Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
5-Amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione. Substance that emits light on oxidation. It is used in chemical determinations.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Colorless to yellow dye that is reducible to blue or black formazan crystals by certain cells; formerly used to distinguish between nonbacterial and bacterial diseases, the latter causing neutrophils to reduce the dye; used to confirm diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
Ordered compilations of item descriptions and sufficient information to afford access to them.
A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-B RECEPTORS.
A subset of GABA RECEPTORS that signal through their interaction with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. Nadolol is also used for MIGRAINE DISORDERS and for tremor.
A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Providing an investigational therapy to a patient who is not eligible to receive that therapy in a clinical trial, but who has a serious or life-threatening illness for which other treatments are not available. Compassionate use trials allow patients to receive promising but not yet fully studied or approved therapies when no other treatment option exists. Also called expanded access trial.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.
Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Activation of stimulus-specific serine esterases (proteases) in the initiation of platelet secretion. I. Demonstration with organophosphorus inhibitors. (1/1146)

The effect of organophosphorus inhibitors of serine esterases (proteases) on secretion from washed rabbit platelets was examined. Five noncytotoxic stimuli were employed: collagen, thrombin, heterologous anti-platelet antibody (in the absence of complement), rabbit C3 bound to zymosan, and platelet activating factor derived from antigen-stimulated, IgE-sensitized rabbit basophils. Diisoprophyl phosphofluoridate, three series of p-nitrophenyl ethyl phosphonates, and a series of cyclohexyl phenylalkylphosphonofluridates were all found to be inhibitory to the platelet secretion. These are irreversible inhibitors of serine proteases but in this system were only inhibitory if added to the platelets concurrently with the stimuli. Pretreatment of either the platelets or the stimuli with the inhibitors followed by washing, was without effect on the subsequent reaction. This suggested the involvement of stimulus-activatable serine proteases in the secretory process. The concept was supported by finding that nonphosphorylating phosphonates or hydrolyzed phosphonates or phosphonofluoridates were without inhibitory action. The effect of a series of phosphonates or phosphonoflouridates in inhibiting each stimulus exhibited a unique activity-structure profile. The demonstration of such unique profiles with four series of inhibitors for each of the five stimuli was interpreted as demonstrating that a specific activatable serine protease was involved in the platelet secretory response to each stimulus.  (+info)

Acidification of the phagosome in Crassostrea virginica hemocytes following engulfment of zymosan. (2/1146)

Phagocytic hemocytes are responsible for engulfing and internally degrading foreign organisms within the hemolymph and tissue of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Since rapid acidification of the phagosome lumen is typically essential for activation of hydrolytic and reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) producing enzymes in vertebrate cells, we measured phagosomal pH in oyster hemocytes by using the emission fluorescence of two fluorescent probes, rhodamine and Oregon Green 488 (OG 488), conjugated to zymosan to determine whether oyster hemocyte phagosomes become acidified after phagocytosis of zymosan. The average pH of 1079 phagosomes within 277 hemocytes 1 h after phagocytosis of zymosan was 3.9 +/- 0.03. Observations of 141 hemocytes with internalized zymosan by light microscopy revealed that, over a 60-min time period, 51% of highly granular hemocytes became partially granular, and 29% became agranular. In addition, 83% of partially granular hemocytes containing zymosan at time = 0 became agranular within 60 min. A comparison revealed that the phagosomes of agranular hemocytes were much more acidic (pH 3.1 +/- 0.02) than those of highly granular hemocytes (4.9 +/- 0.02; P < 0.05). These values are significantly lower than most reported in the literature for blood cells from metazoan organisms.  (+info)

Effect of nitric oxide donors on oxygen-dependent cytotoxic responses mediated by neutrophils. (3/1146)

We analyzed the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on oxygen-dependent cytotoxic responses mediated by neutrophils against unopsonized erythrocytes using three NO donors: S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Neutrophils were treated with these compounds for 1-2 min at 37 degrees C and cytotoxicity was then triggered in the presence of NO donors by precipitating immune complexes, aggregated IgG, the chemotactic peptide FMLP, or opsonized zymosan. GSNO induced, in all cases, a marked increase in cytotoxic responses, while SNAP moderately increased cytotoxicity triggered by immune complexes, aggregated IgG, or Z, opsonized zymosen, without modifying those responses induced by FMLP. By contrast, SNP dramatically suppressed cytotoxicity triggered by all of the stimuli assessed. The enhancing effects mediated by GSNO and SNAP did not depend on the stimulation of guanylyl cyclase and were prevented by the NO scavengers hemoglobin and PTIO (2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide). The inhibitory activity of SNP, on the other hand, was not prevented by NO scavengers, suggesting that it cannot be ascribed to the release of NO. In another set of experiments, neutrophils were pretreated with GSNO or SNAP for different times. Then cells were washed to remove NO donors from the culture medium, and cytotoxicity was triggered by different stimuli. It was found that neutrophils must be pretreated with NO donors for at least 4 h to increase cytotoxic responses, and pretreatment for longer periods (i.e., 8 or 18 h) further increased cytotoxicity. Not only cytotoxic responses, but also the production of O2- and H2O2, and the release of myeloperoxidase were increased under these conditions.  (+info)

Selective regulation of cytokine induction by adenoviral gene transfer of IkappaBalpha into human macrophages: lipopolysaccharide-induced, but not zymosan-induced, proinflammatory cytokines are inhibited, but IL-10 is nuclear factor-kappaB independent. (4/1146)

Macrophages are the major cytokine producers in chronic inflammatory diseases, but the biochemical pathways regulating cytokine production are poorly understood. This is because genetic tools to dissect signaling pathways cannot be used in macrophages because of difficulties in transfection. We have developed an adenoviral technique to achieve high efficiency gene delivery into macrophages and recently showed that spontaneous TNF-alpha production in rheumatoid arthritis joint cells, chiefly from macrophages, is 75% blocked by adenoviral transfer of IkappaBalpha. In this report we use the same adenovirus to investigate whether the production of a number of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8) from human macrophages depends on NF-kappaB. While the cytokine response to certain inducers, such as LPS, PMA, and UV light, is blocked by overexpression of IkappaBalpha, the response to zymosan is not. In contrast, anti-inflammatory mediators (IL-10 and IL-1 receptor antagonist) induced by LPS are only marginally inhibited by IkappaBalpha excess. These studies demonstrate several new points about macrophage cytokine production. First, there is heterogeneity of mechanisms regulating both the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines within populations of a single cell type. In addition, the results confirm the utility of the adenoviral technique for functional analysis of cytokine induction. The results also confirm that there are autocrine and paracrine interactions regulating cytokine synthesis within a single cell type. The selectivity of NF-kappaB blockade for proinflammatory but not anti-inflammatory mediators indicates that in macrophages, NF-kappaB may be a good target for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.  (+info)

Extracellular acidification induces human neutrophil activation. (5/1146)

In the current work, we evaluated the effect of extracellular acidification on neutrophil physiology. Neutrophils suspended in bicarbonate-buffered RPMI 1640 medium adjusted to acidic pH values (pH 6.5-7.0) underwent: 1) a rapid transient increase in intracellular free calcium concentration levels; 2) an increase in the forward light scattering properties; and 3) the up-regulation of surface expression of CD18. By contrast, extracellular acidosis was unable to induce neither the production of H2O2 nor the release of myeloperoxidase. Acidic extracellular pH also modulated the functional profile of neutrophils in response to conventional agonists such as FMLP, precipiting immune complexes, and opsonized zymosan. It was found that not only calcium mobilization, shape change response, and up-regulation of CD18 expression but also production of H2O2 and release of myeloperoxidase were markedly enhanced in neutrophils stimulated in acidic pH medium. Moreover, extracellular acidosis significantly delayed neutrophil apoptosis and concomitantly extended neutrophil functional lifespan. Extracellular acidification induced an immediate and abrupt fall in the intracellular pH, which persisted over the 240-s analyzed. A similar abrupt drop in the intracellular pH was detected in cells suspended in bicarbonate-supplemented PBS but not in those suspended in bicarbonate-free PBS. A role for intracellular acidification in neutrophil activation is suggested by the fact that only neutrophils suspended in bicarbonate-buffered media (i.e., RPMI 1640 and bicarbonate-supplemented PBS) underwent significant shape changes in response to extracellular acidification. Together, our results support the notion that extracellular acidosis may intensify acute inflammatory responses by inducing neutrophil activation as well as by delaying spontaneous apoptosis and extending neutrophil functional lifespan.  (+info)

Participation of cofilin in opsonized zymosan-triggered activation of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells through rapid dephosphorylation and translocation to plasma membranes. (6/1146)

We studied the roles of cofilin, an actin-binding phosphoprotein, in superoxide production of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells triggered by opsonized zymosan (OZ). OZ caused dephosphorylation of cofilin as well as a transient increase of F-actin. Both reactions were complete within 30 s. Okadaic acid (OA) magnified the OZ-triggered O2--production 3.3-fold at 1 microM, but inhibited it completely at 5 microM. We used these critical concentrations to study the effects of OA on changes in phosphorylation and intracellular localization of cofilin. The OZ-induced dephosphorylation of cofilin was inhibited by 5 microM OA but not by 1 microM OA. Subcellular fractionation and immunoblotting revealed that 1 microM OA increased cofilin on the phagosomal membranous fraction but 5 microM OA decreased it. At 1 microM, OA increased translocation of p47phox to membranes, which may explain in part the enhancing effect of 1 microM OA. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that: (i) Cofilin diffused throughout the cytosol of resting cells, but accumulated at the plasma membranes forming phagocytic vesicles in activated cells. (ii) At 1 microM, OA had little effect on the OZ-evoked translocation of cofilin, whereas 5 microM OA suppressed it completely. (iii) OA alone, which could not trigger the phagocytic respiratory burst, did not cause any change in the distribution of cofilin at such concentrations. Furthermore, in a superoxide-producing cell-free system employing membranous and cytosolic fractions, affinity-purified anti-cofilin antibody showed an enhancing effect. These results suggest that cofilin participates in the superoxide production of the OZ-activated phagocytes through dephosphorylation and translocation. The roles of cofilin in the activated leukocytes will be discussed.  (+info)

Roles of a macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) in host defense and heterogeneity of splenic marginal zone macrophages. (7/1146)

Class A type I and type II macrophage scavenger receptors (MSR-A) and a macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) are trimeric membrane glycoproteins mediating the uptake of chemically modified low density lipoproteins. MSR-A is expressed constitutively in several tissue macrophages and in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, whereas MARCO is expressed constitutively in splenic marginal zone macrophages and in macrophages and endothelial cells in the lymphatic medullary sinuses of lymph nodes. The administration of LPS, zymosan, BCG, or L. monocytogenes to mice resulted in marked and transient MARCO expression and in the upregulation of MSR-A expression in the liver and spleen. In osteopetrotic (op) mutant mice defective in the production on M-CSF, ER-TR9-positive marginal zone macrophages and MOMA-1-positive marginal metallophilic macrophages were absent, whereas MARCO-expressing marginal zone macrophages were present, indicating the heterogeneity of marginal zone macrophages. Intravenous administration of BCG resulted in marked accumulation of BCG bacilli in the both marginal zone macrophages and marginal metallophilic macrophages in littermate control mice. In contrast, BCG bacilli were incorporated almost exclusively by MARCO-expressing marginal zone macrophages in op/op mice. These results indicate that MARCO is not only expressed constitutively in specific macrophage subpopulations but is also induced by various bacterial antigens and plays a role in host defense against bacteria.  (+info)

Phospholipase D-derived phosphatidic acid is involved in the activation of the CD11b/CD18 integrin in human eosinophils. (8/1146)

Priming of human eosinophils is an essential event for the respiratory burst induced by serum-opsonized particles [serum-treated zymosan (STZ)]. In this study we have found that treatment of eosinophils with platelet-activating factor (PAF) leads to activation of phospholipase D. Inhibition of the formation of phospholipase D-derived products by ethanol resulted in about 90% inhibition of PAF-induced binding of fluorescent STZ particles to the cells, but only when ethanol was added to the cells before treatment with PAF. When ethanol was added after treatment with PAF, only a minor inhibition of the STZ binding and STZ-induced response was observed. These results indicate that phospholipase D-derived phosphatidic acid is involved in PAF priming, without having an effect on STZ stimulation. In the presence of propranolol, which inhibits phosphatidic acid-phosphatase activity, binding of STZ particles to human eosinophils induced by suboptimal concentrations of PAF was enhanced, indicating that phosphatidic acid and not diradylglyceride is the relevant molecule derived from phospholipase D activity. Addition of cell-permeant diC8-phosphatidic acid (DiC8-PA) to human eosinophils resulted in CD11b/CD18-dependent adhesion, both to STZ particles and fibronectin-coated wells, without significant upregulation of CD11b/CD18. The DiC8-PA-induced adhesion was not mediated via the fatty acid moiety, because other C8-lipids such as 1,2-diC8-phosphatidylcholine, 1-C8-monoacylglycerol or C8-ceramide were without effect. Activation of protein kinase C with PMA or 1,2-diC8-diacylglycerol did result in enhanced STZ binding. However, under these latter conditions upregulation of CD11b/CD18 was observed. Taken together, these results suggest that phospholipase D-derived PA is involved in changing the affinity of the CD11b/CD18 integrin for its ligands.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Inflammation and Resolution Are Associated with Upregulation of Fatty Acid β-Oxidation in Zymosan-Induced Peritonitis. AU - Fujieda, Yusuke. AU - Manno, Atsushi. AU - Hayashi, Yasuhiro. AU - Rhodes, Nelson. AU - Guo, Lining. AU - Arita, Makoto. AU - Bamba, Takeshi. AU - Fukusaki, Eiichiro. PY - 2013/6/11. Y1 - 2013/6/11. N2 - Inflammation is a fundamental defensive response to harmful stimuli. However, it can cause damage if it does not subside. To avoid such damage, organisms have developed a mechanism called resolution of inflammation. Here we applied an untargeted metabolomics approach to a sterile and self-resolving animal model of acute inflammation, namely zymosan-induced peritonitis in mice, to examine the effect of inflammation and resolution on the metabolomic profiles. Significant and time-dependent changes in metabolite profiles after zymosan administration were observed in both peritoneal wash fluid (PWF) and plasma. These metabolomic changes correlated well with ...
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Apocynin, an inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase, is known to partially reverse the inflammation-mediated cartilage proteoglycan synthesis in chondrocytes. More recently, it was reported that apocynin prevents cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in monocytes. The present study aimed to investigate whether these in vitro features of apocynin could be confirmed in vivo. In a mouse model of zymosan-induced acute arthritis apocynin was administered orally (0, 3.2, 16 and 80 microg/ml in the drinking water) and the effects on cartilage proteoglycan synthesis were monitored. In a mouse model of zymosan-induced inflammation of the ears apocynin was administered orally (14 mg/kg/day by gavage) and the effects on ear swelling and ex vivo produced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated blood cells were measured. In this study, ibuprofen was used as a positive control (50 mg/kg/day by gavage) and animals received vehicle as a negative control. Apocynin dose-dependently reversed the inhibition ...
Na záver odborného programu prednosta Kliniky hematológie a trans-fuziológie JLF UK a UNM Martin prof. MUDr. Ján Staško, PhD., poďakoval všet-kým prítomným za účasť a spoluprácu pri organizácii 5. Svetového dňa trom-bózy a zároveň ich srdečne pozval na 6. Svetový deň trombózy, ktorý sa uskutoč-ní dňa 11. 10. 2019 opäť v Martine.Sprievodné aktivityodborného programuOdborný program 5. Svetového dňa trombózy určený pre lekárov a ďal-ších zdravotníckych pracovníkov, ktorý sa konal v budove Hotela Turiec, bol zároveň sprevádzaný aj pestrou škálou aktivít.Nanešťastie stále platí fakt, že jeden zo štyroch ľudí na celom svete umiera na dôsledky trombózy. Podiel osôb, ktoré umierajú na následky vzniku trombózy, je dokonca vyšší ako celkové množstvo ľudí, ktorí zomrú každoročne na AIDS, rakovinu prsníka a autonehody. Trombóza je tvorba krvnej zrazeniny v cieve. Cievou môže byť akákoľvek artéria či véna. Takto ...
Dr. Aimen Zia is a top Dentist practicing in Teen Talwar Clifton, Karachi. You can book an in-person or an online video appointment with Dr. Aimen Zia through oladoc.com and save upto 50%.
It is well documented that the polysaccharide glucomannan (GM), an abundant constituent of the fungal cell wall, in the form of particulate induces strong activation of phagocytes, however, the effects of soluble GM are not known. Activation of phagocyte anti-microbial mechanisms is a crucial part of the innate host defense against invading pathogens. However, under uncontrolled inflammatory conditions they contribute to damage of surrounding tissues. Thus, to prevent these deleterious effects, the activation of phagocytes is a tightly regulated process. Therefore, in this study we analyzed the effect of soluble GM on some neutrophil functions such as reactive oxygen species production, degranulation, and receptor mobilization at the plasma membrane. Soluble GM at the tested concentrations did not stimulate oxidative burst of phagocytes directly but significantly potentiated oxidative burst in response to opsonized zymosan particles. GM induced significant phosphorylation of p47phox subunit of ...
Druhú polovicu septembra nám večery skrášlili Bratislavské módne dni. Počas štyroch dní módy sa predstavili desiatky návrhárov nielen zo Slovenska, ale aj z Indonézie, Číny alebo Rumunska. Šancu zažiariť dostali vďaka projektu Nové tváre módnej scény aj mladé návrhárky, ktoré so svojimi dizajnmi súťažili na tému Milan Rastislav Štefánik. Aj týmto spôsobom si pripomenuli dôležitú úlohu, ktorú zohral v histórii Slovenska.. Partnerom Bratislavských módnych dní sa tento rok premiérovo stala aj kolekcia vín Vitis Poézia. Vďaka tejto jedinečnej spolupráci sa pod jednou strechou stretlo viacero druhov umenia, ktoré sa navzájom dopĺňajú - móda, poézia a kvalitné slovenské víno. Bohatý výber chutných vín potešil všetkých hostí vrátane známych televíznych moderátorov, hercov, módnych návrhárov, VIP hostí a dokonca aj politikov.. „Som rád, že sa nám podarilo prepojiť náš svet vína so svetom módy, predovšetkým preto, ...
Dr Qasim Zia Malik - Family Physician in Gujranwala. Find the updated information about Dr Qasim Zia Malik with complete contact details online. You can access to doctors easily with the contact details provided here.
Úvod - Implantace cévní protézy v indikovaném případě významně zvyšuje kvalitu života pacienta - Infekce cévní protézy (1 - 5 %) => => život ohrožující komplikace (20 - 50 %) - Virulentní infekce: - typické klinické a laboratorní známky - CIM (CT, USG, značené leukocty). - Low-grade infekce: - nespecifické klinické symptomy - falešně negativní nnebo nekonkluzivní výsledky - výzva pro nové diagnostické modality - FDG-PET/CT
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Gynekologické vyšetrenie v narkóze. Dilatácia a frakcionovaná kyretáž maternice. Excízia krčka maternice. Odstránenie polypu krčka maternice. Konizácia krčka maternice. Excízia vulvy. Operácia cysty a abcesu Bartholinskej žľazy. Excízia steny pošvy na histologické vyšetrenie. Resekcia vaginálneho septa. Hysteroskopia diagnostická a operačná /endoskopické vyšetrenie dutiny maternice/. Minilaparoskopia diagnostická /endoskopické vyšetrenie dutiny brušnej/. Chromopertubácia-kontrastné vyšetrenie priechodnosti vajíčkovodov. ...
Vážení členovia SAA, dovoľujeme si Vás informovať o 85. kongrese Európskej spoločnosti aterosklerózy (EAS), ktorý sa bude konať v Prahe v dňoch 23. - 26. apríla 2017. Viac informácií nájdete na w ...
Knihu „Vliv chronické obstrukční plicní nemoci a idiopatické plicní fibrózy na rovnováhu a úroveň pohybových aktivit
Chcete efektivně modelovat, designovat a analyzovat libovolné konstrukce? Naše strukturální softwarové aplikace poskytují funkce analýzy, návrhu, podrobných údajů a dokumentace.
There are 495 seven-letter words containing A, N, O and S: ABOUNDS ABSCOND ABUSION ... YOJANAS ZONULAS ZYMOSAN. Every word on this site is valid scrabble words. Build other lists, that begin with or end with letters of your choice.
Wasnt sure where to put this, so decided to put it in the catch-all . Im having skin issues - starting to get those fine lines around my eyes, have the...
Veľa cukrovkárov s diabetom 2. typu sa už asi stretlo s metformínom, ktorý patrí k štandardne používaným liečivám, ktoré udržujú koncentráciu glukózy v krvi na hodnotách, aké potrebujeme. Stále sa zvyšujúci počet diabetikov núti vedcov venovať sa práve liečbe cukrovky a porovnávaniu efektivity rôznych liečiv.. Vzhľadom na to, že berberín vykázal vo viacerých štúdiach in vitro (v skúmavke) a na zvieratách hypoglykemický účinok, rozhodli sa vedci uskutočniť pilotnú štúdiu na pacientoch s diabetom 2. typu. V štúdií A sa pacientom podával buď berberín (3xdenne 500mg na začiatku jedla) alebo metformín (3x denne 500mg po jedle) po dobu troch mesiacov a sledovali sa hlavné parametre cukrovky (glykovaný hemoglobín, hladina glukózy v krvi, HOMA index..) a bezpečnosť liečby. Štúdia ukázala, že hypoglykemický účinok (zníženie glukózy v krvi) bol v prípade oboch látok podobný. Prišlo k signifikatntnému (štatisticky významnému) ...
Estradiol p.o. 1 mg, Filmom obalená tableta, ATC G03CA03, SPC (Súhrn údajov o prípravku) Terapeutické indikácie: Hormonálna substitučná liečba (HSL) príznakov nedostatku estrogénov u žien v postmenopauze. Na prevenciu osteoporózy u žien v postmenopauze, so zvýšeným rizikom vzniku fraktúr, ktoré netolerujú, alebo sú pre ne kontraindikované iné lieky schválené na prevenciu osteoporózy. Estrofem sa hlavne indikuje u žien po hysterektómii, ktoré z tohto dôvodu nevyžadujú kombinovanú liečbu estrog...
Amennyiben Családi Móka, Energia, Fantázia, Harmónia élménykuponnal a Tropicariumba látogat el: az érvényesség lejártáig egyszeri alkalommal bármikor felhasználható (hétvégén és ünnepnapon is). Kitöltve legyen szíves a jegypénztárban leadni, ez maga a belépő, jegyet nem adunk ki. Előzetes időpont egyeztetésre nincs szükség ...
Tato kategorie ozna?uje adekvátní vzorky s bu?kami charakteristickými pro karcinom nebo jinou malignitu. Malignita by nikdy nem?la být diagnostikována na základ? pouze jednoho kritéria. Kombinace parametr? jmenovaných v následující tabulce je vždy nutná k dosažení diagnózy.. ...
Prémiový srvátkový proteínový izolát bez pridaného cukru, bez laktózy* a gluténu, so základnou surovinou Native Whey Isolate a extra pridanými aminokyselinami BCAA a glutamín. ...
Prior absorption of normal human serum (NHS) or C2-deficient human serum (C2D) with zymosan at 0 degrees C results in diminished consumption of C3 and factor B during subsequent incubation of the sera in Mg-EGTA buffer with zymosan at 37 degrees C for 30 min. An acid eluate from the zymosan restores the defect of absorbed NHS and C2D, and also enhances C3 and factor B utilization in hypogammaglobulinemic serum (H gamma S) in a dose-dependent fashion. The activity is specific in that the eluate from zymosan fails to enhance C3 and B depletion in H gamma S or absorbed NHS by lipopolysaccharide or Sepharose. The active component of th zymosan eluate emerges from both Sepharose 4B and Sephacryl S-200 in the region of molecules with m.w. of 150,000. Absorption with protein A-Sepharose removes the activity, demonstrating that it is IgG. Digestion of the IgG with pepsin fails to diminish activity, indicating that the Fc region is not required for activity; reduction to monovalent Fab fragments, ...
Cationic local anesthetics have been reported to influence cellular responses to surface stimuli by interfering with the function of microtubules and microfilaments. Since unimpaired microtubule and microfilament functions are required by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in order to respond normally to surface stimulation, we have studied effects of the local anesthetic, tetracaine on the function and morphology of these cells in vitro. Tetracaine (0.25--1.0 mM) significantly reduced extracellular release of the lysosomal enzymes, beta-glucuronidase and lysozyme from polymorphonuclear leukocytes exposed to serum-treated zymosan (a particulate stimulus), zymosan-treated serum (a soluble stimulus), and to the surface-active lectin, concanavalin A. Tetracaine also significantly reduced superoixde anion production (superoxide dismutase-inhibitable cytochrome c reduction) by these cells. Tetrancaine was not cytotoxic and its effects could be reversed completely by washing cells once with buffer. ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
Citation: Kimura, K., Goff, J.P., Schmerr, M.J., Stabel, J.R., Inumaru, S., Yokomizo, Y. 2008. Activation of immune cells in bovine mammary gland secretions by zymosan-treated bovine serum. Journal of Dairy Science. 91(5):1852-1864. Interpretive Summary: The greatest risks of intramammary infection occur at the end of lactation and at the initiation of the next lactation. If we can activate neutrophils and lymphocytes during these periods of risk we may be able to reduce new intramammary infections during the dry period as well as at the initiation of the next lactation. Bovine serum, pre-treated with a yeast cell wall preparation (zymosan), was infused into one half of the mammary gland of 8 cows shortly after dry off. This treatment succeeded in activating both neutrophils and lymphocytes as evidenced by the expression of IFN-g and IL-8 in the cells obtained from the zymosan serum-infused quarters vs. saline infused quarters. Expression of these cytokines increased within 48 hours of infusion ...
Find information on Zia products with expert reviews, feedbacks, and updates. Total Beauty gives you access to all the Zia information that you need.
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Zia Yusuf is a core member of The Boston Consulting Groups Technology, Media & Telecommunications and Technology Advantage practices. Contact Zia
It is now 3:28 A.M., E.S.T. in New York City, and I have just watched the 3rd round without ever watching the rehearsals; and I must say this was the worst of the 3 rounds thus far, and the hardest for me to grade; all with the exception of Oscar Zia. Here is how I saw it: 9.30 Oscar Zia (finalist) Easily the best of a lousy bunch. The clouds behind him added to the dramatic effect of his song. 9.238 After Dark (7th) Verka meets Conchita, perhaps? Given the immediate reaction of the audience after the performance was done,… Read more ». ...
One vial of 1 mg sterile lyophilized solid sufficient for 100-200 live cell imaging phagocytosis tests in 96-well format. pHrodo® Bioparticles® for Incucyte® are sterile fluorogenic reagents ideally suited to a simple mix-and-read, real-time live cell quantification of phagocytosis. The unique pHrodo®-based system expl
The course of the increased number of liver macrophages and the origin of these cells were studied after intravenous stimulation by zymosan, stilboestrol, or corynebacterium. The macrophages were isolated by digestion of the liver with pronase and DNAase. Zymosan doubled the number of liver macropha …
A method for the selective determination of microbial cells, in a sample suspected of containing both microbial and non-microbial cells, is described which involves the selective release and enzymatic inactivation of non-microbial nucleotides, followed by the rapid and specific inhibition of the inactivating enzyme and the release and detection of microbial nucleotides in an appropriate assay, such as a bioluminescent assay.
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Metody síťové analýzy. CPM - Critical Path Method. Teoretický podklad k řešení. Metody síťové analýzy se uplatňují při řešení časových vazeb mezi jednotlivými prvky složitých systémů, např. při plánování vývoje a technické přípravy výroby. Slideshow 6721136 by nelle-pickett
House of Harlow 1960 Zia Spider Embroidery Flats at SHOPBOP.COM - FASTEST FREE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE. Buy House of Harlow 1960 Online
Elektronická kniha Křišťály moci - Věž zkázy, Ochráncem dalšího Křišťálu moci je poslední Pán ohně! Neilin od něho potřebuje křišťál získat. Proto se společně se svými přáteli vydává do...
Brucknerová I, Benedeková M, Pechán I, Holomán K, Bieliková E, Kostrová A, Ujházy E, Dubovický M, Mach M. Delivery as a physiological stress and its influence on some parameters of oxidative stress. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006 Dec; 27(Suppl 2): 65-68 ...
Koprdova R, Bögi E, Belovičová K, Sedláčková N, Okuliarová M, Ujházy E, Mach M. Chronic unpredictable mild stress paradigm in male Wistar rats: effect on anxiety- and depressive-like behavior. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2016 Dec; 37(Suppl 1): 103-110 ...
Všeobecné informácie o štúdii. C-reaktívny proteín je glykoproteín produkovaný pečeňou a patrí do akútnej fázy zápalu. Pod vplyvom protizápalových cytokínov (interleukín-1, tumor nekrotizujúci faktor-alfa a najmä interleukín-6) sa jeho syntéza zvyšuje po 6 hodinách a koncentrácia v krvi sa zvyšuje 10 až 100-krát v priebehu 24-48 hodín po nástupe zápalu. Najvyššie hladiny CRP (nad 100 mg / l) sa pozorujú pri bakteriálnej infekcii. Pri vírusových infekciách hladina CRP zvyčajne nepresahuje 20 mg / l. Koncentrácia CRP tiež stúpa s nekrózou tkaniva (vrátane infarktu myokardu, nekrózy nádoru).. CRP sa podieľa na aktivácii komplementu (skupina proteínov, ktoré sú súčasťou imunitného systému), monocytov, stimulácii expresie adhéznych molekúl ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selektínu na povrchu endotelu (poskytujú bunkovú interakciu), väzbe a modifikácii lipidov s nízkou hustotou (LDL)., to znamená, že prispieva k rozvoju aterosklerózy. Podľa ...
City Of The Dead:Lee/Lotis/St. John/Jessel/Stev,DVD-STANDARD,HORROR-GHOSTS & SUPERNATURAL,Released 10/23/2001,New:12.99,Pre-owned:6.99
For those planning their UG education abroad, it is best to start finding out about funding as early as in class X, says Sarah Zia
Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav, hydrologické a meteorologické predpovede a výstrahy, analýzy počasia, história počasia, emisie, kvalita ovzdušia
Slovenský hydrometeorologický ústav, hydrologické a meteorologické predpovede a výstrahy, analýzy počasia, história počasia, emisie, kvalita ovzdušia
Recent studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system controls inflammatory responses by activating complex efferent neuroimmune pathways. The present study was designed to evaluate the role that central gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA-B) receptor plays in neutrophil migration in a murine model of zymosan-induced arthritis by using different pharmacological tools. We observed that intrathecal administration of baclofen, a selective GABA-B agonist, exacerbated the inflammatory response in the knee after zymosan administration characterized by an increase in the neutrophil recruitment and knee joint edema, whereas saclofen, a GABA-B antagonist, exerted the opposite effect. Intrathecal pretreatment of the animals with SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) blocked the pro-inflammatory effect of baclofen. On the other hand, systemic administration of guanethidine, a sympatholytic drug that inhibits catecholamine release, and nadolol, a beta-adrenergic ...
Murine zymosan-induced peritonitis is a widely used model for studying the molecular and cellular events responsible for the initiation, persistence and/or resolution of inflammation. Among these events, it is becoming increasingly evident that changes in glycosylation of proteins, especially in the plasma and at the site of inflammation, play an important role in the inflammatory response. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)-based glycosylation profiling, we investigated the qualitative and quantitative effect of zymosan-induced peritonitis on N-glycosylation in mouse plasma and peritoneal fluid. Our results show that both N-glycomes exhibit highly similar glycosylation patterns, consisting mainly of diantennary and triantennary complex type N-glycans with high levels (,95 %) of galactosylation and sialylation (mostly NeuGc) and a medium degree of core fucosylation (30 %). Moreover, MS/MS structural analysis, assisted by ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in body fluids are candidate diagnostics for a variety of conditions and diseases, including breast cancer. One premise for using extracellular miRNAs to diagnose disease is the notion that the abundance of the miRNAs in body fluids reflects their abundance in the abnormal cells causing the disease. As a result, the search for such diagnostics in body fluids has focused on miRNAs that are abundant in the cells of origin. Here we report that released miRNAs do not necessarily reflect the abundance of miRNA in the cell of origin. We find that release of miRNAs from cells into blood, milk and ductal fluids is selective and that the selection of released miRNAs may correlate with malignancy. In particular, the bulk of miR-451 and miR-1246 produced by malignant mammary epithelial cells was released, but the majority of these miRNAs produced by non-malignant mammary epithelial cells was retained. Our findings suggest the existence of a cellular selection mechanism for miRNA release and
Human phagocytes can be triggered to generate large quantities of long-lived nitrogen-chlorine derivatives. This class of oxidants can be detected as early as 5 min after the addition of phorbol myristate acetate or opsonized zymosan particles. Unlike all other oxygen metabolites known to be generated by phagocytes, the nitrogen-chlorine compounds can be readily detected in cell supernatants 90 min after stimulation. The generation of these oxidants is linear with neutrophil concentration, favored at alkaline pH, and inhibited by supraphysiologic concentrations of iodide or bromide. The oxidants are hydrophilic in nature and have a half-life ranging from 5 h at 37 degrees C to greater than 100 h at 4 degrees C. Gel filtration chromatography of the accumulated nitrogen-chlorine derivatives revealed that the oxidants generated by neutrophils or monocytes are a complex mixture of products whose Mr range from 150-5,000. One-half of the nitrogen chlorine derivatives migrate as a single peak with an ...
p. As woman with no formal training in combat, Zia Faydigs prominent position as the right hand and most trusted advisor of Callum Rivers, a high ranking offic
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Takahashi M, Izawa K, Urai M, Yamanishi Y, Maehara A, Isobe M, Matsukawa T, Kaitani A, Takamori A, Uchida S, Yamada H, Nagamine M, Ando T, Shimizu T, Ogawa H, Okumura K, Kinjo Y, Kitamura T, Kitaura J. The phytosphingosine-CD300b interaction promotes zymosan-induced, nitric oxide-dependent neutrophil recruitment. Science Signaling. 2019.01; 12 (564): ( PubMed, DOI ) ...
Priority ko muna ang anak ko.. Ito ang dahilan ng aktres na si Marian Rivera kaya ninanais niya munang mag-break sa showbiz.. Aniya sinabi niya sa kanyang management na gusto niyang matutukan ang paglaki ni Zia na ngayoy mag-iisang taong gulang na.. Sinabi ni Marian na pumayag siyang ma-extend ang kanyang morning show ng 4 na linggo ngunit pagkatapos aniya nito ay magpapahinga muna siya sa showbiz.. Nag-extend ako ng four weeks pero after nun sabi ko, ire-rest ko na muna kasi ang hirap magka-soap. Lumalaki kasi yung anak ko. Sa stage na ito, hindi ko kayang iwan. Aalis ako ng bahay, tulog si Zia. Pag-uwi ko, tulog. Ang sakit para sa akin. So sabi ko, palakihin ko muna yung anak ko and then after niyan, doon pwede na ulit sumabak, Pahayag ni Marian.. Samantala, super thankful naman ang actress-host kay Kris Aquino dahil pumayag itong mag-guest appearance sa kanyang show.. Para ma-interview ko ang isang Kris Aquino, siyempre malaking karangalan yun para sa show namin at pinagbigyan niya ...
Mnohé studie dokazují výraznou protinádorovou schopnost mebendazolu,[7] a to dokonce i v případě nádorů rezistentních vůči konvenční chemoterapii, jako je například melanom.[8] Protinádorové vlastnosti mebendazolu jsou přisuzovány jeho schopnosti inhibovat formaci dělicího vřeténka, je však zřejmé, že spektrum potenciálních mechanismů tohoto léčiva je mnohem širší. Mebendazol inhibuje mimo jiné formaci další mikrotubulární struktury, primárního cilia, které je potřebné v signalizační kaskádě Sonic hedgehog.[9] Dále je mebendazol schopný inhibovat proteinkinázy jako VEGFR2, BRAF nebo ABL, které mají často důležitou funkci v biologii nádorových buněk.[10][11] V neposlední řadě některé studie poukazují na schopnost mebendazolu ovlivňovat buňky imunitního systému. Aktivací kinázy ERK1/2 indukuje mebendazol expresi prozánětlivých cytokinů, jako je IL-8, TNFα, IL-6 a IL-1β.[12][13] Mebendazol je také evidentně schopný ...
2019 - Czech Tělesné zatížení může vést k poškození svalové tkáně. Sérová koncentrace kreatinkinázy (CK) bývá používána jako index určující poškození vláken kosterních svalů ve sportu a po cvičení. Cílem této studie bylo v průběhu soutěžního mikrocyklu zhodnotit chování plazmatické kreatinkinázy jako markeru svalového poškození v reakci na soutěžní a tréninkové zatížení u mladých hráčů fotbalu (kategorie U14 a U16) a posoudit jejich opětovnou připravenost k hernímu výkonu. Sledováno bylo celkem 20 hráčů, 12 hráčů kategorie U14 (13,6 ? 0,3 let) a 8 hráčů kategorie U16 (15,6 ? 0,2 let). Složení jejich soutěžního mikrocyklu bylo z hlediska zatížení odlišné. Pro stanovení aktivity CK byly v průběhu týdenního mikrocyklu odebírány kapilární vzorky krve, které byly bezprostředně analyzovány spektrofotometrem Reflotron? pro plazmatickou CK aktivitu. Hráči byli testováni pětkrát v rámci jednoho týdne. ...
Dejodáza je enzym, který umožňuje z cílové sloučeniny odstranit molekuly jódu (tzv. dejodace). V našem organizmu se tři základní dejodázy účastní metabolizmu hormonů štítné žlázy (např. přeměny thyroxinu na trijodthyronin ...
Herkese merhaba, Ticari satışlarını arttırmak isteyen ya da sadece internet üzerinden satış yapmak isteyen firmalar için kendin yönetebildiğin güzel bir web sitesi çok önemlidir. Fonksiyonların tümünün çalışması ve hepsine müdahale edebilmek gerekir. İlk kurulum için de tasarım firmalarıyla anlaşma yaptığınızda sitenizin özelliklerine göre ciddi rakamlar ortaya çıkmakta. Ancak bilgisayar ve internet bilginiz orta düzey biri …
Geocaching is a treasure hunting game where you use a GPS to hide and seek containers with other participants in the activity. Geocaching.com is the listing service for geocaches around the world.
Az Nd:Yag az egyik legelterjedtebb és legsokoldalúbb lézer a piacon. A 1064 nm-es, koherens, párhuzamos, és mindig azonos hullámhosszúságú lézerfény hemoglobinban való elnyelődése magas, míg a bőr más kromofóráiban (víz, melanin) való abszorpciója alacsony. Hosszú pulzussal használva a bőr mélyebb rétegeit is eléri, így lehetőséget biztosít a mélyebben lévő erek kezelésére, vagy photorejuvenációra, a mélyben való diffúz felmelegítés révén. Rövid pulzussal a felületi hemoglobint tartalmazó panaszokat (pl. telangiectázia) lehet kezelni.. ...
Pote enie z chv lyhodnej iniciat vy vyjadril Benedikt XVI. v liste zaslanom Predsedovi P pe sk ho v boru pre historick vedy o. Bernardovi Ardurovi, O. Praem pri pr le itosti medzin rodn ho symp zia Druh vatik nsky ekumenick koncil vo svetle arch vov koncilov ch otcov 50. v ro ie otvorenia Druh ho vatik nskeho koncilu (1962 - 2012 ...
Uova da Raviolo Although my family made plenty of ravioli, only two filling recipes were prepared, one for ravioli served in tomato sauce and the other for cappelletti served in soup. Ive been told that Mom and Zia experimented with cheese-filled ravioli but were never satisfied with them and gave up trying after a few…
Uova da Raviolo Although my family made plenty of ravioli, only two filling recipes were prepared, one for ravioli served in tomato sauce and the other for cappelletti served in soup. Ive been told that Mom and Zia experimented with cheese-filled ravioli but were never satisfied with them and gave up trying after a few…
This form supersedes Form RT3119-A Iss 3. The changes are only small amendments to references and to include a field for scanned signatures. This form was designed to record information for the purpose of investigation into Category A signal passed at danger (SPAD). RGSonline provides an editable PDF of this form but a Word file is available on the SPAD page of RSSBs website: http://www.rssb.co.uk/SPR/Pages/signals_passed_at_danger.aspx. Users should note that both the PDF and MS Word versions are identical in content ...
Akcie (burza ČR+svět), měny (forex- koruna, euro, dolar) a ekonomika (HDP, inflace, sazby). Investiční zpravodajství. Služby: online broker, Patria+ (analýzy, treasury, databanky, alerty), IPO, M&A.
Holmqvist S, Chutna O, Bousset L, Aldrin-Kirk P, Li W, Björklund T, Wang ZY, Roybon L, Melki R, Li JY. Direct evidence of Parkinson pathology spread from the gastrointestinal tract to the brain in rats ...
Lamkanfi, Mohamed; Malireddi, R. K. Subbarao; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi (2009-07-31). "Fungal zymosan and mannan activate the ...
Several fungal ligands such as glucuronoxylomannan, phospholipomannan and zymosan have been reported. Moreover, TLR2/6 is known ...
Injections with zymosan can promote macrophages to enter the eye and secrete oncomodulin. This is an effective method of ...
"PTX3 function as an opsonin for the dectin-1-dependent internalization of zymosan by macrophages". Journal of Leukocyte Biology ...
They injected zymosan or monosodium urate crystals in order to induce gouty arthritis in mice. OLT1177 was then either injected ...
... predominantly mediates zymosan phagocytosis by human vascular endothelial cells". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (6): 3956-65. doi:10.1074/ ...
May 2005). "Regulated recruitment of DC-SIGN to cell-cell contact regions during zymosan-induced human dendritic cell ...
"Mitochondria regulate platelet metamorphosis induced by opsonized zymosan A--activation and long-term commitment to cell death ...
Other In vivo studies have demonstrated a reduction in zymosan-induced pain and inflammation and cytokine-induced bone loss. ...
Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ocimum americanum L. Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Zymosan-Induced Arthritis. „Am J Chin ...
Takeshita K, Bacon KB, Gantner F (2004). "Critical role of L-selectin and histamine H4 receptor in zymosan-induced neutrophil ... bone marrow and white blood cells and regulates neutrophil release from bone marrow and subsequent infiltration in the zymosan- ...
Carlos, Fernando Pereira (2014-03-01). "Protective effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on acute zymosan-induced arthritis ...
Also studies using the mouse zymosan model and chemerin peptides showed that these peptides suppressed and helped resolve the ...
When an agent, zymosan, was injected into the tunicate Styela plicata (causing inflammation), secretion of this collectin was ...
Takeshita K, Bacon KB, Gantner F (2004). «Critical role of L-selectin and histamine H4 receptor in zymosan-induced neutrophil ...
... zymosan MeSH D09.698.365.180 - cellulose MeSH D09.698.365.180.180 - cellobiose MeSH D09.698.365.180.200 - cellulose, oxidized ...
... only a small amount in human PMN extracts but was more potent than PD1 or PDX in blocking the inflammatory response to zymosan ...
In addition, a role for paracaspase has been shown in the innate immune response mediated by the zymosan receptor Dectin-1 in ...
... to mice before zymosan challenge conferred significant protection against zymosan-induced peritonitis, suppressing neutrophil ( ...
6-glucan isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus zymosan, β-1,3-glucan Properties of glucans include resistance to oral acids/enzyme ...
... zymosan Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii (Saccharomyces boulardii) Flora of Door County, Wisconsin § Hybrid yeast Category: ...
It binds to TLR 2 and Dectin-1 (CLEC7A). Zymosan is a ligand found on the surface of fungi, like yeast. Zymosan is prepared ... 2003). "Direct binding of Toll-like receptor 2 to zymosan, and zymosan-induced NF-kappa B activation and TNF-alpha secretion ... Zymosan A also raises cyclin D2 levels suggesting a role for the latter in macrophage activation besides proliferation. It ... Zymosan is a glucan with repeating glucose units connected by β-1,3-glycosidic linkages. ...
Cereal and fungal products have been used for centuries for medicinal and cosmetic purposes; however, the specific role of β-glucan was not explored until the 20th century. β-glucans were first discovered in lichens, and shortly thereafter in barley. A particular interest in oat β-glucan arose after a cholesterol lowering effect from oat bran reported in 1981.[2] In 1997, the FDA approved of a claim that intake of at least 3.0 g of β-glucan from oats per day decreased absorption of dietary cholesterol and reduced the risk of coronary heart disease. The approved health claim was later amended to include these sources of β-glucan: rolled oats (oatmeal), oat bran, whole oat flour, oatrim (the soluble fraction of alpha-amylase hydrolyzed oat bran or whole oat flour), whole grain barley and barley beta-fiber. An example of an allowed label claim: Soluble fiber from foods such as oatmeal, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease. A serving of ...
1 All cells are coated in either glycoproteins or glycolipids, both of which help determine cell types.[7] Lectins, or proteins that bind carbohydrates, can recognize specific oligosaccharides and provide useful information for cell recognition based on oligosaccharide binding.[citation needed] An important example of oligosaccharide cell recognition is the role of glycolipids in determining blood types. The various blood types are distinguished by the glycan modification present on the surface of blood cells.[15] These can be visualized using mass spectrometry. The oligosaccharides found on the A, B, and H antigen occur on the non-reducing ends of the oligosaccharide. The H antigen (which indicates an O blood type) serves as a precursor for the A and B antigen.[7] Therefore, a person with A blood type will have the A antigen and H antigen present on the glycolipids of the red blood cell plasma membrane. A person with B blood type will have the B and H antigen present. A person with AB blood ...
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose[1]) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are soluble in water. Three common examples are sucrose, lactose,[2] and maltose. Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides). The most common types of disaccharides-sucrose, lactose, and maltose-have 12 carbon atoms, with the general formula C12H22O11. The differences in these disaccharides are due to atomic arrangements within the molecule.[3] The joining of simple sugars into a double sugar happens by a condensation reaction, which involves the elimination of a water molecule from the functional groups only. Breaking apart a double sugar into its two simple sugars is accomplished by hydrolysis with the help of a type of enzyme called a disaccharidase. As building the larger sugar ejects a water molecule, ...
Garot (1850) "De la matière colorante rouge des rhubarbes exotiques et indigènes et de son application (comme matière colorante) aux arts et à la pharmacie" (On the red coloring material of exotic and indigenous rhubarb and on its application (as a coloring material) in the arts and in pharmacy), Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 3rd series, 17 : 5-19. Erythrose is named on p. 10: "Celui que je propose, sans y attacher toutefois la moindre importance, est celui d'érythrose, du verbe grec 'ερυθραινω, rougir (1)." (The one [i.e., name] that I propose, without attaching any importance to it, is that of erythrose, from the Greek verb ερυθραινω, to redden (1).) ...
The production of table sugar has a long history. Some scholars claim Indians discovered how to crystallize sugar during the Gupta dynasty, around AD 350.[19] Other scholars point to the ancient manuscripts of China, dated to the 8th century BC, where one of the earliest historical mentions of sugar cane is included along with the fact that their knowledge of sugar cane was derived from India.[20] Further, it appears that by about 500 BC, residents of present-day India began making sugar syrup and cooling it in large flat bowls to make raw table sugar crystals that were easier to store and transport. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda (खण्ड), which is the source of the word candy.[21] The army of Alexander the Great was halted on the banks of river Indus by the refusal of his troops to go further east. They saw people in the Indian subcontinent growing sugarcane and making granulated, salt-like sweet powder, locally called sākhar (साखर), pronounced ...
Many molecules that are considered to be "dietary fiber" are so because humans lack the necessary enzymes to split the glycosidic bond and they reach the large intestine. Many foods contain varying types of dietary fibers, all of which contribute to health in different ways. Dietary fibers make three primary contributions: bulking, viscosity and fermentation.[49] Different fibers have different effects, suggesting that a variety of dietary fibers contribute to overall health. Some fibers contribute through one primary mechanism. For instance, cellulose and wheat bran provide excellent bulking effects, but are minimally fermented. Alternatively, many dietary fibers can contribute to health through more than one of these mechanisms. For instance, psyllium provides bulking as well as viscosity. Bulking fibers can be soluble (i.e., psyllium) or insoluble (i.e., cellulose and hemicellulose). They absorb water and can significantly increase stool weight and regularity. Most bulking fibers are not ...
HSGAG and CSGAG modified proteoglycans first begin with a consensus Ser-Gly/Ala-X-Gly motif in the core protein. Construction of a tetrasaccharide linker that consists of -GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3Galβ1-4Xylβ1-O-(Ser)-, where xylosyltransferase, β4-galactosyl transferase (GalTI),β3-galactosyl transferase (GalT-II), and β3-GlcA transferase (GlcAT-I) transfer the four monosaccharides, begins synthesis of the GAG modified protein. The first modification of the tetrasaccharide linker determines whether the HSGAGs or CSGAGs will be added. Addition of a GlcNAc promotes the addition of HSGAGs while addition of GalNAc to the tetrasaccharide linker promotes CSGAG development.[5] GlcNAcT-I transfers GlcNAc to the tetrasaccahride linker, which is distinct from glycosyltransferase GlcNAcT-II, the enzyme that is utilized to build HSGAGs. EXTL2 and EXTL3, two genes in the EXT tumor suppressor family, have been shown to have GlcNAcT-I activity. Conversely, GalNAc is transferred to the linker by the enzyme GalNAcT ...
... /ˌæmɪloʊˈpɛktɪn/ is a water-soluble[1][2] polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants. It is one of the two components of starch, the other being amylose. Amylopectin bears a straight/linear chain along with a number of side chains which may be branched further. Glucose units are linked in a linear way with α(1→4) Glycosidic bonds. Branching usually occurs at intervals of 25 residues. At the places of origin of a side chain, the branching that takes place bears an α(1→6) Glycosidic bond , resulting in a soluble molecule that can be quickly degraded as it has many end points onto which enzymes can attach. Wolform and Thompson (1956) have also reported α(1→3)linkages in case of Amylopectin. Amylopectin contains a larger number of Glucose units (2000 to 200,000) as compared to Amylose containing 200 to 1000 α-Glucose units. In contrast, amylose contains very few α(1→6) bonds, or even none at all. This causes amylose to be hydrolyzed ...
It binds to TLR 2 and Dectin-1 (CLEC7A). Zymosan is a ligand found on the surface of fungi, like yeast. Zymosan is prepared ... 2003). "Direct binding of Toll-like receptor 2 to zymosan, and zymosan-induced NF-kappa B activation and TNF-alpha secretion ... Zymosan A also raises cyclin D2 levels suggesting a role for the latter in macrophage activation besides proliferation. It ... Zymosan is a glucan with repeating glucose units connected by β-1,3-glycosidic linkages. ...
zymosan synonyms, zymosan pronunciation, zymosan translation, English dictionary definition of zymosan. n. An insoluble ... Zymosan - definition of zymosan by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/zymosan ... zymosan. Also found in: Medical, Wikipedia. zy·mo·san. (zī′mə-săn′). n.. An insoluble substance containing various ... Zymosan (10 mg/mL, Sigma) was mixed with the serum of adult rockfish, which were not used in this feeding experiment, and ...
View information & documentation regarding Zymosan A from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including CAS, MSDS & more. ... Sigma-Aldrich offers a number of Zymosan A from Saccharomyces cerevisiae products. ...
Four days after the intra-articular injection of zymosan (15 mg/ml), Spirulina (100 and 400 mg/kg per-orally) was administered ... Spirulina significantly reduced the levels of β-glucuronidase that had been increased by zymosan. Histopathological and ... The anti-inflammatory effect of microalgae Spirulina was studied in zymosan-induced arthritis in mice. ... Inhibitory effects of Spirulina in zymosan-induced arthritis in mice. Diadelis Remirez,1 Ricardo González. ,1 Nelson Merino. ,1 ...
Browse our Red Zymosan Phagocytosis Kit catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Red Zymosan Phagocytosis Kits available through Novus Biologicals. ... Red Zymosan Phagocytosis Kits. We offer Red Zymosan Phagocytosis Kits for use in common research applications. Each Red Zymosan ...
Zymosan A from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for inducing inflamatory response; CAS Number: 58856-93-2; find Sigma-Z4250 MSDS, ... Can Product Z4250, Zymosan suspension be autoclaved? We have no information as to whether zymosan suspensions can be autoclaved ... What is the particle size of Product Z4250, Zymosan? Sigma-Aldrich does not measure the particle size of zymosan. The average ... Information on preparation of zymosan for use in a properdin assay, which includes boiling zymosan suspensions, is described on ...
Injection of zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP) into the rat paw induced edema formation. The maximal increase in paw volume was ... Protective effects of poly (ADP-ribose) synthase inhibitors in zymosan-activated plasma induced paw edema.. Cuzzocrea S1, ... zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP)-induced paw edema), in which the oxyradicals, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, are known to play ...
... in the lung of zymosan-shocked rats. Pretreatment of zymosan-shocked rats with ip administration of N-acetylcysteine (40, 20, ... 1 and 6 hrs after zymosan or saline administration). After zymosan or saline injection, animals were monitored for the ... Administration of zymosan in the rat induced acute peritonitis, as assessed by a marked increase in the leukocyte count in the ... Peritoneal administration of zymosan in the rat also induced a significant increase in the plasma levels of nitrite and nitrate ...
Phagocytosis of zymosan by phagocytes is a widely used model of microbial recognition by the innate immune system. Live-cell ... Activation-Inactivation Cycling of Rab35 and ARF6 Is Required for Phagocytosis of Zymosan in RAW264 Macrophages. Youhei Egami,1 ... These data suggest that the activation-inactivation cycles of Rab35 and ARF6 are required for the uptake of zymosan and that ... By our novel pull-down assay for Rab35 activity, we found that Rab35 is deactivated immediately after zymosan internalization ...
The present study used zymosan A-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production as a model to explore the signal ... Zymosan A increased TNF-alpha production in RAW264.7 cells in a time and co ... Zymosan A increased TNF-alpha production in RAW264.7 cells in a time and concentration dependent pattern with the optimal time ... A gel shift assay was used to examine the DNA-binding activity of NFkB in the zymosan A- treated cells. This NFkB activity was ...
I. Human IgG with specificity for Zymosan enhances alternative pathway activation by zymosan.. H A Schenkein and S Ruddy ... The role of immunoglobulins in alternative complement pathway activation by zymosan. I. Human IgG with specificity for Zymosan ... The role of immunoglobulins in alternative complement pathway activation by zymosan. I. Human IgG with specificity for Zymosan ... The role of immunoglobulins in alternative complement pathway activation by zymosan. I. Human IgG with specificity for Zymosan ...
Synthesis of the fluorescent probe zymosan-FF6. Step a, activation of COOH-FF6(COOEt)4 using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and N- ... The resulting conjugate, zymosan-FF6, was ingested by macrophages and its fluorescence emission was recorded in situ after ... The resulting conjugate, zymosan-FF6, was ingested by macrophages and its fluorescence emission was recorded in situ after ... Mentions: The strategy used to synthesize the particulate fluorescent probe zymosan-FF6 is shown in Fig. 1. The precursor, Fura ...
Critical role of histamine H4 receptor in LTB4 production and mast cell-dependent neutrophil recruitment induced by zymosan in ... Critical role of histamine H4 receptor in LTB4 production and mast cell-dependent neutrophil recruitment induced by zymosan in ... Critical role of histamine H4 receptor in LTB4 production and mast cell-dependent neutrophil recruitment induced by zymosan in ... Critical role of histamine H4 receptor in LTB4 production and mast cell-dependent neutrophil recruitment induced by zymosan in ...
Simultaneously, MODS was induced by intraperitoneal injection of zymosan (0.25 mg/g). Mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate ... that occurred from zymosan and norepinephrine. Glomerular filtration rate was also preserved (p , 0.05), despite a reduction in ... Type IV Phosphodiesterase Inhibition Protects Glomerular Filtration Rate and Renal and Mesenteric Blood Flow in a Zymosan- ... Type IV Phosphodiesterase Inhibition Protects Glomerular Filtration Rate and Renal and Mesenteric Blood Flow in a Zymosan- ...
Compound was evaluated for the inhibition of serum-opsonized zymosan stimulated LTC4/D4 release from human neutrophil. ...
Mannan is a specific inhibitor of zymosan binding and phagocytosis. The binding and ingestion of zymosan but not of IgG- or ... Zymosan uptake was completely abolished by trypsin treatment of the macrophages and reduced by 50-60 percent in the presence of ... Pretreatment of the macrophages with chloroquine inhibited zymosan binding and ingestion. These results support the proposal ... U.S.A. 75:1399-1403, mediates the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. ...
Spinal GABA-B receptor modulates neutrophil recruitment to the knee joint in zymosan-induced arthritis. by Logan Thomison , Apr ... receptor plays in neutrophil migration in a murine model of zymosan-induced arthritis by using different pharmacological tools ... exacerbated the inflammatory response in the knee after zymosan administration characterized by an increase in the neutrophil ...
Zymosan-induced neutrophil recruitment was significantly greater (more than two-fold) in bile duct-ligated rats than in sham- ... Zymosan (200 mg) was injected intraperitoneally and 4 h later myeloperoxidase activity in the peritoneal fluid was measured to ... Effect of obstructive jaundice on neutrophil chemotactic activity: An in vivo assessment in zymosan-induced peritonitis model ... In normal rats, replacement of their peritoneal cells by those from bile duct-ligated rats did not enhance zymosan-induced ...
Phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan (OZ), which is also mediated by CRs, was similarly associated with activation of PLD (12.2- ... Activation of phospholipase D is tightly coupled to the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or opsonized zymosan by ... Activation of phospholipase D is tightly coupled to the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or opsonized zymosan by ...
Differential effects of IL-17 pathway in disseminated candidiasis and zymosan-induced multiple organ failure. ... the absence of IL-17RA in the knockout mice did not protect the mice against the multiorgan failure induced by zymosan. ... and control mice were also assessed for mortality in a multiorgan failure sepsis model induced by the fungal component zymosan. ... and zymosan-induced multiple organ failure in which the inflammatory pathology drives the mortality. ...
Lectin fromAbelmoschus esculentusreduces zymosan-induced temporomandibular joint inflammatory hypernociception in rats via heme ... Animals were pre-treated with AEL (0.01, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg) before zymosan (Zy) injection in the TMJ to determine anti- ... We evaluated A. esculentus lectin (AEL) efficacy in reducing zymosan-induced temporomandibular joint inflammatory ...
The Zymosan-A induced peritonitis model induces leukocyte accumulation in the peritoneum. This model can be utilized as a model ... Prednisone Administration Reduces Zymosan-A Mediated increases in Leukocyte Number Cell-type. Untreated. Vehicle. Prednisone ( ... Zymosan-A Induced Peritonitis. Leukocyte infiltration into a site of injury or irritation is an integral part of an ... If you are interested in learning more about the Zymosan-A Induced Peritonitis assay, please contact [email protected] ...
Zymosan A-Stimulated Peritonitis.. Six- to 8-wk-old female mice were administered 10 ng RvD1 per mouse by i.v. injection. After ... B and C) Quantification of LTB4 and PMNs in inflammatory exudates of the indicated groups of mice treated with zymosan in the ... 1A) and blocked LTB4 formation in both bone marrow-derived macrophages and zymosan-elicited peritoneal macrophages (Fig. 1B and ... To examine whether the RvD1-LTB4 signaling pathway is operable in vivo, we used a model of acute zymosan-induced peritoneal ...
Zymosan A-Induced Peritonitis.. The 8- to 10-wk-old C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 mg of zymosan (Sigma) ... A) PLS-DA 2D score plot of lipid mediators measured in peritoneal exudates of WT, Mertk−/−, and MertkCR mice 20 h after zymosan ... Zymosan-induced peritonitis is a widely used model of sterile inflammation (28). To study the role of MerTK, we injected Mertk ... A and C) WT, Mertk−/−, or MertkCR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 mg of zymosan per mouse. After 30 h, exudate ...
Zymosan (Sigma-Aldrich, #Z4250) was resuspended in ethanol p.a. at 30 mg/ml and stored at −20 °C. Before experiments, zymosan ... but not with zymosan (Fig. S1b), indicating CRP strongly binds to MSU crystals but not to zymosan. Since several other likely ... MSU, CPPD, Zymosan and S. cerevisiae Distinct crystallization protocols were used for each lot of MSU crystals: Lot 1-3: 20 mM ... S1a). The zymosan purification also showed a prominent band at 25 kDa. LC-MS analysis of the proteins within this band found ...
Use the zymosan-A induced peritonitis model to study leukocyte migration and the efficacy of anti-inflammatory compounds. Click ... Zymosan-A was administered i.p. (1 mg/mouse). Prednisone was administered 30 minutes prior to Zymosan-A challenge. Four hours ... The zymosan induced peritonitis model is typically run in an acute setting, performed in a single day with a single ... Zymosan - A Induced Acute Peritonitis Model. Discover how Meliors unique phenotypic screening platforms can uncover the ...
Zymosan Particles. Zymosan particles are widely employed as mimics of pathogenic, live yeast cells. The original 1941 method [ ... A) A representative map of clusters of CD206 identified using Getis in a zymosan contact ROI on a dendritic cell with a zymosan ... The approximate location of the zymosan particle is indicated with the green oval, the zymosan contact region (white box) and a ... A representative map of clusters of CD206 identified using DBSCAN in a zymosan contact ROI on a dendritic cell with a zymosan ...
IncuCyte® pHrodo® Red Zymosan Bioparticles® for Phagocytosis. One vial of 1 mg sterile lyophilized solid sufficient for 100-200 ... Product Data Sheet - IncuCyte™ pHrodo® Bioparticles® for Phagocytosis Safety Data Sheet - IncuCyte™ pHrodo® Red Zymosan ... Product Data Sheet - IncuCyte™ pHrodo® Bioparticles® for Phagocytosis Safety Data Sheet - IncuCyte™ pHrodo® Red Zymosan ... Bioparticles® for Phagocytosis (US) Safety Data Sheet - IncuCyte™ pHrodo® Red Zymosan Bioparticles® for Phagocytosis (EU) ...
Oropharyngeal zymosan administration. Zymosan (Sigma-Aldrich) was diluted to a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml in saline, sonicated ... We used oropharyngeal instillation of zymosan as a sterile model of lung inflammation. Zymosan is a fungal cell wall-derived ... after zymosan administration. (E-G) Representative lung sections of WT (E) and Ncf1*/*MN+ (F) mice on day 5 after zymosan ... Wild-type (B10.Q), Ncf1*/*MN+, and Ncf1*/*MN− mice were administered oropharyngeal zymosan, and BALF leukocytosis and lung ...
Inflammation and Resolution Are Associated with Upregulation of Fatty Acid β-Oxidation in Zymosan-Induced Peritonitis. PLoS One ... Inflammation and Resolution Are Associated with Upregulation of Fatty Acid β-Oxidation in Zymosan-Induced Peritonitis. In: PLoS ... The concentration of the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3-HB) in plasma and PWF increased in zymosan-injected animals ... The concentration of the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3-HB) in plasma and PWF increased in zymosan-injected animals ...
  • In macrophages, zymosan-induced responses include the induction of proinflammatory cytokines, arachidonate mobilization, protein phosphorylation, and inositol phosphate formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting conjugate, zymosan-FF6, was ingested by macrophages and its fluorescence emission was recorded in situ after phagocytosis, using digital imaging. (nih.gov)
  • We have examined the effects of various mannans, glycoproteins, oligosaccharides, monosaccharides, and sugar phosphates on the binding and phagocytosis of yeast cell walls (zymosan) by mouse peritoneal macrophages. (columbia.edu)
  • The binding and ingestion of zymosan but not of IgG- or complement-coated erythrocytes can be obliterated by plating macrophages on substrates coated with poly-L-lysin (PLL)-mannan. (columbia.edu)
  • Zymosan uptake was completely abolished by trypsin treatment of the macrophages and reduced by 50-60 percent in the presence of 10 mM EGTA. (columbia.edu)
  • Pretreatment of the macrophages with chloroquine inhibited zymosan binding and ingestion. (columbia.edu)
  • Activation of phospholipase D is tightly coupled to the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or opsonized zymosan by human macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • Here, using novel and specific reagents, we have defined the receptors involved in the nonopsonic recognition of zymosan and soluble β-glucans in primary macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • However, secretion of PGE2 by tissue-fixed macrophages from within the colorectal carcinomata in response to opsonised zymosan was significantly higher than in the uninvolved colonic tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Leukotriene B4 secretion by intestinal macrophages in response to opsonised zymosan was not significantly elevated in the colonic tumour tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings suggest that zymosan exposure may enhance the lung immune response by activating alveolar macrophages prior to infection, and stimulating T cells involved in the adaptive immune response early after infection, thus resulting in a heightened pulmonary immune response. (cdc.gov)
  • In order to determine the possible role of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases in the activation of macrophages by LPS, the effects of several inhibitors of these enzymes on the binding and uptake of zymosan particles by macrophages primed with LPS was investigated and a lipoxygenase product, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODD) was isolated from activated cells. (springer.com)
  • Triplelux-A examines immune cells called macrophages from rats to see how they respond to Zymosan. (esa.int)
  • The second group was treated with ip administration of zymosan (500 mg/kg suspended in saline solution). (nih.gov)
  • 1 and 6 hrs after administration of zymosan or saline). (nih.gov)
  • Administration of zymosan in the rat induced acute peritonitis, as assessed by a marked increase in the leukocyte count in the exudate, as well as by an increase in the exudate nitrate/nitrite concentration. (nih.gov)
  • Peritoneal administration of zymosan in the rat also induced a significant increase in the plasma levels of nitrite and nitrate and stable metabolites of nitric oxide and in levels of peroxynitrite, as measured by the oxidation of the fluorescent dihydrorhodamine 123 at 18 hrs after zymosan challenge. (nih.gov)
  • In the study described below, leukocyte infiltration was induced by intraperitoneal administration of Zymosan-A and the responsiveness of this model to the steroid prednisone was measured. (meliordiscovery.com)
  • In vivo administration of zymosan, or purified soluble β-glucans, has a number of desirable effects on immune function, including the ability to confer resistance to tumors and various infections, prompting interest in the development of β-glucan-based therapeutics ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • Methods: Multiple organ failure (MOF) was induced in mice by administration of zymosan (given at 500 mg/kg, i.p. as a suspension in saline). (unime.it)
  • MOF and systemic inflammation in mice was assessed 18 hours after administration of zymosan. (unime.it)
  • Intraperitoneal administration of zymosan, but not LPS or vehicle, caused markedly enhanced peritonitis with massive infiltration of cells and deposition of complement activation products C3b and membrane attack complex on day 5. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Lung and intestine myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in zymosan-treated rats. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated a marked increase in the immunoreactivity to nitrotyrosine, a specific "footprint" of peroxynitrite, in the lung of zymosan-shocked rats. (nih.gov)
  • Pretreatment of zymosan-shocked rats with ip administration of N-acetylcysteine (40, 20, and 10 mg/kg, 1 and 6 hrs after zymosan) prevented the development of peritonitis and reduced peroxynitrite formation in a dose-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • Zymosan-induced neutrophil recruitment was significantly greater (more than two-fold) in bile duct-ligated rats than in sham-ligated or normal animals. (ovid.com)
  • In normal rats, replacement of their peritoneal cells by those from bile duct-ligated rats did not enhance zymosan-induced neutrophil recruitment. (ovid.com)
  • In contrast, bile duct-ligated rats treated with peritoneal cell replacement from normals showed significantly increased neutrophil recruitment after zymosan injection. (ovid.com)
  • We evaluated A. esculentus lectin (AEL) efficacy in reducing zymosan-induced temporomandibular joint inflammatory hypernociception in rats along with the mechanism of action through which it exerts anti-inflammatory activity. (ovid.com)
  • In rats administered zymosan and sacrificed on days 18 or 36, peritoneal inflammation persisted with accumulation of ED-1-positive cells, small deposits of C3b and membrane attack complex, exudation of fibrinogen, and capillary proliferation in subperitoneal tissues. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Inhibition of systemic complement by pretreatment with cobra venom factor or local inhibition by i.p. administration of the recombinant complement regulator Crry-Ig reduced peritoneal inflammation in zymosan-treated rats. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • SD rats were intraperitoneally injected with different concentrations of zymosan suspension . (bvsalud.org)
  • To verify if the protective effect occurs soon after Kupffer cell activation, with different activators, male albino rats were treated with intravenous injection of BCG (0.5 ml with 7.5 10(8) bacilli), Corynebacterium parvum (30 mg/kg) or zymosan (7.5.10(6) yeast cells). (bvsalud.org)
  • Single pre-exposure to a high dose of zymosan enhances lung defense mechanisms and accelerates the pulmonary clearance of a bacterial pathogen in rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Rats received a single dose of zymosan A (0.6, 1.2, or 2.5 mg/kg body weight [bw]) or vehicle control (saline) via intratracheal instillation 3 days prior to intratracheal inoculation with 5 x 10(5) Listeria monocytogenes. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, lower levels of injury and inflammation were associated with the enhanced bacteria clearance observed in zymosan-infected rats. (cdc.gov)
  • It potentiates acute liver damage after galactosamine injection suggesting that certain types of nonparenchymal cells other than Kupffer cells are involved in zymosan action. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) in a model of acute local inflammation (zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP)-induced paw edema), in which the oxyradicals, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, are known to play a crucial role. (nih.gov)
  • The zymosan induced peritonitis model is typically run in an acute setting, performed in a single day with a single administration of test article. (meliordiscovery.com)
  • Here we applied an untargeted metabolomics approach to a sterile and self-resolving animal model of acute inflammation, namely zymosan-induced peritonitis in mice, to examine the effect of inflammation and resolution on the metabolomic profiles. (elsevier.com)
  • In a zymosan-induced acute arthritis model glycine (50 mg/mouse/day) inhibited joint swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and cartilage proteoglycan depletion. (ru.nl)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of the pineal hormone melatonin in a model of acute local inflammation (zymosan-activated plasma-induced paw oedema), in which oxyradicals, nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite are known to play a crucial role in the inflammatory process. (elsevier.com)
  • Intraperitoneal injection of zymosan, a polysaccharide cell wall component derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been widely used as a self-resolving model of acute inflammation that peaks within a few hours and is cleared within 48 to 72 h. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Syrian hamsters were injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), zymosan, or turpentine to mimic acute infection, acute systemic inflammation, and acute localized inflammation, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • Completely different results were obtained for the same species of molluscs after injection of zymosan (La Peyre et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Four days after the intra-articular injection of zymosan (15 mg/ml), Spirulina (100 and 400 mg/kg per-orally) was administered to animals for 8 days. (hindawi.com)
  • Injection of zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP) into the rat paw induced edema formation. (nih.gov)
  • After zymosan or saline injection, animals were monitored for the evaluation of systemic toxicity (conjunctivitis, ruffled fur, diarrhea, and lethargy), loss of body weight, and mortality for 72 hrs. (nih.gov)
  • Simultaneously, MODS was induced by intraperitoneal injection of zymosan (0.25 mg/g). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Depletion of peritoneal cells significantly suppressed neutrophil recruitment after zymosan injection in all three groups, with no significant differences between the groups. (ovid.com)
  • Animals were pre-treated with AEL (0.01, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg) before zymosan (Zy) injection in the TMJ to determine anti-inflammatory activity. (ovid.com)
  • Herein, we investigate the effects of tyrphostin AG-490 on the early inflammation and on the late renal injury provoked by zymosan injection. (msu.ru)
  • METHODS: Shock was induced by intraperitoneal injection of zymosan in a dose of 0.8-1.0 mg/g body weight in BALB/c mice and 0.8 mg/g body weight in SCID mice. (msu.ru)
  • Blood, peritoneal lavage and kidneys were collected at certain time points after zymosan injection. (msu.ru)
  • The intraplantar injection of zymosan-activated plasma elicited an inflammatory response that was characterized by a time-dependent increase in paw oedema, neutrophil infiltration and increased levels of nitrite/nitrate in the paw exudate. (elsevier.com)
  • However, zymosan-activated plasma-induced paw oedema was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with melatonin (given at 62.5 and 125 μg/paw) at 1, 2, 3, 4 h after injection of zymosan-activated plasma. (elsevier.com)
  • At 3 h following injection of zymosan-activated plasma, staining for nitrotyrosine was also found to be localised in the inflamed paw tissue. (elsevier.com)
  • Intraperitoneal injection of zymosan into Adora2a- or Panx1- deficient mice produced high, sustained levels of inflammatory mediators in the peritoneal lavage. (elifesciences.org)
  • Pain was produced by injection of inflammogens zymosan A (0.5 mg/ml) or λ-carrageenan (2%) into genital or nongenital (hind paw, tail, cheek) regions. (jneurosci.org)
  • a ) Experiment timeline and schematic diagram showing intravitreal injection of Zymosan/CPT-cAMP and implantation of gelfoam scaffolds containing ARSB, ChABC, or control buffer. (elifesciences.org)
  • a ) Experiment timeline and schematic diagram showing intravitreal injection of Zymosan/CPT-cAMP or PBS. (elifesciences.org)
  • In PWF, most of metabolites that could detected increased in zymosan-treated mice, which is suggestive of inflammation, oxidative stress and increased energy demands. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, ip administration of N-acetylcysteine (40 mg/kg, 1 and 6 hrs after zymosan) was effective in preventing the development of lung and intestine injury and neutrophil infiltration, as determined by myeloperoxidase evaluation. (nih.gov)
  • Spinal GABA-B receptor modulates neutrophil recruitment to the knee joint in zymosan-induced arthritis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The present study was designed to evaluate the role that central gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA-B) receptor plays in neutrophil migration in a murine model of zymosan-induced arthritis by using different pharmacological tools. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We observed that intrathecal administration of baclofen, a selective GABA-B agonist, exacerbated the inflammatory response in the knee after zymosan administration characterized by an increase in the neutrophil recruitment and knee joint edema, whereas saclofen, a GABA-B antagonist, exerted the opposite effect. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Zymosan (200 mg) was injected intraperitoneally and 4 h later myeloperoxidase activity in the peritoneal fluid was measured to quantify neutrophil recruitment. (ovid.com)
  • Results: Treatment with GW0742 caused a significant reduction of the peritoneal exudate formation and of the neutrophil infiltration caused by zymosan resulting in a reduction in myeloperoxidase activity. (unime.it)
  • Significant and time-dependent changes in metabolite profiles after zymosan administration were observed in both peritoneal wash fluid (PWF) and plasma. (elsevier.com)
  • We have used the zymosan-induced peritonitis model extensively to quantify the recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils into the peritoneal cavity and to study the effects of existing and novel antiinflammatory drugs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we compared the effects of zymosan and bacterial LPS on peritoneal inflammation in a rat peritoneal injury model induced by mechanical scraping. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • When zymosan was administered daily for 5 days after peritoneal scrape, there was even greater peritoneal inflammation with peritoneal thickening, inflammatory cell accumulation, and complement deposition. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The activity is specific in that the eluate from zymosan fails to enhance C3 and B depletion in H gamma S or absorbed NHS by lipopolysaccharide or Sepharose. (jimmunol.org)
  • The anti-inflammatory effect of microalgae Spirulina was studied in zymosan-induced arthritis in mice. (hindawi.com)
  • IL-17RA -/- and control mice were also assessed for mortality in a multiorgan failure sepsis model induced by the fungal component zymosan. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand, the absence of IL-17RA in the knockout mice did not protect the mice against the multiorgan failure induced by zymosan. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, globally NADPH oxidase-deficient mice developed exuberant neutrophilic lung inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine responses to zymosan, a fungal cell wall-derived product composed principally of particulate β-glucans, whereas inflammation in transgenic and wild-type mice was mild and transient. (jimmunol.org)
  • Combination therapy of cyclophosphamide and zymosan on a spontaneous mammary cancer in mice. (jax.org)
  • In pancreas, lung and gut, immunohistochemical analysis of some end points of the inflammatory response, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine, poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR), TNF- and IL-1as well as FasL, Bax, Bcl-2 and apoptosis, revealed positive staining in sections of tissue obtained from zymosan-injected mice. (unime.it)
  • On the contrary, these parameters were markedly reduced in samples obtained from mice treated with GW0742 Conclusions: In this study, we have shown that GW0742 attenuates the degree of zymosan-induced non-septic shock in mice. (unime.it)
  • BALB/c mice were sensitized by pharyngeal aspiration with saline, 50 µg of OVA, or OVA with 1, 10, 50, or 75 µg of zymosan on days 0, 7, and 14. (cdc.gov)
  • This study demonstrated an adjuvant effect of zymosan when exposures occurred during the sensitization phase in an OVA-induced allergy model in BALB/c mice. (cdc.gov)
  • b ) Micrographs showing GAP-43-labeled optic nerves from mice treated with Zymosan/CPT-cAMP and gelfoam scaffolds loaded with ARSB, ChABC, or control buffer. (elifesciences.org)
  • b ) Micrographs showing GAP-43-labeled optic nerves from mice treated with Zymosan or PBS. (elifesciences.org)
  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and the effect of zymosan (ZYM), a component of the yeast cell wall, on oral cancer remains unclear. (researchsquare.com)
  • Adjuvant effect of zymosan after pulmonary treatment in a mouse ovalbumin allergy model. (cdc.gov)
  • The objective was to evaluate the adjuvant effect of zymosan, a crude yeast cell wall preparation of 1-->3-ß-glucan, during ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization in an allergy model. (cdc.gov)
  • An adjuvant effect of zymosan on OVA allergy during sensitization was observed as indicated by significant elevations in lung eosinophils, serum OVA-specific IgE, and lung IL-5 in the groups sensitized with zymosan and OVA. (cdc.gov)
  • We discuss some of the applications and advantages of the zymosan-induced peritonitis model and describe the method for analysis of leukocyte recruitment and inflammatory mediator production in response to zymosan. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Phagocytosis of zymosan by phagocytes is a widely used model of microbial recognition by the innate immune system. (hindawi.com)
  • These data suggest that the activation-inactivation cycles of Rab35 and ARF6 are required for the uptake of zymosan and that ACAP2 is an important component that links Rab35/ARF6 signaling during phagocytosis of zymosan. (hindawi.com)
  • U.S.A. 75:1399-1403, mediates the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. (columbia.edu)
  • The average diameter of zymosan particles has been reported to be about 3 μm, as described on the product information sheet (under Documents, above), with the cited reference. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The ability of zymosan particles to stimulate cells of the reticuloendothelial system was noted almost 50 yr ago ( 1 ) and has led to their wide use in the investigation of many phagocyte responses. (rupress.org)
  • We have developed a no-wash, no-quench assay for phagocytosis using Esherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , or yeast zymosan conjugated to the pHrodo™ Red or Green indicators ( Figure 3 ). (thermofisher.com)
  • This BioParticles® product line consists of a series of fluorescently labeled killed bacteria and yeast (zymosan), offering a variety of sizes, shapes, and natural antigenicities. (thermofisher.com)
  • Zymosan treatment followed by infection led to an accelerated pulmonary clearance of bacteria when compared to the saline control group in a dose-dependent fashion. (cdc.gov)
  • In this experiment, leukocytes will be observed as they ingest a safer stand-in for bacteria called Zymosan, a harmless molecule that triggers similar immune responses. (esa.int)
  • Zymosan is a ligand found on the surface of fungi, like yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of PPAR-beta/delta activation, through the use of GW0742 (0,3 mg/kg 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) i.p), a synthetic high affinity ligand, on the development of zymosan-induced multiple organ failure (MOF). (unime.it)
  • Furthermore, the expression of GDP- or GTP-locked ARF6 mutants also suppresses the uptake of zymosan. (hindawi.com)
  • Addition of exogenous 13-HODD led to increased association/uptake of zymosan with the cells. (springer.com)
  • Information on preparation of zymosan for use in a properdin assay, which includes boiling zymosan suspensions, is described on theproduct information sheet (under Documents, above). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • By our novel pull-down assay for Rab35 activity, we found that Rab35 is deactivated immediately after zymosan internalization into the cells. (hindawi.com)
  • A gel shift assay was used to examine the DNA-binding activity of NFkB in the zymosan A- treated cells. (cdc.gov)
  • CONCLUSION: Tyrphostin AG-490 reduced the magnitude of the initial inflammatory response in zymosan-induced shock and prevented the development of severe kidney dysfunction. (msu.ru)
  • In a zymosan-induced ear-skin inflammation model both components decreased the inflammatory response locally (ear swelling and inflammatory cytokine concentration in the ears) and systemically (number of TNF-alpha producing spleen cells). (ru.nl)
  • In vivo challenge with the yeast cell wall product zymosan rapidly induced IL-17 production in these cells. (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, the yeast wall product zymosan elicited IL-17 production by LTi-like cells in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • I. Human IgG with specificity for Zymosan enhances alternative pathway activation by zymosan. (jimmunol.org)
  • Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the zymosan kda reagents distributed by Genprice. (ecceterra.fr)
  • We additionally used the well-characterized fungal cell wall preparation zymosan as a control, as MSU crystals induce similar inflammatory responses as fungi. (nature.com)
  • Protective effects of poly (ADP-ribose) synthase inhibitors in zymosan-activated plasma induced paw edema. (nih.gov)
  • Exudate formation, leukocyte infiltration, nitrate/nitrite production, lung and intestine myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation, and histologic examination were evaluated at 18 hrs after zymosan administration. (nih.gov)
  • The peritonitis model described in this report utilizes Zymosan-A to induce leukocyte accumulation in the peritoneum. (meliordiscovery.com)
  • Early studies, using carbohydrate inhibitors to block various leukocyte receptors, suggested that the cellular recognition of unopsonized zymosan is mediated by the mannose receptor and a β-glucan receptor ( 6 - 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • A b-LF dose of 5 mg/mouse/day reduced the zymosan-induced joint swelling without modulating inflammatory cell infiltration and cartilage proteoglycan depletion. (ru.nl)
  • In the present study, we evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine treatment in a nonseptic shock model induced by zymosan in the rat. (nih.gov)
  • The present study used zymosan A-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production as a model to explore the signal transduction pathway for B-glucan stimulation in RAW264.7 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The model reveals that biologically active substances such as zymosan, which is able to activate the alternate pathway of complement and mononuclear pagocytes, requires an active immune state in order to cause significant tissue damage. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Zymosan, a yeast cell wall preparation that binds activated forms of complement C3, is a useful model target to activate the complement system. (elsevier.com)
  • Prior to bacterial infection, zymosan exposure resulted in elevated inflammation and oxidant production in the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Pulmonary treatment with zymosan also amplified lung inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • New Zealand white rabbits, previously immunized against yeast-derived zymosan, reacted to intratracheal challenge developing extensive pneumonitis. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Zymosan is a yeast-derived particle composed principally of polysaccharides, of which β-glucan, the active component mediating the cellular effects ( 2 ), and mannan are the major constituents ( 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • Se demostro ademas una alta produccion de IL-6 y TNF-[alpha] (figura 3B-C) cuando se estimulo a los neutrofilos con zimosan sometido a hidrolisis basica, conocido como zymosan depleted(Invivogen, San Diego, EE. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A combination of glycine and lactoferrin demonstrated a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect on zymosan-induced skin inflammation and an enhanced decrease in the number of TNF-alpha producing spleen cells compared to the effect of the single components. (ru.nl)
  • Spirulina significantly reduced the levels of β-glucuronidase that had been increased by zymosan. (hindawi.com)
  • In plasma, most metabolites in the central metabolic pathway (glycolysis and TCA cycle) were significantly downregulated after zymosan administration. (elsevier.com)
  • The role of immunoglobulins in alternative complement pathway activation by zymosan. (jimmunol.org)
  • Zymosan is a cell wall component of yeast that strongly activates the complement system. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Treating serum with zymosan (yeast cell wall preparation) causes complement to cleave, allowing this serum to serve as a source of C5a, a potent chemo-attractant and activator of the immune system. (usda.gov)
  • Zymosan is a β-glucan- and mannan-rich particle that is widely used as a cellular activator for examining the numerous responses effected by phagocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Inhibition of zymosan-induced kidney dysfunction by tyrphostin AG-490. (msu.ru)
  • RESULTS: Tyrphostin AG-490 attenuated the early phase of zymosan-induced shock via inhibition of MIP-1alpha, RANTES and C5a plasma levels and via elevation of IL-10 in plasma. (msu.ru)
  • An acid eluate from the zymosan restores the defect of absorbed NHS and C2D, and also enhances C3 and factor B utilization in hypogammaglobulinemic serum (H gamma S) in a dose-dependent fashion. (jimmunol.org)
  • The PPAR-beta/delta agonist, GW0742, at the dose of 0,3 mg/kg in 10% DMSO, also attenuated the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome caused by zymosan. (unime.it)
  • In nearly all parameters, a non-linear dose-response relationship was observed in the groups primed with OVA and zymosan. (cdc.gov)
  • The optimum adjuvant dose of zymosan was 10 µg. (cdc.gov)
  • Activity of compounds was investigated by looking their influence on oxidative burst activity of zymosan stimulated whole blood phagocytes by using a luminol enhanced chemiluminescence technique. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Removal of the phosphate from this mannan by mild acid and alkaline phosphatase treatment did not appreciably reduce its capacity to inhibit zymosan phagocytosis. (columbia.edu)
  • Mannan is a specific inhibitor of zymosan binding and phagocytosis. (columbia.edu)
  • The drug diminished the production of zymosan-specific IgG antibodies and hindered the glomeruli from IgGs recognition. (msu.ru)
  • At this time point, myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation were markedly increased in the zymosan-activated plasma-treated paw (226±10.2 mU/100 mg wet tissue, 31±2.1 mM/mg wet tissue, respectively). (elsevier.com)
  • Zymosan is prepared from yeast cell wall and consists of protein-carbohydrate complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2003). "Direct binding of Toll-like receptor 2 to zymosan, and zymosan-induced NF-kappa B activation and TNF-alpha secretion are down-regulated by lung collectin surfactant protein A". J. Immunol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In our trial to analyze C3 diversity in Nile tilapia at the protein level using zymosan, we found that a novel 240-kDa serum protein (ZBP-240) also bound to zymosan in addition to C3-derived fragments. (elsevier.com)
  • Effect of trypsin and zymosan on the respiration of cultivated endothelial cells. (springer.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Zymosan-induced shock has been associated with an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators, causing a generalized dysfunction of liver, lung and kidneys. (msu.ru)
  • Elevations were observed in lung neutrophils, TNF-a, and parameters of lung injury in the groups primed with both zymosan and OVA. (cdc.gov)
  • This treatment succeeded in activating both neutrophils and lymphocytes as evidenced by the expression of IFN-g and IL-8 in the cells obtained from the zymosan serum-infused quarters vs. saline infused quarters. (usda.gov)
  • Our hypothesis was that intramammary infusion of zymosan-treated serum (ZTS) would recruit neutrophils and generate prolonged activity in lymphocytes within the mammary gland. (usda.gov)