The adsorption of benzidine by sepiolite obtained from Eskisehir (Turkey) has been studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A deep green colouration results on reaction of benzidine and sepiolite. In the IR spectrum of benzidine treated sepiolite ν(C-N+) vibrational modes of the uni- and di-positive radical cations are observed in addition to vibrational modes of coordinated benzidine. Spectroscopic results indicate that the principle adsorption mechanism for benzidine is coordination to surface hydroxyls from nitrogen lone pairs and to a relatively small extent, formation of radical cations. No physical sorbed species have been detected. It must be noted that the adsorption of benzidine affected the hydroxyl group vibrations of sepiolite.. ...
4-Aminobiphenyl exposure can be assayed by measuring the extent of adduct formation with hemoglobin. 4-Aminobiphenyl metabolism is catalyzed by N-hydroxylation via cytochrome P450 1A2. It is then followed by O-sulfation and O-acetylation by sulfotransferase 1A1 and arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2. The urinary metabolites of 4-aminobiphenyl include 4-acetylaminobiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl, 2-hydroxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy, 4-methoxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl, 4-hydroxy, 3-methoxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl, and 3,4-dihydroxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl. (8, 4 ...
3,3-Diaminobenzidine Tetrahydrochloride hydrate,97%, Contains Up to 10% Water, ACROS Organics™ 5g; Glass bottle 3,3-Diaminobenzidine Tetrahydrochloride...
In order to understand the mechanism of molecular interactions at the active site of Tryparedoxin Peroxidase (Try P), homology modeling and docking studies were performed. We generated a Three-Dimensional (3D) model of target protein based on the Crystal structure of Leishmania Major Try PI (PDB ID: 3TUE) using modeler software. Docking analysis was carried out to study the effects of methotrexate on Tryparedoxin Peroxidase (Try P). Inhibition of the Tryparedoxin peroxidase interaction has become a new therapeutic strategy in treating leishmaniasis. Docking analysis was carried out to study the effects of methotrexate on Tryparedoxin Peroxidase (TryP). Tryparedoxin peroxidase of Trypanosomatidae family functions as antioxidant through their peroxidase and peroxynitrite reductase activities. The theoretical docking study, conducted on a sample previously reported for anti-cancer properties of Methotrexate at the binding site of 3D models of Tryparedoxin Peroxidase of Leishmania braziliensis (L. ...
A cDNA for thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase of pumpkin was cloned and characterized. Thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase had a high similarity to cytosolic ascorbate peroxidases, and the precursor contained a transit peptide to chloroplasts at its ammo-terminus and a putative membrane-spanning region at its carboxy-terminus.. ...
Electroplating industry. Get Sodium Cyanide market Sample Research Report with complete TOC at https://market.biz/report/global-sodium-cyanide-market-gir/25773/#requestforsample. This research report is divided into subsequent fragments:. Fragment 1, focuses on objective of Sodium Cyanide market covering the definition, product classification, type, product images, growth statistics and presence of Sodium Cyanide market on global scale;. Fragment 2, studies the Sodium Cyanide market player, their sales volume, supply and demand analysis, profile information and their market dividend in 2016 and 2017;. Fragment 3, comprehensive market scenario of the top dominant market players of Sodium Cyanide market based on their annual revenue;. Fragment 4, Sodium Cyanide market segmentation based on regions and sales volume in each region and market profits from 2012 to 2017;. Fragment 5,6,7,8 and 9 chief countries with their Sodium Cyanide market profits 2017;. Fragment 10 and 11 studies the different ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electron microscopic visualization of tetramethyl benzidine reaction product on horseradish peroxidase neurohistochemistry. AU - Sakumoto, T.. AU - Nagai, T.. AU - Kimura, H.. AU - Maeda, T.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018937029&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018937029&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7471140. AN - SCOPUS:0018937029. VL - 26. SP - 211. EP - 216. JO - Cellular and Molecular Biology. JF - Cellular and Molecular Biology. SN - 0145-5680. IS - 2. ER - ...
Dave Turnbull, CEO of the British Mountaineering Council, was live on the UKC Forums to answer questions on Tuesday 8th December.. He has been in charge of the BMC for the last seven years, before that he was the BMC Access Officer.. Ever up for a mountainous adventure, Dave recently completed the Three Peaks Yacht Race and managed the 24 and 16 mile runs up and down Snowdon and Ben Nevis that are part of the race. A committed climber, Turnbull has recently pulled his finger out and hauled himself up several steep sport routes and hard trad routes in the Peak District. But is he pulling his finger out at the BMC?. In an interview in Summit magazine back in 2008, Turnbull was asked "Whats the point in the BMC anyway?". He responded:. "To stand up for climbers and walkers when things go wrong; when Foot and Mouth disease closes the countryside, or the government tries to introduce restrictive new legislation, or a major landowner decides to shut down access or sell off their land. To make sure ...
Eosinophil peroxidase is an enzyme found within the eosinophil granulocytes, innate immune cells of humans and mammals. This oxidoreductase protein is encoded by the gene EPX, expressed within these myeloid cells. EPO shares many similarities with its orthologous peroxidases, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoperoxidase (LPO), and thyroid peroxidase (TPO). The protein is concentrated in secretory granules within eosinophils. Eosinophil peroxidase is a heme peroxidase, its activities including the oxidation of halide ions to bacteriocidal reactive oxygen species, the cationic disruption of bacterial cell walls, and the post-translational modification of protein amino acid residues. The major function of eosinophil peroxidase is to catalyze the formation of hypohalous acids from hydrogen peroxide and halide ions in solution. For example: H2O2 + Cl− → HOCl + H2O Hypohalous acids formed from halides or pseudohalides are potent oxidizing agents. The open reading frame of human eosinophil peroxidase was ...
Acetyl coenzyme A-dependent N-acetyltransferase and O-acetyltransferase activities were examined in liver cytosols derived from homozygous rapid acetylator C57BL/6J and A.B6 congenic inbred mouse strains, from homozygous slow acetylator A/J and B6.A congenic inbred mouse strains, and from the (C57BL/6J x A/J)F1 heterozygous acetylator hybrid mouse strain. Acetylator genotype-dependent N-acetyltransferase activity was exhibited for the N-acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminofluorene, and 4-aminobiphenyl. In contrast, levels of isoniazid N-acetyltransferase and N-hydroxy-3,2-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl O-acetyltransferase activities in mouse liver cytosol appeared to be independent of the arylamine Nat acetylator gene. Although cytosolic N-acetyltransferase activities differed about 2-fold between the parental C57BL/6J and A/J strains for p-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminofluorene, and 4-aminobiphenyl, the same N-acetyltransferase activities differed about 6-7-fold between the homozygous rapid ...
Even given all of these direct and indirect effects of cyanide exposure to plants, it is highly unlikely for humans to be exposed to large enough amounts of cyanide to be put at risk; still, its important to know the signs of cyanide exposure just to err on the side of caution. The earliest effects of cyanide exposure are rapid, deep breathing and shortness of breath followed by convulsions (seizures) and loss of consciousness. Prolonged exposure to small amounts of cyanide over long periods of time has been linked to breathing difficulties, chest pain, vomiting, blood changes, headaches and enlargement of the thyroid gland. Exposure to large amounts of cyanide in a short time can cause brain and heart damage and in some cases can lead to coma and death.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histochemical demonstration of membranous localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells of the rat brain. AU - Tomimoto, Hidekazu. AU - Akiguchi, Ichiro. AU - Wakita, Hideaki. AU - Nakamura, Sinichi. AU - Kimura, Jun. PY - 1994/12/19. Y1 - 1994/12/19. N2 - We examined cellular and subcellular localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by using immunoelectron microscopy. The results showed that immunoreaction products were associated with membranous structure, likely the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic vesicles. These membranous localization of imunoreactivities at electron microscopic level corresponded to the perinuclear granular structures observed by light microscopic immunohistochemistry for endothelial nitric oxide synthase as well as NADPH diaphorase histochemistry.. AB - We examined cellular and subcellular localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by using immunoelectron microscopy. The results showed that immunoreaction ...
Influence of Carbon Source on the Production of Extracellular Ligninolytic Enzymes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Fangfang Wang,a Mingqiang Ai,a Guihua Yang,b Jiachuan Chen,b Xiulan Chen,a and Feng Huang a,*. The effect of altering the carbon source in the growing environment was investigated relative to the production of ligninolytic enzymes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Glucose, cellobiose, and cellulose (or mixtures thereof) were used as the carbon sources. Glucose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase activities in all carbon sources were produced during cultivation. High peak levels (0.17 to 0.24 IU/mL) of manganese peroxidase activity were observed only in mediums containing oligosaccharides. Lignin peroxidase activity was high in glucose medium (0.21 IU/mL of peak value); however, minimal amounts were formed in the cellulose medium (0.01 IU/mL of peak value). High amounts of cellobiose:quinone oxidoreductase (3.33-3.99 IU/mL of peak value) and cellobiose dehydrogenase (0.04-0.2 IU/mL of peak ...
Bruce Turnbull received the B.S. from Cambridge University in 1967 and the Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1971. After serving on the faculty at Stanford University and at the University of Oxford, he joined Cornell University in 1976, where he is currently Professor in the School of Operations Research and Information Engineering where he previously served as Acting Director.. From 2000--2002, he was founding Chairman of the newly formed Department of Statistical Science and currently also holds a professorial appointment there. In 1979 he was awarded the Snedecor Memorial Award by the American Statistical Association in recognition of his research.. He has authored over 130 publications and is the co-author of a book on statistical procedures for monitoring clinical trials. He has been a consultant to many organizations, including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Institute for Energy Analysis; and various pharmaceutical companies. Turnbull has served on the Board of Directors of the ...
An adult patient with Sudan Black B (SB B) positive leukaemic lymphoblasts is described. Peroxidase and naphtol AS D chloroacetate esterase stains were negative. The diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was based on morphology (FAB classification: L1), on immunological marker studies (cALL+, Tdt+, Ia+) and on electron microscopy, revealed blasts, compatible with lymphoblasts. Additional proof of the diagnosis of ALL were the diffuse lymphadenopathy and the rapid response to ALL chemotherapy. Scattered azurophilic granules were present in some lymphoblasts; ultrastructurally multiple lysosomal inclusions were detected, containing small vesicles, sometimes in association with entrapped cytoplasmic organelles. The large amounts of phospholipids in these inclusions explain the Sudan Black B positivity. This type of ALL can easily be misdiagnosed as acute myeloid leukaemia.
Based on Dry Weight at the Time of Impregnation) Glucose: 2.2% W/W Glucose Oxidase (Microbial 1.3 IU); 1.0% W/W Peroxidase (Horseradish 3300 IU); 8.1% W/W Potassium Iodide; 69.8% W/W Buffer; 18.9% W/W Nonreactive Ingredients. Bilirubin: 0.4% W/W 2, 4-Dichloroaniline Diazonium Salt; 37.3% W/W Buffer; 62.3% W/W Nonreactive Ingredients. Ketone: 7.1% W/W Sodium Nitroprusside; 92.9% W/W Buffer. Specific Gravity: 2.8% W/W Bromthymol Blue; 68.8% W/W Poly (Methyl Vinyl Ether/Maleic Anhydride); 28.4% W/W Sodium Hydroxide. Blood: 6.8% W/W Diisopropylbenzene Dihydroperoxide; 4.0% W/W 3, 3, 5, 5-Tetramethylbenzidine; 48.0% W/W Buffer; 41.2% W/W Nonreactive Ingredients. pH: 0.2% W/W Methyl Red; 2.8% W/W Bromthymol Blue; 97.0% W/W Nonreactive Ingredients. Protein: 0.3% W/W Tetrabromphenol Blue; 97.3% W/W Buffer; 2.4% W/W Nonreactive Ingredients. Urobilinogen: 0.2% W/W p-Diethylaminobenzaldehyde; 99.8% W/W Nonreactive Ingredients. Nitrite: 1.4% W/W p-Arsanilic Acid; 1.3% W/W 1, 2, 3, ...
In humans, the metabolism of a number of tertiary amine-containing pharmacological agents to quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronides, catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), represents a unique and important metabolic pathway for these compounds. A full-length cDNA-encoding human UGT1.4 (the so-called "minor" human bilirubin UGT) was inserted into the expression vector pREP9 and transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 cells, and stable transfectants were obtained after geneticin selection. As expected, the expressed protein had low catalytic activity toward bilirubin. However, expressed human UGT1.4 protein exhibited glucuronidation activity toward tertiary amine substrates, such as imipramine, cyproheptadine, tripelennamine, and chlorpromazine, which form quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronides. Carcinogenic primary amines (beta-naphthylamine, benzidine, and 4-aminobiphenyl) also reacted with the expressed UGT1.4 protein at rates approximately 10-fold higher than the rates for ...
Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are carcinogenic to humans. This category is used when there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Exceptionally, an agent (mixture) may be placed in this category when evidence of carcinogenicity in humans is less than sufficient but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals and strong evidence in exposed humans that the agent (mixture) acts through a relevant mechanism of carcinogenicity. 2-Naphthylamine Acetaldehyde associated with consumption of alcoholic beverages 4-Aminobiphenyl Aflatoxins Aristolochic acids, and plants containing them Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds1 Asbestos Azathioprine Benzene Benzidine, and dyes metabolized to Benzo[a]pyrene Beryllium and beryllium compounds2 Chlornapazine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of the Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I-binding protein as a unique glycoform of the neural cell adhesion molecule in the olfactory sensory axons of adult rats. AU - Pestean, Aurelian. AU - Krizbai, István. AU - Böttcher, Herma. AU - Párducz, Árpád. AU - Joó, Ferenc. AU - Wolff, Joachim R.. PY - 1995/8/4. Y1 - 1995/8/4. N2 - Histochemical localization of two lectins, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Tetragonolobus purpureus (TPA), was studied in the olfactory bulb of adult rats. In contrast to TPA, UEA-I detected a fucosylated glycoprotein that is only present in the surface membranes of olfactory sensory cells including the whole course of their neurites up to the final arborization in glomeruli. Immunoblotting revealed that UEA-I binds specifically to a protein of 205 kDa, while TPA stains several other glycoproteins. Affinity chromatography with the use of a UEA-I column identified the 205 kDa protein as a glycoform of neural cell adhesion molecule ...
Eosinophil peroxidase and myeloperoxidase use hydrogen peroxide to produce hypobromous acid and hypochlorous acid. These powerful oxidants may damage the lungs if they are produced as part of the inflammatory response in asthma. The aim of this study was to determine if peroxidases generate hypohalous acids in the airways of individuals with stable asthma, and if they affect lung function. Sputum was induced from patients with mild to moderate asthma and from healthy controls. Eosinophil peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, chlorinated and brominated tyrosyl residues, and protein carbonyls were measured in sputum supernatants. Eosinophil peroxidase protein was significantly elevated in asthmatic subjects whereas myeloperoxidase protein was not. There was significantly more 3-bromotyrosine (Br-Tyr) in proteins from the sputum of asthmatics compared to controls (0.79 vs. 0.23 mmol Br-Tyr/mol Tyr; medians p , .0001). Levels of 3-chlorotyrosine (0.23 vs. 0.14 mmol Cl-Tyr/mol Tyr; medians p = .11) and ...
The performance of a fluidized bed reactor using immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) from aqueous solution was investigated. The contribution of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) secreted by Phanerochaete chrysosporium to the 2,4-DCP degradation was examined. Results showed that Lip and Mnp were not essential to 2,4-DCP degradation while their presence enhanced the degradation process and reaction rate. In sequential batch experiment, the bioactivity of immobilized cells was recovered and improved during the culture and the maximum degradation rate constant of 13.95 mg (Ld)−1 could be reached. In continuous bioreactor test, the kinetic behavior of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized on loofa sponge was found to follow the Monod equation. The maximum reaction rate was 7.002 mg (Lh)−1, and the saturation constant was 26.045 mg L−1. ...
Stachys tymphaea (Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb growing in forest openings and dry meadows of central and southern Italy. It was investigated for the first time here, determining the content of secondary metabolites, the micromorphology of glandular trichomes, the histochemical localization of secretion, and the biological activity of the volatile oil, namely, the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. The plant showed a peculiar molecular pattern, being rich of biophenolic compounds as flavonoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, but poor of iridoids, which are known as marker compounds of the genus Stachys. The essential oil was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, revealing a high percentage of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (54.6%), with germacrene D (30.0%) and (E)-β-farnesene (12.4%) as the most abundant compounds, while other main components were representatives of the diterpenes (19.2%), represented mainly by (E)-phytol (11.9%). This ...
Tuning and controlling size, shape and surface characteristics of plasmonic gold nanoparticles can help define their photonic, catalytic, and spectroscopic properties, and therefore are crucial for the development of biosensors. This strategy is demonstrated in the present study. Gold nanostars (Au NST) chemically synthesized through a seeding approach exhibited not only Vis-NIR tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), but also strong peroxidase-mimicking activity which can catalyse the oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) into an oxidized chromogenic product (oxTMB). The catalytic activity of gold nanostars was found to correlate well with their size and LSPR mode, and to be strongly affected by capping ligands (i.e. poly and oligo ethylene glycol, 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, 4-mercaptobenzoic acid). When capped with molecular binders (i.e. peptides and antibodies), the peroxidase-mimicking activity was suppressed by almost 100% under the examined conditions. However, a gold ...
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Recent studies in the field of autoimmune thyroid diseases have largely focused on the delineation of B-cell auto-epitopes recognized by the main autoantigens to improve our understanding of how these molecules are seen by the immune system. Among these autoantigens which are targeted by autoantibodies during the development of autoimmune thyroid diseases, thyroid peroxidase is a major player. Indeed, high amounts of anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies are found in the sera of patients suffering from Graves disease and Hashimotos thyroiditis, respectively hyper and hypothyroidism. Since anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies from patientssera mainly recognize a discontinuous immunodominant region on thyroid peroxidase and due to the complexity of the three dimensional structure of human thyroid peroxidase, numerous investigations have been necessary to closely localize this immunodominant region. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the localization of the
RIBEIRO MELO-JUNIOR, Mario et al. Carbohydrates Detection in the Hepatic Egg - Granuloma System Using Lectin Histochemistry. Int. J. Morphol. [online]. 2008, vol.26, n.4, pp.967-972. ISSN 0717-9502. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022008000400030.. This study aims to evalúate the egg-granuloma system in hepatic tissues using lectin histochemistry in experimental Schistosomiasis. Eight Swiss mice were infected with a local strain of Schistosoma mansoni, being submitted forty days later to a perfusión after which slices of liver (4,J.m) were prepared. The tissue samples were incubated with the following peroxidase conjugated lectins: Peanut agglutinin (PNA), Wheat Germ agglutinin (WGA), and Concanavalin A (Con A). All lectins recognized the glycoconjugates in the adult worm tegument. In the hepatic tissue, WGA presented the highest staining followed by PNA and Con A. The PNA presented the most intense staining of the egg-granuloma system while WGA stained the hepatic sinusoid cells and Con A ...
Salivary gland homogenates from adult female Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes relaxed aortic rings preconstricted with noradrenaline (NA). This relaxation is slow and is due to destruction of NA. Incubation of NA with the homogenate yielded a product with a spectrum consistent with the corresponding adrenochrome. Oxidation of NA was enhanced by a superoxide generation system and inhibited by the combined action of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Additionally, peroxidase activity on both synthetic (o-dianisidine) and biologically active (serotonin) substrates was also present in the salivary gland homogenates, this latter activity requiring hydrogen peroxide. Noradrenaline oxidation, serotonin and o-dianisidine peroxidation and vasodilation all co-elute with a heme protein of relative molecular mass 50,000, as determined by molecular sieving chromatography. Peroxidase activity was localized in the posterior (female-specific) lobes of salivary glands and was also detected in nitrocellulose ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NAT2 fast acetylator genotype is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in Taiwan. AU - Huang, Chi Chou. AU - Chien, Wen Pin. AU - Wong, Ruey Hong. AU - Cheng, Ya Wen. AU - Chen, Meng Cheng. AU - Chou, Ming Chih. AU - Lee, Huei. PY - 2007/7. Y1 - 2007/7. N2 - In Taiwan, colorectal cancer has one of the highest rates of increased incidence in the past two decades. Heterocyclic amines from dietary cooked meats are metabolically activated by NAT2 (N-acetyltransferase 2), which are associated with colorectal cancer incidence. Thus, the NAT2 fast acetylator genotype may be associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the association between the NAT2 genotype and colorectal cancer risk is not clearly understood. We conducted a study with 244 primary colorectal cancer cases and 299 cancer-free healthy control subjects to verify the association of NAT2 polymorphisms with the risk of Taiwanese colorectal cancer. Our data showed that subjects with the NAT2 W/W ...
Cytochrome c peroxidase was isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans and purified to homogeneity in three steps prior to crystallization. Two different diffraction-quality crystal forms were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using a number of screening conditions. The best (needle-shaped) crystal form is suitable for structural studies and was grown from solutions containing 20% PEG 8000, 0.1 M Tris pH 8.5 and 0.2 M MgCl(2). Crystals grew to a maximum length of approximately 0.7 mm and belong to the primitive monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 78.3, b = 51.0, c = 167.2 A, beta = 97.9 degrees. After a dehydration step and extensive optimization of the cryocooling conditions, a complete data set was collected to 2.2 A from a native crystal of the fully oxidized form of the enzyme using synchrotron radiation.
Arsenic can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. Bladder is one of the major target organs of arsenic, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) may play an important role in arsenic-induced bladder cancer. However, the mechanism by which arsenic induces COX-2 in bladder cells remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating arsenic-mediated intracellular redox status and signaling cascades leading to COX-2 induction in human uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC-1). SV-HUC-1 cells were exposed to sodium arsenite and COX-2 expression, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, glutathione (GSH) levels, ROS induction and Nrf2 expression were quantified. Our results demonstrate that arsenite (1-10 μM) elevates COX-2 expression, GSH levels, ROS and Nrf2 expression. Arsenite treatment for 24h stimulates phosphorylation of ERK and p38, but not JNK in SV-HUC-1 cells. Induction of Cox-2 mRNA levels by arsenite was attenuated by inhibitors of ERK, p38 and JNK. Arsenite
ANTICONVULSANTS PSYCHOSEDATIVES BENTIROMIDE BENTOCID BENTONITE BENTYL BENTYLOL BENURESTAT BENURON BENURYL BENZ(A)ANTHRACENE BENZAFLAVIN BENZALAZINE BENZALDEHYDE BENZALIN BENZALKONIUM BROMIDE BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE BENZAMIDE BENZAMIDE-RIBOSIDE BENZAMIDINE BENZAMIDOSALICYLATE CALCIUM BENZAMIL benzamine BENZANTHRIN-A BENZANTHRIN-B BENZANTHRONE BENZAPRINOXIDE BENZARONE BENZASAL BENZASTATIN-A BENZASTATIN-B BENZASTATIN-C BENZASTATIN-D BENZATHINE BENZATHINE-BENZYLPENICILLIN BENZATHINE-CEFAPIRIN BENZATHINE-CHLORTETRACYCLINE BENZATHINE-CLOXACILLIN TRANQUILIZERS Page 102 п98 SECTION B BENZATHINE- PHENOXYMETHYLPENICILLIN BENZATROPINE BENZBROMARONE BENZEDREX BENZEDRINE BENZELMIN BENZENE BENZENEARSONATE BENZENESULFOHYDROXAMATE benzenesulfonylphenytoin-1 BENZESTROL BENZETHIDINE BENZETHONIUM CHLORIDE BENZETIMIDE benzhexol BENZHYDRAZONE BENZIDINE BENZIL BENZILATE BENZILONIUM BROMIDE BENZILYLCHOLINE BENZIMIDAZOLE BENZIMIDAZOLYL-UREA-2 BENZINDOPYRINE BENZIODARONE BENZMALECENE BENZMETANIDE BENZNIDAZOLE BENZO(A)PYRENE
Abstract. The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is an invasive plant parasitic nematode and a worldwide quarantine pest. An indigenous species in North America and the causal agent of pine wilt disease, B. xylophilus has devastated pine production in Southeastern Asia including Japan, China, and Korea since its initial introduction in the early 1900s. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the first line of defense utilized by host plants against parasites, while nematodes, counteractively, employ antioxidants to facilitate their infection. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a large class of antioxidants recently found in a wide variety of organisms. In this report, a gene encoding a novel 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin protein in B. xylophilus was cloned and characterized. The 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin in B. xylophilus (herein refers to as "BxPrx") is highly conserved in comparison to 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins (Prx2s) in other nematodes, which have two conserved cysteine amino acids (Cp and Cr), a ...
Zhou H., Josephy P.D., Kim D., Guengerich F.P.. Human cytochrome P450 1A2 catalyzes important reactions in xenobiotic metabolism, including the N-hydroxylation of carcinogenic aromatic amines. In 2001, Chevalier et al. reported four new P450 1A2 sequence variants in the human population. We have now expressed these variants in Escherichia coli and measured protein expression (optical spectroscopy of holoenzyme and immunoblotting) and bioactivation of IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) and MeIQ (2-amino-2,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) in the lacZ reversion mutagenicity test. Enzyme kinetic analyses were performed for N-hydroxylation of five heterocyclic amine substrates and for O-deethylation of phenacetin. The most drastic effect was that of the R431W substitution: no holoenzyme was detectable. This residue is located in the "meander" peptide region and earlier site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that it is critical for maintenance of protein tertiary structure. The ...
Turnbull Laboratory for Ecological Studies (TLES) is an ecological field station and research/educational facility located on the 15,500-acre Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge in the surrounding channeled scablands. Established in 1976, it works as a cooperative effort between Eastern Washington University and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Its goal is to further our understanding of the biological processes shaping populations, ecological communities, and ecosystems of the Inland Northwest.. For more information, contact Camille McNeely at [email protected], Ross Black at [email protected], or Krisztian Magori at [email protected] ...
Melbourne Water adds less than 1 milligram of fluoride a litre to the water supply to help prevent tooth decay, a Melbourne Water spokesman said, and adding fluoride to drinking water was required by Victorias health laws. A spokesman for Victorias Department of Health said fluoride was safe and effective.Feb 17, 2014". Fluoride is added to 70% of Australian water supplies. The 30% who do not have it are lucky because they have choice. They can choose to use fluoride toothpaste or not. The majority of Australians have NO choice. The fluoride gets into to our whole food system, we bath in it, and we drink it. Only elaborate 5 stage water filters or regular use of clean bottled water will give you some protection from the fluoride.. We want clean water without the added toxic chemicals.. To help understand the links between fluoride and health issues such as weaker bones, & thyroid gland suppression. Please view this video.. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IwPQ7NtNjKc&sns=fb ...
4. Photographic Industries: It is mostly used in photographic industries for production of developer solution/acidizing fixation baths.. 5. Pulp and Textiles: It is used as a bleaching agent in pulp and textile industries.. 6. Rubber Industries: It is used as coagulative agnet for rubber industries.. 7. Acrylic Fibres : Chemical synthesis in manufacturing of Acrylic fibres and Acrylic sheets.. 8. Dye Industries : It acts as dechlorination agent in dye industries.. 9. Gold Mining Industries : It is used in Mining industries as floating agent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The endosome-lysosome system in the absorptive cells of goldfish hindgut. AU - Iida, Hiroshi. AU - Shibata, Yosaburo. AU - Yamamoto, Torao. PY - 1986/2/1. Y1 - 1986/2/1. N2 - The vacuolar system in the absorptive cells of the goldfish hindgut was studied by rapid freeze-substituted and cytochemical techniques. The apical cytoplasm of the absorptive cells contained two types of vacuoles: endosomes and lysosomes. The former were characterized by an absence of acid phosphatase activity, a dot-like distribution of material at the peripheral rim, the labelling of the inner surface with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and by frequent connections to cytoplasmic tubules (CT), which were also free of acid phosphatase activity. The latter vacuole was preferentially located in the deeper cytoplasm and was characterized by the presence of acid phosphatase activity, an electron-dense interior matrix, a peripheral electron-lucent region (a halo), and by the detachment of HRP from the inner ...
Abstract Two immunohistochemical techniques to determine the presence of yellow fever and dengue antigens in fixed tissue samples were developed for the purpose of making retrospective diagnoses of these viral diseases in humans. A horseradish peroxidase label was used for one technique and an alkaline phosphatase label for the other. In the former technique, acid hematin was removed from the tissues, iron-containing pigments were counterstained with Prussian blue, and the product of the diaminobenzidine reaction was enhanced with a dilute solution of osmium tetroxide that differentiated antigen from lipofuscin. In the latter technique, alkaline phosphatase was used as the enzyme labeling system with a red chromagen that contrasted nicely with the pigments in the tissues, as mentioned above. Thus, pigment removal or differentiation from antigen was not required. Replicate sections were cut and mouse polyclonal antibodies for yellow fever and all dengue types were applied to individual sections. On
A microscopic appearance slide review showed a mixoid matrix surrounded by a small strand of meningotelial cells areas, resembling chordoma histology. This was diagnosed as a chordoid meningioma.. Histopathological findings - Multiple fragments of tumor were fixed for classical histological study in 10% formalin; the sections were included in paraffin block, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE). Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin sections using monoclonal antibodies to epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and vimentin. All antisera were used with the avidin biotin complex technique and were visualized using 3,3 diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride substrate. Appropriate positive and negative controls were also used. Light microscopy examination revealed tumor characterized by cohesive strands of epithelial cells in a myxoid Alcian-blue positive matrix and a chronic inflammatory response consisting of lymphocytes and plasma cells but without the formation of follicles or germinal ...
Introduction: HER2 gene amplification or overexpression occurs in 15% to 25% of breast cancers and has implications for treatment and prognosis. The most commonly used methods for HER2 testing are fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry. FISH is considered to be the reference standard and more accurately predicts response to trastuzumab, but is technically demanding, expensive, and requires specialized equipment. In situ hybridization is required to be eligible for adjuvant treatment with trastuzumab in Australia. Bright-field in situ hybridization is an alternative to FISH and uses a combination of in situ methodology and a peroxidase-mediated chromogenic substrate such as diaminobenzidine [chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH)] or multimer technology coupled with enzyme metallography [silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH)] to create a marker visible under bright-field microscopy. CISH was introduced into diagnostic testing in Australia in October 2006. SISH ...
BOOK REVIEWS The Analytical Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes. Edited by K . Pknkataraman. John Wiley & Sons, New York-London 1977. xxiv, 591 pp., numerous figs. and tables, bound, E 31.90. This book, a collaborative effort of 23 authors, presents in 20 chapters the method used in dyestuff analysis. Thephysicochemical methods customarily used in the analysis of dyestuffs are treated in the first ten chapters (thin-layer chromatography, paper chromatography, paper electrophoresis, high-pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, colorimetry in dyestuff solutions, IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry, as well as X-ray diffraction), though in these descriptions fundamental theoretical and practical knowledge is assumed. The standpoint of methodical application to dyestuff analysis is given prominence, and the articles therefore correspond to the readers expectations. Somewhat too little information is given in the chapter on mass spectrometry: having 13 pages, it is about the same length as the ...
The 1980s heralded the discovery and identification of extra-pituitary sources of the neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin in non-neural tissues of several animal species. The presence, location and biosynthesis of significant amounts of oxytocin in the ovarian corpus luteum was followed by the immunocytochemical demonstration of an oxytocin-like peptide in the testicular interstitial cells. Leydig cells, which comprise up to 80% of the testicular intertubular cell population, are known to synthesize testosterone in situ. Indirect evidence indicated that an oxytocin-like peptide was also present in Leydig cells.. The question arose whether this peptide was synthesized de novo by Leydig cells or was taken up and stored by the cells following biosynthesis at some other intra- and/or extra-gonadal source(s). Since luteinizing hormone (LH) and ascorbate are known to augment the production of oxytocin in ovarian granulosa cells, varying concentrations of these two stimulants were used to monitor the ...
Clinical applications of corneal confocal microscopy Mitra Tavakoli1, Parwez Hossain2, Rayaz A Malik11Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Manchester and Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK; 2University of Southampton, Southampton Eye Unit, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: Corneal confocal microscopy is a novel clinical technique for the study of corneal cellular structure. It provides images which are comparable to in-vitro histochemical techniques delineating corneal epithelium, Bowman’s layer, stroma, Descemet’s membrane and the corneal endothelium. Because, corneal confocal microscopy is a non invasive technique for in vivo imaging of the living cornea it has huge clinical potential to investigate numerous corneal diseases. Thus far it has been used in the detection and management of pathologic and infectious conditions, corneal dystrophies and ecstasies, monitoring contact lens induced corneal changes and for pre and post surgical evaluation
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeting peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers to mitochondria within cells by conjugation to lipophilic cations. T2 - implications for mitochondrial DNA replication, expression and disease. AU - Muratovska, A. AU - Lightowlers, R N. AU - Taylor, R W. AU - Turnbull, D M. AU - Smith, R A. AU - Wilce, J A. AU - Martin, S W. AU - Murphy, M P. PY - 2001/5/1. Y1 - 2001/5/1. N2 - The selective manipulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and expression within mammalian cells has proven difficult. One promising approach is to use peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers, nucleic acid analogues that bind selectively to complementary DNA or RNA sequences inhibiting replication and translation. However, the potential of PNAs is restricted by the difficulties of delivering them to mitochondria within cells. To overcome this problem we conjugated a PNA 11mer to a lipophilic phosphonium cation. Such cations are taken up by mitochondria through the lipid bilayer driven by the membrane ...
Invasive species pose a serious threat to native ecosystems. In eastern Washington brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) is an important invasive species, especially at Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge, where they compete with waterfowl for food resources and are associated with declines in habitat quality. Understanding the invasion routes of this invasive species may help managers implement strategies to prevent further spread and mitigate damages caused by these fish. The objectives of this study were to identify the most likely point of brook stickleback invasion, to determine their most likely invasion routes, and to investigate landscape features and processes that may be impacting gene flow between populations. Genotypes at nine microsatellite loci from 560 brook stickleback from 20 putative populations were used determine the genetic variation within and among populations. Genetic diversity was highest in the headwaters of Pine Creek (HE = 0.753 in Kelley Creek, AR = 4.466 in Pine Creek) and on
The present study demonstrates the coexistence of βMHC gene missense mutations and heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations in patients with HCM and late CHF. Patients sharing identical mutations had similar clinical histories, morphological features, and histochemical characteristics. The amount of mutated mtDNA segregated with the CHF phenotype and was higher in the myocardium than in skeletal muscle or peripheral blood. It was also higher in affected patients than in asymptomatic relatives.. Both βMHC gene and mtDNA mutations seen in families A and B have been causally linked to HCM.8-19 Mutation Arg249Gln was detected in a Canadian family,8 while A4300G mtDNA tRNAIle was described in an Italian family.19 mtDNA in the Canadian family and the βMHC gene in the Italian family were not analysed. Prerequisites for pathogenicity are present in the mutation Arg249Gln: the mutant residue has been strongly conserved throughout evolution and it has not varied in any vertebrate muscle myosins (Swissprot ...
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin ...
Antila E, Westermark T, On the etiopathogenesis and therapy of Down syndrome. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 33: 183-188, 1989 Medline. Baez S, Segura-Aguilar J, Widersten M, et al. Glutathione transferases catalyze the detoxification of oxidized metabolites (o-quinones) of catecholamines and may serve as an antioxidant system preventing degenerative cellular processes. Biochem. J. 324 (pt.1): 25-28, 1997 Medline. Bandmann O, Vaughen J, Holmans P, et al. Association of slow acetylator genotype for N-acetyltransferase 2 with familiar Parkinsons disease. Lancet 350: 1136-1139, 1997 Medline. Berry T. A selenium transport protein model of a sub-type of schizophrenia. Med. Hypothesis 43: 409-414, 1994 Medline. Brown K, Reid A, White T, et al. Vitamin E, lipids and lipid peroxidation products in tardive dyskinesia. Biol. Psychiatry 43: 863-867, 1998 Medline. Brugge KL, Nichols S, Delis D, et al. The role of alterations in free radical metabolism in mediating cognitive impairments in Down syndrome. EXS 62: ...
As for IHC, there are different reporter systems available for ICC. One is the use of enzyme-coupled antibodies: after the addition of a substrate, the enzymes catalyze a visible color reaction at the place where the enzyme-coupled antibody is bound in the sample. For example, the commonly used enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) can convert 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) into a brown precipitate that is deposited in the sample at the site of the reaction. The brown color stain may be seen using light-microscopy. Another reporter is fluorescence, which relies on the physical properties of a molecule to be excited to a higher energy state by absorbing light of one wavelength. Thereafter the molecule relaxes to the ground state, while emitting light of a longer wavelength. These molecules are called fluorophores, and they may be visualized using a fluorescence microscope. This type of microscope is able to excite the fluorophores, while at the same time detecting their emission. Since different ...