when N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine is added to the reaction mixture. Optimized reaction conditions have been applied to lactone acetals derived from other carbohydrates. Based on the obtained results, a possible reaction mechanism has been proposed. Furthermore, scalability of the reaction up to 15 g scale and derivatization of the carbocyclic product has been demonstrated, including the formation of a rare trans-bicyclo[4.3.0]nonene scaffold via a ring-closing metathesis. The structure of this and all carbocyclic products were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. ...
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This comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of the major ring-forming processes used in synthesis takes its examples from the terpene field. Since terpenes are most representative of carbocyclic compounds found in nature and characterized by intricate assays of ring structures, they are the most attractive and challenging targets for synthesis and a testing ground for defining the limitation of annulation techniques. With over 1200 references, this book constitutes a valuable reference work. It can also serve as supplementary text for senior and graduate level organic chemistry ...
The carbocyclic nucleosides, represented by the prototype molecule, CBV, are novel reverse transcriptase inhibitors with significant activity against HIV (Vince et al., 1988). An analog of CBV, abacavir, is currently in clinical trials (Faletto et al., 1997).. The present work continued the preclinical investigations of another CBV analog, 6AC, and the mechanism of its enhanced systemic delivery of CBV after oral dosing. ADA, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of 6AC to CBV, is localized in the presystemic organs, with the intestine having significantly greater activity than the liver (Ho et al., 1980; Chinsky et al., 1990). For 6AC, the intestine should be the primary organ where most of the first-pass effect takes place after an oral dose. Indeed, the disappearance half-lives of 6AC in the in vitro incubation studies were in accord with the relative tissue distribution of ADA. Homogenate incubations are often used as a means for in vitro prediction of in vivo metabolism. Obviously, ...
11. The process of claim 10, wherein the bis-.THETA.3-bonded ruthenium complex is chosen from:(a) a complex comprising Formula (III): ##STR00012## wherein:R811, R812, R813, R814, R815, and R816 are independently chosen from hydrocarbyl and substituted hydrocarbyl; provided one or more of R811, R812, R813, R814, R815, and R816 may form part of a ring or ring system chosen from carbocyclic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, and combinations thereof; provided two or more of R811, R813, R814, and R816 may link together to form a longer chain; andL1 and L2 are independently chosen from anion, hydrocarbyl, and substituted hydrocarbyl; provided L1 and L2 together may form the anion, a hydrocarbyl moiety, or a substituted hydrocarbyl moiety;(b) a complex evaluation comprising Formula (IV): ##STR00013## R611, R812, R813, R814, R815, and R816 are independently chosen from hydrocarbyl and substituted hydrocarbyl; provided one or more of R811, R812, R813, R814, R815, and R816 may form part of a ring or ring ...
A photopolymerizable composition, element and method of photopolymerizing the composition or element are disclosed wherein the composition comprises an addition polymerizable compound containing ethylenic unsaturation and a co-initiator including a photopolymerization activator and a photosensitizer. In one aspect of the invention, the photosensitizer is selected to be a coumarin having an absorption maximum between about 250 and about 550 nm, and a ##STR1## substituent in the 3-position wherein R1 is alkyl or alkenyl having 1-12 carbon atoms, or a carbocyclic or heterocyclic group having 5-20 nuclear carbon and hetero atoms, the coumarin and the activator being present in an amount sufficient to provide, when the composition is coated, dried and exposed to a medium-pressure mercury light source, a speed which is at least about one-fifth that of the same composition coated, dried and exposed identically except with a co-initiator consisting of Michlers ketone and benzophenone. In another aspect of the
A photopolymerizable composition, element and method of photopolymerizing the composition or element are disclosed wherein the composition comprises an addition polymerizable compound containing ethylenic unsaturation and a co-initiator including a photopolymerization activator and a photosensitizer. In one aspect of the invention, the photosensitizer is selected to be a coumarin having an absorption maximum between about 250 and about 550 nm, and a ##STR1## substituent in the 3-position wherein R1 is alkyl or alkenyl having 1-12 carbon atoms, or a carbocyclic or heterocyclic group having 5-20 nuclear carbon and hetero atoms, the coumarin and the activator being present in an amount sufficient to provide, when the composition is coated, dried and exposed to a medium-pressure mercury light source, a speed which is at least about one-fifth that of the same composition coated, dried and exposed identically except with a co-initiator consisting of Michlers ketone and benzophenone. In another aspect of the
Directory of patents filed by Mark L Bosse (54 patents): Methods for determining peroxidately active substances; Antibiotic formulation and use for bacterial infections; Non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; Phosphonomethoxy carbocyclic nucleosides and nucleotides; Aromatic compounds
Dysbiosis is a condition that can affect both humans & animals alike. Its an underlying cause of many debilitating diseases. So what the hell is Dysbiosis?