This review exposes the current poor understanding of the internal segmental chain dynamics of dendrimers in solution probed by monitoring the process of excimer formation between pyrene labels covalently attached to the chain ends of dendrimers. The review begins by covering the bases of fluorescence and the kinetics of pyrene excimer formation before describing a procedure based on the Model Free (MF) analysis that is used to analyze quantitatively the fluorescence decays acquired for dendrimers, the ends of which have been fully and covalently labeled with pyrene. Comparison of the various trends obtained by different research groups describing the efficiency of pyrene excimer formation with the generation number of dendrimers illustrates the lack of consensus between the few studies devoted to the topic. One possible reason for this disagreement might reside in the presence of minute amounts of unattached pyrene labels which act as potent fluorescent impurities and affect the analysis of the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Binding of isomers of benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide to chromatin. AU - Kootstra, A.. AU - Slaga, T. J.. PY - 1980/4/14. Y1 - 1980/4/14. N2 - Both the carcinogenic B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) and its relatively noncarcinogenic isomer, B[a]P diol-epoxide (syn), when reacted with chromatin in vitro, bind more extensively to the internucleosomal region of chromatin than to nucleosomes. These results suggest that the increased binding of B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) to the internucleosomal region may have little relevance to the process of carcinogenesis.. AB - Both the carcinogenic B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) and its relatively noncarcinogenic isomer, B[a]P diol-epoxide (syn), when reacted with chromatin in vitro, bind more extensively to the internucleosomal region of chromatin than to nucleosomes. These results suggest that the increased binding of B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) to the internucleosomal region may have little relevance to the process of carcinogenesis.. UR - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulations of benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adduct, cyclin D1 and PCNA in oral tissue by 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate. AU - Chen, Kun Ming. AU - Sacks, Peter G.. AU - Spratt, Thomas E.. AU - Lin, Jyh Ming. AU - Boyiri, Telih. AU - Schwartz, Joel. AU - Richie, John P.. AU - Calcagnotto, Ana. AU - Das, Arunangshu. AU - Bortner, James. AU - Zhao, Zonglin. AU - Amin, Shantu. AU - Guttenplan, Joseph. AU - El-Bayoumy, Karam. PY - 2009/5/22. Y1 - 2009/5/22. N2 - Tobacco smoking is an important cause of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Tobacco smoke contains multiple carcinogens include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons typified by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Surgery is the conventional treatment approach for SCC, but it remains imperfect. However, chemoprevention is a plausible strategy and we had previously demonstrated that 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) significantly inhibited tongue tumors-induced by the synthetic 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (not present ...
To investigate the specificity of biological monitoring variables (excretion of phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine) and the usefulness of some biomarkers of effect (alkaline filter elution, {sup}32{end}P postlabeling assay, measurement of sister chromatid exchange)in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). 29 coke oven workers and a standardised control group were investigated for frequencies of DNA single strand breakage, DNA protein cross links (alkaline filter elution assay), sister chromatid exchange, and DNA adducts ({sup}32{end}P postlabeling assay) in lymphocytes. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were measured in 24 hour urine samples. 19 different PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene, and phenanthrene) were measured at the workplace by personal air monitoring. The GSTT1 activity in erythrocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in blood was also measured. Concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in air correlated well with the ...
Pyrene derivatives can be carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic, thus having the potential to cause malignant diseases. In this work, the interactions of two selected pyrene derivatives (1-OHP and 1-PBO) and human tumor-related DNA (p53 DNA and C-myc DNA) are investigated by spectroscopic and non-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) methods. Using fluorescence spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD), DNA interactions of pyrene derivatives are confirmed to occur mainly via the groove binding mode supported by the intercalation into the base pairs of DNA. There is an obvious binding order of pyrene derivatives to the targeted DNA, 1-OHP | 1-PBO. The binding constants of 1-OHP are 1.16 × 106 L×mol−1 and 4.04 × 105 L×mol−1 for p53 DNA and C-myc DNA, respectively, while that of 1-PBO are only 2.04 × 103 L×mol−1 and 1.39 × 103 L×mol−1 for p53 DNA and C-myc DNA, respectively. Besides, the binding of pyrene derivatives to p53 DNA is stronger than that for C-myc DNA. CD and PAGE
Stereoselective metabolism of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), 2-chlorodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (2-Cl-DB[a,l]P) and 10-chlorodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (10-Cl-DB[a,l]P) by rat liver microsomes was studied and effects of the chloro substituent on the metabolism were determined. All three compounds produced trans-8,9-dihydrodiol, trans-11,12-dihydrodiol, and the 7-hydroxyl derivative as major metabolic products and several other phenolic derivatives as minor metabolites. The trans-8,9- and 11,12-dihydrodiols of DB[a,l]P and 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P preferentially adopted a quasidiequatorial conformation, whereas 10-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-8,9- and 11,12-dihydrodiols preferentially adopted a quasidiaxial conformation. The yields of the trans-11,12-dihydrodiol metabolites are: DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol | 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol || 10-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol. Circular dichroism (CD) spectral analysis indicates that the trans-8,9-dihydrodiol and trans-11,12-dihydrodiol metabolites from DB[a,l]P, 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P
Looking for online definition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the Medical Dictionary? polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon explanation free. What is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon? Meaning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon medical term. What does polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mean?
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Dye No. A B C D E X Y b c C-1 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 4-sulfoanilino 2-hydroxyethylamino 2 1 pyrido C-2 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 6-sulfo-1- 2-sulfoethylamino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-3 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,8-disulfo-1- amino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-4 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,6-disulfo-1- 2-hydroxyethyl-2- 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino ethoxyamino C-5 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 4-sulfoanilino 2-hydroxyethyl-2- 2 1 pyrido ethoxyamino C-6 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,8-disulfo-1- morpholino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-7 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 6,8-disulfo-2- morpholino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-8 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 6-sulfo-1- 2-sulfoethylamino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-9 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,8-disulfo-1- amino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-10 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,6-disulfo-1- 2-hydroxyethyl-2- 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino ethoxyamino C-11 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 4-sulfoanilino ...
Ceramide synthase 5 (CerS5) is the enzyme encoded in humans by the CERS5 gene. CerS5 robustly synthesizes C16-ceramide, which is often considered to be an important pro-apoptotic ceramide. De novo ceramide synthesis is an essential trigger for Bax activation in hypoxia/reoxygenation. Following hypoxia/reoxygenation, CerS5 expression is elevated. Upon knocking down acid sphingomyelinase and CerS5 in NTERA-2 cells, Bax localization to mitochondria was reduced, indicating the importance of CerS5 activity in the apoptosis pathway. CerS5 (TRH4) mRNA is found in all tissues and is strongly expressed in muscle and brain. CerS5 is the major ceramide synthase detected in lung epithelia. Knock-down research in respiratory epithelium using CerS5 siRNA or fumonisin B1 reduced total CerS activity by 45% or 78%, respectively, indicating that CerS5 indeed contributes significantly to ceramide synthesis in lung. In the brain, CerS5 mRNA is detected in most cells within the gray and white matter tissues. CerS5 ...
Twelve workers from a coke plant in The Netherlands participated in an intensive skin monitoring programme combined with personal air sampling and biological monitoring during five consecutive eight hour workshifts. The purpose of the study was to make a quantitative assessment of both the dermal and respiratory intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pyrene was used as a marker compound for both dermal and respiratory exposure to PAHs. The biological measure for the internal exposure to PAHs was urinary 1-OH-pyrene concentration. Measurements on exposure pads at six skin sites showed that mean total skin contamination of the 12 workers ranged between 21 and 166 micrograms pyrene a day. The dermal uptake of pyrene ranged between 4 and 34 micrograms/day, which was about 20% of the pyrene contamination on skin. The mean concentration of total pyrene in the breathing zone air of the 12 coke oven workers ranged from 0.1 to 5.4 micrograms/m3. The mean respiratory uptake of pyrene varied ...
1-Methyl-4-[3-[(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)methyl]-5,6-dihydrobenzo[b][1]benzothiepin-5-yl]piperazine | C22H26N6S | CID 49781890 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
0192]The compounds of the present invention include: [0193]S-2-(3-carbamoyl-6-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylam- ino)-2-oxo ethyl 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanethioate; [0194]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-yloxy)acetamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophe- ne-3-carboxamide; [0195]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-ylthio)acetamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thioph- ene-3-carboxamide; [0196]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-yloxy)propanamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiop- hene-3-carboxamide; [0197]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-ylthio)propanamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thio- phene-3-carboxamide; [0198]4-(2-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-2-o- xo ethoxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; [0199]4-(2-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-2-o- xoethylthio)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; [0200]4-(1-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-1-o- xopropan-2-yloxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; [0201]4-(1-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-1-o- ...
Consumption of charbroiled red meat and meat-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with risk of colorectal adenoma, a precursor of colorectal cancer. Furthermore, leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct levels have been demonstrated to increase in response to charbroiled red meat intake but to date there have been no studies that have investigated the relationship between leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct levels and risk of colorectal adenoma. We investigated the relation of leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct formation and colorectal adenoma in a clinic-based case-control study of colorectal adenomas. The study comprised 82 cases of colorectal adenoma and 111 polyp-free controls, none of whom were current smokers. Leukocyte PAH-DNA adducts were measured by a sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay using an antiserum elicited against DNA modified with (±)-7β,8α-dihydroxy-9α,10α-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene that recognizes several PAHs bound to human DNA. Leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct ...
The Koggala lagoon is a coastal wetland affected by a major oil spill and other anthropogenic pollution sources. In this study, gill and liver histological alterations and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure indicative bile fluorescence patterns of the fish species inhabiting the lagoon were examined in order to explore the potential biological impacts. Fixed wavelength fluorescence patterns in the bile of Mugil cephalus, Lutjanus russellii and Etroplus suratensis showed bioavailability of naphthalene type-, phenanthrene type-, pyrene type- and benzo(a)pyrene type- metabolites indicating recent exposure of the fishes to petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs. Histological analysis revealed the occurrence of prominent gill and liver lesions, especially in the tissues of M. cephalus and L. russellii. Of the fish species examined, which included 43 individual fishes, the liver tissues of M. cephalus (two fish) and L. russellii (one fish) displayed foci of hepatocellular alterations with nodular ...
Humans spend most of their lives in indoor environments; hence, indoor exposure to air pollution may constitute a large part of the total exposure to air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are well known for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity and are ubiquitous in urban environments as a result of combustion from e.g. vehicular traffic. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated to air particulate matter in indoor environments originates from several sources including: cooking and heating, outdoor sources, smoking, candle and incense burning. Infiltration has been suspected to be one major source of indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, four different air filter materials intended for mechanical ventilation were tested for their capability to remove particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other genotoxic compounds from a real urban aerosol. Particles were sampled at two highly trafficked locations in Stockholm using a sampling system capable of sample ...
Several solution fluorescence parameters were acquired for the four tetrol hydrolysis products of benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts, tetrols complexed with DNA, and BPDE-DNA adducts in several methanol/water solvents. The relative polarity of the environment for the tetrols and BPDE-DNA adducts was determined by using a modified definition of the ,i,R,/i, value that is commonly employed for pyrene. The ,i,R,/i, values for the tetrols and BPDE-DNA adducts were calculated by obtaining the ratios of the intensities of the two major fluorescence emission bands at 380 and 400 nm (,i,I,/i,,sub,380,/sub,/,i,I,/i,,sub,400,/sub,). The positions of the hydroxyl groups on the hydroaromatic ring of the tetrols were compared in reference to the ,i,R,/i, values and the changes in the ,i,R,/i, values as a function of methanol/water composition. This approach resulted in a method for determining whether the hydroxyl groups in the 9 and 10 positions were on the same side or ...
N-(1-((4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)methyl)-2-methylpropyl)-7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxamide:
2-(2-methylpropyl)-4,6-bis(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine | C9H9Cl6N3 | CID 32443 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) was induced 15-fold in Ambystoma tigrinum by intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene in corn oil, or 10-fold by addition of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons to the aqueous environment of the neotene animal. The cytochrome P-450-associated microsomal enzyme is similar to the inducible, one-gene, autosomal-dominant system typical in the laboratory mouse and man. Differences in optimal temperature for enzyme induction and activity were noted in organ culture of human and Ambystoma tissues, and ratios of benzpyrene metabolites differed between Ambystoma and Mus. The half life of enzyme activity induced in vivo was related to the excretion of hydrocarbon metabolites.
Background Benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P), and its own greatest metabolite Benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide (BPDE), are classic DNA damaging carcinogens. BPDE-DNA adducts. In addition, we found that the combined small alleles of rs3212986 and rs238406 were associated with a reduced DNA restoration capacity. Conclusions Our results claim that the version genotypes of rs3212986 and rs238406 are connected with reduced fix performance of BPDE induced DNA GDC-0973 harm, and may end up being predictive for somebodys DNA fix capability in response to environmental carcinogens. Launch Benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P) is a vintage DNA harming carcinogen which is normally one of a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) typically found in cigarette smoke cigarettes and in the ambient environment [1], [2]. Benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide (BPDE), the best metabolite of B[a]P, forms covalent BPDE-DNA adducts within a cell that problems the framework and function of natural macromolecules such as for example ...
The invention provides methods for substituting polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polyheterocyclic compounds with perfluoroalkyl groups. The methods can include heating a polyaromatic hydrocarbon substrate or a polyheterocyclic compound substrate in the presence of a perfluoroalkyl iodide, typically in a closed system, wherein the heating is sufficient to bring both the polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polyheterocyclic compound, and the perfluoroalkyl iodide, into the gas phase, thereby allowing the substrate to react with the perfluoroalkyl iodide in the gas phase to form polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polyheterocyclic compounds having one or more perfluoroalkyl substituents. The methods allow for the creation of versatile libraries of novel perfluoroalkyl-containing derivatives that can serve as important building blocks and active components in biomedical, electronic, and materials applications.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the black crusts of Sicilian stone monuments: distribution and sources. AU - Gianguzza, Antonio. AU - Orecchio, Santino. AU - Piazzese, Daniela. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds with known carcinogenic potential; their properties of lipophilicity, low water solubility and adsorption to particles and sediments make them a potentially dangerous group of chemicals and a threat to the environment and its bio-resources. The concentrations of total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 19 individual compounds in 8 black crusts sampled from historical building of Palermo (Italy) were analyzed, by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. PAH concentrations ranged from 78 to 9798 g/Kg of dry matrix. The resulting distributions and molecular ratios of specific compounds have been discussed in terms of sample location and ...
Description of disease Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. Treatment Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. Symptoms and causes Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency Prophylaxis Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
Hydrocarbon exposure has been shown to play an important role in the development of renal dysfunction in several occupational settings. In this study, renal screening was performed in a group of paint sprayers with exposure to hydrocarbon-based paints, recruited from a car manufacturing plant where personal protective equipment was widely used. The hydrocarbon exposure scores and various markers of renal injury were compared between these subjects and a group of paint sprayers from a previous study who did not use personal protective equipment regularly. Cumulative hydrocarbon exposure scores were calculated from a validated questionnaire. Serum creatinine, urinary total protein, albumin, transferrin, retinol-binding protein, and N-acetylglucosaminidase were evaluated, Both groups experienced heavy hydrocarbon exposure but sprayers who regularly used personal protective equipment had significantly reduced exposure scores due to improved skin and respiratory protection. A significant number of ...
Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a functional inhibitor of PA synthesis, would protect unsaturated fat-fed mice. Mice were fed diets enriched in saturated fat, n-6 polyunsaturated fat, or chow for 6 wk. Saline, LSF (25 mg/kg . d), or MYR (0.3 mg/kg . d) were administered by mini-pumps in the final 4 wk. Glucose homeostasis was examined by glucose tolerance test. Muscle ceramide and PA were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Expression of LASS isoforms (ceramide synthases) was evaluated by immunoblotting. Both saturated and polyunsaturated fat diets increased
Fosamprenavir BASE CAS 226700-79-4 [(1S,2R)-3-[[(4-Aminophenyl)sulfonyl](2-methylpropyl)amino]-1-(phenylmethyl)-2-(phosphonooxy)propyl]carbamic acidC-[(3S)-tetrahydro-3-furanyl] ester Additional Names: (3S)-tetrahydro-3-furyl [(aS)-a-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(N1-isobutylsulfanilamido)ethyl]phenethyl]carbamate dihydrogen phosphate (ester) Manufacturers Codes: VX-175 Molecular Formula: C25H36N3O9PS Molecular Weight: 585.61 Percent Composition: C 51.27%, H 6.20%, N 7.18%, O 24.59%, P 5.29%, S 5.48% WO 9933815 PRODUCT PATENT Fosamprenavir Systematic (IUPAC) name {[(2R,3S)-1-[N-(2-methylpropyl)(4-aminobenzene)sulfonamido]-3-({[(3S)-oxolan-3-yloxy]carbonyl}amino)-4-phenylbutan-2-yl]oxy}phosphonic acid Clinical data Trade names Lexiva AHFS/Drugs.com monograph…
δ-Aminolevulinic acid was incorporated in vivo into C-phycocyanin and B-phycoerythrin in two species of the Rhodophyta (Cyanidium caldarium, Porphyridium cruentum) and three species of the Cyanophyta (Anacystis nidulans, Plectonema boryanum, Phormidium luridum). Amino acid analysis of phycocyanin-14C from C. caldarium cells which had been incubated with δ-aminolevulinate-4-14C showed that 84% of the radioactivity incorporated was present in the phycocyanobilin chromophore and less than 16% of the radioactivity cochromatographed with amino acids. These results indicate that δ-aminolevulinate is utilized predominantly via the porphyrin pathway in C. caldarium. Conversely, analysis of phycocyanin-14C prepared from cells of A. nidulans, P. boryanum, and P. luridum which had been incubated with radiolabeled δ-aminolevulinate demonstrated that 85%, 81%, and 93%, respectively, of the radioactivity incorporated cochromatographed with amino acids. The ratio of incorporated radioactivity in amino ...
CERS5 - CERS5 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human LAG1 homolog, ceramide synthase 5 (LASS5) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Tar and nicotine levels have been made to conform to EU standards as of 1 July 2004, but data on tobacco-derived carcinogenic compounds, such as PAH, in Chinese cigarettes are lacking in the literature. Levels of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and PAH were measured in 20 cigarette brands purchased in China between 2003 and 2004. Higher nicotine and tar levels were found in Chinese cigarettes than in European brands just 3 months before the above deadline; carcinogenic PAH levels were about 1.5 fold higher than in European cigarettes, but analysed singly, the mean value of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBA), the most potent carcinogenic PAH yields, were 2.4 and 4.4 fold higher, respectively. Tar levels were well correlated with carcinogenic PAH (r = 0.53, P , 0.01), thus providing an easily measurable parameter for ranking various cigarette brands in developing countries where more sophisticated techniques might not be feasible for lack of funds and expertise.. ...
This data article provides gene expression profiles, determined by using real-time PCR, of fibroblasts and keratinocytes treated with 0.01% and 0.001% extracts of neem plant (Azadirachta indica), local name "Kohomba" in Sri Lanka, harvested in Sri Lanka. For fibroblasts, the dataset includes expression profiles for genes encoding hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1), hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL1), hyaluronidase-2 (HYAL2), versican, aggrecan, CD44, collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1), collagen, type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1), collagen, type VII, alpha 1 (COL7A1), matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1), acid ceramidase, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF7), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and aquaporin 3 (AQP3 ...
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic contaminants present in environments. In China, with increasing environmental pollution and anthropological disturbances to the coastal environment, developing effective methods for remediating organic pollutants has become an important issue for coastal management and ecosystem restoration. However, little information is available on PAHs uptake and degradation by algae, especially from coastal water.In this study, we investigated the uptake and degradation of two PAHs ( phenanthrene and pyrene), under a range of concentrations from 0.1mg/l to 2.0mg/l, by brown seaweed Laminaria joapnica, and examined the catabolic pathway of PAHs during degradation by seaweed. The uptake and degradation of the two PAHs are concentration and toxicant dependent.In laboratory studies, under a certain range of PAHs concentrations (,0.2mg/l), Laminaria joapnica showed a great capacity to take up and metabolize phenanthrene and pyrene. In ...
October 31, 2012. Theres good news for fans of black raspberries: A U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientist and his commercial colleague have found black raspberries that have resistance to a disease-spreading aphid.. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) horticulturist Chad Finn with the agencys Horticultural Crops Research Unit in Corvallis, Ore., and colleague Michael Dossett of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada are the first to find and report black raspberry resistance to the large raspberry aphid. ARS is USDAs chief intramural scientific research agency, and this research supports the USDA priority of promoting international food security.. The researchers screened seedlings from 132 wild black raspberry populations for aphid resistance. According to Finn, strong resistance was found in three of these populations-one each from Ontario, Maine, and Michigan. Aphid resistance in the Ontario and Maine populations seems to be controlled by multiple genes, while resistance in the ...
AZEVEDO, Débora de A.; GERCHON, Elaine and REIS, Ederson O. dos. Monitoring of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water from Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2004, vol.15, n.2, pp.292-299. ISSN 0103-5053. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532004000200021.. The Paraíba do Sul River, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, was studied for its water quality, by determining the levels of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from six sites in two cities, Resende and Campos dos Goytacazes, as they have industrial and agricultural activities. This study was carried out between July 2001 and March 2002. The method involved 200 mL samples taken by off-line, solid phase extraction by OASIS polymeric cartridges followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries and standard deviation of pesticides in non polluted real water sample spiked with a standard mixture were 82-119% and less then 20%. For PAH, recoveries and standard ...
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Ceramide, a key intermediate in sphingolipid metabolism, is synthesized by acylation of sphinganine followed by dehydrogenation of dihydroceramide to ceramide. Using radioactive sphinganine, we have examined the site and topology of dihydroceramide synthesis in well-characterized subcellular fractions from rat liver. [4,5-3H]Sphinganine was introduced as a complex with BSA and was metabolized to [4,5-3H]dihydroceramide upon incubation of rat liver homogenates or microsomes with fatty acyl CoA. Conditions were established in a detergent-free system in which dihydroceramide synthesis was not limited by either substrate availability or by amounts of microsomal protein or reaction time. The distribution of dihydroceramide synthesis was found to exactly parallel that of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker upon subfractionation of microsomes, and no endogenous activity was detected in either purified Golgi apparatus or plasma membrane fractions. Limited protease digestion demonstrated that ...
1,3-isoquinolinedione / 2,3-dihydroisoquinoline-1,4-dione / Isoquinolone / Benzyloxycarbonyl / Phenylacetamide / Tetrahydroisoquinoline / Aryl ketone / N-arylamide / Chlorobenzene / HalobenzeneAryl chloride / Aryl halide / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid / Carboxylic acid imide / Vinylogous amide / Dicarboximide / Carboxylic acid imide, n-unsubstituted / Ketone / Secondary carboxylic acid amide / Carboxamide group / Carboxylic acid ester / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Azacycle / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organonitrogen compound / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Carbonyl group / Organooxygen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic oxide / Organopnictogen compound / Organohalogen compound / Organochloride / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound ...
Trifluoromethylbenzene / Nitrobenzene / Anilide / Phenoxy compound / Nitroaromatic compound / N-arylamide / Phenol ether / Alkyl aryl ether / Fluorobenzene / HalobenzeneAryl fluoride / Aryl halide / Tertiary alcohol / Carboxamide group / Secondary carboxylic acid amide / C-nitro compound / Organic nitro compound / Carboxylic acid derivative / Ether / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Organic oxoazanium / Alkyl halide / Alkyl fluoride / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic nitrogen compound / Alcohol / Organic oxide / Carbonyl group / Organopnictogen compound / Organohalogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organofluoride / Organonitrogen compound / Organooxygen compound / Organic zwitterion / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound ...
Cleavage of 3,3,4-trifluoro-2,2-dimethyloxetane (I) in an aqueous solution of sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrogen chloride, or hydrogen bromide gave a mixture of 2,2-difluoro-3-methyl-3-butenal (II) and 5,5-difluoro-2-(1,1-difluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-hydroxy-6,6-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane (VIa); in the cleavage effected by hydrochloric or hydrobromic acid the mixture also contained 3-chloro- or 3-bromo-2,2-difluoro-3-methyl-1,1-butanediol (Vb or Vc). In alcoholic solutions of the mineral acids the cleavage afforded the corresponding acetals of butenal II and 2,2-difluoro-3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanal (IIIa). The action of sulphuric acid in the presence of acetyl chloride or acetanhydride led to 1-chloro-2,2-difluoro-3-methyl-3-butenyl acetate (IVd) or 2,2-difluoro-3-methyl-3-butenylidene diacetate (IVe), as the main product. Butenal II was a sole product of the cleavage of oxetane I by polyphosphoric acid at 150-160 °C in the gaseous phase. At temperatures above 180 °C there were also ...
Eleven new tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran derivatives were synthesized via a three component reaction of different aromatic aldehydes, methyl cyanoacetate and 1,3-cyclohexadione, with water as solvent under catalyst-free microwave irradiation. The structures of all the new molecules were well analysed and their structures established by using various spectral techniques (1H NMR, 13C NMR, 15N NMR and HRMS). Various advantages of reported protocol are the ease of preparation, short reaction times (10 min), aqueous solvent and excellent yields (89-98%). Additionally, this method provides a clean access to the desired products by simple workup.
Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were fed diets containing 0, 99, 163, 234, or 484 ppm fumonisin B1 for 28 days. There were no exposure-related deaths in rats. The mean body weights of the 484 ppm groups were significantly less (-16%) than those of the controls. Dietary concentrations of 99, 163, 234, and 484 ppm fumonisin B1 resulted in average daily doses of 12, 20, 28, and 56 mg fumonisin B1/kg body weight for males and females. Additional groups of male and female rats were exposed to the same concentrations of fumonisin B1 for 28 days for clinical pathology studies. The concentrations of creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, and total bile acids, as well as activities of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and -glutamyltransferase, were generally significantly greater in the 484 ppm groups than in the control groups at all time points, indicating hyperlipidemia and a hepatic effect. Fumonisin B1 is an inhibitor of ceramide synthase, ...
The major finding in this study is that an increase in the inward sodium current INaP plays an important role in causing long QT syndrome in murine models of diabetes. Previous studies suggested that the cardiac repolarization defect in diabetes is due mainly to a decrease in outward potassium currents. Using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats as a model of type 1 diabetes, it was concluded that APD prolongation is due to reductions in the 4-AP-sensitive transient outward current Ito and a 4-AP-insensitive steady-state current referred to as IK (19-21). A decrease in the inward L-type calcium current ICaL was also seen in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (21) and Ins2Akita mice (18), but this would tend to shorten the APD. APD prolongation and suppression of outward potassium currents and ICaL were also seen in cardiac myocytes from type 2 diabetic db/db mice (22-25). The affected potassium currents in db/db mice were not extensively characterized, but were probably equivalent to Ito and ...
Many studies using mammalian cellular and subcellular systems have demonstrated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are metabolically activated by cytochrome P450s (CYPs). In order to evaluate the role of hepatic versus extra-hepatic metabolism of BaP and its pharmacokinetics, we used the hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null (HRN) mouse model, in which cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, the unique electron donor to CYPs, is deleted specifically in hepatocytes, resulting in the loss of essentially all hepatic CYP function. HRN and wild-type (WT) mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 125 mg/kg body wt BaP daily for up to 5 days. Clearance of BaP from blood was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. DNA adduct levels were measured by 32P-post-labelling analysis with structural confirmation of the formation of 10-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene by liquid chromatography-tandem ...
Genistein, daidzein, glycitein and quercetin are flavonoids present in soybean and other vegetables in high amounts. These flavonoids can be metabolically converted to more active forms, which may react with guanine in the DNA to form complexes and can lead to DNA depurination. We assumed two ultimate carcinogen forms of each of these flavonoids, diol epoxide form and diketone form. Density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) methods were used to study the reaction thermodynamics between active forms of flavonoids and DNA guanine. Solvent reaction field method of Tomasi and co-workers and the Langevin dipoles method of Florian and Warshel were used to calculate the hydration free energies. Activation free energy for each reaction was estimated using the linear free energy relation. Our calculations show that diol epoxide forms of flavonoids are more reactive than the corresponding diketone forms and are hence more likely flavonoid ultimate carcinogens. Genistein, daidzein and glycitein show
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Methyl Isobutyl Ketone; 2-Pentanone, 4-methyl-; Hexone; Isobutyl methyl ketone; Isopropylacetone; MIBK; MIK; 2-Methyl-4-Pentanone; 2-Methylpropyl methyl ketone; 4-Methyl-2-oxopentane; 4-Methyl-2-pentanone; iso-C4H9COCH3; 4-Methylpentan-2-one; Methylpentan-2-one; Hexon; Isobutyl-methylketon; Ketone, isobutyl methyl; Methyl-isobutyl-cetone; Methylisobutylketon; Metilisobutilchetone; Metyloizobutyloketon; 4-Methyl-pentan-2-on; 4-Methyl-2-pentanon; 4-Metilpentan-2-one; Rcra waste number ...
Black Raspberry Seed Oil, Virgin (Rubus occidentalis) is a valuable addition to personal care products due to it. Black Raspberry Seed Oil Virgin wholesale.
Among many mycotoxins, T-2 toxin, macrocyclic trichothecenes, fumonisin B1 (FB1) and ochratochin A (OTA) are known to have the potential to induce neurotoxicity in rodent models. T-2 toxin induces neuronal cell apoptosis in the fetal and adult brain. Macrocyclic trichothecenes bring about neuronal cell apoptosis and inflammation in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. FB1 induces neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex, concurrent with disruption of de novo ceramide synthesis. OTA causes acute depletion of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, accompanying evidence of neuronal cell apoptosis in the substantia nigra, striatum and hippocampus. This paper reviews the mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by these mycotoxins especially from the viewpoint of oxidative stress-associated pathways.
Ceramide is a building block for complex sphingolipids in the plasma membrane, but it also plays a significant role in secondary signalling pathways regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in response to stress. Ceramide activated protein phosphatase activity has been previously observed in association with the Sit4 protein phosphatase. Here we find that sit4Δ mutants have decreased ceramide levels and display resistance to exogenous ceramides and phytosphingosine. Mutants lacking SIT4 or KTI12 display a shift towards nonhydroxylated forms of long chain bases and sphingolipids, suggesting regulation of hydroxylase (SUR2) or ceramide synthase by Sit4p.We have identified novel subunits of the Sit4 complex and have also shown that known Sit4 regulatory subunits-SAP proteins-are not involved in the ceramide response. This is the first observation of separation of function between Sit4 and SAP proteins. We also find that the Sit4p target Elongator is not involved in the ceramide response but ...
Lu AA21004 was discovered by H. Lundbeck A/S, and is under co-development by H. Lundbeck A/S and Takeda for the treatment of major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder.. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic, recurring disease with considerable morbidity in the general population. The estimated lifetime prevalence of major depression in the adult population is 5 to 25%, with approximately 2-fold higher prevalence in women than in men. The hallmark of the disease is a depressed mood, with additional symptoms including sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, sexual dysfunction, weight loss, concentration difficulties and delusional ideas. In addition to direct ill effects, MDD causes suicide or job loss and exerts indirect influence on social economy.. This long-term extension study will assess the safety and efficacy of 52-week treatment with Lu AA21004 in participants with major depressive disorder after completion of the 8-week double-blind treatment period ...
Lass of inhibitors are proline-rich peptides which specifically target the bacterial Hsp70 DnaK without harming mammalian Hsp70. Structural analysis showed that