A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
Inflammation involving the skin of the extremities, especially the hands and feet. Several forms are known, some idiopathic and some hereditary. The infantile form is called Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
Disorders in the processing of iron in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Congenital disorder affecting all bone marrow elements, resulting in ANEMIA; LEUKOPENIA; and THROMBOPENIA, and associated with cardiac, renal, and limb malformations as well as dermal pigmentary changes. Spontaneous CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE is a feature of this disease along with predisposition to LEUKEMIA. There are at least 7 complementation groups in Fanconi anemia: FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, and FANCL. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=227650, August 20, 2004)
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Humoral factors secreted by the thymus gland. They participate in the development of the lymphoid system and the maturation of the cellular immune response.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A salt produced by the reaction of zinc oxide with acetic acid and used as an astringent, styptic, and emetic.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.
A potentially neurotoxic 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative long used as a topical anti-infective, intestinal antiamebic, and vaginal trichomonacide. The oral preparation has been shown to cause subacute myelo-optic neuropathy and has been banned worldwide.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.
Anemia characterized by the presence of erythroblasts containing excessive deposits of iron in the marrow.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The use of very large doses of vitamins or other naturally occurring substances normally present in the body, frequently for the treatment of mental disorders.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy.
A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A condition due to a dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), characterized by malaise, lethargy, and weakness. As the disease progresses, joints, muscles, and subcutaneous tissues may become the sites of hemorrhage. Ascorbic acid deficiency frequently develops into SCURVY in young children fed unsupplemented cow's milk exclusively during their first year. It develops also commonly in chronic alcoholism. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1177)
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Persistence of the nuclei of the keratinocytes into the stratum corneum of the skin. This is a normal state only in the epithelium of true mucous membranes in the mouth and vagina. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
A recurrent eczematous reaction characterized by the development of vesicular eruptions on the palms and soles, particularly along the sides and between the digits. It is accompanied by pruritus, a burning sensation, and hyperhidrosis. The disease is self-limiting, lasting only a few weeks. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
A preparation of hog pancreatic enzymes standardized for lipase content.
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.
Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
Pathological processes of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which contains the essential apparatus of hearing (COCHLEA) and balance (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS).
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A thymus-dependent nonapeptide found in normal blood. Stimulates the formation of E rosettes and is believed to be involved in T-cell differentiation.
A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
The consumption of edible substances.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.
Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its modern counterpart is PHLEBOTOMY.
A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
A type of irritant dermatitis localized to the area in contact with a diaper and occurring most often as a reaction to prolonged contact with urine, feces, or retained soap or detergent.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
An absence or deficiency in PROTEIN C which leads to impaired regulation of blood coagulation. It is associated with an increased risk of severe or premature thrombosis. (Stedman's Med. Dict., 26th ed.)
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Any inflammation of the skin.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
IFA Tablets-Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is most ignored in developing countries and is the major cause of anemia. The Iron ... The Nutriset product has been tested in Indian fields and clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of zinc supplementation ... Zinc Dispersible Tablet-The dispersible zinc tablet, BIBZinC-20 mg contains 20 mg of elemental zinc as active ingredient and ... are a crucial component for treatment of iron deficiency and IDA. U. C. Chaturvedi Company Profile. Department of Biotechnology ...
Deficiency or excess of essential minerals (e.g. iron, zinc, copper, and magnesium) can disrupt brain development and ... Oral iron supplementation for preventing or treating anaemia among children in malaria‐endemic areas". Evidence-Based Child ... A deficiency in folate may produce anemia similar to the anemia resulting from B12 deficiency. There is risk that folic acid ... "zinc deficiency". GPnotebook. Prasad AS (2003). "Zinc deficiency : Has been known of for 40 years but ignored by global health ...
Stein J, Hartmann F, Dignass AU (November 2010). "Diagnosis and management of iron deficiency anemia in patients with IBD". ... Deficiencies of B vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, essential fatty acids, and key minerals such as magnesium, zinc, and selenium ... Dietary fiber interventions, such as psyillium supplementation (a mixture of soluble and insoluble fibers), may relieve ... "Low hepcidin accounts for the proinflammatory status associated with iron deficiency". Blood. 118 (3): 736-46. doi:10.1182/ ...
This deficiency in the patient's iron levels may have led to the increase Pica activity. The patient was then given iron ... Iron replacement is essential in menstruating females, and supplementation of iron and calcium is preferable in all patients. ... and deficiencies can result in pernicious anemia and neuropathies. Vitamin B12 deficiency is quite common after gastric bypass ... Signs and symptoms of zinc deficiency may also occur such as: acne, eczema, white spots on the nails, hair loss, depression, ...
Impairment in these copper dependent enzymes that transport iron may cause the secondary iron deficiency anemia. Another ... Copper deficiency can be treated with either oral copper supplementation or intravenous copper. If zinc intoxication is present ... The anemia caused by copper deficiency is thought to be caused by impaired iron transport. Hephaestin is a copper containing ... It is rarely suggested that excess iron supplementation causes copper deficiency myelopathy. Another rarer cause of copper ...
According to the Cochrane review conclusions iron supplementation reduces the risk of maternal anaemia and iron deficiency in ... Zinc supplements have reduced preterm births by around 14% mainly in low income countries where zinc deficiency is common.[ ... Women having serum ferritin less than 70 µg/L may need iron supplements to prevent iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy and ... "Body iron and individual iron prophylaxis in pregnancy--should the iron dose be adjusted according to serum ferritin?". Ann. ...
Iron-deficiency anemia is found as often in non-vegetarians as in vegetarians, and vegetarians' iron stores are lower. Due to ... as they inhibit the absorption of iron. Iron and the zinc levels of vegans may be of concern because of the limited ... and other sources of iron) together with sources of Vitamin C. Iron supplementation should be taken at different times to other ... "Iron deficiency-adults". High-risk groups such as vegetarians, adolescent girls and women athletes need to eat iron-rich foods ...
"Preventing and Controlling Iron Defiency Anaemia Through Primary Health Care" (PDF). The World Health Organization. 1990. ... Added minerals are phosphore, calcium, iron, and zinc. SIF also contains soy-isolate that supplies 95% of protein. ... Indications for the use of soy-based infant formula are galactosaemia and lactase deficiency. When a child develops an allergy ... By late 1800s and the early 1900s, supplementation of breastfeeding with formula was acceptable. Soy-based formula was used as ...
... zinc supplementation as a treatment for diarrhoeal disease, iron and folate supplementation for women of child-bearing age, ... "Fortification of maize flour with iron for controlling anaemia and iron deficiency in populations". Cochrane Database of ... suggesting that the zinc fertilizer strategy is a promising approach to address zinc deficiencies in humans. Where zinc ... DFS has also been used to combat Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) in the Indian state of Bihar. In September 2010, Venkatesh Mannar ...
Supplemental zinc can prevent iron absorption, leading to iron deficiency and possible peripheral neuropathy, with loss of ... Fiske, D.N. (1994). "Zinc-induced sideroblastic anemia: report of a case, review of the literature, and description of the ... "Zinc involvement in opioid addiction and analgesia - should zinc supplementation be recommended for opioid-treated persons?". ... Zinc deficiency. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f Fosmire GJ (February 1990). "Zinc toxicity". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51 (2): 225-7 ...
... iodine deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and iron deficiency anaemia.[126] no data ... zinc supplementation is recommended. Daily zinc increases the chances of reducing the severity and duration of the diarrhea, ... Other nutritional deficiencies, which include iodine deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, result in another 83,000 deaths.[11 ... Other nutritional deficiencies, which include iodine deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, result in another 84,000 deaths.[ ...
Deficiencies of various micronutrients, including vitamin A, zinc, and iron are common in low and middle-income countries and ... WHO estimated that biofortification could help curing the 2 billion people suffering from iron deficiency-induced anemia. ... as opposed to supplementation which is comparatively expensive and requires continued financing over time, which may be ... Bread wheat with high grain iron and zinc has been developed through radiation breeding. This method is prevalent at present, ...
DeficiencyEdit. Main article: Zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency is usually due to insufficient dietary intake, but can be ... Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium ... The zinc content of some coins can cause zinc toxicity, commonly fatal in dogs through severe hemolytic anemia and liver or ... "Zinc supplementation of young men alters metallothionein, zinc transporter, and cytokine gene expression in leukocyte ...
... deficiency more than those who ate meat.[16][17][18][19] However, while one study agreed that iron-deficiency anemia is not ... ZincEdit. Further information: Zinc deficiency. A 2013 review found that zinc intake and serum zinc concentrations were ... or with pure B12 had a higher B12 content than those grown without this supplementation.[10] There is a patent for cultivating ... IronEdit. Main article: iron deficiency. In several studies, vegetarians were not found to suffer from iron (Fe) ...
... anemias (iron deficiency anemia and macrocytic anemia), rickets, night blindness, impaired cognitive functioning, neuromuscular ... Six micronutrients are richly found in ASF: vitamin A, vitamin B12, riboflavin (also called vitamin B2), calcium, iron and zinc ... but Increased plasma vitamin B12 is the only detectable micronutrient response to meat or milk supplementation. J. Nutr. 133. ... such as impaired cognitive development from an iron deficiency, are irreversible.[citation needed] Micronutrient deficiency is ...
Mild to moderate iron-deficiency anemia is treated by oral iron supplementation with ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, or ... In dogs after ingestion of zinc, for example, after eating U.S. pennies minted after 1982. In horses which eat dry or wilted ... Iron-deficiency anemia affects nearly 1 billion people. In 2013, anemia due to iron deficiency resulted in about 183,000 deaths ... one-third of them have iron deficiency with anemia. Iron deficiency due to inadequate dietary iron intake is rare in men and ...
"Routine Iron Supplementation and Screening for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review to Update the U.S ... may also require supplementation.[88][89][90] Vitamin E supplementation has not been shown to improve birth outcomes.[91] Zinc ... Daily iron supplementation reduces the risk of maternal anemia.[93] Studies of routine daily iron supplementation for all ... Miscarriage, high blood pressure of pregnancy, gestational diabetes, iron-deficiency anemia, severe nausea and vomiting[2][3]. ...
Individuals with glucose-6-phosphate deficiency may be at increased risk of hematologic effects of copper. Hemolytic anemia ... Chronically elevated levels of copper intake produces zinc deficiency.[not in citation given] Nutritionally, there is a ... Accessed March 11, 2011 "Comparison of the effect of α-lipoic acid and α-tocopherol supplementation on measures of oxidative ... In addition, it includes poisoning and toxic effects of other metals including tin, selenium nickel, iron, heavy metals, ...
A deficiency may cause megaloblastic anaemia and neurological damage, and, if untreated, may lead to death. The high content of ... iron, and zinc. These nutrients are available in plant foods, with the exception of vitamin B12, which can be obtained only ... Vitamin B12 supplementation is important because its deficiency causes blood disorders and potentially irreversible ... zinc, and vitamin B12. A poorly-planned vegan diet may lead to nutritional deficiencies that nullify any beneficial effects and ...
"Zinc metabolism in patients with the syndrome of iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, dwarfism, and hypognadism". The ... Evidence suggests that zinc deficiency could play a role in depression. Zinc supplementation may be an effective treatment in ... Zinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal ... Zinc deficiency affects about 2.2 billion people around the world. Severe zinc deficiency is rare, and is mainly seen in ...
... and has been associated with iron-deficiency anemia, and shown to respond to iron supplementation, leading some investigators ... such as low iron or zinc. Some forms of pica (as in pregnant women who are iron deficient) can be treated by supplementing the ... Hadjadj ML, Martin F, Fichet D (May-Jun 1990). "Anemia caused by iron deficiency and pagophagia. Apropos of a case". Rev Méd ... Osman YM, Wali YA, Osman OM (March 2005). "Craving for ice and iron-deficiency anemia: a case series from Oman". Pediatr ...
In this setting, microcytic anaemia usually implies iron deficiency and macrocytosis can be caused by impaired folic acid or ... Use of enteral nutrition by naso-gastric or other feeding tubes may be able to provide sufficient nutritional supplementation. ... Specific vitamins like vitamin D or micro nutrient like zinc levels can be checked. Fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) are ... Tests are also needed to detect the systemic effects of deficiency of the malabsorbed nutrients (such as anaemia with vitamin ...
"Routine Iron Supplementation and Screening for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review to Update the U.S ... In a Cochrane review updated in 2021 there was insufficient evidence to support zinc supplementation to improve maternal or ... Daily iron supplementation reduces the risk of maternal anemia. Studies of routine daily iron supplementation for pregnant ... Complications of pregnancy may include disorders of high blood pressure, gestational diabetes, iron-deficiency anemia, and ...
... zinc acetate, or zinc gluconate. Generally, zinc supplement is recommended where there is high risk of zinc deficiency (such as ... such as iron and manganese. A condition called the zinc shakes or "zinc chills" can be induced by inhalation of zinc fumes ... The zinc content of some coins can cause zinc toxicity, commonly fatal in dogs through severe hemolytic anemia and liver or ... Aydemir, T. B.; Blanchard, R. K.; Cousins, R. J. (2006). "Zinc supplementation of young men alters metallothionein, zinc ...
Programs addressing micro-nutrient deficiencies, such as those aimed at anemia, have attempted to provide iron supplementation ... deficiencies in iodine, iron, and zinc among others are said[by whom?] to impair human health when these minerals are not ... Iron deficiency anemia: assessment, prevention, and control. A guide for program managers. Geneva, WHO, 2001[page needed] ... WHO (2001). Iron deficiency anemia: Assessment, prevention, and control. A guide for program managers. Geneva, World Health ...
Other nutritional deficiencies, which include iodine deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, result in another 84,000 deaths. In ... zinc supplementation is recommended. Daily zinc increases the chances of reducing the severity and duration of the diarrhea, ... Other nutritional deficiencies, which include iodine deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, resulted in another 83,000 deaths. ... iron deficiency or zinc deficiency can also increase risk of death. Overnutrition caused by overeating is also a form of ...
... with β-thalassemia trait should be warned that their condition can be misdiagnosed as the more common iron deficiency anemia. ... There is no evidence from randomized controlled trial to support zinc supplementation in thalassemia. Bone marrow ... They should avoid routine use of iron supplements; iron deficiency can develop, though, during pregnancy or from chronic ... Iron overload: People with thalassemia can get an overload of iron in their bodies, either from the disease itself or from ...
... pregnant women prescribed iron supplements to treat anemia or zinc supplements to treat colds should consult physicians to be ... Toxicity from copper deficiency can be treated with a balanced diet or supplementation under the supervision of a doctor. On ... anemia patients who are treated with iron supplements, 5) anyone taking zinc supplements, and 6) those suffering from ... High intakes of zinc can significantly decrease copper absorption. Extreme intakes of Vitamin C or iron can also affect copper ...
Iron (60 parts per million), Zinc (43 parts per million) and, Copper (7 parts per million). In addition, peas are a rich source ... This can help increase dietary folate levels which is beneficial for people with anaemia and neural tube defects. It also ... The nutritional qualities contained in pea proteins can be used to supplement people with certain deficiencies, or people ... One study, involving a 12 week experiment on protein supplementation before and after resistance training, found that the ...
Effects of Zinc Sulfate Supplementation in Treatment of Iron Defi ciency Anemia. Meltem G l an1, Bar Malbora2, Zekai Avc 3, Nil ... Effects of Zinc Sulfate Supplementation in Treatment of Iron Defi ciency Anemia. Turk J Hematol. 2013; 30(2): 144-152. ... of zinc sulphate on growth and serum iron variables when it is given with ferrous sulphate in iron deficiency anemia (IDA).. ... Keywords: Iron deficiency anemia, Treatment, Ferrous sulfate, Zinc sulfate. Demir Eksikli i Anemisi Tedavisinde inko S lfat ...
Vitamin A Deficiency/epidemiology , Zinc/deficiency , Age Factors , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology ... Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in ... At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc ... zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc ...
Zinc deficiency is insufficient zinc caused by the malabsorption of zinc by the body. Zinc helps in cell division, clotting, ... Treatment is by taking zinc supplements and zinc rich food. ... RBC synthesis Diagnosis is from decreased levels of plasma zinc ... This book describes the Zinc Deficiency, Treatment and Associated Diseases. ... g. Mild anemia.. Treatment of Zinc Deficiency is based on both treatment of any underlying cause and zinc supplementation. ...
... has participated in a study which has discovered a group of stars very poor in metals and shrouded in a high fraction of iron ... Related Iron Articles:. Tackling iron and zinc deficiencies with better bread. The health effects of zinc and iron ... ferrous sulfate and iron polysaccharide complex, for the treatment of nutritional iron-deficiency anemia in infants and ... Imprecise iron supplementation can spur increase in Salmonella. Individuals who do not produce enough iron are anemic, and ...
... zinc deficiency, and iron deficiency (which is usually called anemia). All these deficiencies can be resolved through ... supplementation programs; in a number of Asian countries, they remain a public health risk (Source: WHO, UNICEF, and Food and ... Deficiency of Iron Consumption and Anemia. Anemia is a condition characterized by a lack of hemoglobin (iron-bearing molecules ... Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Adolescent Girls in a Tertiary Care Hospital. J Clin Diagn Res. ...
Micronutrient deficiencies were common with zinc and vitamin B-12 deficiency being most prevalent. Anemia was present in ... 30 mg iron and folic acid (Fe30F). Micronutrients (hemoglobin, iron, zinc, folic acid, vitamin B-12) were assessed in pregnancy ... Pregnancy, micronutrient deficiency, anemia, birth size, food supplementation, micronutrient supplementation, metabolic status ... 60 mg iron and 400 µg folic acid (Fe60F), 2) multiple micronutrients including 30 mg iron and folic acid (MMS), or 3) ...
Behavior of infants with iron-deficiency anemia. Child Dev. 1998;69 :24- 36. ... To examine whether relationships were altered by zinc supplementation, we introduced zinc and 2 interactions (zinc by birth ... they are at risk for zinc deficiency.. Zinc supplementation trials among nutritionally deficient infants have demonstrated ... zinc supplementation, or the interaction between zinc supplementation and birth weight (Table 5). ...
Supplementation of iron in iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) has several side effects including alterations of serum zinc level. ... It can be concluded that oral iron supplementation causes decrease in serum zinc level in IDA with pregnancy. Amloki shows no ... Emblicaofficinalis (amloki) is traditionally used to treat iron deficiency anaemia. It can increase haemoglobin concentration ... were with only iron supplementation for 45 days. Serum zinc level was estimated in the laboratory of the Department of Soil, ...
Iron-deficiency anemia blunts and iron supplementation improves the efficacy of iodine supplementation. Combined selenium and ... Vitamin E in amounts like 800-1000 IU per day can cause iron deficiency (causing ear aches). Dont take more zinc than iron, ... and zinc. Coexisting deficiencies of these elements can impair thyroid function. Iron deficiency impairs thyroid hormone ... The impact of iron and selenium deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: biochemistry and relevance to public health.. ...
Anemia (mild) is common after RYGB (15%-20%) and iron deficiency ranges from 17% to 50%; the etiology is believed to be ... In one study, preoperative deficiencies were common: vitamin A (11%), vitamin B12 (13%), vitamin D (40%), zinc (30%), iron (16 ... iron, and calcium supplementation, such deficits can be prevented or corrected (55). A decrease in bone mineral density (14% in ... in nature including reduced iron and vitamin B12 absorption as well as a high rate of preexisting iron deficiency anemia in ...
High zinc intakes may inhibit copper absorption, potentially causing copper deficiency and associated anemia. Patients ... Zinc may interact with other minerals or medications. Large doses of iron can decrease zinc absorption. ... Effects of zinc supplementation on parent and teacher behaviour rating scores in low socioeconomic level Turkish primary school ... Supplements may improve ADHD symptoms in children who have zinc or marginal zinc deficiency; they may be used as adjunct ...
inadequate iron intake causes inadequate iron status and hemoglobin production, which in turn leads to iron deficiency anemia ... In pregnant women, moderate to severe deficiencies of iron, zinc and folic acid has been shown to increase risk of low birth ... Observations from various iron studies have emphasized the beneficial role of iron supplementation in pregnancy. Supplemental ... 2. Seshadri S (2001), Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency particularly of iron, zinc, and folic acid in pregnant women in ...
... negative consequences of iron-deficiency anemia , iron supplementation is recommended for vulnerable groups in the United ... Iron and zinc support immune function, while chromium and zinc aid insulin action. Zinc is also essential for many other bodily ... Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide, including in the United States. Iron-deficiency anemia ... Mild zinc deficiency has been found in vulnerable groups in the United States. Copper deficiency is rare, but can be caused by ...
Effects of Zinc Sulfate Supplementation in Treatment of Iron Defi ciency Anemia. Meltem G l an, Bar Malbora, Zekai Avc , Nil ... of zinc sulphate on growth and serum iron variables when it is given with ferrous sulphate in iron deficiency anemia (IDA).. ... in the treatment of IDA zinc together with iron should be used at different times if there is coexistent zinc deficiency. ... in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and to compare it with other conventional iron parameters.. METHODS: A total ...
Also of interest are zinc and effects of iron deficiency anemia.. Research questions include but are not limited to:. *What are ... Does maternal dietary supplementation of choline, omega-3 fatty acids, folate, or other nutrients impact risk of FASD? ... What is the role of dietary factors such as SAMe, betaine, folate, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin E, in the development or ... Folate affects brain embryogenesis and its deficiency has been associated with pre-term delivery, low birth weight and neural ...
Also of interest are zinc and effects of iron deficiency anemia.. Research questions include but are not limited to:. * What ... Does maternal dietary supplementation of choline, omega-3 fatty acids, folate, or other nutrients impact risk of FASD? ... Folate affects brain embryogenesis and its deficiency has been associated with pre-term delivery, low birth weight and neural ... On the other hand, research in humans and animals suggests that chronic alcohol intake may result in vitamin deficiencies, ...
The serum concentrations of copper, zinc, selenium, and iron were measured in the two groups. Clinical manifestations and the ... The copper deficiency was successfully treated in all of these patients by supplementation with 10-40 g of cocoa powder a day ... Severe copper deficiency was observed in 6 patients of the PEJ group and was accompanied with neutropenia and anemia. ... Prolonged PEJ tube nutrition tends to result in copper deficiency, and cocoa supplementation is effective for treating such ...
Efficacy of iron supplementation may be misinterpreted using conventional measures of iron status in iron-depleted, nonanemic ... iron deficiency remains the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Many interventions that aim to improve iron ... Efficacy of combined iron and zinc supplementation on micronutrient status and growth in Vietnamese infants. Berger, J.; Ninh, ... Zinc: dietary intake and impact of supplementation on immune function in elderly. Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Romeo, Javier; ...
What is Copper deficiency? Meaning of Copper deficiency as a legal term. What does Copper deficiency mean in law? ... Definition of Copper deficiency in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Trace element status (iron, zinc, copper, chromium, cobalt, and nickel) in iron-deficiency anaemia of children under 3 years ... Effects of Copper and Selenium supplementation on performance and lipid metabolism in confined Brangus bulls ...
... and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are nonspecific, including ... Zinc is an effective treatment for Wilson disease. Current data do not support zinc supplementation as effective for upper ... In developing countries, zinc supplementation may be effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infection and diarrhea, ... Zinc is well tolerated at recommended dosages. Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, ...
... iron deficiency anemia, iodine deficiency disorders, dental caries, zinc deficiency., rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, ... food fortification and supplementation, guidelines (nutrient goals, food-based dietary guidelines, food guides), national plan ... vitamin deficiencies, folic acid deficiency, nutrition of workers and elderly, management of nutrition in disasters, ... Nutritional anemias, arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, eating disorders, food allergies, human ...
Counseling about exercise, obesity, nutritional deficiencies, and the overuse of vitamins A and D is beneficial. Physicians may ... strict vegans may have deficiencies in amino acids, zinc, calcium, iron, and vitamins D and B12.11 Such patients may need to be ... Work-up should include evaluation for anemia and possibly a psychiatric evaluation. If the patient cannot stop the behavior, ... referred to a nutritionist who can recommend proper food selection and supplementation. Milk intolerance is particularly common ...
... convulsiones y anemias y el entumecimiento causado por un medicamento llamado isoniazida. ... Treatment for iron deficiency anaemia with a combined supplementation of iron, vitamin A and zinc in women of Dinajpur, ... Mao, X. and Yao, G. Effect of vitamin C supplementations on iron deficiency anemia in Chinese children. Biomed.Environ Sci. ... Reinken, L. and Kurz, R. [The treatment of anemia due to iron-deficiency with iron combined with vitamins (authors transl)]. ...
... some seizures and anemias, and numbness from a drug called isoniazid. ... Treatment for iron deficiency anaemia with a combined supplementation of iron, vitamin A and zinc in women of Dinajpur, ... Mao, X. and Yao, G. Effect of vitamin C supplementations on iron deficiency anemia in Chinese children. Biomed.Environ Sci. ... Reinken, L. and Kurz, R. [The treatment of anemia due to iron-deficiency with iron combined with vitamins (authors transl)]. ...
Anemia: Hematinic supplements (Iron, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid) - Specific deficiencies of vitamins, minerals and trace elements ... Oral supplementation (Fat soluble vitamins, calcium, magnesium, zinc, etc.) - Temporary lactose restriction for patients with ... secondary lactase deficiency - High-protein, low-fat diet - Medium-chain triglycerides preferred as fat substitutes - Avoid ...
In many areas where iron-deficiency anaemia is severe, supplementation is not sufficient to meet the high iron requirements of ... Low intake of food from animal sources also results in deficiencies in zinc, calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin A. Some of these ... Anaemia is the most widely recognized consequence of iron deficiency. Severe anaemia can cause death in young children and ... Iron Deficiency***. 1. Brief description of the condition/disease. Iron is critical to the formation of haemoglobin in red ...
... zinc or magnesium. Depression has also been associated with Iron deficiency anemia and tends to takes months to resolve even ... Some people find that vitamin C supplementation can improve their mood. Vitamin C is used in the production of norepinephrine, ... Health: Recent research done with piglets suggests that iron deficiency early in life may have long-lasting consequences for ... Stress also depletes the body of zinc, magnesium, vitamin C and many B vitamins. Depression may be one of the earliest signs of ...
Zinc supplementation alters thyroid hormone metabolism in disabled patients with zinc deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994 Feb;13(1 ... Iron deficiency anemia reduces thyroid peroxidase activity in rats. J Nutr. 2002 Jul;132(7):1951-5. ... Iron. The production of thyroid hormone relies upon the iron-dependent enzyme thyroid peroxidase (TPO).[33] Iron deficiency ... Effect of iron repletion and correction of iron deficiency on thyroid function in iron-deficient Iranian adolescent girls. Pak ...
Research health effects, dosing, sources, deficiency symptoms, side effects, and interactions here. ... Interactions with iron and copper. Iron-deficiency anemia is a serious world-wide public health problem. Iron fortification ... Zinc deficiency also affects approximately 60%-70% of adults with sickle cell disease [47]. Zinc supplementation has been shown ... Groups at Risk of Zinc Inadequacy. In North America, overt zinc deficiency is uncommon [2]. When zinc deficiency does occur, it ...
Iron deficiency remains the most common known cause of anemia in addition to being the most common known nutritional deficiency ... nutritional deficiencies can develop. The most common deficiencies are vitamin B12, folate, zinc, iron, copper, calcium, and ... even with multivitamin supplementation, as many as 50% of patients had iron deficiency, while nearly 30% had cobalamin ... Copper deficiencies may accompany iron deficiencies. Individuals with copper deficiency may develop progressive difficulty ...
  • Iron is a critical nutrient in the ocean. (brightsurf.com)
  • Nutrient 'zinc' is a relevant micronutrient involved in. (ebscohost.com)
  • Iron is an essential nutrient in humans, and deficiency is associated with numerous haematological and non-haematological manifestations. (bmj.com)
  • In literature is the lack of studies with high evidence levels on SG reporting long term follow up data, results on reoperation rate or long term complication rate for surgical complications as well as nutrient deficiencies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A balanced diet is important for adequate nutrition to address common nutrient deficiencies among pregnant women that include iodine, iron, vitamin A and zinc. (who.int)
  • Metal detoxification agents can significantly increase the excretion of specific nutrient elements such as zinc, copper, manganese, and molybdenum. (drbuttar.com)
  • Patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) tend to be a vulnerable population when it comes to developing nutrient deficiencies. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • There's no consensus on how many of the estimated 33,000 PN patients have experienced nutrient deficiencies. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • Data from the registry confirm the thought that the majority of PN patients suffer significant gastrointestinal (GI) disorders with 76% of the enrollees having short bowel, GI obstruction, GI fistulas, or motility disorders,3 which are associated with fluid losses that contribute to nutrient deficiencies. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • This article discusses these and other causes of nutrient deficiencies, the common nutrient shortfalls in PN patients, and strategies for treatment and management. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • Despite continued advances in health care, questions continue to arise about how and why nutrient deficiencies in the PN population occur. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • GI losses and malabsorption in the PN patient population help contribute to nutrient deficiencies, according to Robert J. Shulman, MD, a professor of pediatric nutrition at Baylor College of Medicine, and director of the Center for Pediatric Abdominal Pain Research at Texas Children's Hospital. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • Todd Canada, PharmD, BCNSP, FASHP, clinical pharmacy service manager at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, says, "Nutrient deficiencies are quite common, especially with the current drug shortages. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • As a result of the shortages, dietitians have had to make difficult decisions about whether or not to include additives in PN care, and develop other remedies to help prevent nutrient deficiencies. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • When taken with selenium , (another nutrient that has been proven to be beneficial for those with Hashimoto's), zinc has been shown to improve thyroid function. (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • 13. Wynn A, Wynn M. Magnesium and other nutrient deficiencies as possible causes of hypertension and low birthweight. (evitamins.com)
  • Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for children's normal growth and resistance to infections, including diarrhea and pneumonia, two major causes of child mortality. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Preventive zinc supplements can be delivered either as a single nutrient (zinc) supplement or as a multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplement, such as micronutrient powders (MNP) added to young children's complementary food. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Thus, despite the beneficial effects of MNP on prevention of anemia and enhancing iron status, questions have been raised about the desirability of providing zinc in MNP (containing iron and other nutrients) versus a single nutrient formulation offered between meals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Zinc is an essential nutrient for humans and is extensively involved in protein, lipid, nucleic acid metabolism, and gene transcription. (statpearls.com)
  • 2 In their study looking at 137 countries, the researchers incorporated estimates of climate change, crop nutrient concentrations, dietary patterns and disease risk into a model of iron and zinc deficiency. (ajmc.com)
  • An adequate nutrient supply, including calcium, copper, choline, iron, folic acid, iodine, and vitamins during pregnancy and lactation and in complementary feeding will have an effect on brain development and/or function. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Drawing on a conceptual framework informed by animal models, we highlight neural plasticity, epigenetics, material deprivation (eg, cognitive stimulation, nutrient deficiencies), stress (eg, negative parenting behaviors), and environmental toxins as factors that may shape the developing brain. (aappublications.org)
  • Nutrition researchers called on greater micronutrient programmes to tackle iron, vitamin A, iodine, zinc and vitamin B12 other nutrient deficiencies with greater milk and baked good fortification seen as attractive matrixes. (nutraingredients.com)
  • For example, the presence of a large amount of zinc in the diet decreases the absorption of iron and copper. (faqs.org)
  • High zinc intakes may inhibit copper absorption, potentially causing copper deficiency and associated anemia. (pharmacist.com)
  • Patients ingesting large amounts of zinc should also receive copper supplementation. (pharmacist.com)
  • Predominant copper deficiency during prolonged enteral nutrition through a jejunostomy tube compared to that through a gastrostomy tube. (nih.gov)
  • The serum concentrations of copper, zinc, selenium, and iron were measured in the two groups. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical manifestations and the effectiveness of supplementation therapy against copper deficiency were also investigated. (nih.gov)
  • Severe copper deficiency was observed in 6 patients of the PEJ group and was accompanied with neutropenia and anemia. (nih.gov)
  • The copper deficiency was successfully treated in all of these patients by supplementation with 10-40 g of cocoa powder a day which was equivalent to a total daily dose of 1.36-2.56 mg of copper. (nih.gov)
  • Prolonged PEJ tube nutrition tends to result in copper deficiency, and cocoa supplementation is effective for treating such copper deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • We report a case of zinc-induced copper deficiency in a young adult to illustrate. (ebscohost.com)
  • consequently, copper deficiency causes an ineffective erythropoiesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1992) showed that copper deficiency causes hypercholesteromy because of the increase in hepatic GSH with an increase in HMG-CoA reductase activity, which is the main enzyme that regulates the synthesis of cholesterol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, imbalance of erythrocyte and serum copper was observed in II group of children with IDA with significant increase of its concentration in the blood serum, but copper deficiency in red blood cells (Table 2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The patient was diagnosed with copper deficiency myeloneuropathy due to zinc toxicity from his denture adhesive. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Copper deficiency results in anemia and congenital inability to excrete copper resulting in Wilson's disease (Gupta, 1975). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The studies reveal that there is no correlation between the copper deficiency and the physical exercise taken (M. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Indications of copper deficiency in a subpopulation of Alaskan moose. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The influence of experimentally induced copper deficiency on the fertility of rams. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Forages growing on alkali ground may also be low in copper and zinc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Associations between copper deficiency and impaired brain function were noted nearly 75 years ago. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, anemia, copper deficiency, and possible genitourinary complications. (aafp.org)
  • Copper deficiency needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of anemia and/or neutropenia in individuals with suspected copper deficiency. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • For example, excess intake of zinc or molybdenum can result in copper deficiency and, although essential, excess retention of manganese can have serious neurotoxic effects. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • Copper deficiency can cause hematological abnormalities with or without neurological complications. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite oral supplementation and normal serum concentrations of iron, copper, folate, and vitamin B12, some patients present with persistent anemia after surgery. (hindawi.com)
  • Bertinato J, Iskandar M, L'Abbe RM (2003) Copper deficiency induces the upragulation of the copper chaperone for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in weaning male rats. (springer.com)
  • Examples of expanded topics in this update include: the roles of sleeve gastrectomy, bariatric surgery in patients with type-2 diabetes, bariatric surgery for patients with mild obesity, copper deficiency, informed consent, and behavioral issues. (asmbs.org)
  • Copper is a component of multiple enzymes, is involved with the regulation of gene expression, mitochondrial function/cellular metabolism, connective tissue formation, as well as the absorption, storage, and metabolism of iron. (westerlynaturalmarket.com)
  • Copper deficiency can occur in infants fed only cow-milk formulas (which are relatively low in copper content), premature/low-birth weight infants, infants with prolonged diarrhea or malnutrition, individuals with malabsorption syndromes (including celiac disease, sprue, or short bowel syndrome), cystic fibrosis, in the elderly, or those receiving intravenous total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or other restrictive diets. (westerlynaturalmarket.com)
  • Such individuals may require supplementation with copper (and other trace elements). (westerlynaturalmarket.com)
  • Severe copper deficiency may retard growth. (westerlynaturalmarket.com)
  • Severe copper deficiency appears to have adverse effects on immune function, although the exact mechanism is not clear. (westerlynaturalmarket.com)
  • Copper deficiency may occur with marasmus, and supplementation with copper may play a role in the nutritional treatment of infants with this condition. (westerlynaturalmarket.com)
  • Deficiency or excess of essential minerals (e.g. iron, zinc, copper, and magnesium) can disrupt brain development and neurophysiology to affect behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is important to consider copper intake relative to zinc supplementation because excess zinc can disrupt copper absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olivares M, Pizarro F, Araya M. Importancia del cobre en la nutrición infantil (Copper importance in infantile nutrition). (inta.cl)
  • Araya M, Olivares M, Pizarro F. Efectos agudos del cobre en el ser humano (Acute effects of copper in human being). (inta.cl)
  • It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper) and an increase in heavy metals as lead. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The concentrations of zinc, copper, and lead were measured. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High amounts of zinc in the diet reduces copper amounts. (empoweringvitality.com.au)
  • And a copper deficiency is associated with anaemia that is unresponsive to iron supplementation. (empoweringvitality.com.au)
  • As well as transporting copper to the liver, caeruloplasmin catalyses the oxidation of iron (Fe) (II) to Fe (III). (empoweringvitality.com.au)
  • Lysyl oxidase is required for the cross linking of elastin and its inability to perform (due to copper deficiency) results in arterial rupture. (empoweringvitality.com.au)
  • The inherent gastrointestinal problems, liver disease, kidney diseases, and certain other conditions and drugs can prevent zinc absorption by the body causing a zinc deficiency. (smashwords.com)
  • Iron absorption occurs in the small intesting. (dadamo.com)
  • For example, vitamin C improves iron absorption, and vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium. (faqs.org)
  • Large doses of iron can decrease zinc absorption. (pharmacist.com)
  • Phytates-which are present in whole-grain breads, cereals, legumes, and other foods-bind zinc and inhibit its absorption [ 2 , 12 , 13 ]. (nih.gov)
  • 5 For example, because bariatric surgery often involves gut manipulation that alters the natural absorption of nutrients, nutritional deficiencies can develop. (jaoa.org)
  • Bariatric patients are at an increased risk of developing vitamin B 12 deficiency because their digestive tracts have been altered in such a way as to interfere with the natural absorption of this vitamin. (jaoa.org)
  • You may recall that the phytates of wheat and grains block nearly all absorption of dietary zinc, along with blocking iron, calcium, and magnesium (all positively-charged cations). (wheatbellyblog.com)
  • Further research should aim to clarify to what extent zinc supplementation competes with iron and/or calcium antenatal supplements for absorption. (who.int)
  • however, zinc, iron and other mineral supplements may compete for absorption, and it is unclear whether such interactions have health consequences (4). (who.int)
  • If the patient has a duodenum (the main site of iron absorption), then theoretically, iron should be absorbed if given orally. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • However, if the patient has extreme upper small bowel dysmotility, iron absorption may be hindered. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • Note that phytates in wholegrain bread, cereals, legumes and some other foods inhibit zinc absorption and so affect the bioavailability of zinc from plant foods. (patient.info)
  • Alcoholism (decreases zinc absorption and increases urinary zinc excretion). (patient.info)
  • People taking large amounts of iron supplementation (iron can interfere with zinc absorption). (patient.info)
  • The key processes responsible for regulation of iron absorption and release are reviewed in detail elsewhere [ 12 , 13 ] and briefly summarized here. (springer.com)
  • Iron overload (i.e., hemosiderosis) has been reported in patients genetically predisposed, or have underlying disorders, that augment the absorption of iron. (drugs.com)
  • Metabolic side effects associated with iron have included decreased absorption of thyroxine (T4). (drugs.com)
  • 3. Thyroid hormones are essential for the absorption of zinc, therefore, hypothyroidism can result in acquired zinc deficiency (thus a vicious cycle). (nutritionninjadoc.com)
  • Lead level ≥ 10 μg/dl was significantly associated with anemia, decreased iron absorption and hematological parameters affection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Iron deficiency not only causes hypochromic microcytic anemia, but also increases the absorption of other elements such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Iron absorption occurs predominantly in the duodenum and jejunum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A number of dietary factors influence iron absorption, ascorbate and citrate increase iron uptake. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lead is a particularly pernicious element to iron metabolism, as it is taken up by the iron absorption machinery, and secondarily blocks iron through competitive inhibition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zinc is found in multiple food groups including meat, fish, legumes, and other dietary sources although absorption varies by substrate. (statpearls.com)
  • Zinc deficiency can be inherited as absorption difficulties or can manifest from a decreased intake. (statpearls.com)
  • Acrodermatitis enteropathica illustrates inherited absorption deficiency. (statpearls.com)
  • Additionally, preterm infants require higher zinc levels because of inadequate stores, decreased gut absorption, and higher metabolic rate. (statpearls.com)
  • Calcium supplementation may decrease dietary zinc absorption. (healthcastle.com)
  • There is early evidence that chromium and zinc could each reduce the absorption of the other. (healthcastle.com)
  • Comparing the infrared observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope (and predictions for the future James Webb Space Telescope) with the theoretical models developed by this group, they have discovered that these stars have masses around 5 solar masses, were formed around 100 million years ago, and are poor in metals (such as iron, magnesium and silicon). (brightsurf.com)
  • Stress also depletes the body of zinc, magnesium, vitamin C and many B vitamins. (mindfood.com)
  • Depression may be one of the earliest signs of a mineral deficiency with an improvement in mood being shown simply by correcting deficiency in selenium, zinc or magnesium. (mindfood.com)
  • women take calcium for bone health (a very bad idea ), the varied phenomena of magnesium deficiency (e.g., migraine headaches, hypertension, heart rhythm disorders, osteoporosis) are managed with prescription drugs, etc. (wheatbellyblog.com)
  • Zinc, like magnesium, is an essential cofactor required for thousands of reactions in the body and thereby plays a crucial role in many aspects of health, with zinc deficiency evident in many varied ways. (wheatbellyblog.com)
  • Magnesium deficiency is common in people taking " potassium -depleting" prescription diuretics. (evitamins.com)
  • People with a history of alcoholism were six times more likely to have magnesium deficiency than were people without such a history. (evitamins.com)
  • Fatigue, abnormal heart rhythms , muscle weakness and spasm, depression , loss of appetite, listlessness, and potassium depletion can all result from a magnesium deficiency. (evitamins.com)
  • Deficiencies of magnesium that are serious enough to cause symptoms should be treated by medical doctors, as they might require intravenous administration of magnesium. (evitamins.com)
  • 7. Durlach J. Neuromuscular and phlebothrombotic clinical aspects of primary magnesium deficiency. (evitamins.com)
  • 14. Conradt A. Current concepts in the pathogenesis of gestosis with special reference to magnesium deficiency. (evitamins.com)
  • 16. Makrides M, Crowther CA. Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy. (evitamins.com)
  • and calcium, iron, zinc and magnesium (ADA 2009). (ideafit.com)
  • Zinc: Zinc is second only to magnesium in the number of enzymes it plays a key role in. (nutritionninjadoc.com)
  • When I had the Vitamin D deficiency, I was advised from members here to take supplements and Magnesium Glycinate with the D supplement, it made a world of difference at that time. (medhelp.org)
  • Infants were randomized to receive daily supplements of a micronutrient mix (folate, iron, calcium, phosphorus, and riboflavin) with or without 5 mg of zinc sulfate. (aappublications.org)
  • Tryptophan is an amino acid, which acts as a precursor to serotonin when combined with the necessary cofactors B9, (folate) B6 and zinc. (mindfood.com)
  • The remaining articles reviewed, showed significant benefit of Multiple Micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy in reducing low birth weight, small for Gestational Age births as compared to the usual iron-folate supplements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1. Hutchins L, Lipschitz D "Iron and folate metabolism in renal failure. (drugs.com)
  • A clinical deficiency in the B vitamins that assist with red blood cell production (folate and B 12 ) may result in anemia. (ideafit.com)
  • 29 Several preliminary studies have shown that a deficiency of folate in the blood may increase the risk of stunted growth of the fetus. (a1supplements.com)
  • In some studies, women who have had habitual miscarriages were found to have elevated levels of homocysteine (a marker of folate deficiency). (a1supplements.com)
  • Treatment is by taking zinc supplements and zinc rich food. (smashwords.com)
  • Zinc nutritional deficiency can be treated by taking zinc supplements and increasing intake of zinc through the diet. (smashwords.com)
  • The Food and Nutrition Board currently recommends that supplements or fortified foods be used to obtain desirable amounts of some nutrients, such as calcium and iron. (faqs.org)
  • Many parents and health professionals routinely consider supplements such as zinc to augment treatment with stimulants. (pharmacist.com)
  • 5 Zinc supplements may have a stimulant-sparing effect by decreasing the needed dosage of d-amphetamine by 37% compared with placebo. (pharmacist.com)
  • An introduction to the journal is presented in which the editor discusses an article related to consumers of dietary vitamin-mineral supplements, a study which compares a 29-ingredient multi-vitamin and mineral supplementation with a low-calcium dietary supplement and another study related to. (ebscohost.com)
  • 2 , 3 Commercial zinc supplements contain 7 to 80 mg of elemental zinc, and are commonly formulated as zinc oxide or salts with acetate, gluconate, and sulfate. (aafp.org)
  • In the 2002 National Health Interview Survey, 2.5 percent of adults reported using zinc supplements in the previous year. (aafp.org)
  • 4 Zinc supplements are commonly used to alleviate a number of conditions, including zinc-deficient states, diarrhea, age-related macular degeneration, upper respiratory infection (URI), wound healing, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (aafp.org)
  • Clinical zinc deficiency in adults should be treated with zinc supplements at two to five times the recommended dietary allowance. (aafp.org)
  • For example, patients may not be compliant with taking prescribed supplements, or physicians may become less diligent about monitoring patients for nutritional deficiencies. (jaoa.org)
  • In 2015, a study was conducted with 68 overweight or obese female hypothyroid patients who received either a zinc supplement, a selenium supplement, placebo pills, or both zinc and selenium supplements taken together. (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • Three months later, it was noted that those taking both zinc and selenium, as well as those just taking zinc supplements, saw a significant increase in their free T3 levels. (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • Other supplements that will complement zinc in combating yeast problems are vitamin A, vitamin C , and vitamin E . Another measure that can help to limit problems with Candida is eating yogurt, which is an excellent source of Lactobacillus , a friendly bacteria that competes with yeast. (encyclopedia.com)
  • I think most os memebers here have dwalt with Vitamin D deficiency, I have for sure, and my symptoms were muscl and joint pain, I was advised to take supplements, The now reccomend at least 1000 mg pd of Vitamin D, and 2,000 per day if over 60. (medhelp.org)
  • Out of the total 100 patients, 48 % were supplemented with iron, 33 % with zinc, 34 % with a combination of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol, 24 % with vitamin D, 42 % with vitamin B12 and 40 % with folic acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcium deficiency is associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia (3), and deficiencies of other vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin E, C, B6 and zinc, have also been postulated to play a role in pre-eclampsia. (who.int)
  • Some studies suggested calcium supplementation is associated with a significant protective benefit in the prevention of pre-eclampsia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Parents should be counseled that nutrients such as zinc should come primarily from foods. (pharmacist.com)
  • The diet in the elderly does not provide a sufficient level of nutrients needed to maintain an adequate healthy status leading to micronutrient deficiencies and impaired immune response with subsequent development of degenerative diseases. (ebscohost.com)
  • Intake recommendations for zinc and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences) [ 2 ]. (nih.gov)
  • A deficiency of any of these nutrients can significantly lengthen the time it takes to heal. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Concurrent deficiencies of these two nutrients is estimated to affect over 30% of the global population. (nutritionninjadoc.com)
  • Although some trials have found that folic acid and iron, when taken together, have improved birth weights, 38 39 40 41 other trials have found supplementation with these nutrients to be ineffective. (a1supplements.com)
  • Zinc also supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood and adolescence. (smashwords.com)
  • Micronutrients (hemoglobin, iron, zinc, folic acid, vitamin B-12) were assessed in pregnancy week 14, lipid peroxidation in week 14 and 30, and DNA oxidation in week 19. (diva-portal.org)
  • Socioeconomic data, pregnancy related information, 24 hour dietary recall and information regarding the frequency of consumption of iron, folic acid, carotene and vitamin B 12 rich foods was collected. (ispub.com)
  • In pregnant women, moderate to severe deficiencies of iron, zinc and folic acid has been shown to increase risk of low birth weight, pregnancy complications and birth defects 2 . (ispub.com)
  • There is evidence that supplementation with iron during pregnancy improves the birth weight of the infant 3 . (ispub.com)
  • Zinc also supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence [ 6-8 ] and is required for proper sense of taste and smell [ 9 ]. (nih.gov)
  • In areas where vitamin A deficiency is a severe public health problem, vitamin A supplementation in pregnancy is recommended for the prevention of night blindness. (who.int)
  • ABSTRACT A randomized clinical trial examined the efficiency and tolerability of twice weekly versus daily iron supplementation during pregnancy. (who.int)
  • A total of 370 pregnant women were randomly assigned to receive either daily or twice weekly iron supplementation during pregnancy. (who.int)
  • In premenopausal women, the most common causes of iron deficiency anemia are menstrual blood loss and pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on perinatal mortality and other pregnancy outcomes can differ depending on trial characteristics and study population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Physiological states that require increased zinc include periods of growth in infants and children as well as in mothers during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myxedematous cretinism is considered to result from iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism in the fetus during late pregnancy or in the neonatal period, resulting in mental retardation, short stature, goiter, and hypothyroidism. (nutritionninjadoc.com)
  • Such supplementation could protect against the formation of neural tube defects (such as spina bifida) during the time between conception and when pregnancy is discovered. (a1supplements.com)
  • 27 Deficiencies of folic acid during pregnancy have been linked to low birth weight 28 and to an increased incidence of neural tube defects (e.g., spina bifida) in infants. (a1supplements.com)
  • 1) 60 mg iron and 400 µg folic acid (Fe60F), 2) multiple micronutrients including 30 mg iron and folic acid (MMS), or 3) 30 mg iron and folic acid (Fe30F). (diva-portal.org)
  • The aim of this study was to ascertain whether adding zinc or multiple micronutrients to vitamin A supplementation improves longitudinal growth or reduces prevalence of anemia in children aged 6-24 months. (ebscohost.com)
  • Majority of the articles reviewed favored the supplementation of micronutrients to pregnant mother. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HarvestPlus focuses on three micronutrients: Iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and vitamin A. Iron deficiency during childhood and adolescence impairs mental development and learning capacity. (harvestplus.org)
  • Children with vitamin A deficiency are often deficient in multiple micronutrients and are likely to be anemic, have impaired growth, and be at increased risk of severe morbidity from common childhood infections such as diarrheal diseases and measles. (harvestplus.org)
  • Deficiencies of micronutrients are highly prevalent in low-income countries. (worldhairresearch.com)
  • Other common deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, selenium, vitamin A, and possibly zinc may interact with iodine nutrition and thyroid function . (worldhairresearch.com)
  • Milk and cereal products fortified with iron, and a combination of other micronutrients can be an effective strategy to reduce the risk of iron-deficiency anemia in children, to 57% less than non-fortified foods. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zinc sulfate in the treatment of attention deficient hyperactivity disorder. (pharmacist.com)
  • Akhondzadeh S, Mohammadi MR, Khademi M. Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficient hyperactivity disorder in children: a double blind and randomized trial. (pharmacist.com)
  • Zinc for attention-deficient/hyperactivity disorder: placebo-controlled double-blind pilot trial alone and combined with amphetamine. (pharmacist.com)
  • Iodine deficiency has long been known to cause thyroid issues, with the most dramatic effect noted in babies born to iodine-deficient mothers. (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • The low-certainty evidence that zinc supplementation may reduce preterm birth warrants further investigation, as do the other outcomes for which the evidence is very uncertain (e.g. perinatal mortality, neonatal sepsis), particularly in zinc-deficient populations with no food fortification strategy in place. (who.int)
  • Vitamin B12 is injected into the body for pernicious anemia , to prevent and treat vitamin B12 deficiency, and to prevent and treat a nervous system disorder called myelopathy, which can occur in people who are vitamin B12 deficient. (rxlist.com)
  • Beck FW, Kaplan J, Fitzgerald JT, Brewer GJ (1997) Changes in cytokine production and T cell subpopulations in experimentally induced zinc-deficient humans. (springer.com)
  • One in four individuals in the general population may be zinc deficient, including most people with hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's. (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • People who are deficient in zinc are prone to getting more frequent and longer lasting infections of various types. (encyclopedia.com)
  • One study showed yeast-fighting benefits for zinc even for those who were not deficient in the mineral to begin with. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The acquired form can arise in people with a zinc-deficient diet. (patient.info)
  • Cognitive and motor function may also be impaired in zinc deficient children. (wikipedia.org)
  • VAD (vitamin A deficiency) and Iodine deficiency often coexist, the effects are more pronounced than if just Iodine is deficient. (nutritionninjadoc.com)
  • It is estimated that up to 17% of the global population is at risk for inadequate zinc intake, while in South Asia up to 30% of the population may be deficient. (statpearls.com)
  • Randomised controlled intervention trials in iodine- and iron-deficient populations have shown that providing iron along with iodine results in greater improvements in thyroid function and volume than providing iodine alone . (worldhairresearch.com)
  • One such biomarker, zinc-protoporphyrin (ZPP), is formed in erythrocytes during iron-deficient erythropoiesis when the protoporphyrin ring incorporates an atom of zinc rather than iron. (haematologica.org)
  • When zinc is deficient in the diet, metabolic rate drops, as does the hormonal output by the thyroid gland. (healthcastle.com)
  • In settings where the prevalence of anaemia among women of reproductive age is 20% or higher, intermittent iron and folic acid supplementation is recommended as a public health intervention in menstruating women, to improve haemoglobin concentrations, iron status and reduce anaemia. (who.int)
  • Intermittent iron and folic acid supplementation is recommended in non-anaemic pregnant women to prevent development of anaemia and to improve gestational outcomes. (who.int)
  • Routine daily oral iron and folic acid supplementation is recommended in pregnant women to reduce the risk of having a low-birth-weight baby and maternal anaemia and iron deficiency at term. (who.int)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends iron and folic acid supplementation to reduce the risk of iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 This does not prove, however, that folic acid supplementation results in higher birth weights. (a1supplements.com)
  • Zinc is an essential mineral that is important for immune function, wound healing, normal taste and smell. (smashwords.com)
  • The terms major and trace, however, do not reflect the importance of a mineral in maintaining health, as a deficiency of either can be harmful. (faqs.org)
  • It is generally recommended that people eat a well-balanced diet to meet their mineral requirements, while avoiding deficiencies and chemical excesses or imbalances. (faqs.org)
  • Mineral supplementation may also be appropriate for people with prolonged illnesses or extensive injuries, for those undergoing surgery, or for those being treated for alcoholism. (faqs.org)
  • Zinc is an antioxidant and essential mineral that stimulates the activity of many enzymes in the body, which are critical for many biochemical reactions. (ebscohost.com)
  • Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. (nih.gov)
  • Many clinicians also request the analysis of essential elements in urine specimens to evaluate nutritional status and the efficacy of mineral supplementation during metal detoxification therapy. (drbuttar.com)
  • Bone mineral density studies may reveal osteopenic or osteoporotic changes due to vitamin D deficiency as a result of chronic sunlight avoidance. (medscape.com)
  • Zinc is also needed to form TSH, which is why those with hypothyroidism and who are constantly producing TSH are more likely to develop deficiencies in this important mineral. (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • Zinc is a mineral that is essential for a healthy immune system, production of certain hormones, wound healing, bone formation, and clear skin. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Zinc is involved in more body functions than any other mineral. (harvestplus.org)
  • Iron is essential for several critical metabolic enzymes and a deficiency of this mineral can disrupt brain development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc can also serve as a neurotransmitter in the brain, thus a deficiency of this mineral can clearly disrupt development as well as neurophysiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin and mineral deficiencies can be linked to a variety of birth defects and complications. (a1supplements.com)
  • Zinc is a mineral found in every body cell. (healthcastle.com)
  • Calesnick B, Dinan AM (1988) Zinc deficiency and zinc toxicity. (springer.com)
  • The liver is particularly susceptible to toxicity in iron-overload states. (drugs.com)
  • Often low thyroid is a result of toxicity, selenium deficiency or an iodine deficiency, the intent of this supplement addresses these. (remedysnutrition.com)
  • Both zinc deficiency and zinc toxicity are rare in industrialized countries. (healthcastle.com)
  • Zinc toxicity can occur from consuming zinc in supplement form and in fortified foods. (healthcastle.com)
  • In South Asia, 44-50% of preschool-aged children have severe vitamin A deficiency. (worldhunger.org)
  • A number of reports have identified an association between excessive zinc intake and severe cytopenia. (ebscohost.com)
  • Prolonged, severe decreases or increases in zinc intake are necessary to substantially affect zinc stores. (aafp.org)
  • The shot works best in people with severe vitamin B12 deficiency or associated nerve damage. (rxlist.com)
  • New data on vitamin A deficiency among young children are needed since the latest data, which date back from 1999, pointed to a severe public health problem, especially in the northern part of the country. (fao.org)
  • Alcoholism , severe burns , diabetes , and heart failure are other potential causes of deficiency. (evitamins.com)
  • Severe anemia increases the risk of women dying in childbirth. (harvestplus.org)
  • Concurrent VAD & Iodine deficiency produce more severe primary hypothyroidism than Iodine deficiency alone. (nutritionninjadoc.com)
  • It has been shown that in regions of combined severe iodine and selenium deficiency, normalization of iodine supply is mandatory before initiation of selenium supplementation to prevent hypothyroidism. (nutritionninjadoc.com)
  • The anemic group was further classified into mild, moderate and severe anemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At the blood lead level range of 10-20 μg/dl, a significant association was found for mild and severe anemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A daily intake of zinc is required to maintain a steady state because the body has no specialized zinc storage system [ 10 ]. (nih.gov)
  • For infants aged 0 to 6 months, the FNB established an AI for zinc that is equivalent to the mean intake of zinc in healthy, breastfed infants. (nih.gov)
  • There are no body stores of zinc and so daily intake of zinc is needed to maintain adequate body levels. (patient.info)
  • The Food Standards Agency and the Department of Health in the UK advise that intake of zinc should not exceed 25 mg per day. (patient.info)
  • citation needed] Zinc deficiency is typically the result of inadequate dietary intake of zinc, disease states that promote zinc losses, or physiological states that require increased zinc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Micronutrient deficiencies were common with zinc and vitamin B-12 deficiency being most prevalent. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, many of the studies were conducted in the Middle East, a region where zinc deficiency is prevalent. (pharmacist.com)
  • [2] In fact, iodine deficiency is among the most prevalent (and preventable) causes of mental impairment to this day, worldwide. (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • Anemia is multifactorial in nature, the most prevalent etiological forms being iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and anemia of chronic disease. (openarchives.gr)
  • Zinc deficiency is also prevalent in Iran, Egypt, and Turkey secondary to high phytate intake. (statpearls.com)
  • Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron , zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age. (bvsalud.org)
  • Maternal Early food supplementation group resulted in an improved lipid status in the children at 4.5 years compared to Usual food group. (diva-portal.org)
  • Vitamin A deficiency is associated with blindness, child mortality, and maternal mortality. (worldhunger.org)
  • Deficiency of iron causes anaemia, which increases the risk of maternal mortality, fetal growth retardation, and prenatal mortality. (who.int)
  • Several systematic reviews of trials examining the effects of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation have been conducted [ 7 - 10 ] but they have had limitations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • "Deploying appropriate multi-sectoral strategies to address micronutrient deficiencies can reduce child and maternal mortality and prevent birth defects and developmental disabilities and consequently improve productivity and economic growth of nations and lift people out of poverty," ​ said professor Ferdinand Haschke, chairman of the Nestlé Nutrition Institute. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Researchers identify the gene Regnase-1 as a regulator for iron metabolism by degrading Transferrin Receptor 1 (TfR1) mRNA. (brightsurf.com)
  • Animal and clinical trials implicate deficiencies of zinc-an essential cofactor in neurotransmitter, prostaglandin, and melatonin metabolism-in ADHD pathophysiology. (pharmacist.com)
  • African children may differ from other populations of children in developing countries because of differences in the prevalence of zinc deficiency, low birth weight and preterm delivery, recurrent or chronic infections such as HIV, or the quality of complementary diets and genetic polymorphisms affecting iron metabolism. (ebscohost.com)
  • Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human metabolism that catalyzes more than 100 enzymes, facilitates protein folding, and helps regulate gene expression. (aafp.org)
  • Zinc is involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Andrews N (1999) Disorders of iron metabolism. (springer.com)
  • For, example chronic marginal iron affects dopamine metabolism and myelin fatty acid composition and behavior in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palomo I, Olivares M, Arredondo M, Pizarro F. Alteraciones del metabolismo del hierro y de la síntesis del Hem (Alterations of iron metabolism and hem synthesis). (inta.cl)
  • Adequate selenium supports efficient thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism while protecting the thyroid gland from damage by excessive iodide exposure (this latter part is rarely needed as the vast majority of the planet's people have iodine deficiency). (nutritionninjadoc.com)
  • The impact of iron and selenium deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: biochemistry and relevance to public health. (remedysnutrition.com)
  • Study: The impact of common micronutrient deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: the evidence from human studies. (worldhairresearch.com)
  • Despite numerous studies of the effect of selenium on iodine and thyroid metabolism in animals, most published randomised controlled intervention trials in human populations failed to confirm an impact of selenium supplementation on thyroid metabolism . (worldhairresearch.com)
  • Little evidence is available on interactions between iodine and zinc metabolism. (worldhairresearch.com)
  • This paper compares the effects of combined iodine and selenium deficiency , of single deficiencies of these trace elements, and of no deficiency on thyroid hormone metabolism in rats . (worldhairresearch.com)
  • Iron metabolism is closely related to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and has a major impact on neurodevelopment. (scielo.org.ar)
  • And playing a role in energy production, connective tissue formation, iron metabolism, making and metabolising neurotransmitters, forming and maintaining myelin sheaths, melanin formation, antioxidant function, and regulation of gene expression. (empoweringvitality.com.au)
  • Zinc is an essential trace element responsible for over 300 enzyme functions, can aid in normalizing the negative effects of diabetes mellitus. (smashwords.com)
  • Objective Infants who are born small for gestational age (SGA) are at risk for developmental delays, which may be related to deficiencies in zinc, an essential trace metal, or to deficiencies in their ability to elicit caregiver responsiveness (functional isolation hypothesis). (aappublications.org)
  • Trace element deficiencies are known to occur during long-term enteral nutrition feeding. (nih.gov)
  • Zinc is the second most abundantly distributed trace element in the body after iron. (aafp.org)
  • Often, these symptoms stem from a deficiency in an essential trace element: zinc. (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • Zinc is considered an essential trace element, which means that small amounts are important to our well-being. (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • Zinc is an essential trace element and has a number of roles and functions in the human body. (patient.info)
  • Deficiency of certain trace elements generally causes hypochromic microcytic anemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zinc is a vital trace element. (statpearls.com)
  • In a clinical trial, zinc versus placebo for 12 weeks was superior in reducing both hyperactive and impulsive symptoms, but not in reducing attention deficiency, in children from Turkey. (pharmacist.com)
  • The combined data of 6 clinical trials demonstrate reduced measures of insulin resistance with zinc supplementation. (wheatbellyblog.com)
  • Clinical signs and effects of zinc deficiency may be present with normal laboratory values. (patient.info)
  • The Nutriset product has been tested in Indian fields and clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of zinc supplementation and safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. M'Seffar A, Fornasier VL, Fox IH "Arthropathy as the major clinical indicator of occult iron storage disease. (drugs.com)
  • Selenium deficiency, compared to adequate selenium intake, results in weaker immune responses. (bistromd.com)
  • Treatment of nutritional iron deficiency anemia includes adequate dietary intake and oral iron supplementation. (nih.gov)
  • Adequate levels of zinc are required for proper sense of taste and smell, detoxification, and wound healing. (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • Adequate zinc levels are positively correlated with free T3 levels (the active form of thyroid hormone). (nutritionninjadoc.com)
  • Zinc is a divalent cation not synthesized within the human body and requires intake to maintain adequate levels. (statpearls.com)
  • Prenatal vitamin supplementation refers to a precautionary intake of certain vitamins and minerals to ensure that the developing fetus receives an adequate supply of these vital components. (a1supplements.com)
  • Selenium is retained and deiodinase expression is maintained at almost normal levels in the thyroid gland, the brain and several other endocrine tissues during selenium deficiency, thus guaranteeing adequate local and systemic levels of the active thyroid hormone T(3). (worldhairresearch.com)
  • Micronutrient deficiencies are the result of inadequate amounts of essential vitamins and minerals in the diet. (worldhunger.org)
  • Zinc in combination with vitamins C and E, and beta-carotene may slow the progression of intermediate and advanced age-related macular degeneration. (aafp.org)
  • Counseling about exercise, obesity, nutritional deficiencies, and the overuse of vitamins A and D is beneficial. (aafp.org)
  • In addition, many people with HIV have been shown to have actual vitamin deficiencies-lower body stores of some vitamins than what is considered necessary even for a person in perfect health. (thebody.com)
  • Therefore, the recommendations in this chapter will be for supplementation-for taking vitamins daily, in addition to maintaining a healthy diet. (thebody.com)
  • Long-term measures have been implemented to combat vitamin A and iron deficiencies, in particular the fortification of cotton oil with vitamin A and that of wheat flour with iron, zinc, folic acid and B vitamins. (fao.org)
  • Although nutrition experts agree that food is the preferred source of vitamins and minerals, there are cases where supplementation may be needed. (ideafit.com)
  • Specifically, iodine deficiency may over time cause an enlargement of the thyroid gland in a condition known as goiter. (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • Zinc not only contributes to the proper production of thyroid hormones, but, like selenium, increases the body's conversion of T4 (the inactive form of thyroid hormone) to T3 (the bio-active form). (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • I believe the Great Plains IgG Food Allergy Test is a phenomenal tool that I have implemented in my practice on a daily basis to help treat patients for a wide variety of symptoms like headaches, IBS, fatigue, abdominal pain, dermatitis, hair loss, joint pain, acne, thyroid disorders, and vitamin deficiencies. (greatplainslaboratory.com)
  • Zinc is also an essential element for thyroid function. (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • The study concluded that zinc, when taken alone as well as in combination with selenium, can have a positive effect on thyroid function in overweight or obese patients with hypothyroidism. (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • The benefits of zinc supplementation in thyroid patients were also confirmed when I surveyed over 2000 of my readers and asked them what interventions worked for them. (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • Iron: Iron deficiency impairs thyroid hormone synthesis by reducing activity of the heme-dependent thyroid peroxidase enzyme. (nutritionninjadoc.com)
  • It is well established that zinc plays several roles in relation to iodine and the thyroid gland. (nutritionninjadoc.com)
  • 2. Low zinc is correlated with increased TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), increased thyroid volume (goiter), and decreased thyroid function (hypothyroidism). (nutritionninjadoc.com)
  • Iodine deficiency may produce conditions of oxidative stress with high TSH producing a level of H_2O_2, which because of lack of iodide is not being used to form thyroid hormones. (remedysnutrition.com)
  • Coexisting deficiencies of these elements can impair thyroid function. (remedysnutrition.com)
  • Selenium deficiency and disturbed thyroid hormone economy may develop under conditions of special dietary regimens such as long-term total parenteral nutrition, phenylketonuria diet, cystic fibrosis, or may be the result of imbalanced nutrition in children, elderly people, or sick patients. (remedysnutrition.com)
  • I ask here because of the similarities and issues that iron, vitamin d, and thyroid have as well as their correlations. (medhelp.org)
  • To study the utility of the zinc protoporphyrin/haem (ZPP/H) ratio as a measure of iron status in healthy, growing, preterm infants. (bmj.com)
  • Zinc protoporphyrin is a metabolic intermediate of the haemoglobin synthetic pathway which accumulates in red blood cells when iron supply is limited. (bmj.com)
  • The screening test for either type of protoporphyria is measurement of total blood porphyrin, which includes both metal-free protoporphyrin and zinc protoporphyrin. (medscape.com)
  • Separate determination of zinc protoporphyrin as a fraction of the total is helpful for a preliminary differentiation between erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and X-linked protoporphyria. (medscape.com)
  • Some reference laboratories measure only zinc protoporphyrin but label it, misleadingly, as "free protoporphyrin. (medscape.com)
  • The level of zinc protoporphyrin is elevated in patients with iron deficiency and lead poisoning. (medscape.com)
  • Other tests may be needed, such as erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin concentration, transferrin concentration, serum iron concentration, and transferrin saturation. (nih.gov)
  • A more accurate assessment may be attained using new iron indices including reticulocyte hemoglobin content, percentage of hypochromic red cells or zinc protoporphyrin. (openarchives.gr)
  • Using two biomarkers, zinc-protoporphyrin/heme and hepcidin, we established the diagnostic cut-off values for iron deficiency anemia in preschool children and women. (haematologica.org)
  • Median zinc-protoporphyrin/heme and hepcidin values in non-anemic children were 49 μmol/mol heme and 42 ng/mL, respectively, and in non-anemic women these values were 66 μmol/mol heme and 17.7ng/mL, respectively. (haematologica.org)
  • Children and women with iron deficiency anemia had higher zinc-protoporphyrin/heme ratios (children=151 μmol/mol heme and women=155 μmol/mol heme) and lower hepcidin levels (children=1.2ng/mL and women=0.6ng/mL). (haematologica.org)
  • Erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin/heme ratio is a valid point-of-care biomarker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia. (haematologica.org)
  • The study endpoints included complication rates, nutritional deficiencies and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL). (biomedcentral.com)
  • therefore, excess iron could potentially make this vulnerable population more prone to infection. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • In non-anaemic mothers, a smaller dose of iron may be sufficient and also might prevent the complications of iron excess. (who.int)
  • Vitamin E supplementation in excess enhances immune function and decreases susceptibility to certain infections. (bistromd.com)
  • Too little or too much iron can lead to anemia or excess damaging radicals, respectfully. (bistromd.com)
  • Zinc Deficiency, Excess and Supplementation. (patient.info)
  • You may find the Zinc Deficiency, Excess and Supplementation article more useful, or one of our other health articles . (patient.info)
  • Excess iron supplementation also has negative sequelae including free radical tissue damage and increased risk of systemic infection. (springer.com)
  • In a study published by JAMA, Jacquelyn M. Powers, M.D., M.S., of the Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, and colleagues compared two medications, ferrous sulfate and iron polysaccharide complex, for the treatment of nutritional iron-deficiency anemia in infants and children. (brightsurf.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate at 6 and 10 months of age the impact of a 9-month supplementation trial of 5 mg of zinc on the development and behavior of infants who were born SGA and to evaluate infants' ability to elicit responsive caregiver behavior. (aappublications.org)
  • Methods A randomized, controlled trial of zinc supplementation was conducted among 200 infants in a low-income, urban community in Delhi, India. (aappublications.org)
  • Results There were no direct effects of zinc supplementation on the infants' development or behavior at either 6 or 10 months. (aappublications.org)
  • Conclusion Possible explanations for the lack of effects of zinc supplementation on infant development and behavior include 1) subtle effects of zinc supplementation that may not have been detected by the Bayley Scales, 2) interference with other nutritional deficiencies, or 3) no impact of zinc deficiency on infants' development and behavior. (aappublications.org)
  • The link between birth weight and irritability among infants in the zinc supplementation group suggests that the response to zinc supplementation may differ by birth weight, with irritability occurring among the most vulnerable infants. (aappublications.org)
  • Longer term follow-up studies among zinc-supplemented infants are needed to examine whether early supplementation leads to developmental or behavioral changes that have an impact on school-age performance. (aappublications.org)
  • 1 Preterm infants have high iron requirements, 2 and almost invariably develop iron deficiency anaemia in the first year of life without iron supplementation. (bmj.com)
  • 3, 4 This is concerning as iron deficiency anaemia in older infants may lead to developmental delays that do not respond to subsequent iron treatment. (bmj.com)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that preterm infants are screened for iron deficiency at 6-9 months of age using packed cell volume or haemoglobin concentration, 7 but neither of these are particularly sensitive measures of iron status. (bmj.com)
  • Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been demonstrated that infants with IDA have worse results in mental and psychomotor developmental outcomes than children without iron deficiency. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Endemic deficiency is common with up to one-third of the population in various parts of the world, primarily Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. (statpearls.com)
  • Effects of zinc supplementation on parent and teacher behaviour rating scores in low socioeconomic level Turkish primary school children. (pharmacist.com)
  • Many of the included studies were at risk of bias, which influenced the certainty of the review evidence on the effects of zinc supplementation. (who.int)
  • There is some evidence that zinc supplementation may slightly relieve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis , but the studies are not yet conclusive. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for zinc is 5 milligrams (mg) for children under one year of age, 10 mg for children aged one to 10 years old, 15 mg for males 11 years or older, 12 mg for females 11 years or older, 15 mg for women who are pregnant, and 16-19 mg for women who are lactating. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Mean ferritin and zinc values of the groups were statistically insignificant at the beginning (Mean ferritin: 4.96 4.03 μg/dL vs 4.52 2.94 μg/dL, zinc: 88.64 15.35 ng/mL vs 86.84 17.34 ng/mL). (tjh.com.tr)
  • This was opposite to what was expected from the known changes in iron stores during the first year of life and the observed changes in plasma ferritin. (bmj.com)
  • Between 6 and 9 months of age, ZPP/H correlated with other measures of iron status, but serum ferritin concentration did not. (bmj.com)
  • Use of the ZPP/H ratio as a measure of iron status during the first year of life appears to be confounded by the developmental changes in ZPP/H, but in the later half of this period it may be a better measure of iron status than serum ferritin. (bmj.com)
  • 8 Although there is no "perfect" single measure of iron status, 9 the single most useful measure is serum ferritin. (bmj.com)
  • It can be easily measured fluorimetrically and is expressed as a ratio to haem (ZPP/H). In adults, ZPP/H correlates inversely with plasma ferritin across a wide range of ferritin concentrations, 12 and is inversely related to the amount of stainable iron in the marrow. (bmj.com)
  • Hemoglobin concentration can be used to screen for iron deficiency, whereas serum ferritin concentration can be used to confirm iron deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • We will measure ferritin concentrations (to evaluate non-inferiority between the two forms of iron), as well as markers of potential harm in blood and stool (faecal calprotectin, gut pathogen abundance and DNA damage) at baseline and 12 weeks. (bmj.com)
  • Mixed-effects generalised linear models will be used to assess the effect of iron on ferritin concentration and markers of potential harm at 12 weeks. (bmj.com)
  • While there were no statistically significant impacts observed for serum ferritin and zinc deficiency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Venous blood samples were taken from the studied population for estimating hematological parameters as well as iron and ferritin levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The blood level of iron and ferritin was found to be significantly lower in high blood lead level and anemic groups than those of the low blood lead level and control groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High blood lead levels were associated with low serum iron and ferritin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Saturation, Iron -- 6.4 (15 - 50) I forgot to do ferritin, but % saturation should be helpful in guessing my ferritin is gonna be low, too. (medhelp.org)
  • The authors present some of the more common nutritional deficiencies and related complications that can occur in this patient population. (jaoa.org)
  • In the present review, we highlight some of the nutritional deficiencies that can arise after gastric bypass surgery if precautions and proper supplementation do not occur. (jaoa.org)
  • Deficiency may also occur in people with chronic diarrhea , pancreatitis, and other conditions associated with malabsorption . (evitamins.com)
  • Deficiency can occur from decreased intake, inability to absorb the micronutrient, increased metabolic demand, or excessive loss. (statpearls.com)
  • After 12 months, there was 24% reduction in proportion of children with anemia (hemoglobin below 11 g/dL) in MM arm (P = 0.001), 11% in VAZ (P = 0.131) and 18% in VA (P = 0.019). (ebscohost.com)
  • Just as iron deficiency anemia with hemoglobin values of 7 or 8 g/dl resistant to iron supplementation commonly develops in grain-consuming populations, so a parallel zinc deficiency also develops (although not well reflected by blood levels of zinc, which underestimates tissue levels). (wheatbellyblog.com)
  • Our analysis of the effect of MNPs in children suggests benefit in improving anemia and hemoglobin however the lack of impact on growth and evidence of increased diarrhea requires careful consideration before recommending the intervention for implementing at scale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiple fortification has more pronounced effect on hemoglobin levels than iron single-fortification. (nutraingredients.com)
  • I had him throw in b12 and iron (iron because low iron runs in the family and I've had low mcv, mch, and sometimes mchc with hemoglobin low-normal for years) because I was already there and it's hard to get to my doctors to have blood drawn. (medhelp.org)
  • It is estimated that one-third of the world population live in countries with a high prevalence of zinc deficiency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abstract Objectives: to review the literature of studies developed in Brazil on zinc deficiency and the effects of supplementation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this systematic study was to investigate patient outcomes and nutritional deficiencies following sleeve gastrectomy (SG) during a median follow-up of two years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Insufficient iron can lead to inappropriate escalation of the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) dose, which is associated with adverse outcomes. (springer.com)
  • Available research indicates that zinc delivered in MNP at the currently recommended dose (4.1-5 mg/d) has not had a measurable impact on zinc-related functional outcomes, like growth and prevention of infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Pregnant women with anemia are at a higher risk for perinatal mortality and morbidity. (ispub.com)
  • The present investigation was therefore taken up to assess the relationship between micronutrient intake ( iron, folic acid, vitamin A, and vitamin B12) to birth weight of infant in pregnant women coming for antenatal checkup at Government Medical College and Hospital (GMH) and those consulting gynecologists at Private Maternity Clinics (PMC). (ispub.com)
  • Zinc supplementation for pregnant women is only recommended in the context of rigorous research. (who.int)
  • However, for many pregnant women, dietary intake of vegetables, meat, dairy products and fruit is often insufficient to meet these needs, particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) where multiple nutritional deficiencies often co-exist. (who.int)
  • We will recruit and randomise 480 non-pregnant women (ages 18-45 years) to receive one of three interventions: 60 mg elemental iron as ferrous sulfate (the standard, commonly used form), 18 mg ferrous bisglycinate (a highly bioavailable iron amino acid chelate) or placebo. (bmj.com)
  • Iron supplementation coverage of pregnant women is rather large. (fao.org)
  • Pregnant women with vitamin A deficiency may be at increased risk of mortality. (harvestplus.org)
  • You will need to talk about the benefits and risks of using Maxaron Forte (cyanocobalamin, folic acid, iron, and vitamin C) while you are pregnant. (drugs.com)
  • In the other group (n=39), in addition to ferrous sulfate, 5 mg/d oral zinc sulfate was given. (tjh.com.tr)
  • Zinc as gluconate, sulfate, or acetate salts can supplement dietary intake. (pharmacist.com)
  • The trial will explore the use of a more bioavailable form of iron (ferrous bisglycinate) as compared with the standard iron salt (ferrous sulfate). (bmj.com)
  • Oral supplementation with 2.0 mg/kg/day of zinc sulfate was immediately initiated. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2. Brock C, Curry H, Hanna C, Knipfer M, Taylor L "Adverse effects of iron supplementation: a comparative trial of a wax- matrix iron preparation and conventional ferrous sulfate tablets. (drugs.com)
  • Studies suggest that deficiency of folic acid influences the occurrence of low birth weight and preterm delivery 4 . (ispub.com)
  • Zinc deficiency impairs the function of immune cells while too much can diminish immune responses. (bistromd.com)
  • For example, zinc deficiency during early development impairs neurogenesis leading to memory impairments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc plays a vital role in many aspects of the immune system. (smashwords.com)
  • Zinc: dietary intake and impact of supplementation on immune function in elderly. (ebscohost.com)
  • The spectrum of hematologic disorders after gastric bypass surgery includes single or multilineage cytopenias resulting from a complex interrelationship of micronutritional deficiencies and inflammatory, immune-mediated, infectious, or drug-related factors [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Even people who eat an excellent, well-balanced diet are not immune to these deficiencies if they are HIV positive. (thebody.com)
  • Zinc supplementation of 30 mg (elemental) as zinc gluconate increased T-cell number and proliferative response as reflections of immune response (with impaired T-cell driven immunity previously demonstrated in other studies). (wheatbellyblog.com)
  • However since iron is essential in many biological processes, maintaining balance can contribute to normal immune responses in the body. (bistromd.com)
  • Those low in zinc may also have a weakened immune system and suffer from allergies or frequent colds and respiratory infections. (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • Zinc acts as an immune booster, in part due to stimulation of the thymus gland . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Supplemental zinc, at one to two times RDA amounts, can reverse this tendency and improve immune function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In another immune stimulant capacity, zinc can offer some relief from chronic infections with Candida albicans , or yeast. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Zinc is essential for the proper development and functioning of the immune system. (healthcastle.com)
  • Many types of immune cells depend on zinc for optimal function. (healthcastle.com)
  • In some studies, zinc deficiency has been shown to compromise white blood cell numbers and immune response, while zinc supplementation has been shown to restore conditions to normal. (healthcastle.com)
  • Zinc reduces the severity and duration of acute and chronic diarrhea in children from developing countries. (aafp.org)
  • However, following gastric bypass surgery, many patients develop chronic anemia, most commonly due to iron deficiency. (hindawi.com)
  • This popular procedure entails the long-term complications of hematological disorders, especially chronic anemia [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Nonetheless, you can appreciate that zinc plays a crucial role in human health and that deficiency-intermittent or chronic-is common. (wheatbellyblog.com)
  • In 2002, new research showed certain concentrations of zinc improved the effect of a therapy called interferon for some patients with chronic hepatitis C. Although the trial was preliminary, it showed promise for further research into zinc's effects in enhancing interferon therapy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Almost one woman out of ten suffers from chronic energy deficiency (low body mass index). (fao.org)
  • Complications related to GERD include non-erosive esophagitis, erosive esophagitis, esophageal ulcerations which can occasionally cause bleeding with chronic blood loss anemia, esophageal peptic stricture from chronic esophageal injury, Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children, and dysregulation of iron homeostasis plays a central role in its pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Who here has dealt with chronic low vitamin d and/or iron? (medhelp.org)
  • Background: The benefits of zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementations in African children are uncertain. (ebscohost.com)
  • 2. Weyant C, Brandeau ML, Burke M, Lobell DB, Bendavid E, Basu J. Anticipated burden and mitigation of carbondioxide-induced nutritional deficiencies and related diseases: a simulation modeling study. (ajmc.com)
  • Conclusions: Daily multiple micronutrient supplementation combined with vitamin A was beneficial in improving growth among children with stunting, compared to vitamin A alone or to vitamin A plus zinc. (ebscohost.com)
  • 9 A deficiency in vitamin B 12 is the most common nutritional deficiency in patients who have had gastric bypass surgery. (jaoa.org)
  • 10 Potential complications from a natural vitamin B 12 deficiency include anemia (leading to fatigue and generalized weakness), neuropathy, and cognitive difficulties. (jaoa.org)
  • To avoid such complications, dietary supplementation often begins shortly after surgery, while the patient is still in the hospital. (jaoa.org)
  • Although anemia is the most common systemic manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), among the broad spectrum of extraintestinal disease complications encountered in IBD, including arthritis and osteopathy, it has generally received little consideration. (openarchives.gr)
  • Current strategies for controlling the growth and infection-related complications of zinc deficiency include: 1) daily or weekly preventive zinc supplementation, and 2) therapeutic zinc supplementation for 10-14 days in relation to episodes of diarrhea. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The symptoms reappeared with an attempt to stop supplementation. (bvsalud.org)
  • For this reason, increasing your zinc levels may help reduce your symptoms and even lead you towards remission! (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • What are the symptoms and causes of zinc deficiency? (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • The presence of warning symptoms (dysphagia, odynophagia, gastrointestinal bleeding, anemia, weight loss, and recurrent vomiting), or failure to respond to empiric anti-secretory therapy are other indications for further evaluation including an EGD. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Zinc may interact with other minerals or medications. (pharmacist.com)
  • To analyze adherence to the recommended iron , zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron , zinc and vitamin A deficiencies . (bvsalud.org)
  • 7 One study 8 found that 3 years after gastric bypass surgery, even with multivitamin supplementation, as many as 50% of patients had iron deficiency, while nearly 30% had cobalamin deficiency. (jaoa.org)
  • [4] Even when congenital hypothyroidism is avoided, sub-optimal iodine levels may still limit a child's cognitive development: even moderate iodine deficiency in a mother can lower her baby's intelligence quotient (IQ) up to 16 points. (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • 4. Zinc replenishment is required to reverse the hair loss associated with hypothyroidism. (nutritionninjadoc.com)
  • There were no significant differences in the concentrations of zinc, selenium, or iron between the two groups. (nih.gov)
  • The choroid of the eye and prostatic fluid have high concentrations of zinc. (patient.info)
  • Zinc acetate is an effective maintenance therapy for Wilson disease. (aafp.org)
  • Zinc acetate supplementation reduced production of beta-amyloid plaque in the brains of mice. (wheatbellyblog.com)
  • The only form of zinc proven effective for this purpose is the zinc gluconate or zinc acetate lozenge. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The human body does not produce zinc so it must get it from the foods or a supplement. (smashwords.com)
  • ZINC IS A COMMON SUPPLEMENT AND IS WIDELY AVAILABLE as a standard component of many over-the-counter products. (ebscohost.com)
  • Men with infertility as a result of low testosterone levels may experience improvement from taking a zinc supplement. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The doses used in studies have been in the high range, requiring medical supervision, but increasing dietary zinc or taking a modest supplement in order to get the RDA amount is low risk and may prove helpful for those suffering from acne. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Furthermore, an estimated 17 percent of the worldwide population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. (thyroidpharmacist.com)
  • Populations that consume primarily plant based diets that are low in bioavailable zinc often have zinc deficiencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific deficiencies in some populations of malnourished children or experimental animal studies have guided knowledge on breast milk composition and its impact on CNS function and/or structure. (scielo.org.ar)
  • for example, mutations in the human SLC39A4 gene are responsible for acrodermatitis enteropathica, zinc-deficiency ( AEZ ) [3] - [5] . (plos.org)
  • In an American study, low serum zinc levels correlated with parent- and teacher-rated inattention but not hyperactivity. (pharmacist.com)
  • 10 Serum zinc levels are not a reliable measure of zinc stores and, therefore, are not recommended for routine screening. (aafp.org)
  • People with Alzheimer's dementia (and Parkinsonism) have lower serum zinc levels compared to controls. (wheatbellyblog.com)
  • Diagnosis may be difficult to confirm because plasma and serum zinc levels do not necessarily reflect cellular zinc status. (patient.info)
  • These cytotoxic effects appear to depend on the status of antioxidative enzymes and may only be evident in conditions of selenium deficiency where the activity of selenium containing antioxidative enzymes is impaired. (remedysnutrition.com)
  • Inflammatory markers, c-reactive protein and interleukin-6, were reduced with 30 mg (elemental) zinc as zinc gluconate in obese women with higher starting levels of these markers compared to normal controls. (wheatbellyblog.com)
  • This trial will be the first to evaluate the potential harm of daily oral iron supplementation in women, in accordance with the 2016 WHO global policy. (bmj.com)
  • Swallowing or sucking on oral zinc tablets will not work. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While oral iron supplementation has traditionally been a mainstay of IDA treatment, it has also been linked to extensive gastrointestinal side effects and possible disease exacerbation. (openarchives.gr)
  • Diarrhea Management Kit-Diarrhea Management Kit (Zinc Tablet + oral rehydration salts (ORS)) for management of diarrhea among young children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron oral preparations may rarely cause Hemoccult-positive stools, patients with positive tests generally require further work-up. (drugs.com)
  • It has also occurred following administration of excessive parenteral iron therapy, combination of oral and parenteral iron, or in patients with hemoglobinopathies that were erroneously diagnosed as iron deficiency anemia . (drugs.com)
  • Other side effects associated with oral iron products have included stained teeth and iron overload (hemosiderosis). (drugs.com)
  • Patients with malnutrition, alcoholism, inflammatory bowel disease, and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. (aafp.org)
  • Conservative estimates suggest that 25% of the world's population is at risk of zinc deficiency. (wikipedia.org)