The pig intestinal brush border enzymes aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23-62) are present in the microvillar membrane as homodimers. Dimethyl adipimidate was used to cross-link the two [35S]methionine-labeled brush border enzymes from cultured mucosal explants. For aminopeptidase N, dimerization did not begin until 5-10 min after synthesis, and maximal dimerization by cross-linking of the transient form of the enzyme required 1 h, whereas the mature form of aminopeptidase N cross-linked with unchanged efficiency from 45 min to 3 h of labeling. Formation of dimers of this enzyme therefore occurs prior to the Golgi-associated processing, and the slow rate of dimerization may be the rate-limiting step in the transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex. For lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, the posttranslational processing includes a proteolytic cleavage of its high molecular weight precursor. Since only the mature form and not the precursor of this
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Dibenz[a,h]anthracene has been shown to be carcinogenic to experimental animals.. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene is embryotoxic to rats when given at high doses. The available data on teratogenicity were inadequate for evaluation. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene was positive in differential survival assays using DNA-repair-proficient/-deficient strains of bacteria and was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of an exogenous metabolic system. In cultured mammalian cells, dibenz[a,h]anthracene was mutagenic and induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in the presence of an exogenous metabolic system. It was positive in assays for morphological transformation. In the one available study, it induced sister chromatid exchange but not chromosomal aberrations in vivo.. There is sufficient evidence that dibenz[a,h]anthracene is active in short-term tests. ...
... ,Disposable paper cups or hidden potential carcinogens,Disposable paper cups or hidden potential carcinogens
An increase in zoxazolamine (2-amino-5-chlorobenzoxazole) metabolism, as determined either by paralysis time or by an enzyme assay in vitro, is associated with aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase induction among inbred strains of aromatic hydrocarbon-treated, genetically "responsive" mice, does not occur in inbred, genetically "nonresponsive," aromatic hydrocarbon-treated mice, and segregates (p , 0.01) with the Ah locus in the appropriate genetic crosses between "responsive" and "nonresponsive" mice. Hexobarbital metabolism, as determined by sleeping time, is not associated with the Ah locus in either inbred or hybrid mice. The inbred strains used for zoxazolamine and hexobarbital studies were C57BL/6N, BALB/cAnN, C3G/HeN, DBA/2N, and AKR/N. A rise in 5,5-diphenylhydantoin metabolism, as determined by the increased formation of p-hydroxy and 3,4-dihydrodiol derivatives in vitro, is associated with the presence of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction among aromatic ...
The administration of 2.5 mg retinyl acetate daily in the diet to female Sprague-Dawley rats beginning 7 days after the intragastric instillation of either 2.5, 5, or 15 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (CMBA) resulted in a reduction in the incidence of benign mammary tumors of 37, 30, and 31%, respectively. An equally significant reduction in the number of tumors was also evident. Although no difference was noted in the percentage incidence of mammary adenocarcinomas between the placebo and 2.5 mg retinyl acetate-treated groups at the 2.5-mg DMBA level, the percentage incidence was reduced by 52 and 39% in these groups at the 5- and 15-mg DMBA dose. Furthermore, the number of adenocarcinomas was also significantly reduced. Although both the percentage incidence and number of tumors were reduced by treatment with 1 mg retinyl acetate, these differences were not statistically significant. Liver histology and liver function tests of rats of the retinyl acetate groups did not differ from that of the
SCALCO, F.B.; GIUGLIANI, R.; TOBO, P. and COELHO, J.C.. Effect of dimethylsulfoxide on sphingomyelinase activity and cholesterol metabolism in Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 1999, vol.32, n.1, pp.23-28. ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X1999000100003.. Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) fibroblasts present a large concentration of cholesterol in their cytoplasm due to a still unidentified deficiency in cholesterol metabolism. The influence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on the amount of intracellular cholesterol was measured in 8 cultures of normal fibroblasts and in 7 fibroblast cultures from NPC patients. DMSO was added to the fibroblast cultures at three different concentrations (1, 2 and 4%, v/v) and the cultures were incubated for 24 h. Sphingomyelinase activity was significantly increased in both groups of cells only when incubated with 2% DMSO (59.4 ± 9.1 and 77.0 ± 9.1 nmol h-1 mg protein-1, controls without and with 2% DMSO, respectively; 47.7 ± ...
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BioAssay record AID 80927 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested for differentiation-inducing activity against human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60.
Hexane, commercial grade (52% n-hexane, 16% 3-methylpentane, 16% methylcyclopentane) Results in the Carcinogenic Potency Database
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment of acute focal cerebral ischemia with dimethyl sulfoxide. AU - Little, J. R.. AU - Cook, A.. AU - Lesser, Ronald P. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - The object of this investigation was to study the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) upon the evolution of cerebral infarction. Twenty adult cats anesthetized lightly with ketamine hydrochloride underwent right middle cerebral artery occlusion for 6 hours. Ten cats were not treated and 10 cats received DMSO (2.5 g/kg i.v.) immediately after occlusion. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in the right sylvian region were similar in the untreated and treated groups. The mean rCBF before occlusion was 46 ± 10 ml/100 g/minute in the untreated group and 45 ± 10 ml/100 g/minute in the treated group. Eight cats in both groups had rCBF measurements consistently below 18 ml/100 g/minute during the 6-hour period after occlusion. An index of erythrocyte flow was determined by measuring the transit of technetium-99 (99Tc)-labeled ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Separation and analysis of subcellular organelles in a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60. T2 - Application to the study of myeloid lysosomal enzyme synthesis and processing. AU - Nauseef, W. M.. AU - Clark, Robert A. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - We describe a system for analysis of the intracellular pathways in the biosynthesis and packaging of functionally important proteins in human myeloid cells. The human promyelocytic cell line HL-60 was used since peripheral blood neutrophils are terminally differentiated and do not actively synthesize protein. Cells were disrupted by nitrogen cavitation and subcellular organelles in postnuclear supernatant separated on a discontinuous gradient of Percoll modified to resolve organelles important in protein synthesis. This Percoll gradient separated azurophilic granules from less dense organelles and partially separated the less dense organelles from one another. Approximate densities of organelles identified by electron microscopy ...
Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) was induced 15-fold in Ambystoma tigrinum by intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene in corn oil, or 10-fold by addition of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons to the aqueous environment of the neotene animal. The cytochrome P-450-associated microsomal enzyme is similar to the inducible, one-gene, autosomal-dominant system typical in the laboratory mouse and man. Differences in optimal temperature for enzyme induction and activity were noted in organ culture of human and Ambystoma tissues, and ratios of benzpyrene metabolites differed between Ambystoma and Mus. The half life of enzyme activity induced in vivo was related to the excretion of hydrocarbon metabolites.
A study was conducted to determine the protective effects of two common dietary proteins, soy protein isolate (soy) and bovine whey, against chemically induced mammary tumors in female Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were fed AIN-93G diets having casein, soy, or whey as the sole protein source. Rats within the same dietary groups were mated to obtain the F1 and F2 generations. At age 50 days, F1 (experiment A) or F2 (experiment B) female offspring (≥19 rats/group) were p.o. gavaged with 80 mg/kg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, and mammary glands were evaluated when 100% of the casein-fed group developed at least one palpatable tumor. Rats grew well on all three diets, but casein-fed rats gained slightly more body weight than soy- or whey-fed rats (P , 0.05). Vaginal opening occurred 1 day earlier in soy-fed rats than in casein- or whey-fed rats, but no other differences in reproductive and developmental parameters were observed between groups. When 50% of the casein-fed rats had at least one mammary ...
Chronic exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), generated during combustion of organic matter including cigarette smoke, depletes all ovarian follicle types in the mouse and rat, and in vitro models mimic this effect. To investigate the mechanisms involved in follicular depletion during acute DMBA exposure, two concentrations of DMBA at which follicle depletion has (75 nM) and has not (12.5 nM) been observed were investigated. Postnatal day four F344 rat ovaries were maintained in culture for four days before a single exposure to vehicle control (1% DMSO; CT) or DMBA (12 nM; low-concentration or 75 nM; high-concentration). After four or eight additional days of culture, DMBA-induced follicle depletion was evaluated via follicle enumeration. Relative to control, DMBA did not affect follicle numbers after 4 days of exposure, but induced large primary follicle loss at both concentrations after 8 days; while, the low-concentration DMBA also caused ...
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Interstitial cystitis / painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) presents as a pelvic pain condition associated with urinary urgency and frequency. These symptoms impair significantly the patients quality of life. The etiology is yet not obvious. The current acceptable theory is injury or dysfunction of the Mucus (Glycosaminoglycans) layer that covers the inner surface of the urinary bladder. Abnormal diffusion of toxins from the urine to the walls of the bladder leads to inflammation, pain and scarring.. Many types of treatments were described but most of them were not evaluated in well designed randomized controlled studies. For now, there is no one single treatment that gives good outcome to every patient. Therefore, the treatment of patients with IC/PBS is challenging. In this study, we will compare the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) to intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) instillation for the treatment of patients who suffers from IC/PBS.. Patients with IC (NIDDK criteria) will be ...
Bioflavonoids are plant compounds touted for their potential to treat or prevent several diseases including cancers induced by common environmental chemicals. Much of the biologic activity of one such class of pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/transcription factor (AhR). For example, the AhR regulates PAH immunotoxicity that manifests as pre-B cell apoptosis in models of B cell development. Because bioflavonoids block PAH-induced cell transformation and are structurally similar to AhR ligands, it was postulated that some of them would suppress PAH-induced, AhR-dependent immunotoxicity, possibly through a direct AhR blockade. This hypothesis was tested using a model of B cell development in which pre-B cells are cultured with and are dependent on bone marrow stromal or hepatic parenchymal cell monolayers. Of seven bioflavonoids screened, galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) blocked PAH-induced but not C(2)-ceramide- or H(2)O(2)-induced ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the larvicidal effect of aqueous and dimethyl sulfoxide extracts of Peganum harmala on larvae of …
Subject: NIOSH carcinogen and target risk level policies. Purpose: To update the NIOSH policies about chemical carcinogens in the workplace and the NIOSH target risk level policy for chemical carcinogens. This update to the NIOSH carcinogen policy, which was first issued in 1978, reflects advancements in cancer science and stakeholder concerns about the previous policy. The proposed policy outlines an approach that is expected to improve the efficiency of classifying carcinogens by utilizing classifications from relevant federal and international organizations, specifically the National Toxicology Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer.. Timing of Review: Public review November 2013 - February 2014; peer review November 2013 - March 2014. Primary Disciplines or Expertise Needed for Review: Carcinogen policy, toxicology, risk assessment, risk communication, occupational health, occupational cancer, industrial hygiene.. Type of ...
The present study has investigated the modulating effect of carnosic acid on the expression pattern of cell proliferative (proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) cyclin D1 and a transcription factor c-fos), apoptotic (p53, Bcl-2, Bax caspase -3 and 9), inflammatory (Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX- 2) and angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) markers during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral tumors were developed in the hamsters buccal pouches by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. Hundred per cent tumour formation (well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma) accompanied by deregulation in the above mentioned molecular markers was noticed in hamsters treated with DMBA alone (tumour bearing hamsters). Oral administration of carnosic acid at dose of 10mg/kg bw to hamsters treated with DMBA not only completely prevented the tumour formation, but also corrected ...
Title:Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer: Effect of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) Leaf Powder and its Pigment Artifact, Lawsone in the Epstein- Barr Virus Early Antigen Activation Assay and in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis Models. VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 10. Author(s):Govind J. Kapadia, G. Subba Rao, Rajagopalan Sridhar, Eiichiro Ichiishi, Midori Takasaki, Nobutaka Suzuki, Takao Konoshima, Akira Iida and Harukuni Tokuda. Affiliation:College of Pharmacy, Howard University, 2300 4th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20059, USA.. Keywords:Chemoprevention, epstein-Barr virus antigen assay, henna leaf powder, lawsone, mouse skin cancer models.. Abstract:In continuation of our studies with chemoprevention potential of plant-derived naphthoquinone derivatives, leaf powder of the medicinal plant Lawsonia inermis L, commonly known as henna, was evaluated by its inhibition of the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji ...
Deregulated estrogen signaling is evidently linked to breast cancer pathophysiology, although the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)5a, integral to normal mammary gland development, is less clear. A mouse model of mammary epithelial cell-targeted deregulated estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression [conditional ERα in mammary epithelium (CERM)] was crossed with mice carrying a germ line deletion of Stat5a [Stat5a−/−] to investigate interactions between ERα and Stat5a in mammary tissue. CERM, CERM/Stat5a+/−, CERM/Stat5a−/−, Stat5a+/−, Stat5a−/− and wild-type (WT) mice were generated to test the roles of ERα and Stat5a on pubertal differentiation and cancer progression with and without exposure to the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Only CERM/Stat5a−/− mice demonstrated delayed pubertal terminal end bud differentiation. Without DMBA exposure, Stat5a loss abrogated ERα-initiated hyperplastic alveolar nodule (HAN) ...
Methods This study used a pre/postintervention experimental design. The setting was bars in 12 Michigan counties. Subjects were bar employees, recruited through flyers and individual discussions with local health department staff. Participants completed a screening questionnaire to determine eligibility. A total of 40 eligible employees completed a demographic survey, provided urine samples for analysis of cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and completed questionnaires on respiratory and general health status 6 weeks before and 6-10 weeks after the law went into effect. The main outcome measures were urine samples for total cotinine and total NNAL and data from a self-administered respiratory and general health status questionnaire collected during the pre-law and post-law study periods. ...
Populations of Redside Dace Clinostomus elongatus have declined in many areas across the speciesNorth American range. Therefore, the development of sperm cryopreservation technology would provide an invaluable means of preserving genetic diversity in populations that are in imminent danger of extirpation.We developed cryopreservation protocols by testing the effects of diluent (buffered sperm motility-inhibiting saline solution [BSMIS]; BSMIS + glycine; sucrose; and Hanks balanced salt solution [HBSS]), cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]; propylene glycol [PG]; N,N-dimethylacetamide [DMA]; and methanol), freezing rate (1, 5, and 10◦C/min), and male-to-male variation on sperm quality. Incubating sperm in extenders affected motility;BSMIS + glycine + methanol,BSMIS + glycine + PG, and HBSS + methanol were the only treatments for which motility was not significantly different from that of fresh sperm. Sperm frozen with sucrose had higher motility than sperm frozen with BSMIS + glycine, ...
Join this webinar on June 10th at 3 PM EST (noon PST) May 13 2015. CAREX (CARcinogen EXposure) Canada is a national surveillance project that estimates which known and suspected carcinogens Canadians are exposed to, where in Canada such exposures may occur, and which substances pose the greatest hazard in workplaces and communities. The ultimate goal of the project is to inform efforts to reduce these exposures and thereby help to prevent cancer.. CAREX Canadas estimates have helped occupational health advocates to better understand how a worker in a particular industry, such as agriculture or printing, might be exposed to carcinogens on the job. The team has also supported legal staff in investigating workers compensation claims related to asbestos exposure. Most recently, CAREX has worked with the Canadian Environmental Law Association (CELA) on their review of policy and law around radon exposure in Canadian homes and workplaces.. This webinar, presented in partnership with CELA by CAREX ...
The gizzard tropomyosin molecule is composed of two subunits at 1:1 molar ratio. Best chicken marinades for grilling Possible composites of the tropomyosin
TY - JOUR. T1 - Binding of isomers of benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide to chromatin. AU - Kootstra, A.. AU - Slaga, T. J.. PY - 1980/4/14. Y1 - 1980/4/14. N2 - Both the carcinogenic B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) and its relatively noncarcinogenic isomer, B[a]P diol-epoxide (syn), when reacted with chromatin in vitro, bind more extensively to the internucleosomal region of chromatin than to nucleosomes. These results suggest that the increased binding of B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) to the internucleosomal region may have little relevance to the process of carcinogenesis.. AB - Both the carcinogenic B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) and its relatively noncarcinogenic isomer, B[a]P diol-epoxide (syn), when reacted with chromatin in vitro, bind more extensively to the internucleosomal region of chromatin than to nucleosomes. These results suggest that the increased binding of B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) to the internucleosomal region may have little relevance to the process of carcinogenesis.. UR - ...
Press Release issued Nov 1, 2018: U.S. National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP) concludes that there is clear evidence that male rats developed cancerous heart tumors from exposure to cell phone radio frequency radiation according to final reports released today. In addition, they conclude the increased tumors in the brain and adrenal gland of exposed male rats were some evidence of cancer from the cell phone radiation exposure. According to NIH, the final reports on rats and mice represent the consensus of NTP and a panel of external scientific experts who reviewed the study data in March and voted to strengthen the conclusion that cell phone radiation caused health effects. Scientists are now calling for federal action - a quantitative risk assessment and protective policies to reduce wireless exposure.
Isothiocyanates and their naturally occurring glucosinolate precursors are widely consumed as part of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables. When plant cells are damaged, glucosinolates are released and converted to isothiocyanates by the enzyme myrosinase. Many isothiocyanates inhibit the neoplastic effects of various carcinogens at a number of organ sites. Consequently, these agents are attracting attention as potential chemoprotectors against cancer. As a prerequisite to understanding the mechanism of the protective effects of these compounds, which is thought to involve the modulation of carcinogen metabolism by the induction of phase 2 detoxication enzymes and the inhibition of phase 1 carcinogen-activating enzymes, we examined the fate of ingested isothiocyanates and glucosinolates in humans. Recently developed novel methods for quantifying isothiocyanates (and glucosinolates after their quantitative conversion to isothiocyanates by purified myrosinase) and their urinary metabolites ...
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that crystalline silica in the form of quartz or cristobalite that is inhaled from occupational sources is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1- carcinogenic to humans). Refer to IARC Monograph 68, Silica, Some Silicates and Organic Fibres (published in June 1997) in conjunction with the use of these materials. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) classifies respirable crystalline silica as ***known to be a human carcinogen***. Refer to the 9th Report on Carcinogens (2000). The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) classifies crystalline silica, quartz, as a suspected human carcinogen (Group A2). Breathing dust containing respirable crystalline silica may not cause noticeable injury or illness even though permanent lung damage may be occurring. Inhalation of dust may have the following serious chronic health effects: Excessive inhalation of respirable dust can cause pneumoconiosis, a respiratory ...
Five types of nanofibrous membranes were prepared by electrospinning poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA), poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) (P(LA/CL)), poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLGA) and methoxy polyethylene glycol-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (MPEG-PLGA), respectively. These electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENFMs) were used to adsorb anthracene (ANT), benz[a]anthracene (BaA) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) from aqueous solution, and the sorption kinetics and isotherms of these PAHs on the five ENFMs were investigated. The pseudo-second-order model (PSOM) can well describe the sorption kinetics of the three PAHs on five ENFMs, and the partition-adsorption model (PAM) can interpret the sorption processes of PAHs on the ENFMs. PCL ENFMs, which had the largest surface areas (8.57 m(2)g(-1)), exhibited excellent sorption capacity for ANT at over 4112.3 ± 35.5 μg g(-1). Moreover, the hydrophobicity and pore volume of ENFMs significantly affected the sorption kinetics and sorption capacity
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene has produced tumours by different routes of administration in mice, rats, guinea pigs, frogs, pigeons and chickens. It has both local and systemic carcinogenic effects.. On oral administration, it produced tumours of the forestomach in the mouse; intratracheal administration to rats produced lung tumours. In repeated skin painting experiments in mice, dibenz(a,h)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene appeared to be equally effective. In a dose-response study on s.c. carcinogenicity with dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene was shown to be effective at a lower dose than that effective for benzo(a)pyrene or for 3-methylcholanthrene; its latent period, however, was longer. Dibenz(a,h)anthracene induced local sarcomas and increased the incidence of lung adenomas following a single s.c. injection in newborn mice at dose levels which were ineffective with 3-methylcholanthrene. It has not been adequately tested in other species. ...
Stereoselective metabolism of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), 2-chlorodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (2-Cl-DB[a,l]P) and 10-chlorodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (10-Cl-DB[a,l]P) by rat liver microsomes was studied and effects of the chloro substituent on the metabolism were determined. All three compounds produced trans-8,9-dihydrodiol, trans-11,12-dihydrodiol, and the 7-hydroxyl derivative as major metabolic products and several other phenolic derivatives as minor metabolites. The trans-8,9- and 11,12-dihydrodiols of DB[a,l]P and 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P preferentially adopted a quasidiequatorial conformation, whereas 10-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-8,9- and 11,12-dihydrodiols preferentially adopted a quasidiaxial conformation. The yields of the trans-11,12-dihydrodiol metabolites are: DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol | 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol || 10-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol. Circular dichroism (CD) spectral analysis indicates that the trans-8,9-dihydrodiol and trans-11,12-dihydrodiol metabolites from DB[a,l]P, 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P
Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is an organic chemical compound and the simplest organic trisulfide. It is a flammable liquid with a foul odor, which is detectable at levels as low as 1 part per trillion. Dimethyl trisulfide has been found in volatiles emitted from cooked onion, leek and other Allium species, from broccoli and cabbage, as well as from Limburger cheese, and is involved in the unpalatable aroma of aged beer and stale Japanese sake. It is a decomposition product of bacterial decomposition, including the early stages of human decomposition, and is a major attractant for blowflies looking for hosts. Dimethyl trisulfide along with dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide have been confirmed as volatile compounds given off by the fly-attracting plant known as dead-horse arum (Helicodiceros muscivorus). These flies are attracted to the odor of fetid meat and help pollinate this plant. DMTS contributes to the foul odor given off by the fungus Phallus impudicus, also known as the common ...
An investigation for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulates using thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is described. Samples are obtained from ambient air using fibreglass filters and the volatile material from the filter is thermally desorbed to gas chromatograph. A 30 meter capillary column is used to separate the hydrocarbons and eight polyaromatic hydrocarbons are used to test the method and recovery is >95%. The eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthrene, pyrene, benzo (a) anthracene, chrysene, benzo (a) pyrene and benzo (e) pyrene were the most abundant PAHs found in the samples of ambient air with current method at Uxbridge-London. Application of the measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air samples shows that the hydrocarbons trapped in the particle phase to a lesser degree at higher ambient temperature. In conclusion a method has been developed to transfer the PAHs in ...
A potentially major use of dimethyl ether is as substitute for propane in LPG used as fuel in household and industry.[11] It is also a promising fuel in diesel engines,[12] petrol engines (30% DME / 70% LPG), and gas turbines. For diesel engines, an advantage is the high cetane number of 55, compared to that of diesel fuel from petroleum, which is 40-53.[13] Only moderate modifications are needed to convert a diesel engine to burn dimethyl ether. The simplicity of this short carbon chain compound leads during combustion to very low emissions of particulate matter, NOx, and CO. For these reasons as well as being sulfur-free, dimethyl ether meets even the most stringent emission regulations in Europe (EURO5), U.S. (U.S. 2010), and Japan (2009 Japan).[14] Mobil uses dimethyl ether in their methanol to gasoline process.[citation needed] Dimethyl ether is being developed as a synthetic second generation biofuel (BioDME), which can be manufactured from lignocellulosic biomass.[15] Currently the EU is ...
The construction of transgenic FVB/N mice targeting the PMLRARA fusion gene under the control of a human MRP8 promoter recapitulated the phenotype of acute promyelocytic leukemia but had the unexpected result of multiple squamous papillomas of the skin (Brown et al., PROC: Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94:2551-2556, 1997). In addition, transgenic MRP8-PMLRARA mice exhibited a skin phenotype characteristic of vitamin A deficiency. The severity of the skin phenotype and spontaneous papilloma development correlated with the level of transgene expression. Papilloma formation was preceded by follicular hyperplasia and the expression of epidermal differentiation markers in the follicular epithelium. Mutations in the Ha or Ki alleles of ras were not detected in papillomas that developed on transgenic skin, and papilloma formation was accentuated on the C57/Bl6 background, unlike the usual resistance of this strain to skin tumor induction. Analysis of liver extracts from transgenic mice indicated a deficiency in the
The dimer, called dianthracene (or sometimes paranthracene), is connected by a pair of new carbon-carbon bonds, the result of the [4+4] cycloaddition. It reverts to anthracene thermally or with UV irradiation below 300 nm. The reversible dimerization and the photochromic properties of anthracenes are the basis of potential applications.[11] Substituted anthracene derivatives behave similarly. The reaction is affected by the presence of oxygen. In general, reduction of anthracene yields 9,10-dihydroanthracene (destroying the aromaticity of the center ring) rather than 1,4-dihydroanthracene (which would destroy the aromaticity of one of the terminal rings). This preference for reduction at the 9 and 10 positions is explained by the fact that aromatic stabilization energy is directly correlated with the number of conjugated pi bonds in an aromatic system. Since 9,10-dihydroanthracene in essence preserves two "benzene" rings (a total of 6 conjugated pi bonds), whereas the 1,4-isomer preserves only ...
The effects of hypophysectomy and prolactin-suppressing drugs on the growth of mammary tumors induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by N-nitrosomethylurea and dimethylbenz(a)anthracene were compared. The influence of ovine prolactin and growth hormone administration on N-nitrosomethylurea-induced tumors was also studied in hypophysectomized animals. After hypophysectomy, all 13 tumors induced in 13 rats by N-nitrosomethylurea underwent regression, as did ten of 12 induced by dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. There were no new tumors. Pergolide mesylate, a long-acting ergoline derivative, was given in a dose of 80 μg twice daily by s.c. injection for 28 days. Only three of 12 N-nitrosomethylurea-induced tumors regressed, while four became static. However, only two new tumors developed in the 12 pergolide-treated rats, compared to 11 in the 12 untreated controls. Bromocriptine mesylate, at ten times the pergolide dose, was even less effective; one of 16 tumors regressed, two became static, and eight new tumors ...
We examined the effects of several agents, including dietary flavonoids, on CYP1A1 expression utilizing a recently developed high-throughput screening system for assessing human cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction. HepG2 cells, stably integrated with regulatory regions of human CYP1A1, were treated with resveratrol, apigenin, curcumin, kaempferol, green tea extract (GTE), (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), quercetin, and naringenin. Of these flavonoids, resveratrol produced the greatest increase in CYP1A1-mediated luciferase activity (10-fold), whereas GTE, apigenin, curcumin, and kaempferol produced 2- to 3-fold increases in activity. Compared with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), omeprazole, or benzanthracene, where increases in luciferase activity ranged from 12- to 35-fold, these flavonoids exhibited weak agonist activity. The remaining compounds, EGCG, quercetin, and naringenin, produced negligible effects. Cotreatment of cells with TCDD and GTE, naringenin, and apigenin resulted ...
The development of intermolecular alkene aminopyridylation has great potential for quickly increasing molecular complexity with two valuable groups. Here we report a strategy for the photocatalytic aminopyridylation of alkenes using a variety of N-aminopyridinium salts as both aminating and pyridylating reagents. Using Eosin Y as a photocatalyst, amino and pyridyl groups are simultaneously incorporated into alkenes, affording synthetically useful aminoethyl pyridine derivatives under mild reaction conditions. Remarkably, the C4-regioselectivity in radical trapping with N-aminopyridinium salt can be controlled by electrostatic interaction between the pyridinium nitrogen and sulfonyl group of β-amino radical. This transformation is characterized by a broad substrate scope, good functional group compatibility, and the utility of this transformation was further demonstrated by late-stage functionalization of complex biorelevant molecules. Combining experiments and DFT calculations on the mechanism ...
Cheek pouches are pockets on both sides of the head of some mammals between the jaw and the cheek. They can be found on mammals including the platypus, some rodents, and most monkeys, as well as the marsupial koala. The cheek pouches of chipmunks can reach the size of their body when full. Cheek pouches are located in the thickness of the flange on both sides of the mouth of some mammals. Monkeys have open cheek pouches within the oral cavity, but they open out in some rodents of America. Hence the name "diplostomes" is associated with them, which means "two mouths." In some rodents, such as hamsters, the cheek pouches are remarkably developed; they form two bags ranging from the mouth to the front of the shoulders. Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire described that some bats of the genus Nycteris have an amazing form of cheek pouches, as they have a narrow opening, through which the bat can introduce air, closing the nasal canal through a special mechanism and pushing air under the skin, so they ...
The most common schemes for forming a well-defined heteroconjugate involve the indirect coupling of an amine group on one biomolecule to a thiol group on a second biomolecule, usually by a two- or three-step reaction sequence.
Photoreactive insulin analogues specifically label predominantly one polypeptide in the insulin receptor of rat liver plasma membranes. We have used the bifunctional reagent disuccinimidyl suberate to cross-link this polypeptide to its neighbouring, but not necessarily labelled, subunits. The results of these studies show that (1) there are at least three types of subunit in the receptor, with apparent Mr (Mapp.) values of 65 000, 95 000 and 120 000; (2) the receptor appears to consist of two Mapp. 120 000, one Mapp. 95 000 and one Mapp. 65 000 subunits; (3) the Mapp. 65 000 subunit, which has not been previously reported, may be only loosely attached to the receptor, and does not interact directly with the insulin-binding subunit (M app. 120 000). ...
SIA crosslinker is a non-cleavable, heterobifunctional protein crosslinker. SIA crosslinking reagent is the shortest amine and sulfhydryl (thiol) reactive protein crosslinker.
Hello, I am attempting to perform some experiments that inwolve cross-linking with Pierce photoreactive bifunctional cross-linker APDP. As I have no practice using that reagent, any advice would be most welcome. I plan to label one protein via sulphydryl end of APDP and then use the labelled protein in a reaction. After that the glycerol gradient will be run, and appropriate fractions will be flashed with light to activate the photoreactive group of APDP and cross-link that protein to whatever it has in proximity. I have read the papers provided by Pierce, but still have some questions, as follows: - Does APDP decompose thermally readily? Will it be possible to heat APDP-bound protein (that first one) for some 10 min, or will it destroy the photoreactive end (as I am affraid)? And how long can I keep APDP-bound protein sample before actual cross-linking with flashlight? - How photosensitive it is? Do I have to worry about ambient light when labelling the first protein by sulphydryl? - During the ...
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