VIANA, Ana Maria and MANTELL, Sinclair Hugh. Comparative uptake and metabolism of 2-[14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in callus cultures of monocot (Dioscorea spp.) and dicot (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants. Rev. bras. Bot. [online]. 1998, vol.21, n.1, pp.89-99. ISSN 0100-8404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-84041998000100009.. (Comparative uptake and metabolism of 2-[14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in callus cultures of monocot (Dioscorea spp.) and dicot (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants). The uptake and metabolism of 2-[14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were investigated in leaf calluses of Nicotiana tabacum, tuber calluses of Dioscorea opposita and calluses derived from zygotic embryos, leaves and petioles of Dioscorea composita. Striking similarities were evident in the patterns of 2,4-D metabolites and their chemical characteristics in the three callus types of D. composita compared, but significant differences were detected among the patterns of rnetabolites in the three ...
Vietnam and Agent Orange Facts. Demand for military Agent Orange resulted in higher levels of dioxin contamination than in the 2,4,5-T produced for civilian applications in the U.S. As noted in the above chart.. The U.S. Air Force military operation Ranch Hand began spraying Agent Orange on areas of South Vietnam in August 1965 (though it was used prior to this date).. The US Air Force Herb Tapes accounted for just over 8 million gallons of the herbicides used in South Vietnam.. 18 million gallons of Agent Orange were reported to have been used in South Vietnam.. Agent Orange caused Vietnamese farmers to lose about 70% of their crops. (One of the goals for using herbicides was to deprive the enemy of food).. 6,250+ square miles of South Vietnam can not be farmed because of defoliation. This is still true more than 30 years later.. A C-123 (Provider) could dump 11,000 lbs. of Agent Orange over 300 acres in four minutes.. Brief History of Agent Orange. In the early years of WWII, a grant was ...
2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (2-MPA), 2-methyl-4-chlorophenxyacetic acid (MCPA) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) were imprinted to investigate the cross-selectivities of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). The result indicates that 2-MPA, which is similar in shape, size and functionality with phenoxyacetic herbicides, are suitable to be used as a suitable template to prepare the MIPs for retaining phenoxyacetic herbicides. To study the ion-pair interactions between template molecules and functional monomer 4-vinylpiridine (4-VP), computational molecular modeling was employed. The data indicate that the cross-selectivities of MIPs for phenoxyacetic acid herbicides depend on the binding energies of complexes.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, a toxic contaminant frequently formed during the synthesis of the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, was shown to be a potent inducer of hepatic δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase in the chick embryo. As little as 4.66 x 10-12 mole of the contaminant per egg produces a significant increase in the activity of the enzyme. Induction of the enzyme is related to the dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and, in contrast to that produced with other drugs, is prolonged in time, with 70 percent of the maximum induced activity present 5 days after a single dose. This contaminant is implicated as the likely causative agent in an outbreak of porphyria cutanea tarda in workers in a factory where 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid was being synthesized. ...
Looking for online definition of Achromobacter xylosoxidans in the Medical Dictionary? Achromobacter xylosoxidans explanation free. What is Achromobacter xylosoxidans? Meaning of Achromobacter xylosoxidans medical term. What does Achromobacter xylosoxidans mean?
for Prostate Cancer December 7 2011 Vietnam Veterans of America to Hold Agent Orange Town Hall November 5th at Penn State Beaver Campus November 4 2011 Vietnam Veterans of America Joins Over 200 Organizations in Urging Congress to Reject Changes to Medicare Part D Program November 3 2011 Vietnam Veterans of America Board of Directors Approves VetProWeb for VVA s Service Officer Program August 29 2011 Fred Elliott to Serve As National Vice President of Vietnam Veterans of America August 23 2011 Dr Wayne Reynolds to Serve As National Treasurer of Vietnam Veterans of America August 23 2011 John Rowan to Serve Fourth Term As National President of Vietnam Veterans of America August 22 2011 VVA Praises Historic Settlement For Veterans Discharged with PTSD August 3 2011 Philanthropist Kenneth Fisher to Receive Award at the Vietnam Veterans of America 15th National Convention August 10 2011 Union Leader Cecil Roberts to Receive Award at the Vietnam Veterans of America 15th National Convention August 8 ...
Site of action refers to the biochemical site within the plant with which the herbicide directly interacts. Some herbicide site of action interactions are well understood, others are unknown. Many of the well-known sites of action are enzymes or proteins essential to plant growth and development (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Also, some herbicides are believed to act at multiple sites.. Metabolism refers to the biochemical processes within the plant that generally modify herbicides to less toxic compounds. Differential rates of metabolism between crops and weeds is a primary method of crop selectivity to herbicides. One metabolic process may affect several different families of herbicides.. Herbicide families are a convenient way of organizing herbicides that share a common chemical structure and have similar herbicidal activity. Two or more herbicide families may affect the same site of action and therefore express similar herbicidal activity and injury symptoms. A biotype is a group of plants within ...
WSSA scientists say a significant contributing factor in the evolution of herbicide resistance is the repeated use of a single chemical in the absence of other control methods. To stress the vital importance of a more varied, integrated approach, the society adopted a comprehensive, multiyear initiative focused on education. The first training materials were launched in 2011, beginning with a module on herbicide resistance in agronomic crops. The newest additions to WSSAs online training resources address other environments where herbicide resistance management is imperative. Aquatic: WSSA partnered with the Aquatic Plant Management Society (APMS) to develop educational materials on herbicide resistance in lakes, waterways and other aquatic environments. Three online lessons describe aquatic plant control, herbicide selection and effective ways to manage specific scenarios. A free white paper developed by APMS on herbicide resistance stewardship is also available for download. "All of the ...
Role of arginine residues of D-aminoacylase from Alcaligenes xylosoxydans subsp. xylosoxydans A-6.: To investigate the role of arginine in the folding of d-amin
An efficient in vitro protocol has been established for somatic embryogenesis and plantlet conversion of Korean wild ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer). Wild-type and mutant adventitious roots derived from the ginseng produced calluses on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.3 mg/L kinetin; 53.3% of the explants formed callus. Embryogenic callus proliferation and somatic embryo induction occurred on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The induced somatic embryos further developed to maturity on MS medium with 5 mg/L gibberellic acid, and 85% of them germinated. The germinated embryos were developed to shoots and elongated on MS medium with 5 mg/L gibberellic acid. The shoots developed into plants with well-developed taproots on one-third strength Schenk and Hildebrandt basal medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. When the plants were transferred to soil, about 30% of the regenerated plants ...
Achromobacter xylosoxidans (formerly Alcaligenes xylosoxidans) is a Gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase and catalase-positive, motile bacterium with peritrichous flagella, from the genus Achromobacter. It is generally found in wet environments. Achromobacter xylosoxidans can cause infections such as bacteremia, especially in patients with cystic fibrosis. In 2013, the complete genome of an A. xylosoxidans strain from a patient with cystic fibrosis was sequenced. A. xylosoxidans is a Gram-negative rod that does not form spores. It is motile, with peritrichous flagella that distinguish it from Pseudomonas species, and is oxidase-positive, catalase-positive, and citrate-positive. It is urease and indole-negative. It produces acid oxidatively from xylose, but not from lactose, maltose, mannitol, or sucrose. It grows well on MacConkey agar and other inhibitory growth media such as deoxycholate, Salmonella-Shigella, and nalidixic acid-cetrimide agars. It is usually resistant to a variety of antibiotics ...
Littleseed canaqgrass (Phalaris minor Retz.), a troublesome weed of wheat in India, has evolved multiple herbicide resistance (MHR) across three modes of action: photoynthssis at photosystem II site A, acetyl-coA-carboxylase (ACCase) and ALS inhibition. The MHR (MHR) populations had a low level of sulfosulfuron resistance but high level of resistance to clodinafop and fenoxaprop. Some of the resistant populations have GR50 values for clodinafop 12 times higher than susceptible population. The multiple herbicide resistant populations (resistant to sulfosulfuron, clodinafop, pinoxaden and isoproturon) are susceptible to the triazine (metribuzin and terbutryn) and dinitroaniline (pendimethalin and trifluralin) herbicides. Triazine herbicides have selectivity problem in wheat and due to lack of knowledge and non availability of effective herbicides many farmers are facing severe yield losses due to multiple herbicide resistance ...
A Vietnam veteran in Michigan who has trouble walking because of his exposure to Agent Orange broke down in tears Friday when he was presented with an all-terrain wheelchair that will allow him to hunt and fish, two of his favorite hobbies. ...
Until recently, 261 biotypes belonging to 157 species (95 dicots and 62 monocots) and showing resistance to various herbicides are known. Herbicide resistance is known in all areas where herbicides are used intensively. Resistance of weeds to herbicides have been identified in 21 European countries. In Lithuania, herbicide resistance has not been proved in weeds. In agriculture practice, the most efficient to herbicide methods limiting herbicide resistant weed occurrence are rational agrotechnique, crop and herbicide rotation and application of herbicide mixtures. In 2002-04, studies on annual weed sensitivity and tolerance to phenoxy-carboxylic acid, phenyl-carbamates, benzofuranes and triazinones compounds were performed. Phenmedipham, desmedipham, ethofumesate was more effective for controlling Chenopodium album, Lamium purpureum, Polygonum aviculare and Tripleurospermum perforatum [Matricaria perforata] by applying in mixture with metamitron than by applying in mixture with chloridazon and ...
This three-day symposium was organized by the US EPA, the USAF AL/EQ, Tyndall AFB FL, and the US AFCEE Technology Transfer Division, Brooks AFB TX. Natural attenuation, the biodegradation or chemical destruction or stabilization of contaminants, can reduce contaminants to levels protective of human health and ecosystems. The symposium was intended to increase understanding of the natural attenuation process and to review methods for screening sites and making decisions to determine the feasibility of natural attenuation at chlorinated solvent-contaminated sites. The symposium obtained feedback from the regulatory and industrial communities on the appropriate application of natural attenuation and the developing protocol for natural attenuation of chlorinated organics. The symposium featured invited platform presentations covering both laboratory studies and field demonstrations conducted in support of natural attenuation at government and industry sites. The theory and principles of methods for
2-Aminobenzenesulphonic acid (2AS) is degraded by Alcaligenes sp. strain O-1 via a previously detected but unidentified intermediate. A mutant of strain O-1 was found to excrete this intermediate, which was isolated and identified by m.s., 1H- and 13C-n.m.r. as 3-sulphocatechol (3SC). Proteins from cell extracts of strain O-1 were separated by anion-exchange chromatography. A multicomponent oxygenase was observed to convert 1 mol each of NADH, O2 and 2AS into 1 mol each of 3SC, NH3 and NAD+. The enzyme presumably catalysed formation of the ring of a 2-amino-2,3-diol moiety, and elimination in the amino group led to a rearomatization. 3SC was further degraded via meta ring cleavage, which could be prevented by inactivation of the 3-sulphocatechol-2,3-dioxygenase (3SC23O) with 3-chlorocatechol. In Tris buffer, the separated 3SC23O catalysed the reaction of 1 mol each of 3SC and O2 involving a transient yellow intermediate, and release of 1 mol of sulphite and two organic products. The major ...
Chlorophenoxy herbicides are a class of herbicide which includes: MCPA, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and mecoprop.[1] Large amounts have been produced since the 1950s for agriculture.[2] Acute toxic effects after oral consumption are varied and may include: vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, gastrointestinal haemorrhage acutely followed by coma, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, ataxia, nystagmus, miosis, hallucinations and convulsions.[3] Treatment with urinary alkalinization may be helpful but evidence to support this practice is limited.[1][3] ...
An investigation of the occurrence of phosporus, other nutrients, and triazine herbicides in water samples from the Hillsdale Lake Basin in northeast Kansas was conducted from May 1994 through May 1995. Point-source and nonpoint-source contributions of these water-quality constituents were estimated by conducting synoptic sampling at 48 sites in the basin during five periods of low- flow conditions. Samples were collected for the determination of nutrients, including total phosphorus as phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphate as phosphorus, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen, and for selected triazine herbicides. On the basis of criteria developed by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, the Hillsdale Water-Quality Protection Project established a goal to maintain water quality in the tributaries of the Hillsdale Lake Basin at a mean annual low-flow total phosphorus concentration...
Theres an air of torment about Cong Nguyen. The 16-year-old is among four siblings, two of whom suffer the same regular attacks of heat that mean they can never stray far from a water tank. To make matters worse, he has never been able to grow teeth or a full crop of hair; instead, clusters of wispy, thin strands sit above sunken eyes. "Some kids avoid me and laugh at me," he says from the home he shares with his brothers and parents in Bien Hoa, just outside Ho Chi Minh City ...
Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HCDD) is formed as a byproduct during the manufacture of certain chlorophenols and has been found in trichlorophenol, tetrachlorophenol, pentachlorophenol and in the chlorophenol-derived herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). From 1967 to 1970, the concentration of HCDD in commercial pentachlorophenol ranged from 0.03 to 38 ppm. Since then, HCDD levels in pentachlorophenol have been reduced to less than 1 ppm.. A bioassay of a mixture of 1,2,3,6,7,8-and 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (HCDD) for possible carcinogenicity was conducted by dermal application of a suspension of this substance to Swiss-Webster mice.. HCDD (0.01 µg) suspended in 0.1 ml acetone was applied to the backs of 30 mice of each sex 3 days per week for 104 weeks. During the first 16 weeks, doses were 0.005 µg HCDD per application. An additional 30 mice of each sex were pretreated with one application of 50 µg DMBA in 0.1 ml ...
Addresses a Global Challenge to Sustainable Development. Advances in Biodegradation and Bioremediation of Industrial Waste examines and compiles the latest information on the industrial waste biodegradation process and provides a comprehensive review. Dedicated to reducing pollutants generated by agriculturally contaminated soil, and plastic waste from various industries, this text is a book that begs the question: Is a pollution-free environment possible? The book combines with current available data with the expert knowledge of specialists from around the world to evaluate various aspects of environmental microbiology and biotechnology. It emphasizes the role of different bioreactors for the treatment of complex industrial waste and provides specific chapters on bioreactors and membrane process integrated with biodegradation process. It also places special emphasis on phytoremediation and the role of wetland plant rhizosphere bacterial ecology and the bioremediation of complex industrial ...
Cometabolic biodegradation processes are potentially useful for the bioremediation of hazardous waste sites. In this study the potential application of phenol-oxidizing and nitrifying bacteria as "priming biocatalysts" was examined in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl ethers, and aromatic ethers. We observed that a phenol-oxidizing Pseudomonas strain cometabolically degrades a range of 2- and 3-ringed PAHs. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to overcome the competitive effects between two substrates and the SBR was evaluated as a alternative technology to treat mixed contaminants including phenol and PAHs. We also have demonstrated that the nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea can cometabolically degrade a wide range polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl ethers and aromatic ethers including naphthalene, acenaphthene, diphenyl ether, dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and anisole. Our results indicated that all the compounds are transformed by N. ...
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Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a xenobiocide used to preserve lumbers, is a major environmental pollutant in North America. In spite of an expected high resistance to biodegradation, a number of aquatic and soil bacteria can degrade PCP. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified tetrachlorobenzoquinone reductase (PcpD), the second enzyme in the PCP biodegradation pathway in Sphingobium chlorophenolicum. PcpD, present mainly as a homo-trimer, exhibited low but statistically significant activity in the reduction of tetrachlorobenzoquinone to tetrachlorohydroquinone. The optimal pH for PcpD activity was 7.0. PcpD was stimulated by tetrachlorohydroquinone at low concentrations but inhibited at high concentrations. Because of the constitutive expression and relatively high catalytic efficiency of downstream enzyme tetrachlorohydroquinone reductive dehalogenase, tetrachlorohydroquinone was unlikely to accumulate in high concentrations, suggesting that PcpD would only be stimulated by tetrachlorohydroquinone
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The authors examined cancer mortality in a historical cohort study of 21,863 male and female workers in 36 cohorts exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins in 12 countries. Subjects in this updated and expanded multinational study coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer were followed from 1939 to 1992. Exposure was reconstructed using job records, company ex
Biological degradation of phenol by Alcaligenes faecalis with high biodegradation activity and high tolerance was investigated at 25C. Phenol could be utilized by the bacteria as the sole carbon and energy sources. The cell growth and substrate degradation of phenol as single substrates for Alcaligenes faecalis in batch cultures (shaking flasks) were investigated at different initial phenol concentrations. Phenol was observed to be an inhibitory compound. Particularly, when free cells grew on a high concentration of phenol, substrate inhibition was observed and the higher the concentration of phenol, the longer was the lag period. The lag time and whole required time for phenol biodegradation was considerably decreased by immobilized cells due to improvement of cells resistance against high Phenol concentration by cell immobilization compared to free cells. Required time for completely degrade initial phenol of 700 and 1000 ppm by free and immobilized cells is 56, 101 and 35, 72 hours ...
Chlorophenols are a group of chemicals in which chlorines (between one and five) have been added to phenol.� Phenol is an aromatic compound derived from benzene, the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon, by adding a hydroxy group to a carbon� to replace a hydrogen.� There are five basic types of chlorophenols:� mono[one]chlorophenols, di[two]chlorophenols, tri[three]chlorophenols, tetra[four]chlorophenols, and penta[five]chlorophenols.� In all, there are 19 different chlorophenols.� Eight are discussed in this document:� 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, and 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol.� Pentachlorophenol is discussed in another document.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alkaline textile wastewater biotreatment. T2 - A sulfate-reducing granular sludge based lab-scale study. AU - Zeng, Qian. AU - Hao, Tianwei. AU - Mackey, Hamish. AU - Wei, Li. AU - Guo, Gang. AU - Chen, Guanghao. PY - 2017/6/15. Y1 - 2017/6/15. N2 - In this study the feasibility of treating dyeing wastewater with sulfate reducing granular sludge was explored, focusing on decolorization/degradation of azo dye (Procion Red HE-7B) and the performance of microbial consortia under alkaline conditions (pH = 11). Efficiency of HE-7B degradation was influenced strongly by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration which was examined in the range of 500-3000 mg/L. COD removal efficiency was reduced at high COD concentration, while specific removal rate was enhanced to 17.5 mg-COD/g VSS h−1. HE-7B removal was also improved at higher organic strength with more than 90% removal efficiency and a first-rate removal constant of 5.57 h−1 for dye degradation. Three dye-degradation ...
The performance of a fluidized bed reactor using immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) from aqueous solution was investigated. The contribution of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) secreted by Phanerochaete chrysosporium to the 2,4-DCP degradation was examined. Results showed that Lip and Mnp were not essential to 2,4-DCP degradation while their presence enhanced the degradation process and reaction rate. In sequential batch experiment, the bioactivity of immobilized cells was recovered and improved during the culture and the maximum degradation rate constant of 13.95 mg (Ld)−1 could be reached. In continuous bioreactor test, the kinetic behavior of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized on loofa sponge was found to follow the Monod equation. The maximum reaction rate was 7.002 mg (Lh)−1, and the saturation constant was 26.045 mg L−1. ...
The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund (VVMF) will honor veterans and active-duty military personnel with the Christmas Tree Ceremony at The Wall, taking place at 10 a.m. on Monday, Dec. 20 ...
2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID (2,4-D) First draft prepared by J. C. Rowland Office of Pesticides Programs, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, USA Explanation Evaluation for acceptable daily intake Biochemical aspects Absorption, distribution, and excretion Biotransformation Enzyme induction and other biochemical parameters Toxicological studies Acute toxicity Short-term toxicity Long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity Reproductive toxicity Developmental toxicity Genotoxicity Special studies Dermal and ocular irritation and dermal sensitization Dermal toxicity Neurotoxicity Canine malignant lymphoma Observations in humans Case-control studies Soft-tissue sarcomas Non-Hodgkins lymphoma Cohort studies Overall assessments of epidemiological studies Comments Toxicological evaluation References Explanation Data on the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were reviewed by the JMPR in 1970, 1971, 1974, and 1975 (Annex I, references 14, 16, 22, and 24). The 1970 Meeting did ...
article{981686, abstract = {Chenopodium album is a predominantly self-fertilising weed species common in temperate regions of the world that has developed resistance to photosystem II inhibitors. The genetic variation and population structure of eight populations from North West Europe were investigated using 416 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The populations were checked for their level of herbicide resistance by pot experiments and the investigated plants were genotyped for the Ser(264) to Gly mutation by cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence. Five populations were sampled in sugar beet, one population from a maize monoculture served as a triazine-resistant reference and the two other populations were susceptible reference populations. Neis gene diversity within populations for the whole dataset was low (0.073), whereas, the differentiation among populations was significant ((ST) = 0.26, amova, P {\textlangle} 0.001). There was no correlation between geographical and ...
This paper reports the isolation of phenoloxidase-negative mutants of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the results of a survey of idiophasic functions among these mutants. The mutant strains were isolated from a medium containing o-anisidine after gamma irradiation of wild-type spores and fell into four classes, divided by the manner in which they mineralized 14C-lignin wheat lignocellulose. Examples are strain LMT7, which degraded lignin at a rate similar to that of the wild type; strain LMT26, in which degradation was enhanced; strain LMT16, whose degradation rate was apparently unaffected, although the onset of lignin attack was delayed compared with that in the wild type; and strain LMT24, which was unable to evolve significant amounts of 14CO2 from the radiolabeled substrate. The mutants were not necessarily defective in other functions associated with idiophasic activities (intracellular cyclic AMP levels, sporulation, extracellular glucan production, veratryl alcohol ...
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 (MIC value (unit: ppm)) Embodiment 1 Comparison A Comparison B Bacteria 1 Alcaligenes faecalis 1 8 80 2 Alcaligenes viscolactis 1 8 80 3 Ascophyta pisi 10 4 Autotrophic bacteria 20 5 Aster yellows 1 6 Acinetobacter calcoaceticus 4 7 Achrcmobacter gulyatus 1 8 Aerobacter aerogenes 1 9 Aerobacter cloacae 1 8 80 10 Blastomyces italicum 1 11 Bacillus cereus 1 8 80 12 Bacillus mycoides 1 8 80 13 Bacillus subtillis 10 10 80 14 Bacillus megaterrium 10 10 80 15 Bacillus anthracis 10 10 80 16 Bacillus punctatum 10 10 80 17 Bacterium vulgaro 1 18 Bacterium pyocyaneum 1 19 Blastomyces deematidis 1 20 Bacterroid fragilis 3 21 Campylobacter fetus 3 22 Clostridium perfringens 3 23 Clostridium difficile 3 24 Corticium fuciforme 3 25 Clostridium botulinum 3 26 Cloechera apiculata 10 27 Cellulomonas iugis 1 28 Campylobacter jejuni/coli 10 29 Dactylium dendroides 3 30 Diplodia viticol 3 31 Debaryamyces hansenii 15 32 Desulfovibrio desullfuricans 1 33 Endothia paracitica 1 34 Escherichia ...
Bacteria of the Achromobacter genus, more particularly xylosoxidans species, are responsible for various healthcare associated infections (HAI) which are increasingly described since the last decade. Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are considered as potential reservoirs in hospitals. We performed a retrospective study to estimate the frequencies of Achromobacter spp. HAI among patients from French West Indies, to determine characteristics of infected patients and establish a possible link between CF and infections. All adults with at least one Achromobacter spp. positive sample and infection criteria in accordance with European official definitions of HAI, hospitalized in University Hospital of Martinique from 2006 to 2016 for more than 48 h, were included. Patient clinical features, immune status and underlying diseases were obtained from medical files. A list of CF patients was given by clinicians. Antibiotic-susceptibility profiles of the strains were determined using an automated method. Mean
Winter wheat ranks high in importance as an agricultural crop in the Pacific Northwest states of Washington, Idaho, and Oregon. Winter annual grass weeds such as jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica), downy brome (Bromus tectorum), feral rye (Secale cereale), wild oat (Avena fatua) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) have the same life-cycle as winter wheat and are difficult to control in conventional wheat production systems. These weeds annually account for millions of dollars of lost wheat production and reduced quality (i.e. discount by impurities). There has been only moderate success in controlling winter annual grasses in wheat by utilizing multiple-year crop rotations with spring crops and fallow periods, and with chemical control. Selective herbicides have been available for chemical control of downy brome, Italian ryegrass, and wild oat. However, before use of imazamox herbicide with imidazolinone-resistant (CLEARFIELD*) wheat, there was no herbicide that could selectively ...
Reductive dehalogenases are the critical enzymes for anaerobic organohalide respiration, a microbial metabolic process that has been harnessed for bioremediation efforts to resolve chlorinated solvent contamination in groundwater and is implicated in the global halogen cycle. Reductive dehalogenase sequence diversity is informative for the dechlorination potential of the site or enrichment culture. A suite of degenerate PCR primers targeting a comprehensive curated set of reductive dehalogenase genes was designed and applied to twelve DNA samples extracted from contaminated and pristine sites, as well as six enrichment cultures capable of reducing chlorinated compounds to non-toxic end-products. The amplified gene products from four environmental sites and two enrichment cultures were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq, and the reductive dehalogenase complement of each sample determined. The results indicate that the diversity of the reductive dehalogenase gene family is much deeper than is currently
Looking for online definition of Pseudomonas cepacia in the Medical Dictionary? Pseudomonas cepacia explanation free. What is Pseudomonas cepacia? Meaning of Pseudomonas cepacia medical term. What does Pseudomonas cepacia mean?
Looking for online definition of 2-Tert-Butyl-4-Methylphenol or what 2-Tert-Butyl-4-Methylphenol stands for? 2-Tert-Butyl-4-Methylphenol is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Read chapter Appendix D: Biographies of Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides (Eighth Biennial Update) and ...
Addiction and alcoholism among Vietnam veterans has traditionally been very high since the conflict ended in 1975. War is extremely traumatic and often causes soldiers to develop Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD - a condition that frequently co-occurs with addiction or alcoholism. But while any war can cause a soldier or sailor to turn to drugs or alcohol in order to self-medicate their pain and stress, Vietnam veterans were subject to a hostile return when the war was over. Instead of being treated like heroes as their fathers were after World War II, Vietnam veterans were shunned, ridiculed and expelled from their customary peer groups. Additionally, these veterans found it difficult to reintegrate into a workforce that largely had no use for their military skills. Consequently, many of Americas most courageous veterans became disillusioned addicts and alcoholics with few opportunities to better their lives.. PTSD is widely considered the most common cause of addiction or alcoholism ...
LEROY W KATTERHENRY JR is honored on Panel 44E, Row 60 of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, DC. LEROY W KATTERHENRY JR is from COLUMBUS, OH and served as a SGT in the ARMY.
The mechanism of the enzymatic degradation of poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) was investigated by using well-defined model substrates, including both linear and cyclic [R]-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and [R]-3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) oligomers, with two different PHB depolymerases. The linear and cyclic oligomers containing from 2 to 10 repeating units were hydrolyzed in solutions of the depolymerase isolated from Aspergillus fumigatus and Alcaligenes faecalis, and the rates of hydrolysis and types of products formed were characterized. Both of the depolymerases catalyzed the hydrolysis of the cyclic oligomers (macrolides) which contained more than three 3HB and 3HV repeating units. The degradation reactions of the linear and cyclic 3HB oligomers with the A. fumigatus depolymerase gave similar ratios of monomer-to-dimer products, but PHB itself formed mostly monomer on hydrolysis, indicating that the enzymatic hydrolysis reactions occurred by different mechanisms for these different types of ...
As required by law, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hereby gives notice that the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, under the authority of the Agent Orange Act of 1991, Public Law 102-4 (codified in relevant part at 38 U.S.C. 1116), has determined that a presumption of service connection is not warranted based on exposure to herbicides used in the Republic of Vietnam during the Vietnam Era for any of the diseases, illnesses, or health effects identified in the July 24, 2009, National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report entitled ``Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2008 (Update 2008), except for hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and other chronic b-cell leukemias, Parkinsons disease, and ischemic heart disease. In this regard, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs determined, based upon the NAS report, that there is a positive association between exposure to herbicides and the subsequent development of HCL and other chronic b-cell leukemias, Parkinsons disease, and ischemic heart disease. The Secretary ...
Heliangolidin 2-[2-hydroxy-3-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)propyl]isoindole-1,3-dione 2-[3-[4-(diaminomethylideneamino)butylamino]propyl]guanidine; sulfuric acid 3-[2-(2-chloro-4-nitro-phenoxy)ethylsulfamoyl]benzenesulfonyl fluoride N-carbamoyl-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methyl-propanamide 2-propylheptane-1,3-diol QA 18 Clematis fasciculiflora, ext. N-hexyl-6-methoxy-tetralin-1-amine Dryas octopetala, ext.
Chloracne normally results from direct skin contact with chloracnegens, although ingestion and inhalation are also possible causative routes. Chloracnegens are fat-soluble, meaning they persist in the body fat for a very long period following exposure. Chloracne is a chronic inflammatory condition that results from this persistence, in combination with the toxins chemical properties. It is believed, at least from rodent models, that the toxin activates a series of receptors promoting macrophage proliferation, inducing neutrophilia and leading to a generalised inflammatory response in the skin. This process may also be augmented by induction of excess tumor necrosis factor in the blood serum. The inflammatory processes lead to the formation of keratinous plugs in skin pores, forming yellowish cysts and dark pustules. The associated pus is usually a color of green approximating that of a tennis ball. The skin lesions occur mainly in the face, but in more severe cases they involve the shoulders ...
Nominated Substances: 2-Acetylamino-4-methylphenol, N-Acetyl-m-aminophenol, 5-(4-Aminobenzamido)-2,3-cresotic acid, 2-Amino-4-chloro-5-nitrophenol, 2-Amino-4-chloro-6-nitrophenol, 2-Amino-6-chloro-4-nitrophenol, 2-Amino-4-chlorophenol, 6-Amino-4-chloro-1-phenol-2-sulfonic acid, 5-Amino-o-cresol, 2-Amino-4,6-dichlorophenol, 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrophenol, 4-Amino-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-diphenylamine, 2-Amino-4-methylphenol, 3-Amino-4-methylphenol, 2-Amino-4-(methylsulfonyl)phenol, 2-Amino-3-nitro-4-methylphenol, 2-Amino-5-nitro-4-methylphenol, 4-Amino-2-nitrophenol, 2-Amino-6-nitro-1-phenol-4-sulfonic acid, 6-Amino-4-nitro-1-phenol-2-sulfonic acid, 3-Aminophenol, p-Aminophenol, 2-Amino-1-phenol-4-sulfonic acid, 3-Amino-5-sulfosalicylic acid, 5-Amino-3-sulfosalicylic acid, 2-Amino-3,4,6-trichlorophenol, 4-(3-Carbazoylamino)phenol, 4-Chloro-2-(2,4-dinitroanilino)phenol, 5-Diethylamino-2-nitroso-4-methylphenol, 5-Diethylamino-2-nitrosophenol, 3-Diethylaminophenol, 3-Dimethylamino-4-methylphenol, ...
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Several approaches towards the synthesis of an acyclic molecule possessing one chiral centre along with suitable functionality to enable cyclisation to a medium ring were investigated. The intramolecular cyclisation reaction would create a second chiral centre so that two diastereoisomeric products would be possible. Potential cyclisation reactions appeared to include allysilane-aldehyde and allyl tin-aldehyde cyclisations. The first route attempted involved the coupling of an oxygen protected w-hydroxy-aldehyde with 3,3-diethoxy-2-bromopropene via a Grignard reaction or an alkyl lithium reaction, to generate the first chiral centre. A slight variation was also investigated. In this second case the key reaction to form the first chiral centre was the reaction of an oxygen protected w-hydroxy-a-bromoalkane with 2-(trimethylsilyl)methyl-2-propenal via a Grignard reaction. A third approach to the key reaction to introduce the first chiral centre involved the reaction of ...