Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for cath|current|4i6uD00/3-78 from SCOP2 SCOPe CATH ECOD. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
A new fluorometric method has been developed to measure the relative rates of the 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activities in periportal and pericentral regions of the liver lobule. The method utilizes a pair of micro-light guides constructed from two strands of 80 µm-diameter glass optical fibers. The micro-light guides are placed in periportal and pericentral regions on the surface of the perfused liver. The increase in tissue fluorescence due to 7-hydroxycoumarin formation from 7-ethoxycoumarin is measured in periportal and pericentral regions by illuminating tissue with light at 360 ± 50 nm and measuring fluorescence at 450 ± 50 nm. Since the steady-state tissue fluorescence due to 7-hydroxycoumarin monitored with a large light guide was found to be directly proportional to the steady-state rate of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation, the sublobular fluorescence of 7-hydroxycoumarin measured by micro-light guides following infusion of 7-ethoxycoumarin allows one to estimate sublobular rates ...
what are the products of light dependent reactions - 28 images - review for quiz on photosynthesis worland, the two steps of photosynthesis from openstax college, ppt photosynthesis powerpoint presentation id 1090782, science is cool, unit 6 photosynthesis cellular respiration ppt
edu/~cem333/EDTATable.html formation constant] (K,sub,f,/sub,) values for metal-EDTA complexes. Note that many heavy metal ions (like Fe,sup,3+,/sup,, Co,sup,2+,/sup,, and Zn,sup,2+,/sup,) are chelated much more strongly than Mg,sup,2+,/sup,. A little bit of EDTA in your reaction will go a long way to keep these evildoers out of trouble and away from your precious biomolecules without interfering with your Mg,sup,2+,/sup,-dependent reactions ...
Human Monocytes/Macrophage Inflammatory Cytokine Changes Following in vivo and in vitro Schistomam manoni Infection Mistire Wolde, 1, 2 Lisa C Laan, 3 Girmay Medhin, 1 Endalemaw Gadissa, 4 Nega Berhe, 1, 5 Aster Tsegaye 2 1Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Science, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 4Armauer Hansen Research Institute (AHRI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 5Oslo University Hospital-Ulleval, Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Oslo, NorwayCorrespondence: Mistire WoldeAklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaEmail [email protected]: Epidemiological and animal studies indicate that helminth infections have positive effects due to their potential to protect against autoimmune diseases. Here, we
Cytochrome P-450 (P-450) 2A6 was purified by chromatography of human liver microsomes. The final preparation was electrophoretically homogeneous and contained 16 nmol of P-450/mg of protein. The amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein (first 13 residues) matched that of the reported cDNA exactly. The UV-visible spectrum indicated that the isolated hemoprotein was in the low-spin form. The protein was recognized by rabbit antibodies raised against rat P-450 2A1, and a rabbit antiserum against the P-450 2A6 preparation was also prepared. With these antibodies, it was estimated that P-450 2A6 accounted for a maximum of 1% of the total P-450 present in the human liver microsomes; the level varied greater than 100-fold among the 20 samples examined. Purified P-450 2A6 catalyzed coumarin 7-hydroxylation and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation at rates similar to those measured in the human liver sample used to prepare P-450 2A6, and these two microsomal activities were strongly inhibited by the ...
Clotrimazole, an N-substituted imidazole widely used as an antifungal agent, has been shown to both inhibit and induce hepatic cytochrome P-450 and related monooxygenase activities. In this study the profile of hepatic cytochrome P-450 isozyme(s) induced by clotrimazole treatment of male Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. Clotrimazole administration (100 mg/kg, daily for 4 days, ig) resulted in 86% induction of spectrally detectable cytochrome P-450 in hepatic microsomes. In these microsomes 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (126%), aminopyrine N-demethylase (176%), benzphetamine N-demethylase (117%), p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (89%), and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (62%) activities were significantly induced, whereas aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity remained unchanged. Characterization of cytochrome P-450 isozyme(s) in hepatic microsomes prepared from clotrimazole-treated animals was based on the immunoreactivity of these microsomes with highly specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised ...
This reagent is a fluorogenic substrate suitable for the continuous determination of cytochrome P450 mixed-function monooxygenases. The product of the reaction is the fluorescent compound 3-cyano-7-hydroxycoumarin (Product No. C 2737). This property has been utilized to determine the activity of CYP1A by measuring the rate of dealkylation of 3-Cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin to this fluorescent product . Fluorescence of 3-cyano-7-hydroxycoumarin occurs at neutral pH with excitation and emission at 408 and 450 nm, respectively . Fluorescent reaction product detection is at least 50-fold more sensitive than that of the product of alkyl resorufin oxidation because of greater rate of turnover of 3-Cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin . The ability to continuously monitor the enzyme reaction at pH 7 is derived from the lower pKa of the 3-cyano-7- hydroxycoumarin product compared to that for 7-ethoxycoumarin . 3-Cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin is a suitable substrate for three of the five principal cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing ...
When chlorophyll a absorbs light energy, an electron gains energy and is excited. The excited electron is transferred to another molecule (called a primary electron acceptor). The chlorophyll molecule is oxidized (loss of electron) and has a positive charge. Photoactivation of chlorophyll a results in the splitting of water molecules and the transfer of energy to ATP and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). The chemical reactions involved include: condensation reactions - responsible for water molecules splitting out, including phosphorylation (the addition of a phosphate group to an organic compound) oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions involving electron transfer Photosynthesis is a two stage process. 1. The Light dependent reactions, a light-dependent series of reactions which occur in the grana, and require the direct energy of light to make energy-carrier molecules that are used in the second process: light energy is trapped by chlorophyll to make ATP (ph. ...
Sixteen compounds related to GTP were evaluated as inhibitors of bacteriophage-Q beta poly(C)-dependent poly(G) polymerase. Non-phosphorylated compounds, including guanine, guanosine and deoxyguanosine, were inactive. Phosphorylated compounds gave significant inhibition at millimolar concentrations. For nucleotides the feature important for inhibition was the 5′-phosphate chain. Four triphosphates, XTP, ITP, 7-methyl-GTP and 2′-O-methyl-GTP, gave 50% inhibition of both the poly(C)- and poly(U2,C)-dependent reactions at concentrations from 0.1 to 5 mM. XTP was 10-fold more potent an inhibitor of the reaction with poly(U2,C) as template. None of these four compounds was able to substitute for GTP as substrate to a significant extent. The most active compound, 2′-O-methyl-GTP, was a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.4 mM) of GTP in the poly(C)-dependent reaction. ...
2 major biochemical reactions that occur in the peroxisome is the mixed function oxidase and the other is a catalase but what 2 enzymes are involved in these reactions?...beta oxidation one of them ...
A study was conducted of the effects of 10 hypolipidaemic agents on peroxisomal and microsomal enzyme activities in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Treatment with compounds such as Wy-14,643, tiadenol, nafenopin, BR-931, clofibrate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate induced cyanide-insensitive palmitoyl-CoA oxidation (a specific peroxisomal marker enzyme), a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 80,000 associated with peroxisome proliferation, and carnitine acetyltransferase activity, after 70 h of culture. These compounds also maintained hepatocyte cytochrome P-450 levels and markedly induced lauric acid hydroxylation, whereas little effect was observed on 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase. Studies with metyrapone, which also maintains cytochrome P-450, suggested that treatment with the hypolipidaemic agents resulted in the formation of different form(s) of cytochrome P-450 to those present in control cultures. Regression analysis demonstrated a high correlation between the induction of the peroxisomal
Natural Electron ACCEPTORS Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADP) used in photosynthesis in chloroplasts NADP + + 2H + + 2e - NADPH + H + Ferredoxin the most difficult to reduce (and most easily oxidised) Cytochromes Conjugate proteins which contain a haem group. The iron atom undergoes redox reactions Fe 3+ + e - Fe 2+ NB The iron atom in the haem group of haemoglobin does not go through a redox reaction Haemoglobin is oxygenated or deoxygenated Reduction Oxidation Reduction Oxidation © 2010 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Atlas, S A.; Diwan, B A.; and Nebert, D W., "Inducible monooxygenase activities and 3-methylcholanthrene- -initiated tumorigenesis in mouse recombinant inbred sublines." (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography 1976. 2211 ...
Coumarins: Biology, Applications and Mode of Action predominantly focuses on the parent compound, coumarin, and its main metabolite in humans, 7-hydroxycoumarin. It describes in detail every facet of these compounds including history, toxicology, chemistry, metabolism, analysis, clinical, veterinary and other applications, their roles as immunomodulatory agents and speculates on their mode of action.
Hill Reaction Chloroplasts contained the naturally occurring electron acceptor NADP+ and that it was reduced to NADPH2 in the light by addition of electrons and hydrogen ions. The hydrogen ions for the reduction are provide by water molecule which split into hydrogen ions and electrons releasing the oxygen (photolysis of water). The chloroplasts supplied with ADP and inorganic phosphate, manufacture .... Read More » ...
I m confused about cyclic and non-cyclic photophosporilation. Do they happen at the same time? And what connects them? Thanks a lot for the help...
Kinetic and inhibitor studies using cDNA-expressed enzymes and human liver microsomes have characterized the specificity of a range of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A substrate and inhibitor probes towards the two isoforms comprising this subfamily. Expressed CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 both catalyzed the O-deethylation of phenacetin, although the apparent Km was about 4-fold lower for CYP1A2 (25 vs. 108 microM). Phenacetin O-deethylation exhibited biphasic kinetics in human liver microsomes, and the apparent Km for the high-affinity component (9 +/- 6 microM) was consistent with the involvement of CYP1A2 in this reaction. The prototypic CYP1A xenobiotic inhibitor and substrate probes alpha-naphthoflavone, ellipticine, 7-ethoxycoumarin and 7-ethoxyresorufin all inhibited CYP1A1- and CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin O-deethylation as well as the high-affinity component of human liver phenacetin O-deethylase activity. alpha-Naphthoflavone and 7-ethoxycoumarin were, however, approximately 10-fold more potent as ...
Author: Garda, H. A. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1994-12-07; Keywords: CYTOCHROME P450 LM2; SUBSTRATE BINDING; MICROHETEROGENEITY; MULTIPLICITY|br/|; Title: Heterogeneity in rabbit liver cytochrome P-450 LM2 observed by cation exchange HPLC: Partial biochemical characterization of the two major LM2 subfractions
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Bardag-Gorce, F., Yuan, Q.X., Li, J., French, B.A., Fang, C., Ingelman-Sundberg, M., French, S.W., 2000. The effect of ethanol-induced cytochrome p4502E1 on the inhibition of proteasome activity by alcohol. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 279, 23-29.. Bondoc, F.Y., Bao, Z., Hu, W.Y., Gonzalez, F.J., Wang, Y., Yang, C.S., Hong, J.Y., 1999. Acetone catabolism by cytochrome P450 2E1: studies with CYP2E1-null mice. Biochem. Pharmacol. 58, 461-463.. Cederbaum, A.I., 2014. Methodology to assay CYP2E1 mixed function oxidase catalytic activity and its induction. Redox Biol. 2C, 1048-1054.. Cheng, J., Chen, C., Kristopher, K.W., Manna, S.K., Scerba, M., Friedman, F.K., Luecke, H., Idle, J.R., Gonzalez, F.J., 2013. Identification of 2-piperidone as a biomarker of CYP2E1 activity through metabolomic phenotyping. Toxicol. Sci. 135, 37-47.. Cheung, C., Gonzalez, F.J., 2008. Humanized mouse lines and their application for prediction of human drug metabolism and toxicological risk assessment. J. Pharmacol. Exp. ...
Lee, S.-M. and Clemens, M. G. (1992), Effect of α-tocopherol on hepatic mixed function oxidases in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion. Hepatology, 15: 276-281. doi: 10.1002/hep.1840150217 ...
We measured aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) in cultured human lymphocytes. A striking seasonal variation in AHH activity was observed with induced AHH activity levels from January through May measuring approximately 20% of the values during the remainder of the year. AHH inducibility was determined by comparing lymphocytes from the same person cultured with and without the inducer 3-methylcholanthrene. If measurements are limited to the summer and fall seasons when AHH activity is high, AHH inducibility is reproducible for most persons with repeat determinations on the same person averaging 11% from the mean. The values of AHH inducibility in 53 persons ranged from 0.9 to 5.0, but the distribution of values did not fall into three distinct, nonoverlapping classes as reported by others. We were not able to determine the distribution of AHH inducibility in lung cancer patients since lymphocytes from less than half of the patients tested could be successfully cultured.
The response of intestinal monooxygenases to dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure was evaluated in spot (Leiostomus xanthurus), a marine teleost fish. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities were highest in the pyloric caeca and in the proximal half of the intestine. Intestinal microsomes from fish given control diets had very low levels of EROD and AHH activities relative to those in liver. After exposure to a diet containing 10 mg of 3-methylcholanthrene/kg of food, the levels of intestinal EROD and AHH activities increased 36-fold and 17-fold, respectively, such that intestinal monooxygenase activity exceeded that of the liver, which was not induced by this treatment. A significant increase in intestinal monooxygenase activity occurred in fish receiving dietary benzo[a]pyrene (BP) at concentrations as low as 10 micrograms of BP/kg food. A 5-fold increase in intestinal AHH and EROD activities was observed within 3 hr after ...
So how can these factors have an effect on the rate of photosynthesis? Lets start off with the light intensity. When the light intensity is poor, there is a shortage of ATP and NADPH, as these are products from the light dependent reactions. Without
Hey , I was wondering since you had your nose done with Dr. Hsu. Do you have his email address? How much did it cost you? I also have a flat-ish nose and I m considering rib grafting but I m not sure. I heard your nose will be stiffer or hard, is it..
Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Lobanov, Yu. V.; Abdullin, F. Sh.; Polyakov, A. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Tsyganov, Yu. S.; Mezentsev, A. N.; Iliev, S.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Subotic, K.; Ivanov, O. V.; Voinov, A. N.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Moody, K. J.; Wild, J. F.; Stoyer, N. J.; Stoyer, M. A.; Lougheed, R. W.
Rabbit anti-rat cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A1 (polyclonal antibody). Involved in metabolism of xenobiotics, drugs and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Implicated in metabolism of some polycyclic hydrocarbons to carcinogenic intermediates. CODE NUMBER: R2U.. QUANTITY: 0.1 mL.. SPECIFICITY: Reacts with rat cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A1 in hepatic microsomal fraction. No cross-reactivity with other cytochrome P450 enzymes including CYP1A2.. IMMUNOGEN: Synthetic peptide.. SUGGESTED APPLICATIONS: Western blot, immunohistochemistry on frozen and formaldehyde treated sections. Optimal working dilutions must be determined by end user.. SPECIES REACTIVITY: Rat.. FORMAT: Rabbit antiserum.. PRESENTATION: Liquid. No preservatives.. STORAGE/HANDLING: Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.. For research use only; not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for human or animal consumption.. To purchase this product, please email ...
Rabbit anti-rat cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D1 (polyclonal antibody). O-demethylation of xenobiotics, CYP2D6 is involved in the metabolism and elimination of approximately 25% of clinically used drugs in humans1. Primarily expressed in the liver and areas of the CNS. CYP2D1 and CYP2D4 have a similar function in rats2.. CODE NUMBER: RK05.. QUANTITY: 0.1 mL.. SPECIFICITY: Reacts with rat cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D1 in hepatic microsomal fraction.. IMMUNOGEN: Synthetic peptide.. SUGGESTED APPLICATIONS: Western blot, immunohistochemistry on frozen and formaldehyde treated sections. Optimal working dilutions must be determined by end user.. SPECIES REACTIVITY: Rat.. FORMAT: Rabbit antiserum.. PRESENTATION: Liquid. No preservatives.. STORAGE/HANDLING: Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.. For research use only; not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for human or animal consumption.. CYP2D1 is also known as CYPIID1, Cyp2d-1, Cyp2d9 and ...
Read "Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity in Drosophila virilis strains varying in ecdysteroid response to heat stress, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Interindividual variations in the level and activity of cytochrome P-450 enzymes were investigated in the liver microsomes of 30 Japanese and 30 Caucasian patients. The P-450 enzymes used in this study included P-450 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A, and the monooxygenase activities determined were 13 typical P-450 substrates and 9 procarcinogens. Although the total P-450 content was higher in Caucasian (mean, 0.43 nmol/mg of protein) than in Japanese populations (mean, 0.26 nmol/mg of protein), the relative levels (percent of total P-450) of individual forms of P-450 determined immunochemically were not very different except that P-450 2A6 and 2B6 levels were higher in the Caucasians. About 70% of liver P-450 could be accounted for by P-450 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A proteins, and P-450 3A (about 30% of total P-450) and 2C (about 20%) enzymes were found to be the major forms. Considerable levels of P-450 1A2 (about 13%) and 2E1 (about 7%) could be determined, whereas the P-450 2A6 ...