2-Naphthylamine-6,8-Disulfonic Acid Monopotassium Salt chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of 2-Naphthylamine-6,8-Disulfonic Acid Monopotassium Salt 842-15-9, What are the physical properties of 2-Naphthylamine-6,8-Disulfonic Acid Monopotassium Salt ect.
1) We have prepared murine monoclonal antibodies to the membrane domain of the human erythrocyte anion transport protein (band 3). (2) All of these antibodies react with regions of the protein located at the cytoplasmic surface of the red cell. (3) One of the antibodies reacts with an epitope present on a cytoplasmic loop of the protein located between the C-terminus and a point 168 amino acids from the C-terminus. The other antibodies recognize different epitopes on the C-terminal tail of the protein and the sequences likely to be involved in these epitopes are defined. (4) Our results show that the C-terminus of the red-cell anion transport protein is located on the cytoplasmic side of the red-cell membrane. (5) None of the antibodies inhibited sulphate exchange transport when introduced into resealed red-cell membranes; however, the bivalent form of one of the antibodies reduced the inhibitory potency of 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanatostilbene disulphonate on sulphate exchange transport in ...
We investigated in a physiological salt solution (PSS) containing HCO3- the intracellular pH (pHi) regulating mechanisms in smooth muscle cells cultured from human internal mammary arteries, using the pH-sensitive dye 2,7-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) and 22Na+ influx rates. The recovery of pHi from an equivalent intracellular acidosis was more rapid when the cells were incubated in CO2/HCO3(-)-buffered PSS than in HEPES-buffered PSS. Recovery of pHi was dependent on extracellular Na+ (Km, 13.1 mM); however, it was not attenuated by 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (SITS), indicating the absence of SITS-sensitive HCO3(-)-dependent mechanisms. Recovery instead appeared mostly dependent on processes sensitive to 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), indicating the involvement of Na+/H+ exchange and a previously undescribed EIPA-sensitive Na(+)- and HCO3(-)-dependent mechanism. Differentiation between this HCO3(-)-dependent mechanism and Na+/H+ ...
Name: 1-Amino-4-bromo-5-acetamido-2-anthraquinone sulfonic acid CA Name: 2-Naphthalenesulfonic acid,5-(acetylamino)-1-amino-4-bromo-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo,monosodium salt Molecular Structure: 1-Amino-4-bromo-5-acetamido-2-anthraquinone sulfonic acid,2-Naphthalenesulfonic acid,5-(acetylamino)-1-amino-4-bromo-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo,monosodium salt,CAS 86277-89-6,439.24,C16H11BrN2O6S 1-Amino-4-bromo-5-acetamido-2-anthraquinone sulfonic acid,2-Naphthalenesulfonic acid,5-(acetylamino)-1-amino-4-bromo-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo,monosodium salt,CAS 86277-89-6,439.24,C16H11BrN2O6S Molecular Formula:C16H11BrN2O6S Molecular Weight: 439.24 CAS Registry Number: 86277-89-6
Pyridoxal Phosphate Ying An is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Pyridoxal Phosphate Ying An is available on the Drugs.com website.
Irreversible inhibition, 99.8% of control values for chloride transport in human red blood cells, was obtained by well-established methods of maximum covalent binding of 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS). The kinetics of the residual chloride transport (0.2%, 106 pmol.cm-2 x s-1) at 38 degrees C, pH 7.2) was studied by means of 36Cl- efflux. The outside apparent affinity, expressed by Ko1/2,c, was 34 mM, as determined by substituting external KCl by sucrose. The residual flux was reversibly inhibited by a reexposure to DIDS, and by 4,4-dinitrostilbene-2,2-disulfonate (DNDS), phloretin, salicylate, and alpha-bromo-4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitroacetophenone (Killer III) (Borders, C. L., Jr., D. M. Perez, M. W. Lafferty, A. J. Kondow, J. Brahm, M. B. Fenderson, G. L. Breisford, and V. B. Pett. 1989. Bioorganic Chemistry. 17:96-107), to approximately 0.001% of control cells, which is a flux as low as in lipid bilayers. The reversible DIDS inhibition of the residual chloride flux ...
Tea plant is known to be a hyper-accumulator of fluoride (F). Over-intake of F has been shown to have adverse effects on human health, e.g., dental fluorosis. Thus, understanding the mechanisms fluoride accumulation and developing potential approaches to decrease F uptake in tea plants might be beneficial for human health. In the present study, we found that pretreatment with the anion channel inhibitor NPPB reduced F accumulation in tea plants. Simultaneously, we observed that NPPB triggered Ca2+ efflux from mature zone of tea root and significantly increased relative CaM in tea roots. Besides, pretreatment with the Ca2+ chelator (EGTA) and CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP) suppressed NPPB-elevated cytosolic Ca2+ fluorescence intensity and CaM concentration in tea roots, respectively. Interestingly, NPPB-inhibited F accumulation was found to be significantly alleviated in tea plants pretreated with either Ca2+ chelator (EGTA) or CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP). In addition, NPPB significantly depolarized
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase from mammalian and bacterial sources is a pyridoxal-5-phosphate-containing enzyme, but the requirement of pyridoxal-5-phosphate for the activity of the enzyme from plant sources is not clear. The specific activity of serine hydroxymethyltransferase isolated from mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings in the presence and absence of pyridoxal-5-phosphate was comparable at every step of the purification procedure. The mung bean enzyme did not show the characteristic visible absorbance spectrum of pyridoxal-5-phosphate protein. Unlike the enzymes from sheep, monkey, and human liver, which were converted to the apoenzyme upon treatment with L-cysteine and dialysis, the mung bean enzyme similarly treated was fully active. Additional evidence in support of the suggestion that pyridoxal-5-phosphate may not be required for the mung bean enzyme was the observation that pencillamine, a well-known inhibitor of pyridoxal-5-phosphate enzymes, did not perturb the enzyme ...
Aminooxyacetic acid, often abbreviated AOA or AOAA, is a compound that inhibits 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-T) activity in vitro and in vivo, leading to less gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) being broken down. Subsequently, the level of GABA is increased in tissues. At concentrations high enough to fully inhibit 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity, aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats. Aminooxyacetic acid is a general inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes (this includes GABA-T). It functions as an inhibitor by attacking the Schiff base linkage between PLP and the enzyme, forming oxime type complexes. Aminooxyacetic acid inhibits aspartate aminotransferase, another PLP-dependent enzyme, which is an essential part of the malate-aspartate shuttle. The inhibition of the malate-aspartate shuttle prevents the reoxidation of cytosolic NADH by the mitochondria in nerve terminals. Also in the nerve terminals, ...
7,7-(Carbonylbis(azanediyl))bis(4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid) 134-47-4 route of synthesis, 7,7-(Carbonylbis(azanediyl))bis(4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid) chemical synthesis methods, 7,7-(Carbonylbis(azanediyl))bis(4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid) synthetic routes ect.
In the present study, we first characterized the biophysical and pharmacological properties of a volume-regulated inwardly rectifying Cl− current, ICl.ir, in mammalian heart. In both atrial and ventricular myocytes of mouse and guinea pig heart, ICl.ir activated slowly on hyperpolarization with a biexponential time course. The current was very sensitive to changes in cell volume. Whereas hypertonic cell shrinkage diminished the current, hypotonic cell swelling increased the current and accelerated the activation kinetics. ICl.ir exhibited strong inward rectification with a reversal potential close to the estimated ECl in symmetrical Cl− and physiological asymmetrical Cl− conditions. The anion selectivity sequence of ICl.ir was Cl−,I−≫Asp−. Although ICl.ir was strongly blocked by Cd2+ and the carboxylic acid derivative, 9-AC, it was not sensitive to inhibition by effective blockers of ICl.vol such as TMX and the disulfonic stilbene derivative, SITS. All these properties clearly ...
This invention pertains to methods, kits and compositions suitable for the detection, identification and/or quantitation of nucleic acids which are electrostatically immobilized to matrices using non-nucleotide probes which sequence specifically hybridize to one or more target sequences of the nucleic acid but do not otherwise substantially interact with the matrix. Once the nucleic acid is immobilized, the detectable non-nucleotide probe/target sequence complex, formed before or after the immobilization of the nucleic acid, can be detected, identified or quantitated under a wide range of assay conditions as a means to detect, identify or quantitate the target sequence in the sample. Because it is reversibly bound, the non-nucleotide probe/target sequence can optionally be removed from the matrix for detecting, identifying or quantitating the target sequence in the sample. Because the non-nucleotide probe/target sequence is protected against degradation, it is another advantage of this invention that
TY - JOUR. T1 - CALHM1 ion channel mediates purinergic neurotransmission of sweet, bitter and umami tastes. AU - Taruno, Akiyuki. AU - Vingtdeux, Valérie. AU - Ohmoto, Makoto. AU - Ma, Zhongming. AU - Dvoryanchikov, Gennady. AU - Li, Ang. AU - Adrien, Leslie. AU - Zhao, Haitian. AU - Leung, Sze. AU - Abernethy, Maria. AU - Koppel, Jeremy. AU - Davies, Peter. AU - Civan, Mortimer M.. AU - Chaudhari, Nirupa. AU - Matsumoto, Ichiro. AU - Hellekant, Göran. AU - Tordoff, Michael G.. AU - Marambaud, Philippe. AU - Foskett, J. Kevin. PY - 2013/3/14. Y1 - 2013/3/14. N2 - Recognition of sweet, bitter and umami tastes requires the non-vesicular release from taste bud cells of ATP, which acts as a neurotransmitter to activate afferent neural gustatory pathways. However, how ATP is released to fulfil this function is not fully understood. Here we show that calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), a voltage-gated ion channel, is indispensable for taste-stimuli-evoked ATP release from sweet-, bitter-and ...
The present findings reveal that stimulation of P2XRs induced vasoconstrictor responses of RMCA, which are likely mediated by increases in [Ca2+]i which are evoked by activation of homomeric P2X1Rs and heteromeric P2X1/4Rs. We propose that P2X1Rs account for the rapidly declining vasoconstrictor responses and heteromeric P2X1/4Rs are responsible for sustained responses following purinergic stimulation. The involvement of heteromeric P2X1/4Rs is a novel finding and greatly increases our understanding of purinergic transmission in VSMCs.. Stimulation of RMCA VSMCs by ATP and by the selective P2XR agonist αβ-meATP at the same concentrations resulted in similar changes in [Ca2+]i and electric responses in isolated RMCA VSMCs cells, as well as in similar contractile responses in intact cerebral artery preparations. These data strongly suggest that functional P2XRs play a predominant role in stimulatory action of extracellular ATP in these vessels. Overexpression studies show that αβ-meATP acts on ...
4,4-Diisothiocyano-2,2-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS) is an anion exchange inhibitor, blocking reversibly, and later irreversibly, exchangers such as chloride-bicarbonate exchanger. Jessen, Flemming; Sjøholm, C; Hoffmann, EK (1986), "Identification of the anion exchange protein of ehrlich cells: A kinetic analysis of the inhibitory effects of 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbene-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and labeling of membrane proteins with3H-DIDS", Journal of Membrane Biology, 92 (3): 195, doi:10.1007/BF01869388, PMID 3783658 Lane, Michelle; Baltz, Jay M.; Bavister, Barry D. (1999), "Bicarbonate/Chloride Exchange Regulates Intracellular pH of Embryos but Not Oocytes of the Hamster", Biology of Reproduction, 61 (2): 452-457, doi:10.1095/biolreprod61.2.452, PMID 10411526 ...
In this study, zeolite was employed for the separation and recovery of P from synthetic wastewater and its use as phosphorus (P) source for the cultivation of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. At P-loaded zeolite concentration of 0.15-1 g/L, in which P was limited, the two species displayed quite different behavior regarding their growth and biomass composition. C. vulgaris preferred to increase the intracellular P and did not synthesize biomass, while A. platensis synthesized biomass keeping the intracellular P as low as possible. In addition under P limitation, C. vulgaris did display some little alteration of the biomass composition, while A. platensis did it significantly, accumulating carbohydrates around 70% from about 15%-20% (control). Both species could desorb P from zeolite biologically. A. platensis could recover over 65% and C. vulgaris 25% of the P bounded onto zeolite. When P-loaded zeolite concentration increased to 5 g/L,
Name: 5-Hydroxynaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid CA Name: 1-Naphthalenesulfonic,5-hydroxy- Molecular Structure: 5-Hydroxynaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid,1-Naphthalenesulfonic,5-hydroxy-,CAS 117-59-9,224.23,C10H8O4S 5-Hydroxynaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid,1-Naphthalenesulfonic,5-hydroxy-,CAS 117-59-9,224.23,C10H8O4S Molecular Formula:C10H8O4S Molecular Weight: 224.23 CAS Registry Number: 117-59-9
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0049] Nucleotides for nucleic acid sequencing according to the invention preferably include a detectable label that is directly or indirectly detectable. Preferred labels include optically-detectable labels, such as fluorescent labels. Examples of fluorescent labels include, but are not limited to, Atto dyes, 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2disulfonic acid; acridine and derivatives: acridine, acridine isothiocyanate; 5-(2-aminoethyl)aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (EDANS); 4-amino-N-[3-vinylsulfonyl)phenyl]naphthalimide-3,5 disulfonate; N-(4-anilino-1-naphthyl)maleimide; anthranilamide; BODIPY; Brilliant Yellow; coumarin and derivatives; coumarin, 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC, Coumarin 120), 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcouluarin (Coumaran 151); cyanine dyes; cyanosine; 4,6-diaminidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI); 55-dibromopyrogallol-sulfonaphthalein (Bromopyrogallol Red); 7-diethylamino-3-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl)-4-methylcoumarin; diethylenetriamine pentaacetate; ...
In this case-control study nested in the MEC study, we found an inverse association between plasma PLP levels and colorectal cancer which was not explained by an association with plasma folate, seemed stronger at low levels of alcohol intake and among individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, and was independent of plasma CRP levels. An inverse association with plasma folate was also observed, which seemed to be stronger among individuals with a low level of alcohol intake and was suggested among subjects with the MTHFR 677TT genotype.. Our findings for PLP are consistent with those of Wei et al. (5) who found a 52% reduction in colorectal cancer risk comparing the highest to the lowest quartile for plasma PLP (P trend = 0.07) in a nested case-control study in women. They are also consistent with those of Figueiredo et al. (6) who found an inverse association between baseline plasma PLP levels and recurrence of adenoma in a randomized trial of aspirin and folic acid supplementation. Similarly, ...
A method was developed for the determination of Nb(V) and Ta(V) as anionic ternary complexes of a metallochromic ligand and citrate as the auxiliary ligand by capillary electrophoresis. Three metallochromic ligands were evaluated, namely 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Br-PADAP) and 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino]-phenol (Br-PAPS). Each complex was detected spectrophotometrically using a light-emitting diode (LED) at 568 nm. The separation of Nb(V) and Ta(V) was optimised for all three ligands, of which PAR displayed the best analytical method performance parameters, with detection limits of 9.1 and 25.2 μg/l for Nb(V) and Ta(V), respectively, using a 20 s injection time and linear ranges of 25-1000 and 50-4000 μg/l for Nb(V) and Ta(V), respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of representative rock samples. Cleanup of the digested rock samples with a C18 pre-column coated with tetrabutylammonium ...
Catalyzes the oxidation of either pyridoxine 5-phosphate (PNP) or pyridoxamine 5-phosphate (PMP) into pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms underlying enhanced P2X receptor-mediated responses in the neuropathic pain state. AU - Chen, Yong. AU - Li, Guang Wen. AU - Wang, Congying. AU - Gu, Yanping. AU - Huang, Li Yen Mae. PY - 2005/12/15. Y1 - 2005/12/15. N2 - P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) appear to participate in producing nociceptive responses after nerve injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the receptor-mediated nociception in the neuropathic state remain unclear. Using spared nerve injury (SNI) rats, we found that allodynic and nocifensive (flinch) behavioral responses developed after injury can be reversed by P2X receptor antagonists, indicating an involvement of P2X receptors. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that P2X3 receptors are expressed in small and medium but rarely in large DRG neurons of both normal and SNI rats. Thus, contrary to the conventional view that only large Aβ cells mediate allodynia, small and medium cells are intimately involved in P2X3 ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Platelet ADP Receptor Antagonist, Adenosine Receptor Antagonist, P2Y12 Receptor Antagonist, P2Y Receptor Antagonist, P2Y Receptor Inhibitor, Thienopyridine, Clopidogrel, Plavix, Thiophene, Prasugrel, Effient, Brilinta, Ticagrelor.
Introduction: Adult hearts contain c-Kit+ endogenous cardiac stem cells (eCSCs) that are being studied for regenerative therapy. eCSCs express volume-dependent Cl- channels (ICl,vol) activated under hemodynamic stress. Here, we examined the changes in eCSC Cl- channels caused by experimental congestive heart failure (CHF).. Methods: c-Kit+ eCSCs isolated from healthy (CTL) and CHF (tachypaced) dog hearts were magnetically purified with c-Kit antibodies. Cl- channel expression in freshly isolated cells was studied with patch clamp and qPCR.. Results: Under isotonic conditions, ionic currents were barely detectable in CTL eCSCs (Fig. A). The current observed was time-independent and reversed at values close to the calculated Cl- equilibrium potential (ECl-≈ -40 mV). This current was insensitive to TEA-Cl but inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker DIDS. When cells were superfused with hypo-osmotic solution (0.7T), an outward current with unchanged reversal potential was activated, and completely ...
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... aims at providing comprehensive data on 4-sulfo-1,8-naphthalic
Antibiotic treatment may fail to protect individuals, if not started early enough, after infection with Bacillus anthracis, due to the continuing activity of toxins that the bacterium produces. Stable and easily stored inhibitors of the edema factor toxin (EF), an adenylyl cyclase, could save lives in the event of an outbreak, due to natural causes or a bioweapon attack. The toxins basic activity is to convert ATP to cAMP, and it is thus in principle a simple phosphatase, which means that many mammalian enzymes, including intracellular adenylcyclases, may have a similar activity. While nucleotide based inhibitors, similar to its natural substrate, ATP, were identified early, these compounds had low activity and specificity for EF. We used a combined structural and computational approach to choose small organic molecules in large, web-based compound libraries that would, based on docking scores, bind to residues within the substrate binding pocket of EF. A family of fluorenone-based inhibitors was
Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric serum protein associated with amyloidoses such as familial amyloid polyneuropathy and senile systemic amyloidosis. The amyloid fibril formation of TTR can be inhibited through stabilization of the TTR tetramer by the binding of small molecules. In this study, we examined the inhibitory potency of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and its derivatives. Thioflavin T assay showed that CAPE suppressed the amyloid fibril formation of TTR. Comparative analysis of the inhibitory potencies revealed that phenethyl ferulate was the most potent among the CAPE derivatives. The binding of phenethyl ferulate and the selected compounds to TTR were confirmed by the 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid displacement and X-ray crystallography. It was also demonstrated that Bio 30, which is a CAPE-rich commercially available New Zealand propolis, inhibited ...
Filoviruses, such as Ebola virus require host-cell receptors, endocytosis, proteolytic cleavage, and fusion with the endolysosomal membrane for release of viral material into the cytoplasm. Two-pore channels (TPCs) comprise a subfamily (TPC1-3) of eukaryotic voltage- and ligand-gated cation channels that contain two non-equivalent tandem pore-forming subunits that then dimerize to form quasi-tetramers and orchestrate the trafficking of Filoviruses, including Ebola, in human cells.
Extracellular ATP is a broad-spectrum cytotoxic agent that produces effects via cell surface P2 purinoceptors. The ligand-gated P2X purinoceptor subtype has very high sequence homology with theRP-2 gene, which encodes for apoptosis. The P2X RNA found in rat vas deferens is expressed preferentially by apoptotic thymocytes. P2X purinoceptor-mediated phasic (twitch) motor responses of the isolated rat vas deferens to neurogenic or exogenous ATP were rapidly, specifically and irreversibly potentiated by bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (HD 10-100 μM). Both untreated and HD-potentiated neurogenic responses were Ca++ dependent, blocked in the absence of Ca++ plus 0.1 mM EGTA, by the neuronal Ca++channel blocker ω-conotoxin-MVIIC (3 μM), by the P2 purinoceptor antagonist suramin (100 μM) and by tetrodotoxin (100 nM). HD also potentiated the effects of ATP on isolated guinea pig taenia caecum, where the nucleotide acts at G protein-coupled P2Y purinoceptor subtypes to cause relaxation. HD failed to inhibit ...
Stilbene derivatives of the formula ##STR1## wherein X is chlorine or bromine, R|sub|1|/sub| is hydrogen, carboxyl, cyano, C|sub|1|/sub| -C|sub|6|/sub| -alkyl or a non-chromophorically esterified carb
Haem a with denatured proteins in strongly alkaline solutions forms haemochromes whose α-absorption bands lie 15 to 20 mμ more towards shorter wavelengths than those of haemochromes with other nitrogenous ligands. It is found that this is due to the formation of Schiffs bases, the formyl side chain of haem a being condensed with amino groups of the protein. The same reaction is given by other haems and porphyrins with formyl side chains. The Schiffs bases are stable only at high pH and are dissociated at pH 7 to 8. Schiffs bases with methylamine are also obtained with high concentration of methylamine at high pH. These compounds are compared with alkaline indicator yellow (retinal-opsin) and retinylidene methylamine. ...
In rat peritoneal mast cells, we have investigated the influence of the chloride transport blocker 4,4-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and the extracellular chloride concentration on the chloride current induced by intracellular application of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and on hexosaminidase secretion from intact cells stimulated with compound 48/80. The inhibition of the Cl-current by extracellular DIDS is voltage and time dependent. Upon depolarization from -10 to +70 mV, the outward current diminishes with millisecond kinetics. The size of the steady state current and the time constant of the decrease both decrease with increasing DIDS concentrations. The steady state current at +70 mV is blocked by DIDS with an IC50 of 2.3 microM. The number of open channels at -10 mV is reduced with an IC50 of 22 microM. The electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of this current are most similar to those of the Cl- current in T lymphocytes activated by osmotic stress (Lewis, R. ...
TABLE-US-00001 Chemical or other name CIN Colour Pigment Green 10006 Green Acid Green 1 10020 Green 2,4-Dinitrohydroxynaphthalene-7-sulfonic acid 10316 Yellow Pigment Yellow 1 11680 Yellow Pigment Yellow 3 11710 Yellow Pigment Orange 1 11725 Orange 2,4-Dihydroxyazobenzene 11920 Orange Solvent Red 3 12010 Red 1-(2-Chloro-4-nitro-1-phenylazo)-2-hydroxynaphthalene 12085 Red Pigment Red 3 12120 Red Ceres Red; Sudan Red; Fat Red G 12150 Red Pigment Red 112 12370 Red Pigment Red 7 12420 Red Pigment Brown 1 12480 Brown 4-(2-Methoxy-5-sulfonyldiethylamido-1-phenylazo)-3- 12490 Red hydroxy-5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxy-2-naphthanilide Disperse Yellow 16 12700 Yellow 1-(4-Sulfo-1-phenylazo)-4-aminobenzene-5-sulfonic acid 13015 Yellow 2,4-Dihydroxyazobenzene-4-sulfonic acid 14270 Orange 2-(2,4-Dimethylphenylazo-5-sulfonyl)-1-hydroxynaph- 14700 Red thalene-4-sulfonic acid 2-(4-Sulfo-1-naphthylazo)-1-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid 14720 Red 2-(6-Sulfo-2,4-xylylazo)-1-naphthol-5-sulfonic acid 14815 Red ...
Background: Orthologs of the vertebrate ATP gated P2X channels have been identified in Dictyostelium and green algae, demonstrating that the emergence of ionotropic purinergic signalling was an early event in eukaryotic evolution. However, the genomes of a number of animals including Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, both members of the Ecdysozoa superphylum, lack P2X-like proteins, whilst other species such as the flatworm Schistosoma mansoni have P2X proteins making it unclear as to what stages in evolution P2X receptors were lost. Here we describe the functional characterisation of a P2X receptor (HdP2X) from the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini demonstrating that purinergic signalling is preserved in some ecdysozoa. Results: ATP (EC50 ~44.5 μM) evoked transient inward currents in HdP2X with millisecond rates of activation and desensitisation. HdP2X is antagonised by pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2,4 disulfonic acid (IC50 15.0 μM) and suramin (IC50 22.6 μM) and zinc and ...
Benzenesulfonic acid, 2,2-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[ 5-[[4,6-bis(phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino ]-, disodium salt disodium 4,4-bis[(4,6-dianilino-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]stilbene-2,2-disulphonate cellu-brite fluorescent brightening agent 9 (c.i. 40621) 4,4-bis(2,4-dianilino-1,3,5-triazin-6-ylamino)stilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid disodium salt 4,4-bis[[4,6-bis(phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]stilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid disodium salt c.i.40621 fluorescent brightener 9 ...
Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections worldwide and is the most common cause of genital ulcers. Despite increased public awareness and the initiation of efforts to prevent transmission, the prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 continues to increase. What makes HSV so difficult to control is that most sexual and perinatal transmission occurs during unrecognized or asymptomatic shedding. The impact of genital herpes as a public health threat is amplified because of its epidemiological synergy with HIV/AIDS. Thus, there is an urgent need for novel prophylactic methods, such as topical microbicides designed for genital application, to prevent both HSV and HIV transmission. Several candidate microbicides are being advanced to clinical trials based on in vitro activity and animal studies. These include compounds that inactivate virus directly, those that enhance innate immunity, and drugs that block viral binding and entry. A more vigorous evaluation of ...
Fabrication of conductive pathways, microcircuits and microstructures in microfluidic networks - Disclosed herein are a variety of microfluidic devices and solid, typically electrically conductive devices that can be formed using such devices as molds. In certain embodiments, the devices that are formed comprise conductive pathways formed by solidifying a liquid metal present in one or more microfluidic channels (such devices hereinafter referred to as "microsolidic" devices). In certain such devices, in which electrical connections can be formed and/or reformed between regions in a microfluidic structure; in some cases, the devices/circuits formed may be flexible and/or involve flexible electrical components. In certain embodiments, the solid metal wires/conductive pathways formed in microfluidic channel(s) may remain contained within the microfluidic structure. In certain such embodiments, the conductive pathways formed may be located in proximity to other microfluidic channel(s) of the ...
Hi, I have been looking through prior posts to no avail... I am going to do a coomassie staining for the first time, and dont know whether to order brilliant blue G (which contains methanol) or brilliant blue R (which contains ethanol). I do know that the staining and destaining solutions are to contain methanol ...
Name: 3-(3-Methyl-5-oxo-4-,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl)naphthalene-1,5-disulfonic acid CA Name: Molecular Structure: 3-(3-Methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl)naphthalene-1,5-disulfonic acid,CAS 6338-01-3,384.38,C14H12N2O7S2 3-(3-Methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl)naphthalene-1,5-disulfonic acid,CAS 6338-01-3,384.38,C14H12N2O7S2 Molecular Formula:C14H12N2O7S2 Molecular Weight: 384.38 CAS Registry Number: 6338-01-3
Chronic hepatitis C: future treatment Astrid Wendt, Xavier Adhoute, Paul Castellani, Valerie Oules, Christelle Ansaldi, Souad Benali, Marc BourlièreDepartment of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Hôpital Saint-Joseph, Marseille, FranceAbstract: The launch of first-generation protease inhibitors (PIs) is a major step forward in HCV treatment. However, the major advance is up to now restricted to genotype 1 (GT-1) patients. The development of second-wave and second-generation PIs yields higher antiviral potency through plurigenotypic activity, more convenient daily administration, fewer side effects and, for the second-generation PIs, potential activity against resistance-associated variants. NS5B inhibitors include nucleoside/nucleotide inhibitors (NIs) and non-nucleotide inhibitors (NNIs). NIs have high efficacy across all genotypes. Sofosbuvir has highly potent antiviral activity across all genotypes in association with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PR), thus allowing shortened treatment duration. NS5A
1. Ravussin E, Kozak LP. Have we entered the brown adipose tissue renaissance?. Obes.Rev. 2009;10:265-8 2. Spiegelman BM, Flier JS. Obesity and the regulation of energy balance. Cell. 2001;104:531-43 3. Kahn BB, Flier JS. Obesity and insulin resistance. J.Clin.Invest. 2000;106:473-81 4. Berge KE, von BK, Lutjohann D. et al. Heritability of plasma noncholesterol sterols and relationship to DNA sequence polymorphism in ABCG5 and ABCG8. J.Lipid Res. 2002;43:486-94 5. Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999-2002. JAMA. 2004;291:2847-50 6. Rosen ED, Spiegelman BM. Adipocytes as regulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Nature. 2006;444:847-53 7. Lowell BB, Susulic V, Hamann A. et al. Development of obesity in transgenic mice after genetic ablation of brown adipose tissue. Nature. 1993;366:740-2 8. Cannon B, Nedergaard J. Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a native swelling-induced chloride current, ICl.swell, and its regulatory protein, pICln, in Xenopus oocytes.. AU - Ackerman, Michael John. AU - Krapivinsky, G. B.. AU - Gordon, E.. AU - Krapivinsky, L.. AU - Clapham, D. C.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - The ability to precisely regulate cell volume is a fundamental property of most cells. Although the phenomenon of regulatory volume decrease (RVD), whereby a swollen cell loses salt and water to restore its original volume, has been appreciated for decades, the molecular identities of the proteins responsible for the volume control machinery and their regulation are essentially unknown. It appears that the rate-determining step in gaining volume control involves the activation of potassium and chloride conductance pathways. We have identified a native chloride current (ICl.swell) responsive to cell swelling in Xenopus oocytes [Ackerman et al. (1994) J Gen Physiol 103: 153-179]. Moreover, we have demonstrated that ...
Novel agonists and potent antagonists at P2Y_1tn1_1tn1 purinergic receptors: synthesis and biological testing [Elektronische Ressource] = Neue Agonisten und potente Antagonisten an P2Y_1tn1_1tn1-Purinergic-Rezeptoren: Synthese und biologische Untersuchung / vorgelegt von Sophi Damayanti : Novel Agonists and Potent Antagonists at P2Y Purinergic Receptors: 11Synthesis and Biological Testing Neue Agonisten und potente Antagonisten an P2Y Purinergen Rezeptoren: 11 Synthese und Biologische Untersuchung Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf vorgelegt von Sophi
They administered in excess of 3100 mmol of chloride to their patient (mostly in the form of normal saline) causing the plasma chloride to increase from 90 to 128 mM. They noted a metabolic acidosis (pH, 7.16; HCO3, 13.2 mEq/l; base deficit, 14.5 mEq/l) and attributed this to dilution of the extracellular HCO3 pool by expansion of the extracellular space. This is incorrect. If this was the mechanism involved, then an acidosis should also occur with pure water expansion of the extracellular space such as in SIADH or psychogenic polydipsia. No acidosis is seen in these disorders. The actual mechanism involved is related to chloride-bicarbonate exchange ...
As mentioned above, we hypothesize that preferential pHi regulation may represent the basal pattern of acid-base regulation in vertebrates as a strategy during development, with adults either retaining or losing this trait. The mechanisms responsible for preferential pHi regulation are unknown, but allow embryos to compensate for acid-base challenges to pHi, despite the incomplete formation in embryos of the extracellular compartment and associated structures that are required for coupled pH regulation. These challenges apply to all embryos, and acid-base challenges may arise from hypoxia and hypercarbia or increased metabolic activity throughout development (Tazawa et al., 1983). In the specific examples described above, additional acid-base challenges may be experienced in the form of hypoxia or hypercarbia, conditions associated with nests or egg masses (Booth, 1998; Grigg et al., 2010; Lutz and Dunbar-Cooper, 1984). Furthermore, embryos encapsulated within extra-embryonic structures (e.g. ...
Results of two different predicted data study for the target chemical 2-amino-4-acetamido-5-[(E)-2-(4-{[2-(sulfooxy)ethane]sulfonyl}phenyl)diazen-1-yl]benzoic acid sodium (CAS No. 94158-82-4) were reviewed for the bioaccumulation end point which are summarized as below: In a first prediction done by using BCFBAF Program (v3.00) model of EPI suite(Estimation Program Interface 2017) the estimated bio concentration factor (BCF) for 2-amino-4-acetamido-5-[(E)-2-(4-{[2-(sulfooxy)ethane]sulfonyl}phenyl)diazen-1-yl]benzoic acid sodium (CAS No. 94158-82-4) is 3.162 L/kg wet-wt at 25 deg. c which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000. Therefore it is concluded that test chemical 2-amino-4-acetamido-5-[(E)-2-(4-{[2-(sulfooxy)ethane]sulfonyl}phenyl)diazen-1-yl]benzoic acid sodium is non bioaccumulative in food chain. In a supporting study another prediction done by using Adsorption Coefficient module (v12.1.0.50374) program of (ACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module, ...
TABLE-US-00006 TABLE 1 Result of calcification and healing Severity of the Calcification Run Cornea Type of calci- occurred Healing no. no. exposure fication (≧1) [%] 1 HH1 medium 1 yes 49.7 1 HH2 phosphate- 0 no 89.8 free 1 HH3 phosphate- 4 yes 22 containing 2 HH7 medium 4 yes 97.8 2 HH8 phosphate- 0 no 100 free 2 HH9 phosphate- 3 yes 92 containing 3 HH13 medium 3 yes n.d. 3 HH16 phosphate- 4 yes n.d. free 3 HH17 phosphate- 0 no 94.8 containing Explanation of the table: 1 n.d.: not determined. 2 The details of the healing in % indicates the size of the healed area relative to the original area of the corneal injury. 3 The strength of the calcification was indicated by means of the value numbers 1 to 5, the assessment taking place with the naked eye and the value numbers standing for the following assessments: 0: no sclerotic phenomena 1: first scleroses are discernible with the naked eye 2: slight sclerosis 3: medium severe sclerosis 4: severe sclerosis 5: complete sclerosis ...
AMG-548 hydrochloride, an orally active and selective p38α inhibitor (Ki=0.5 nM), shows slightly selective over p38β (Ki=36 nM) and >1000 fold selective against p38γ and p38δ. AMG-548 hydrochloride is also extremely potent in the inhibition of whole blood LPS stimulated TNFα (IC50=3 nM). AMG-548 hydrochloride inhibits Wnt signaling by directly inhibiting Casein kinase 1 isoforms δ and ε. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.