Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome ...
It is well known that circulating adiponectin concentrations are reduced in animal models of obesity and in patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome, despite adipocyte hypertrophy or increased body fat (2-6). However, the details of adiponectin production and release have varied among studies, especially in animal models (10,28,29,32,33). This is probably due to the apparently different etiology of the three types of obese animal models: genetic, diet-induced, and hypothalamic obesity (20,34).. VMH lesion-induced hypothalamic obesity in animals is the only obesity model that shows clear derangements of autonomic nervous activities (hyperactivity of the vagus nerve and hypoactivity of sympathetic nerves) compared with genetic (20), diet-induced obesity (34), and other types of hypothalamic obesity (19). Thus, there is a possibility that this animal model has different characteristics of adiponectin production and release, with resultant change of serum adiponectin, compared with those of other ...
The Ca2+-insensitive protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms ε, η, δ and ζ are possible direct downstream targets of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), and might therefore be involved in insulin signalling. Although isoform-specific changes in PKC expression have been reported for skeletal muscle and liver in insulin-resistant states, little is known about these isoforms in adipocytes. Therefore we studied (1) expression and subcellular localization of these isoforms in murine adipocytes, (2) translocation of specific isoforms to membranes in response to treatment with insulin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and (3) regulation of expression in insulin-resistant states. The PKC isoforms ε, η, δ and ζ are expressed in adipocytes. Immunoreactivity for all isoforms is higher in the membranes than in the cytosol, but subcellular fractionation by differential centrifugation shows an isoform-specific distribution within the membrane fractions. PMA treatment of adipocytes induces ...
Compared to standard 2D culture systems, new methods for 3D cell culture of adipocytes could provide more physiologically accurate data and a deeper understanding of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. By resuspending living cells in a bioink of nanocellulose and hyaluronic acid, we were able to print 3D scaffolds with uniform cell distribution. After one week in culture, cell viability was 95%, and after two weeks the cells displayed a more mature phenotype with larger lipid droplets than standard 2D cultured cells. Unlike cells in 2D culture, the 3D bioprinted cells did not detach upon lipid accumulation. After two weeks, the gene expression of the adipogenic marker genes PPAR. and FABP4 was increased 2.0- and 2.2-fold, respectively, for cells in 3D bioprinted constructs compared with 2D cultured cells. Our 3D bioprinted culture system produces better adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and a more mature cell phenotype than conventional
Gerin I, Bommer GT, McCoin CS, Sousa KM, Krishnan V, MacDougald OA. Roles for miRNA-378/378* in adipocyte gene expression and lipogenesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299: E198-E206, 2010. First published May 18, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00179.2010.-In this study, we explored the roles of microRNAs in adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. We first knocked down Argonaute2 (Ago2), a key enzyme in the processing of micro-RNAs (miRNAs), to investigate a potential role for miRNAs in adipocyte differentiation and/or metabolism. Although we did not observe dramatic differences in adipogenesis between Ago2 knock-down and control 3T3-L1 cells, incorporation of [C-14] glucose or acetate into triacylglycerol, and steady-state levels of triacyglycerol were all reduced, suggesting a role for miRNAs in adipocyte metabolism. To study roles of specific miRNAs in adipocyte biology, we screened for miRNAs that are differentially expressed between preadipocytes and adipocytes for the 3T3-L1 and ST2 cell ...
One of the major findings in the current report is that PIKE-A is critical for adipocyte differentiation. Several lines of evidence support the role of PIKE-A in terminal adipocyte differentiation instead of preadipocyte formation. First, the mature adipocyte marker aP2 is significantly decreased during in vitro adipocyte differentiation in PIKE−/− MEFs, indicating PIKE-A is important for adipocyte differentiation (Fig. 3B and C). Second, PIKE-A expression is increased in fat tissue development of HFD-fed and ob/ob mice, which highlights its function in the process (Fig. 2H). Lastly, HFD induced comparable preadipocyte marker Pref-1 expression in both wild-type and PIKE−/− mice, indicating that formation of new adipocytes is normal in PIKE-null adipose tissue (Fig. 3A). Interestingly, we found a small portion of PIKE−/− MEFs was able to differentiate into mature adipocytes (Fig. 3B), and quantitative analysis revealed a small but statistically significant increment of lipid ...
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), the specific marker of brown adipose tissue, is transcriptionally activated in response to adrenergic stimuli and thyroid hormones are necessary for its full expression. We describe differences in the regulation of UCP-1 mRNA expression between rat and mouse brown adipocytes in culture, using norepinephrine (NE), triiodothyronine (T3), insulin and retinoic acid (RA). Results: NE and cAMP-elevating agents strongly increase UCP-1 mRNA levels in cultures of mouse adipocytes, but increases are low in those from rat. In rat adipocytes NE poorly increases UCP-1 mRNA expression and T3 markedly increases the adrenergic response of UCP-1, an effect not observed in mouse adipocytes. In the absence of insulin, T3 itself increases UCP-1 mRNA in rat adipocytes and enhances the response to NE, while in mouse adipocytes no effect of T3 is observed. RA by itself stimulates UCP-1 mRNA in mouse adipocytes, but not in those from rat. In rat cultures, RA requires the presence of NE ...
Dr. Rayalam has worked in the areas of obesity, body weight regulation, phytochemicals and adipocyte biochemistry for over 8 years. Her research interests include: 1) to study the adipocyte life cycle and to understand the interaction of adipocytes with other cell types as an approach to address several problems associated with obesity; 2) to develop novel treatment strategies for obesity by inducing transdifferentiation of white to beige adipocytes and to inhibit lipid accumulation in white adipocytes; and 3) to identify combinations of phytochemicals and vitamins that have synergistic anti-adipogenic effects with an ultimate goal of developing pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of obesity and associated disorders. Aging is accompanied by an accumulation of adipocytes in bone marrow and Dr. Rayalams other interest is to understand the fat-bone interaction and to identify molecular targets for the prevention of weight gain and bone loss associated with aging. Dr. ...
BioAssay record AID 1656 submitted by Burnham Center for Chemical Genomics: High Throughput Imaging Assay for Hepatic Lipid Droplet Formation.
The number of overweight and obese individuals continues to increase in both the U.S. and worldwide. This increase has led to a significant increase in obesity-related medical problems including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer. In obesity, the differentiation of adipocytes is suppressed. Although adipocyte differentiation is associated with changes in glucose metabolism, little is known about the potential of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism to modulate this process. Pyruvate kinase (PK) mediates the rate-limiting step of glycolysis. The M2 isoform of PK (PKM2) is expressed in adipocytes but its role in adipogenesis is unknown. Here we demonstrate that PKM2 regulates the differentiation of both human and mouse adipocytes. Silencing of PKM2 in preadipocytes led to increased lipid accumulation, enhanced expression of markers (FABP4, PPARgamma, C/EBPBeta) of adipocyte differentiation and caused a shift in the pattern of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism favoring the ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Lin Mi, Yaosheng Chen, Xueli Zheng, Youlei Li, Qiangling Zhang, Delin Mo, Gongshe Yang].
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A combination of cellular, biochemical, genetic and genomic techniques have revealed a new molecular player in the production of fat cells in mice, which could improve our understanding of obesity.
A benign tumour usually composed of mature adipocytes with ubiquitous localization. Classically lipomas are well circumscribed and develop slowly.. ...
Last August, a few hundred evangelicals packed into the pews at a suburban church in Arlington, Virginia, to hear two men-one black, one white-discuss what they
The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has previously been shown to facilitate adipocyte differentiation by inducing cell cycle arrest and enhancing the transactivation by the adipogenic CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP). We show here that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear receptor pivotal for adipogenesis, promotes adipocyte differentiation more efficiently in the absence of RB. PPARgamma and RB were shown to coimmunoprecipitate, and this PPARgamma-RB complex also contains the histone deacetylase HDAC3, thereby attenuating PPARgammas capacity to drive gene expression and adipocyte differentiation. Dissociation of the PPARgamma-RB-HDAC3 complex by RB phosphorylation or by inhibition of HDAC activity stimulates adipocyte differentiation. These observations underscore an important function of both RB and HDAC3 in fine-tuning PPARgamma activity and adipocyte differentiation.. Keywords: Thiazolidinediones. ...
The development of mature adipocytes from pre-adipocytes is a highly regulated process. CD24 is a glycophosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface receptor that has been identified as a critical cell surface marker for identifying pre-adipocytes that are able to reconstitute white adipose tissue (WAT) in vivo. Here, we examined the role and regulation of CD24 during adipogenesis in vitro. We found that CD24 mRNA and protein expression is upregulated early during adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and in murine primary pre-adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous and visceral WAT, followed by downregulation in mature adipocytes. CD24 mRNA expression was found to be dependent on increased transcription due to increased promoter activity in response to activation of a preexisting transcriptional regulator. Furthermore, either intracellular cAMP or dexamethasone were sufficient to increase expression in pre-adipocytes, while both additively increased CD24 expression. Preventing the increase in CD24 ...
Comments, concepts and statistics about Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Gallotannins from Galla Rhois with Inhibitory Effects on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells.
Common genetic variants at the ARL15 locus are associated with plasma adiponectin, insulin and HDL cholesterol concentrations, obesity, and coronary atherosclerosis. The ARL15 gene encodes a small GTP-binding protein whose function is currently unknown. In this study adipocyte-autonomous roles for ARL15 were investigated using conditional knockdown of Arl15 in murine 3T3-L1 (pre)adipocytes. Arl15 knockdown in differentiated adipocytes impaired adiponectin secretion but not adipsin secretion or insulin action, while in preadipocytes it impaired adipogenesis. In differentiated adipocytes GFP-tagged ARL15 localized predominantly to the Golgi with lower levels detected at the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles, suggesting involvement in intracellular trafficking. Sequencing of ARL15 in 375 severely insulin resistant patients identified four rare heterozygous variants, including an early nonsense mutation in a proband with femorogluteal lipodystrophy and non classical congenital adrenal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Beta-mecaptoethanol suppresses inflammation and induces adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-F442A murine preadipocytes. AU - Guo, Wen. AU - Li, Yahui. AU - Liang, Wentao. AU - Wong, Siu. AU - Apovian, Caroline. AU - Kirkland, James L.. AU - Corkey, Barbara E.. PY - 2012/7/23. Y1 - 2012/7/23. N2 - Preadipocytes are present in adipose tissues throughout adult life that can proliferate and differentiate into mature adipocytes in response to environmental cues. Abnormal increase in adipocyte number or size leads to fat tissue expansion. However, it is now recognized that adipocyte hypertrophy is a greater risk factor for metabolic syndrome whereas fat tissue that continues to produce newer and smaller fat cells through preadipocyte differentiation is "metabolically healthy". Because adipocyte hypertrophy is often associated with increased oxidant stress and low grade inflammation, both are linked to disturbed cellular redox, we tested how preadipocyte differentiation may be regulated ...
The present results provide direct evidence for a regulatory role of mechanical stress in adipocyte differentiation, mediated through the activation of the ERK/MAPK system. Controversial observations concerning the role of ERK/MAPK in adipocyte differentiation have been reported by several laboratories - the activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway has been shown to be involved in both the inhibition (Font de Mora et al., 1997; Hu et al., 1996; Kim et al., 2001; Shimba et al., 2001) and the promotion (Bost et al., 2002; Klemm et al., 2001; Machinal-Quelin et al., 2002; Prusty et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 1996) of adipocyte differentiation. Along these lines, Prusty et al. recently suggested that stimulation of the ERK/MAPK pathway might have opposing effects in the process of adipogenesis, depending on the time of activation during the differentiation process (Prusty et al., 2002). In the present study, the activated state of ERK1/2 was more prolonged during the induction period in response to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CXCL3 positively regulates adipogenic differentiation. AU - Kusuyama, Joji. AU - Komorizono, Anna. AU - Bandow, Kenjiro. AU - Ohnishi, Tomokazu. AU - Matsuguchi, Tetsuya. PY - 2016/10. Y1 - 2016/10. N2 - Chemokines are a family of cytokines inducing cell migration and inflammation. Recent reports have implicated the roles of chemokines in cell differentiation. However, little is known about the functional roles of chemokines in adipocytes. Here, we explored gene expression levels of chemokines and chemokine receptors during adipogenic differentiation. We have found that two chemokines, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3) and CXCL13, as well as CXC chemokine receptor 2(CXCR2), a CXCL3 receptor, are highly expressed in mature adipocytes. When 3T3-L1 cells and ST2 cells were induced to differentiate, both the number of lipid droplets and the expression levels of adipogenic markers were significantly promoted by the addition of CXCL3, but not CXCL13. Conversely, gene knockdown ...
To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate the effects of maternal isocaloric pair-fed high-carbohydrate (LF-HCD) versus high-fat diet (HF-LCD) during gestation and lactation on gene expression and serum levels of formation and resorption markers in bone, as well as adipogenic and lipogenic markers in retroperitoneal fat mass of mice offspring at adolescence. The results of the present study showed that maternal LF-HCD during gestation and lactation lead to up-regulation of Runx2 and Ctnnb1, as well as Runx2, OPG, OPG/RANK-L ratio and Ctnnb1 mRNA expression in bone of female and male offspring, respectively. Also, serum levels of OPG/RNK-L ratio which is the marker of osteogenesis [22] were increased in the LF-HCD-fed group, compared with the HF-LCD. PPARγ2 mRNA expression, as well as other adipogenic genes measured in the current study and serum levels of proteins were increased in the offspring of HF-LCD-fed mothers. Our results showed that mRNA expression of OPG and ...
PEPTIDE - The present invention relates to a peptide that is derived from a milk protein and has an antioxidative effect, an antioxidant that includes the peptide as an active ingredient, and an antioxidative food, drink, or feed that includes the peptide. The present invention also relates to a peptide that is derived from a milk protein and has an adiponectin production promotion effect, an adiponectin production promoter that includes the peptide as an active ingredient, and an adiponectin production promotion food, drink, or feed that includes the peptide. The present invention further relates to a blood adiponectin level increase promotion and/or decrease inhibition agent that includes a component contained in cheese as an active ingredient, and a blood adiponectin level increase promotion and/or decrease inhibition food or drink that includes a component contained in cheese. The present invention to the peptide that consists of an amino acid sequence shown by ...
Adipocytes play an important role in energy storage and metabolism. Adipocyte differentiation is a developmental process that is critical for metabolic homeostasis and nutrient signaling. It is controlled by complex actions involving gene expression and signal transduction. Preadipocytes are present throughout adult life in adipose tissues and can proliferate and differentiate into mature adipocytes according to the energy balance. The proliferation and differentiation of these preadipocytes contribute to increases in adipose tissue mass. In vitro study indicates that different tissue-derived preadipocytes exhibit differently in lipid accumulation, adipogenic transcription factor expression, and TNF?-induced apoptosis. It has also been demonstrated that there is a close relationship between adipocyte differentiation and many physiological and pathological processes including fat metabolism, energy balance, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and breast cancer. HPA-s from Bioarray Research ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of gene expression during adipocyte differentiation. T2 - a review.. AU - Gaskins, H. R.. AU - Hausman, G. J.. AU - Martin, R. J.. PY - 1989/9. Y1 - 1989/9. N2 - The differentiation of adipose precursor cells is accompanied by the acquisition of adipocyte-specific messenger (m) RNAs allowing characteristic changes in protein composition. The development of methods for cloning and characterizing individual genes has provided the opportunity to study selective gene expression by adipocytes at the molecular level. In this review, the information obtained to date regarding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms utilized by adipocytes is summarized. Included are descriptions of conserved DNA sequences found in noncoding regions of adipose genes and of how protein-DNA interactions at these regions are thought to regulate the initiation of transcription. Among the transcription factors implemented in regulation of adipocyte-specific gene expression are ...
Using a subtraction method, we have isolated genes that are induced early in the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells into adipocytes. These include the genes encoding transcription factors and signalling proteins, as well as unknown genes. Bach1, a transcription factor, and ARA70, a cofactor, were rapidly induced during differentiation. The induction of these two genes was observed only in growth-arrested 3T3-L1 cells, and not in proliferating cells. In NIH-3T3 cells, no induction was observed under either set of conditions. These results strongly indicate that Bach1 and ARA70 have valuable roles at the onset of adipocyte differentiation.. ...
In the nucleus HuR binds to mRNAs containing adenylate-uridylate rich elements in the 3?- untranslated region. HuR may influence expression of its ligand mRNA through regulation of polyadenylation, translocation of the message to the cytosol, stabilization of the mRNA and/or altering its translational efficiency. Suppression of HuR using siRNA resulted in an attenuation of the 3T3-L1 differentiation program, consistent with HuR control of the expression of mRNA ligand (s) critical to the differentiation process. In the current study we begin to identify mRNA ligands of HuR whose regulated expression is necessary for adipogenesis. Originally published in Biochemical and Biophysiological Research Communications Vol. 383, No. 2 2009 ...
The present study indicates that EERP enhance differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in part by its potency of PPARγ activation and are capable of reversing inhibitory effects of TNF-α on adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin expression. These results suggest the value of EERP as a diet supplement for prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders ...
Rabbit polyclonal Hormone sensitive lipase antibody validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
References for Abcams Anti-Hormone sensitive lipase (phospho S853) antibody [EPR2329(2)] (ab109400). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
In the study, they put mice on chow and HFDs and looked at when recruitment of pre-adipocytes occurs with respect to obesity development. Surprisingly, pre-adipocytes start to get activated within 1 day of HFD exposure, peak at 3 days, and returns to baseline at 5 days. ( although it takes 7-8 weeks for them to fully differentiate into adipocytes and store fat, it seems you can get the "ball rolling" extremely quickly, i guess I need to think carefully next time before I indulge in a cheat meal ...
Creb3l4-KO mice showed adipocyte hyperplasia, lead to improved metabolic parameters. (a) Adipogenic potential of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from
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Although numerous works have focused on adipocyte differentiation and function as well as alterations under pathophysiological conditions, only a few studies have considered the importance of mitochondrial activity in these situations [11]. In fact, mitochondria play important roles in adipocyte differentiation and function. Pre-adipocytes mature in two steps: differentiation and then hypertrophy. During the early maturation stage, an increased number of mitochondria are required [11] and 12 E.H. Koh et al., Essential role of mitochondrial function in adiponectin synthesis in adipocytes, Diabetes 56 (2007), pp. 2973-2981.[12], resulting in small adipocytes, which are highly sensitive to insulin and that secrete high levels of adiponectin [12]. By contrast, older adipocytes increase in size (hypertrophy), lose their functional activities and become resistant to insulin. They exhibit decreased numbers of mitochondria with impaired functions and secrete less adiponectin [12]. In addition, ...
In a previous study designed to understand the role of Myo1c in GLUT4 trafficking and membrane dynamics, we observed that Myo1c overexpression induced dramatic cortical actin remodeling (membrane ruffling) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in a serum- and insulin-independent manner (4). This observation suggested that Myo1c might mediate the effect of insulin on membrane ruffling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which is supported by our observation that Myo1c depletion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes does indeed attenuate insulin-induced membrane ruffling (data not shown). Interestingly, expression of Myo1c in cultured adipocytes induces membrane ruffling even in the presence of wortmannin, suggesting that Myo1c may function downstream or independent of PI3K in activating membrane ruffling. Our studies here suggest that formation and maintenance of the Rictor-Myo1c complex are not dependent on insulin, rapamycin, or wortmannin (Fig. 1, 2, and 4). Therefore, to determine the functional relevance of Rictors association with ...
Regional differences in free fatty acid (FFA) handling contribute to diseases associated with particular fat distributions. As cultured rat preadipocytes became differentiated, FFA transfer into preadipocytes increased and was more rapid in single pe
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Current epidemics of diabetes mellitus is largely caused by wide spread obesity. The best-established connection between obesity and insulin resistance is the elevated and/or dysregulated levels of circulating free fatty acids that cause and aggravate insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other hazardous metabolic conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of a major dietary saturated fatty acid, palmitate, on the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin produced by cultured adipocytes. We have found that palmitate rapidly inhibits transcription of the adiponectin gene and the release of adiponectin from adipocytes. Adiponectin gene expression is controlled primarily by PPARγ and C/EBPα. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts from C/EBPα-null mice, we have determined that the latter transcription factor may not solely mediate the inhibitory effect of palmitate on adiponectin transcription leaving PPARγ as a likely target of palmitate. In agreement with this model, palmitate
TY - JOUR. T1 - FGF-10 is a growth factor for preadipocytes in white adipose tissue. AU - Yamasaki, Masahiro. AU - Emoto, Hisayo. AU - Konishi, Morichika. AU - Mikami, Tadahisa. AU - Ohuchi, Hideyo. AU - Nakao, Kazuwa. AU - Itoh, Nobuyuki. PY - 1999/4/29. Y1 - 1999/4/29. N2 - FGF-10 is a mesenchymal factor affecting epithelial cells during pattern formation. However, the expression and physiological role of FGF-10 in adults remains to be elucidated. We examined the expression of FGF-10 mRNA in a variety of adult rat tissues, and found to be most abundant in white adipose tissue. In white adipose tissue, FGF-10 mRNA was expressed in preadipocytes but not in mature adipocytes. The expression in white adipose tissue during postnatal development was also examined. The expression level was low at postnatal day 10 (P10). However, FGF-10 mRNA was abundantly detected later on (P28 and P48) when white adipose tissue growth was stimulated. We also examined the activity of recombinant FGF-10 for primary ...
Intramuscular fat or marbling is critical for the palatability of beef. In mice, very recent studies show that adipocytes and fibroblasts share a common pool of progenitor cells, with Zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) as a key initiator of adipogenic differentiation. To evaluate the role of Zfp423 in intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling in beef cattle, we sampled beef muscle for separation of stromal vascular cells. These cells were immortalized with pCI neo-hEST2 and individual clones were selected by G418. A total of 288 clones (3×96 well plates) were isolated and induced to adipogenesis. The presence of adipocytes was assessed by Oil-Red-O staining. Three clones with high and low adipogenic potential respectively were selected for further analyses. In addition, fibro/adipogenic progenitor cells were selected using a surface marker, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α. The expression of Zfp423 was much higher (307.4±61.9%, P|0.05) in high adipogenic cells, while transforming growth
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Lipolysis is the bodys mechanism for breaking down fats to make them absorbable and usable. There are two types: gastrointestinal lipolysis, which takes place during digestion, and adipocyte lipolysis, concerned with stored fat, which is often referred to as fat-burning. How can you use it to help achieve your slimming goals?
Visfatin is an adipokine highly expressed in visceral AT (adipose tissue) of humans and rodents, the production of which seems to be dysregulated in excessive fat accumulation and conditions of insulin resistance. EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), an n−3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid), has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects in obesity and insulin resistance conditions, which have been further linked to its reported ability to modulate adipokine production by adipocytes. TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose production is increased in obesity and is involved in the development of insulin resistance. Control of adipokine production by some insulin-sensitizing compounds has been associated with the stimulation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). The aim of the present study was to examine in vitro the effects of EPA on visfatin production and the potential involvement of AMPK both in the absence or presence of TNF-α. Treatment with the ...
Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces "white adipocytes" with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP4 transgene in white adipocytes of mice gives rise to reduced WAT mass and white adipocyte size along with an increased number of a white adipocyte cell types with brown adipocyte characteristics comparable to those of beige or brite adipocytes. These changes correlate closely with increased energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, and protection against diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Conversely, BMP4-deficient mice exhibit enlarged white adipocyte morphology and impaired insulin sensitivity. We ...
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In contrast to the published studies, which demonstrated associations between average adipocyte size and serum levels or secretion, our study is unique because it investigated the secretory capacity of adipocyte fractions from the same individual separated by cell size. The results obtained by the technique clearly suggest that only the very large adipocytes are dysregulated. Adipocyte hypertrophy appears to cause a differentially impaired secretion between pro- and antiinflammatory adipokines shifting the immunological balance toward the expression of proinflammatory proteins. Thisabnormal function of adipocytes may play an important role in the development of a chronic low-grade proinflammatory state in obesity, which is considered to build the common soil for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis (5, 68 ...