Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
A salt produced by the reaction of zinc oxide with acetic acid and used as an astringent, styptic, and emetic.
A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Used as a dental cement this is mainly zinc oxide (with strengtheners and accelerators) and eugenol. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A potentially neurotoxic 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative long used as a topical anti-infective, intestinal antiamebic, and vaginal trichomonacide. The oral preparation has been shown to cause subacute myelo-optic neuropathy and has been banned worldwide.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Persistence of the nuclei of the keratinocytes into the stratum corneum of the skin. This is a normal state only in the epithelium of true mucous membranes in the mouth and vagina. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of porphobilinogen from two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid. EC 4.2.1.24.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.
A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
Chelating agent used for heavy metal poisoning and assay. It causes diabetes.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Ground up seed of WHEAT.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins found in eggs which are consumed as a food.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A naturally occurring metabolite of HISTIDINE that has antioxidant properties.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF containing transcription factor that was originally identified as one of the IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS. It shuttles between the CYTOPLASM and the CELL NUCLEUS and is involved in destabilization of mRNAs for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Carboxypeptidases that are primarily found the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM that catalyze the release of C-terminal amino acids. Carboxypeptidases A have little or no activity for hydrolysis of C-terminal ASPARTIC ACID; GLUTAMIC ACID; ARGININE; LYSINE; or PROLINE. This enzyme requires ZINC as a cofactor and was formerly listed as EC 3.4.2.1 and EC 3.4.12.2.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
EXOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.
Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Activation analysis in which the specimen is bombarded with neutrons. Identification is made by measuring the resulting radioisotopes. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The consumption of edible substances.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.

Metallothionein-null mice absorb less Zn from an egg-white diet, but a similar amount from solutions, although with altered intertissue Zn distribution. (1/8763)

The influence of metallothionein (MT) on Zn transfer into non-gut tissues was investigated in MT-null (MT-/-) and normal (MT+/+) mice 4 h after oral gavage of aqueous 65ZnSO4solution at doses of 154, 385, 770 and 1540 nmol Zn per mouse. Zn transfer was not significantly different between MT+/+ and MT-/- mice and was directly proportional to the oral dose (slope = 0.127, r = 0.991; 0. 146, r = 0.994, respectively). Blood 65Zn and plasma Zn concentrations increased progressively in MT-/- mice at doses >154 nmol Zn, reaching levels of 2.4% of oral dose and 60 micromol/L, respectively, at the 1540 nmol Zn dose. The corresponding values for MT+/+ mice were approximately half, 1.0% and 29 micromol/L. Intergenotypic differences were found in tissue distribution of 65Zn within the body; MT-/- mice had higher 65Zn levels in muscle, skin, heart and brain, whereas MT+/+ mice retained progressively more Zn in the liver, in conjunction with a linear increase in hepatic MT up to the highest Zn dose. MT induction in the small intestine reached its maximum at an oral dose of 385 nmol Zn and did not differ at higher doses. Absorption of a 770 nmol 65Zn dose from a solid egg-white diet was only one fourth (MT+/+) and one eighth (MT-/-) of the Zn absorption from the same dose of 65Zn in aqueous solution. MT+/+ mice had greater (P < 0.05) Zn absorption from the egg-white diet than did MT-/- mice, indicating that gut MT confers an absorptive advantage, but only when Zn is incorporated into solid food.  (+info)

Cadmium-mediated activation of the metal response element in human neuroblastoma cells lacking functional metal response element-binding transcription factor-1. (2/8763)

Metal response element-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) binds specifically to metal response elements (MREs) and transactivates metallothionein (MT) gene expression in response to zinc and cadmium. This investigation contrasts the mechanism of mouse MT gene (mMT-I) promoter activation by cadmium and zinc in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells to determine whether MTF-1 binding to the MRE is necessary for activation by these metals. Cadmium activated a mMT-1 promoter (-150 base pairs) luciferase reporter 20-25-fold through a MRE-dependent mechanism. In contrast, zinc had little effect on the mMT-1 luciferase reporter. IMR-32 cells lacked MRE binding activity, and treatment with zinc in vitro or in vivo did not generate a MTF-1. MRE complex, suggesting that IMR-32 cells lack functional MTF-1. Overexpression of mMTF-1 regenerated a zinc-mediated induction of the MRE without affecting cadmium activation. Because no other transition metals tested activated the MRE, this effect appeared to be cadmium-specific. These data demonstrate that in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells, zinc and cadmium can use independent mechanisms for activation of the mMT-I promoter and cadmium-mediated MRE activation is independent of MTF-1 and zinc.  (+info)

Clinical and immunochemical study of the serum IgG fraction not precipitated in a zinc-sodium salicylate reagent. (3/8763)

A reagent made of zinc sulphate (0-08 M) in a 0-4 M sodium salicylate solution at pH 7-3 precipitated most of the IgG when a small volume of human serum was added. Sera with normal IgG levels or polyclonal hyperglobulinaemia showed a close correlation between total IgG and zinc-precipitated IgG (r = + 0-95). In clinical material, not including IgG myeloma, zinc-soluble IgG varied between 0 and 6 mg/ml and was independent of the IgG serum concentration. In 31 normal subjects the average IgG concentration, as determined by the Technicon immunonephelometric method, was 10-2 +/- 1-7 mg/ml for total IgG and 2-2 +/- 1-0 mg/ml for the soluble fraction. Among 173 sera, including 24 from cord blood, 16 from pregnant women, and 133 from patients with miscellaneous diseases, no pathological conditions except three cases of IgG myeloma were found with a zinc-soluble IgG definitely above the normal values; zinc-soluble IgG levels were often low in patients with hyperglobulinaemia, and the difference was highly significant in liver disease. kappa and gamma light chains as well as the four IgG-Hp chain subclasses were found in both zinc-soluble fractions of normal IgG. A study of myeloma monoclonal IgG showed that globulins of classes 1, 3, and 4 could be either soluble or insoluble in the zinc reagent. One, G2, was mainly insoluble. Hexose and antistreptolysin contents per milligram normal IgG were not significantly different in either fraction. It is suggested that zinc-soluble IgG consists of the recently synthesized molecules, the zinc-solubility of which has not yet been decreased by protein association, lipid interaction, antigen binding, or enzymatic denaturation. Within this hypothesis, a low level of soluble IgG would mean either an increased precatabolic protein or a decreased synthesis.  (+info)

Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides. (4/8763)

Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd2+-to-HP and Cd2+-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd2+ binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd2+ from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu2+ and Zn2+. However, Cu2+ ceased contribution of HP for Cd2+ accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu2+ to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal.  (+info)

Postnatal development of hippocampal dentate granule cell gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor pharmacological properties. (5/8763)

Postnatal development of hippocampal dentate granule cell gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor pharmacological properties was studied. Granule cells were acutely isolated from hippocampi of 7- to 14- and 45- to 52-day-old rats, and whole cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained. The sensitivity of GABAA receptors to GABA and modulation of GABAA receptor currents by benzodiazepines (BZ), zinc, furosemide, and loreclezole was studied. Multiple changes in the pharmacological properties of dentate granule-cell GABAA receptors occurred during the first 52 days of postnatal development: GABA-evoked maximal current increased with postnatal age; GABAA receptors changed from BZ type 3 in young rats to BZ type 1 in adult rats; furosemide and zinc inhibited GABAA receptor currents in young rats but not in adult rats; the fraction of cells that expressed loreclezole-sensitive GABAA receptors increased with postnatal age. These findings suggest that dentate granule cells in young and adult animals express pharmacologically distinct GABAA receptors and that the postnatal development of these receptors is prolonged, lasting at least 45 days. Comparison with the previously reported pharmacological properties of GABAA receptors on dentate granule cells acutely isolated from hippocampi of 28- to 35-day-old rats suggests that receptors expressed at that age have properties intermediate between young and adult rats.  (+info)

Selenium redox biochemistry of zinc-sulfur coordination sites in proteins and enzymes. (6/8763)

Selenium has been increasingly recognized as an essential element in biology and medicine. Its biochemistry resembles that of sulfur, yet differs from it by virtue of both redox potentials and stabilities of its oxidation states. Selenium can substitute for the more ubiquitous sulfur of cysteine and as such plays an important role in more than a dozen selenoproteins. We have chosen to examine zinc-sulfur centers as possible targets of selenium redox biochemistry. Selenium compounds release zinc from zinc/thiolate-coordination environments, thereby affecting the cellular thiol redox state and the distribution of zinc and likely of other metal ions. Aromatic selenium compounds are excellent spectroscopic probes of the otherwise relatively unstable functional selenium groups. Zinc-coordinated thiolates, e.g., metallothionein (MT), and uncoordinated thiolates, e.g., glutathione, react with benzeneseleninic acid (oxidation state +2), benzeneselenenyl chloride (oxidation state 0) and selenocystamine (oxidation state -1). Benzeneseleninic acid and benzeneselenenyl chloride react very rapidly with MT and titrate substoichiometrically and with a 1:1 stoichiometry, respectively. Selenium compounds also catalyze the release of zinc from MT in peroxidation and thiol/disulfide-interchange reactions. The selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase catalytically oxidizes MT and releases zinc in the presence of t-butyl hydroperoxide, suggesting that this type of redox chemistry may be employed in biology for the control of metal metabolism. Moreover, selenium compounds are likely targets for zinc/thiolate coordination centers in vivo, because the reactions are only partially suppressed by excess glutathione. This specificity and the potential to undergo catalytic reactions at low concentrations suggests that zinc release is a significant aspect of the therapeutic antioxidant actions of selenium compounds in antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic agents.  (+info)

Inhibitory sites in enzymes: zinc removal and reactivation by thionein. (7/8763)

Thionein (T) has not been isolated previously from biological material. However, it is generated transiently in situ by removal of zinc from metallothionein under oxidoreductive conditions, particularly in the presence of selenium compounds. T very rapidly activates a group of enzymes in which zinc is bound at an inhibitory site. The reaction is selective, as is apparent from the fact that T does not remove zinc from the catalytic sites of zinc metalloenzymes. T instantaneously reverses the zinc inhibition with a stoichiometry commensurate with its known capacity to bind seven zinc atoms in the form of clusters in metallothionein. The zinc inhibition is much more pronounced than was previously reported, with dissociation constants in the low nanomolar range. Thus, T is an effective, endogenous chelating agent, suggesting the existence of a hitherto unknown and unrecognized biological regulatory system. T removes the metal from an inhibitory zinc-specific enzymatic site with a resultant marked increase of activity. The potential significance of this system is supported by the demonstration of its operations in enzymes involved in glycolysis and signal transduction.  (+info)

Preferential Zn2+ influx through Ca2+-permeable AMPA/kainate channels triggers prolonged mitochondrial superoxide production. (8/8763)

Synaptically released Zn2+ can enter and cause injury to postsynaptic neurons. Microfluorimetric studies using the Zn2+-sensitive probe, Newport green, examined levels of [Zn2+]i attained in cultured cortical neurons on exposure to N-methyl-D-asparte, kainate, or high K+ (to activate voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels) in the presence of 300 microM Zn2+. Indicating particularly high permeability through Ca2+-permeable alpha-amino3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic-acid/kainate (Ca-A/K) channels, micromolar [Zn2+]i rises were observed only after kainate exposures and only in neurons expressing these channels [Ca-A/K(+) neurons]. Further studies using the oxidation-sensitive dye, hydroethidine, revealed Zn2+-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that paralleled the [Zn2+]i rises, with rapid oxidation observed only in the case of Zn2+ entry through Ca-A/K channels. Indicating a mitochondrial source of this ROS generation, hydroethidine oxidation was inhibited by the mitochondrial electron transport blocker, rotenone. Additional evidence for a direct interaction between Zn2+ and mitochondria was provided by the observation that the Zn2+ entry through Ca-A/K channels triggered rapid mitochondrial depolarization, as assessed by using the potential-sensitive dye tetramethylrhodamine ethylester. Whereas Ca2+ influx through Ca-A/K channels also triggers ROS production, the [Zn2+]i rises and subsequent ROS production are of more prolonged duration.  (+info)

Prevalence and associated factors of low serum zinc concentration in adolescents of Gambella city, Southwest Ethiopia Dedessa Gemeda Megersa,1 Solomon Mekonnen Abebe,2 Fikru Mekonnen Abebe,3 Molla Mesele Wassie2 1Department of Clinical Nursing, Gambella Teachers Education and Health Science College, Gambella, 2Human Nutrition Department, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 3Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia Background: Zinc deficiency is a major public health problem in many developing countries. It has been linked with reduced growth and development in adolescents. The deficiency increases vulnerability to infections, immune dysfunction, hypogonadism, and abnormal neurosensory changes. However, this problem has not received due attention, especially in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study is aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with low serum zinc concentration in high
TY - JOUR. T1 - Zinc deficiency in wheat genotypes grown in conventional and chelator-buffered nutrient solutions. AU - Rengel, Zed. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Chelator-buffered nutrient solutions have been used extensively in studying plant-micronutrient relationships, but the effects of the chelator on plants are poorly understood. This study compared responses to Zn deficiency of two wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum, cv. Aroona, and T. turgidum L. conv. durum, cv. Durati) grown in conventional and chelator-buffered nutrient solutions. With the same low activity of Zn2+ in both types of solution. shoot growth was impaired more and root exudation of phytosiderophores was greater in the chelator-buffered than in the conventional solution. Under Zn deficiency. Durati wheat (sensitive to Zn deficiency) suffered a greater level of inhibition of shoot growth and exuded less phytosiderophores from roots than Aroona a heat (tolerant to Zn deficiency). Under both Zn deficiency and Zn sufficiency, a ...
Evidence suggests that New Zealand (NZ) children are mildly zinc deficient and may respond to dietary change. A 20-wk randomized intervention trial was therefore conducted to determine whether an increased intake of red meat or consumption of a fortified manufactured toddler milk drink (FTMD, fortified with zinc and other micronutrients) would increase dietary zinc intakes and improve the biochemical zinc status of 12- to 20-mo-old NZ toddlers. Toddlers were randomized to a red meat intervention (n = 90), FTMD intervention (n = 45), or nonfortified milk placebo (n = 90). Study foods were provided. Adherence was assessed via monthly 7-d meat or milk recording diaries. Hair and serum zinc concentrations, and length and weight were measured at baseline and postintervention. Nutrient intakes were assessed via 3-d weighed food records at baseline, wk 4, and wk 18. At baseline, 38% of participants had low serum zinc concentrations despite seemingly adequate dietary zinc intakes (,4% below the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The influence of maternal zinc supplementation on immunological development of the neonate and perinatal morbidity. AU - Shankar, Anuraj. AU - Gbakima, Aiah. AU - Caulfield, Laura. AU - Zavaleta, Nelly. PY - 1998/3/20. Y1 - 1998/3/20. N2 - Gestational zinc deficiency (GZD)is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem affecting maternal health worldwide. In mice and non-human primates it has also been demonstrated that GZD has adverse and persistent effects on development of the immune system. We report here the effects in human beings of maternal zinc supplementation on immunological development of the neonate and on perinatal morbidity. In Lima, Peru, we conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled trial wherein 730 women were supplemented daily with 15 mg elemental zinc or placebo in conjunction with 60 mg iron and 200 ug folk acid. Cord blood plasma was obtained from children born of these women and the levels of IgM, IgA, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 were determined. ...
Plasma concentrations of some micronutrients are altered in the setting of acute infectious or inflammatory stress. Previous studies have provided conflicting evidence concerning the extent and direction of changes in plasma zinc concentrations during the acute phase response. We carried out an observational cohort study in 689 children enrolled in a randomized trial of zinc supplementation during acute falciparum malaria in order to evaluate the relation between plasma zinc concentration and the acute phase response. Plasma zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On admission, 70% of all subjects had low plasma zinc (|9.2 μmol/L). Multivariate analysis of predictors of admission plasma zinc showed that admission C-reactive protein (CRP), parasite density, and study site were the most important predictors. Predictors of changes in plasma zinc from admission to 72 h included baseline CRP, change in CRP, treatment group, study site, and baseline zinc concentration. In children with
Zinc Supplementation to Improve ADHD and Counteract Excess CopperElectromyogram (EMG) tests, which reflect brain activity, have objectively shown that low plasma zinc levels negatively affect information processing. 28 medication-free boys with ADHD, aged 7 to 12, were compared to 24 control children. Event-related potential indices from parietal and frontal brain regions showed that ADHD children had worse working memory (lower amplitudes of P3) and slower information processing (longer latency of P3) compared to control children. Individuals with ADHD and zinc levels ,80 μg/dL showed worse information processing and inhibition (shorter latencies of N2). Plasma zinc levels were significantly lower in ADHD individuals than in controls, but brain waves began to normalize with increasing plasma zinc levels (Yorbik et al., 2008).. Zinc supplements improve symptoms more than placebo and enhance the effectiveness of stimulant medications. When 400 ADHD children aged 6 to 14 were randomized to zinc ...
Zinc deficiency can change the concentrations of minerals and trace elements in the body. However, previous studies still had many limitations. To reveal the effects of zinc deficiency on homeostasis of 16 minerals and trace elements. Forty-five rats were divided randomly into three groups: normal zinc diet (30 mg/kg), low zinc diet (10 mg/kg), and pair-fed diet(30 mg/kg). The concentrations of 16 minerals and trace elements in serum, feces, urine, and liver were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The excretion of 16 elements in urine and feces were calculated and compared. Zinc-deficient rats exhibited significant changes in up to 12 minerals and trace elements. The low zinc diet induced decreased excretion of zinc and concentrations of zinc in serum, feces, urine, and liver. Zinc deficiency increased feces concentrations of Mg, Cu, Se, K, Ag, Fe and Mn; decreased the concentrations of Mg, Cu, Se, K in liver and urine, and a diminished amount of Ag was observed in serum.
The association between serum zinc level and preeclampsia (PE) remains controversial. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Embase for relevant available articles. The articles were limited to those in English from January 1990 to April 2015. Observational studies evaluating the association between serum zinc level and PE were included. The I2 was used to assess heterogeneity and the random effect model (REM) was adopted as the pooling method. The pooled standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the association between serum zinc level and PE. Seventeen observational studies were included. Compared with healthy pregnancy controls, PE patients have lower serum zinc level in 14 studies about total PE (SMD (95% CI): −0.587 (−0.963, −0.212), Z = 3.06, p for Z = 0.002; I2 = 88.4%, p for I2 < 0.0001). In subgroup analysis, a lower serum zinc level in PE patients compared with healthy pregnancy controls was observed in
In leukocytes of patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer treatment: a)identify genes modulated by oral supplementation of zinc; b) evaluate the effects of oral zinc supplementation on humoral immunity and neutrophil function. The study will be conducted on 30 adult patients aged grater than 18 years, of both genders who have undergone surgical resection of colonic neoplastic lesions without metastatic lesion. Patients will be randomized into two groups, with the first (Group QT Zn, n = 15) receive 70 mg/d of zinc for 16 weeks and the second will receive placebo (QT Placebo Group, n = 15). The study will also include 30 healthy volunteers who receive supplementation of 70 mg/d of Zn (C Zn group, n = 15) or placebo (Group C Placebo, n = 15). Zinc supplementation or placebo for all study groups will start two days before the volunteers received the pneumococcal vaccine, polyvalent 23. Fifteen days after vaccination, patients begin chemotherapy as pre-established criteria by the ...
In leukocytes of patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer treatment: a)identify genes modulated by oral supplementation of zinc; b) evaluate the effects of oral zinc supplementation on humoral immunity and neutrophil function. The study will be conducted on 30 adult patients aged grater than 18 years, of both genders who have undergone surgical resection of colonic neoplastic lesions without metastatic lesion. Patients will be randomized into two groups, with the first (Group QT Zn, n = 15) receive 70 mg/d of zinc for 16 weeks and the second will receive placebo (QT Placebo Group, n = 15). The study will also include 30 healthy volunteers who receive supplementation of 70 mg/d of Zn (C Zn group, n = 15) or placebo (Group C Placebo, n = 15). Zinc supplementation or placebo for all study groups will start two days before the volunteers received the pneumococcal vaccine, polyvalent 23. Fifteen days after vaccination, patients begin chemotherapy as pre-established criteria by the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytotoxicity of nitric oxide is alleviated by zinc-mediated expression of antioxidant genes. AU - Chung, Mi Ja. AU - Hogstrand, Christer. AU - Lee, Sung Joon. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich zinc binding proteins that are powerful antioxidants. In this study, we investigated the interaction between zinc, MTs, and other components of the antioxidant defense system in HepG2 cells. Cells were preincubated with zinc and then exposed to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Both zinc pretreatment and SNP exposure separately induced transcription of MT genes (MT1A, MT2A, MT1E, MT1X), as measured using real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after reverse transcription (RT). Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with zinc sulfate (ZnSO 4) followed by SNP exposure caused MT and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) mRNA levels to increase more than in cells only exposed to SNP. However, when cells were incubated with ...
Increasing zinc (Zn) concentrations in crops is important for alleviation of human Zn deficiency. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) contribute to plant Zn uptake, but their contribution to Zn in the edible portion of crops has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to quantify the mycorrhizal pathway of Zn uptake into grain of wheat and barley under varying soil Zn availabilities. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) were grown in pots with a hyphal compartment containing 65Zn. Plants were inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis and grown at three soil Zn concentrations. Radioactive Zn in grain and straw was measured and the contribution of AMF to Zn uptake was calculated. The mycorrhizal pathway of Zn uptake contributed up to 24.3% of total above-ground Zn in wheat, and up to 12.7% of that Zn in barley. The greatest contribution by the mycorrhizal pathway was observed in barley at the lowest Zn addition, and in wheat at the highest one. In addition, grain yield of bread
One of the major functions of the metal response element-binding transcription factor 1(MTF-1) is to sense and maintain sub-nanomolar to nanomolar zinc levels in response to influxes of labile zinc within the cell. MTF-1 responses to elevated zinc include up regulation of metallothionein (MT-I & II) and efflux transporter (ZnT1) genes. MTF-1 also responds to oxidative stress and heavy metal loads. Due to a lack of liver development, MTF-1 is essential for embryogenesis as determined from knockout mice. The zinc dependence of DNA-binding and interactions with other transcription factors has been identified as major determinants in the homeostatic regulation of labile intracellular zinc by MTF-1. p300 along with its paralog, cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CBP), have histone acetyltransferase protein scaffold functions and interact with other transcription factors. Previous studies have shown that p300, Sp1 and MTF-1 form a complex. It was also found that a zinc dependent interaction ...
Maternal plasma zinc concentrations and pregnancy outcome.: We conclude that plasma zinc concentrations during the late first trimester to the early third trime
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women and is the leading cause of female cancer deaths. Zinc (Zn) functions as an antioxidant and plays a role in maintaining genomic stability. Zn deficiency results in oxidative DNA damage and increased cancer risk. Studies suggest an inverse association between dietary and plasma Zn levels and the risk for developing breast cancer. In contrast, breast tumor biopsies display significantly higher Zn levels compared with normal tissue. Zn accumulation in tumor tissue also correlates with increased levels of Zn importing proteins. Further, aberrant expression of Zn transporters in tumors correlates with malignancy, suggesting that altered metal homeostasis in the breast could contribute to malignant transformation and the severity of cancer. However, studies have yet to link dysregulated Zn transport and abnormal Zn-dependent functions in breast cancer development. Herein, we summarize studies that address the multi-modal role of Zn
Mechanisms through which gene expression is regulated by zinc are central to cellular zinc homoeostasis. In this context, evidence for the involvement of zinc dyshomoeostasis in the aetiology of diseases, including Type 2 diabetes, Alzheimers disease and cancer, highlights the importance of zinc-regulated gene expression. Mechanisms elucidated in bacteria and yeast provide examples of different possible modes of zinc-sensitive gene regulation, involving the zinc-regulated binding of transcriptional activators and repressors to gene promoter regions. A mammalian transcriptional regulatory mechanism that mediates zinc-induced transcriptional up-regulation, involving the transcription factor MTF1 (metal-response element-binding transcription factor 1), has been studied extensively. Gene responses in the opposite direction (reduced mRNA levels in response to increased zinc availability) have been observed in mammalian cells, but a specific transcriptional regulatory process responsible for such a ...
Among the first-line defense genes, ZRT1, ZRT2, and FET4 are induced by mild zinc deficiency to increase the ability of the cell to accumulate zinc from its environment. ZPS1 is also induced under these mild conditions and we have previously proposed that its product, a secreted protein related to metalloproteases, may also be involved in zinc acquisition by degrading extracellular proteins and releasing any bound metals [3]. Similarly, ZRT3 is up-regulated by mild zinc deficiency and also responds rapidly to zinc withdrawal. Thus, mobilization of zinc stores from the vacuole is also a first-line response. Induction of the YOR387C gene in response to mild zinc deficiency suggests that this gene is also involved in the first-line defense against zinc limitation. The function of this protein is not yet known but its pattern of regulation by zinc suggests that it may play a role in zinc uptake or vacuolar zinc export. TIS11 ( also known as CTH2) is also induced in LZM + 300 μM ZnCl2. Tis11 binds ...
PubMedID: 23039265 | Long-term sustained autoimmune response to beta cell specific zinc transporter (ZnT8, W, R, Q) in young adult patients with preserved beta cell function at diagnosis of diabetes. | Autoimmunity | 2/1/2013
A new review of past studies suggests that taking zinc may cut the time adults have to suffer with a common cold, but the alternative treatment will likely come with unpleasant side effects.
What are zinc supplement health benefits are also such that you can increase it by having dairy products, eating wholegrain foods, lentils, pulses. Also even pumpkin is a very good source of zinc. Also zinc lozenges are easily available in drug stores which are mostly taken if you have cough or cold. What are zinc supplement health benefits is not a question to worry now so let me tell you what is the daily dose recommended for each person to be taken. For adults and teenage males it os preferred to be 9-12mg, pregnant women is to be 15mg, children from 1-10 years 3-9mg, and infants are preferred to take 2-3mg. So What are zinc supplement health benefits is now true. Also while seeing What are zinc supplement health benefits let me tell you that excess of anything is always harmful now this can be just anything. So excess of zinc in our body can prove to be fatal as it is toxic and reduces the function of iron and the iron levels in our body. So relating to What are zinc supplement health ...
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Intracellular zinc concentration and localization are strictly regulated by two main protein components, metallothioneins and membrane transporters. In mammalian cells, two membrane transporters family are involved in intracellular zinc homeostasis: the uptake transporters called SLC39 or Zip family and the efflux transporters called SLC30 or ZnT family. ZnT proteins are members of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family of metal ion transporters. From genomic databanks analysis, we identified the full-length sequences of two novel SLC30 genes, SLC30A8 and SLC30A10, extending the SLC30 family to ten members. We used an expressed sequence tag (EST) data mining strategy to determine the pattern of ZnT genes expression in tissues. In silico results obtained for already studied ZnT sequences were compared to experimental data, previously published. We determined an overall good correlation with expression pattern obtained by RT-PCR or immunomethods, particularly for highly tissue specific genes. The
TY - GEN. T1 - Investigations in a child with hyperzincaemia: Partial characterisation of an abnormal zinc binding protein, kinetics and studies of liver pathology. AU - Sampson, B AU - Kovar, I Z AU - Beattie, J H AU - McArdle, H J AU - Rauscher, A AU - Fairweather-Tait, S J AU - Jasani, B PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. KW - zinc. KW - zinc binding proteins. KW - liver. KW - growth disorders. M3 - Conference contribution. SN - 0-660-16404-3. SP - 484. EP - 486. BT - TRACE ELEMENTS IN MAN AND ANIMALS - 9. A2 - Fischer, PWF. A2 - Labbe, MR. A2 - Cockell, KA. A2 - Gibson, RS. PB - NATL RESEARCH COUNCIL CANADA. CY - OTTAWA. T2 - 9th International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals (TEMA 9). Y2 - 19 May 1996 through 24 May 1996. ER - ...
Poudel, an associate professor of community health education at UMass Amhersts School of Public Health and Health Sciences, with his colleagues epidemiologist Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson and Kalpana Poudel-Tandukar of the UMass Amherst College of Nursing, report in the current issue of Biological Trace Element Research that they observed a significant relationship between serum zinc concentration and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration in HIV-positive individuals: higher zinc concentrations were associated with lower CRP levels.. CRP is a biomarker of inflammation that has been associated with several parameters of HIV disease progression and the focus of extensive epidemiologic investigation because it is also an independent survival predictor, Poudel says.. The fact that several studies have suggested that zinc might be something important for us to be aware of led us to analyze this micronutrient in HIV-positive patients, Poudel says. We hypothesized that lower concentrations of ...
1. To investigate the influence of hormonal conditions upon the kinetics of zinc transport, specific radioactivity of 65Zn was determined in certain tissues and fluids from unmated or pregnant rabbits during the first half of gestation. 2. Compartmental analysis was used to find the simplest mathematical model that simulated satisfactorily tracer behaviour. Models were fitted to experimental results by a numerical procedure using a computer. 3. The kinetics of zinc exchange in most tissues investigated could adequately be described by a three-compartment model, in which total tissue zinc content was divided into a rapidly exchanging pool, with a turnover time of about 1h, and a slowly exchanging pool, the turnover time of which was in liver 15h, in peak-stage corpus luteum 8h, and in the other tissues 30-70h. 4. In rabbit endometrium zinc transport varied with hormonal conditions, the turnover rate being higher in non-pregnant than pregnant endometrium. 5. Uptake of 65Zn by uterine fluid was ...
Public Release: 27-Jan-2016 Tufts University, Health Sciences Campus BOSTON (Jan. 27, 2016)--The immune system weakens as the body ages, making older adults more susceptible to infections. Low levels of zinc impair immunity, particularly in older adults. A research team set out to determine if it was feasible to increase serum zinc concentrations in older…
Rationale : Current knowledge on the relationship between seminal zinc levels and different parameters of human semen is inconsistent. Objectives : To assess the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and semen quality using two markers; zinc concentration (Zn-C) and total zinc per ejaculate (Zn-T). Design : The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods : Semen parameters of 152 healthy men undergoing evaluation for subfertility were assessed. Seminal plasma zinc levels were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Zn-C, expressed as μg/mL, was multiplied by ejaculated volume to calculate Zn-T. Mann Whitney U test and Chi-square test were used to compare the zinc levels between different seminal groups when appropriate. Correlations were observed with Pearsons correlation of coefficient. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 10.0 for windows software. Results : Zn-C was low in 23 (15%) samples, while in 32 (21%) of the samples Zn-T was abnormal. The ...
There are a range of epidemiological studies that investigated the association between zinc exposure either through occupational activities or food supplementation and increased cancer risks. While no associations were found between occupational zinc exposure and excess cancer risk, the main association that has been made in this context is related to dietary/supplemental zinc and prostate cancer risk. In contrast to established clinical and experimental evidence that prostate cancer is associated with a decrease in the zinc uptake, numerous epidemiology studies and reports of the effect of dietary and supplemental zinc on the incidence of prostated cancer have provided divergent, inconsistent and inconclusive results which range from adverse effects of zinc, protective effects of zinc and no effect of zinc on the risk of prostate cancer. Clinical and experimental studies have established that zinc levels are decreased in prostate cancer and support a role of zinc as a tumor suppressor agent. ...
Plasma zinc concentrations during the first 2 years after diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a prospective study. ...
Zinc, like other neurotransmitters, has been shown to act as a transmembrane signal in neurons. Synaptically released zinc from presynaptic neurons enters the adjacent postsynaptic neurons and glial cells through voltage-gated zinc or calcium channels and functions as a cell-to-cell signaling modulator (Pan et al., 2011). Zinc has also been shown to be a novel second messenger for signal transduction (Yamasaki et al., 2007). To explore the mechanism by which zinc induces sperm activation, we compared the intracellular zinc distribution pattern before and after sperm activation using a membrane-permeable fluorescent probe of zinc, zinpyr-1 (Kd=0.7±0.1 nM). Surprisingly, we found that in non-activated spermatids zinc ions were highly enriched in vesicular structures even in the absence of the exogenous zinc (Fig. 2A). Labile zinc was also observed in the mitochondria in spermatids as indicated by the colocalization of zinpyr-1 and MitoTracker (Fig. 2A). Treatment with the zinc-specific chelator ...
Abstract. Approximately 10% of the U.S. population ingests ,50% of the current recommended daily allowance for zinc. We investigate the effect of zinc deficiency on DNA damage, expression of DNA-repair enzymes, and downstream signaling events in a cell-culture model. Low zinc inhibited cell growth of rat glioma C6 cells and increased oxidative stress. Low intracellular zinc increased DNA single-strand breaks (comet assay). Zinc-deficient C6 cells also exhibited an increase in the expression of the zinc-containing DNA-repair proteins p53 and apurinic endonuclease (APE). Repletion with zinc restored cell growth and reversed DNA damage. APE is a multifunctional protein that not only repairs DNA but also controls DNA-binding activity of many transcription factors that may be involved in cancer progression. The ability of the transcription factors p53, nuclear factor κB, and activator protein 1 (AP1) to bind to consensus DNA sequences was decreased markedly with zinc deficiency, as assayed by ...
Studies have evidenced that zinc metabolism is altered in presence of Down syndrome, and zinc seems to have a relationship with the metabolic alterations usually present in this syndrome. In this work, the Zn-related nutritional status of adolescents with Down syndrome was evaluated by means of biochemical parameters and diet. A case-control study was performed in a group of adolescents with Down syndrome (n = 30) and a control group (n = 32), of both sexes, aged 10 to 19 years. Diet evaluation was accomplished by using a 3-day dietary record, and the analysis was performed by the NutWin program, version 1.5. Antropometric measurements were performed for evaluation of body composition. The Zn-related nutritional status of the groups was evaluated by means of zinc concentration determinations in plasma and erythrocytes, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion, by using the method of atomic absorption spectroscopy. The diet of both groups presented adequate concentrations of lipids, proteins, ...
Last update on 2020-03-30 / Links & Images from Amazon Product Advertising API. Zinc is an essential trace element and it doesnt take a lot to help maintain optimal health. In fact, the National Institutes of Health recommends only 11 mg and 8 mg of Zinc respectively for males and females. Moreover, its also rare to experience severe Zinc deficiency as most diets already have more than enough Zinc.. On the other hand, mild Zinc deficiency is quite common for the general population and interestingly, it happens mostly because of inadequate Zinc intake. As one study suggests, 25% of the worlds population is at risk of zinc deficiency - and thats a conservative estimate. That being said, Zinc is notably good for the immune system and lack of Zinc typically results in immune related symptoms.. However, since Zinc is a component of more than 300 enzymes and an even greater number of other proteins (as per a 2010 study), lack of this mineral also inevitably causes emasculating side effects ...
Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor
Even though zinc is an essential requirement for a healthy body, too much zinc can be harmful. Excessive absorption of zinc can also suppress copper and iron absorption. The free zinc ion in solution is highly toxic to plants, invertebrates, and even vertebrate fish. The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) is well-established in the literature, and shows that just micromolar amounts of the free ion kills some organisms. A recent example showed 6 micromolar killing 93% of all daphnia in water.[4] Swallowing a post 1982 American one cent piece (97.5% zinc) can also cause damage to the stomach lining due to the high solubility of the zinc ion in the acidic stomach.[5] Zinc toxicity, mostly in the form of the ingestion of US pennies minted after 1982, is commonly fatal in dogs where it causes a severe hemolytic anemia.[6] In pet parrots zinc is highly toxic and poisoning can often be fatal[7]. There is evidence of induced copper deficiency at low intakes of 100-300 mg Zn/d. The USDA RDA is 15 mg Zn/d. ...
Thirty-four HIV/AIDS patients at various stages of disease progression volunteered to manage their health using a nutritional supplement that contained several micronutrients that included a 15 nig daily dose of elemental zinc. This initial publication only focuses on trends in the serum zinc levels and the observed biochemical changes following intervention, considering the critical role this trace element plays in human immunity. At baseline and after 30 months of follow-up, the patients serum zinc levels were determined as was their clinical status. Four women who were found to be HIV negative at baseline and who had lost their husbands to HIV/AIDS, yet they had regularly had un-protected sex with them, had a mean serum zinc level of 116.2 ± 32.7 meg/100 ml. The serum zinc levels of asymptomatic, moderately symptomatic and severely symptomatic HIV/AIDS patients in the cohort reduced from baseline to post intervention levels of 92.5+12.1 to 78.0 + 8.2 meg/100 ml (P = 0.056); 81.9+ 17.6 to ...
And lastly, should you get a zinc blood test … Trace minerals are a group of tests that measure specific minerals, mostly in the blood, but at times in the urine or another body tissue or fluid. Zinc is vital for the proper functioning of the skin, brain, central nervous system, immune system, gastrointestinal tract, musculoskeletal system, reproductive system, and more. Common symptoms include increased rates of diarrhea. Symptoms Of Zinc Deficiency - Impaired Brain Functions. Zinc deficiency needs to be identified prior to treating it. To find out if there is zinc deficiency in the body, try the so-called tasting test at home. Quite deficient: no immediate taste is noticed but, within the ten seconds of the test, a … If the liquid seems sweet and has a pleasant taste to you, or it seems like ordinary water - it means that the body needs more Zn. Clinical test for Zinc deficiency, transient neonatal offered by Laboratorio de Genetica Clinica SL Zinc tolerance test. A normal serum zinc level ...
In order for your immune system to function properly, you need to support it with proper nutrition, nutritional supplements and herbs. It is important that you eat more fresh fruit and vegetables (preferably organic) that are rich in vitamins, esp. vitamin C, and minerals, esp. zinc. Zinc may be the most important micro nutrient for your immune system. It is needed for the stimulation of the white blood cells that are important elements of your defense system. People who are deficient in zinc are more susceptible to infections. Zinc works in synergy with vitamin C and in order to be effective in your body it must be taken with its co-factor amino acid Histidine. Taken alone, zinc may be ineffective as the foods you eat interfere with its absorption, especially when you are a vegetarian. The recommended dose is 15 mg per day with up to 1000 mg vitamin C and 100-500 mg Histidine. The other important vitamin for the immune system is the vitamin D3 which works in the body as a potent antibiotic. ...
In order for your immune system to function properly, you need to support it with proper nutrition, nutritional supplements and herbs. It is important that you eat more fresh fruit and vegetables (preferably organic) that are rich in vitamins, esp. vitamin C, and minerals, esp. zinc. Zinc may be the most important micro nutrient for your immune system. It is needed for the stimulation of the white blood cells that are important elements of your defense system. People who are deficient in zinc are more susceptible to infections. Zinc works in synergy with vitamin C and in order to be effective in your body it must be taken with its co-factor amino acid Histidine. Taken alone, zinc may be ineffective as the foods you eat interfere with its absorption, especially when you are a vegetarian. The recommended dose is 15 mg per day with up to 1000 mg vitamin C and 100-500 mg Histidine. The other important vitamin for the immune system is the vitamin D3 which works in the body as a potent antibiotic. ...
In order for your immune system to function properly, you need to support it with proper nutrition, nutritional supplements and herbs. It is important that you eat more fresh fruit and vegetables (preferably organic) that are rich in vitamins, esp. vitamin C, and minerals, esp. zinc. Zinc may be the most important micro nutrient for your immune system. It is needed for the stimulation of the white blood cells that are important elements of your defense system. People who are deficient in zinc are more susceptible to infections. Zinc works in synergy with vitamin C and in order to be effective in your body it must be taken with its co-factor amino acid Histidine. Taken alone, zinc may be ineffective as the foods you eat interfere with its absorption, especially when you are a vegetarian. The recommended dose is 15 mg per day with up to 1000 mg vitamin C and 100-500 mg Histidine. The other important vitamin for the immune system is the vitamin D3 which works in the body as a potent antibiotic. ...
Zinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal range. However, since a decrease in the serum concentration is only detectable after long-term or severe depletion, serum zinc is not a reliable biomarker for zinc status. Common symptoms include increased rates of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria.[citation needed] Zinc deficiency affects the skin and gastrointestinal tract; and the central nervous, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems. Zinc deficiency in humans is caused by reduced dietary intake, inadequate absorption, increased loss, or increased body system utilization. The most common cause is reduced dietary intake. In the U.S., the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is 8 mg/day for women and 11 mg/day for men. Zinc plays an essential role in numerous biochemical pathways. The highest concentration of dietary zinc is found in oysters, meat, beans, and nuts. Increasing the amount of zinc in the soil and thus ...
In a report, the effect of delivery mode (cesarean section or vaginal delivery) was studied on maternal and newborn Mg and Zn blood serum levels. While maternal Mg and Zn levels did not differ before delivery, the plasma Zn level significantly decreased in women who underwent vaginal delivery, relative to the zinc levels of women with caesarean section. This is probably due to the high stress of skeletal muscles and uterine muscles during childbirth. In another study, plasma zinc levels lower than average were associated with complications during pregnancy and during labor and delivery.6, 7. ...
According to the reference(1), concentration of total Zn in root of wheat seedlings cytoplasm can be 0.4mM (i.e. about 25mg/L). However, based on a widely used recipe of plant growing medium -- Murashige and Skoog salt(2), Zn concentration at 0.03 mM (1.95mg/L of Zn2+) will be enough for many kinds of plants. I am not sure what plant your are testing and what the environment you are applying on the plant, both would influence your experimental result. But generally speaking, plant in 0.1mg/l solution would probably show one or several Zn deficiency symptoms, like: young leaves growth reduction; leaf margin distorted or puckered; light sensitive and interveinel choloroses in leaves; retardation of stem growth(3). However I did not find reference about the effects of excessive Zn for plant, probably because in nature, the problem for plants is deficiency of Zn rather than excess of it. I would like to know your experimental results, especially the one about 100mg/L Zn. About the function of Zn, ...
TEXTBOOKS. McGrath JA, Bleck O. Acrodermatitis Enteropathica. In: NORD Guide to Rare Disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia, PA. 2003:94.. REVIEW ARTICLES. Chimienti F, Aouffen M, Favier A, et al. Zinc homeostasis-regulating proteins: new drug targets for triggering cell fate. Curr Drug Targets. 2003;4:323-38.. Perafan-Riveros C, Franca LF, Alves AC, et al. Acrodermatitis enteropathica: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol. 2002;19:426-31.. Bleck O, McGrath JA, South AP. Searching for candidate genes in the new millennium. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001;26:279-83.. Sehgal VN, Jain S. Acrodermatitis enteropathica. Clin Dermatol. 2000;18:745-48.. Fraker PJ, King LE, Laakko T, et al. The dynamic link between the integrity of the immune system and zinc status. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1399S-406S.. JOURNAL ARTICLES. de la Fuente-García A, Liy-Wong C, Küry S, Schmitt S, Jamall IS, Ocampo-Candiani Acrodermatitis Enteropathica: A Novel SLC39A4 Gene Mutation in a ...
Filteau, S M. and Woodward, B, The effect of severe protein deficiency on serum zinc concentration of mice fed a requirement level or a very high level of dietary zinc. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3299 ...
Author Summary Loss-of-function of the zinc transporter ZIP4 in the mouse intestine mimics the lethal human disease acrodermatitis enteropathica. This is a rare disease in humans that is not well understood. Our studies demonstrate the paramount importance of ZIP4 in the intestine in this disease and reveal that a root cause of lethality is disruption of the intestine stem cell niche and impaired function of the small intestine. This, in turn, leads to dramatic weight loss and death unless treated with exogenous zinc.
Indian Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Research; December 2013: Vol.-3, Issue-1 , 80-87 Original article : Effect of acute myocardial infarction on serum zinc level * DR. PRAVIN P. SHEKOKAR 1, DR. MRS. S. D. KAUNDINYA2 1Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Government Medical College, Akola, Collector Office Road, Akola. Pin 444001 (Maharashtra), India 2Professor & Head of Dept, Department of Physiology, Grant Government Medical College And Sir J.J. Hospital, Mumbai-8, India *Corrersponding author : Email: [email protected] Abstract: Introduction: Myocardial infarction is a common presentation of coronary artery disease. The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is of vital importance from the management and prognosis point of view. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate serum zinc level in acute myocardial infarction patients and to correlate it with biochemical parameter SGOT. Methods: In the present study 30 patients suffering from acute myocardial ...
Zinc has low toxicity, but high zinc levels from water stored in galvanized containers interfere with iron and copper metabolism. Wound healing is impaired with moderate zinc deficiency and is improved by zinc supplements. Impaired taste and smell, hair loss and night blindness are also features of severe zinc deficiency.. ...
The present study examines serum zinc concentrations in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) versus normal volunteers. Serum zinc levels were determined by means of an atomic absorption method. We found that serum zinc was significantly lower in the CFS patients than in the normal controls. There was a trend toward a significant negative correlation between serum zinc and the severity of CFS and there was a significant and negative correlation between serum zinc and the subjective experience of infection. We found that serum zinc was significantly and negatively correlated to the increase in the alpha2 protein fraction and positively correlated to decreases in the expression of mitogen-induced CD69+ (a T cell activation marker) on CD3+ as well as CD3+CD8+ T cells. These results show that CFS is accompanied by a low serum zinc status and that the latter is related to signs of inflammation and defects in early T cell activation pathways. Since zinc is a strong anti-oxidant, the present ...
zinc-binding protein: found in human milk; absence in cows milk implicated as cause of infant acrodermatitis (severe zinc deficiency); found in rat sperm tail
Acrodermatitis enteropathica is a rare inherited form of zinc deficiency, characterized by periorificial and acral dermatitis, alopecia, and diarrhea. .
Background: Previous work has implicated accumulation of Zn2+ as a contributor to ischemic brain injury, however the sources of toxic Zn2+ accumulation are not fully understood. Previous data report that ICV delivery of a Zn2+ chelator limited mild focal stroke (Neuroscience 115 (2002) 871-8). We have recently demonstrated substantial synaptic Zn2+ release following spreading depolarization (JCBFM 31 (2011) 1073-84), and thus it is possible that repetitive spreading depolarization_ known to occur following stroke_ could be a major source of toxic Zn2+. In the present study, we examined whether synaptic Zn2+ release contributes to neuronal injury in a murine focal stroke model.. Methods The effect of synaptic Zn2+ was assessed using mice lacking synaptic Zn2+, due to genetic deletion of the synaptic vesicle transporter ZnT3 (ZnT3 KO). Wild type C57Bl/6 mice were age and sex matched as controls. Mice were anesthetized with isofluorane and the cortical branch of the right middle cerebral artery was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The tonoplast-localized transporter OsHMA3 plays an important role in maintaining Zn homeostasis in rice. AU - Cai, Hongmei. AU - Huang, Sheng. AU - Che, Jing. AU - Yamaji, Naoki. AU - Ma, Jian Feng. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research (JSPS KAKENHI grant no. 16H06296 to JFM). We also acknowledge the National Key Research and Development Program of Funding Information: China (2016YFD0200108) and the China Scholarship Council for funding this work. Publisher Copyright: © 2019 The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.. PY - 2019/5. Y1 - 2019/5. N2 - In order to respond to fluctuating zinc (Zn) in the environment, plants must have a system to control Zn homeostasis. However, how plants maintain an appropriate level of Zn during their growth and development is still poorly understood. In this study, we found that OsHMA3, a tonoplast-localized transporter ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alterations in the chemotactic and respiratory burst responses of peripheral blood neutrophils from zinc deficient rats. AU - Sakanashi, T. M.. AU - Keen, Carl L. AU - Hong, K. H.. AU - Gershwin, M. Eric. AU - Fletcher, M. P.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Studies of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) functions in small animals have primarily been limited to elicited peritoneal PMNs. We have developed a model of induced acute inflammation in rats that provides a means of studying the functions of circulating PMNs. Using this model, we studied the influence of zinc deficiency on the chemotactic and respiratory burst capabilities of circulating PMNs responding to an inflammatory stimuli. Male rats were fed a zinc deficient (Zn-D) diet (0.5 μg Zn/g) or a control diet (25 μg Zn/g) either ad libitum (C) or in restricted amounts (R-C) for 6 weeks. PMNs were elicited by an intraperitoneal injection of glycogen and the circulating PMN response monitored for 4 h. The kinetics of peripheral ...
A brief summary of the research carried out on the problem of geophagia is reported in this paper. Geophagia was a common finding among Turkish children and women in villages, associated with severe iron deficiency anemia in addition to zinc depletion. The syndrome characterized by geophagia, iron deficiency anemia, growth retardation, hypogonadism and zinc deficiency has been observed in both sexes in Turkey for several decades. Zinc deficiency has been also shown by our group in this syndrome. The decreased concentrations of zinc in serum, plasma, RBC, hair and urine were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Oral iron (both inorganic and radioactive iron) and zinc absorption tests were carried out with and without clay and revealed decreased iron and zinc absorption in some cases with prolonged geophagia. Therefore, malabsorption of iron and zinc was considered to be an additional and/or a new finding in the syndrome. Furthermore, Turkish clay most probably inhibits zinc absorption in a
Interaction between nanoparticles generated by zinc chloride treatment and oxidative responses in rat liver Inès Azzouz, Hamdi Trabelsi, Amel Hanini, Soumaya Ferchichi, Olfa Tebourbi, Mohsen Sakly, Hafedh AbdelmelekLaboratory of Integrative Physiology, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, Carthage University, TunisiaAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of zinc chloride (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) in rat liver in terms of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Zinc treatment increased zinc content in rat liver. Analysis of fluorescence revealed the presence of red fluorescence in the liver following zinc treatment. Interestingly, the co-exposure to zinc (3 mg/kg, ip) and selenium (0.20 mg/L, per os [by mouth]) led to a higher intensity of red fluorescence compared to zinc-treated rats. In addition, X-ray diffraction measurements carried out on liver fractions of zinc-treated rats point to the biosynthesis of zinc sulfide and/or selenide nanocomplexes at nearly 51
Abstract Background Zinc plays important roles in maintaining normal function of the prostate and in development of prostate malignancy. It has been demonstrated that prostate malignant epithelial cells contain much less cellular zinc than the surrounding normal epithelial cells. However, the pathway(s) which leads to lower zinc accumulation in malignant prostate epithelial cells is poorly understood. In this study, the zinc homeostatic features of two human prostate epithelial cell lines (non-tumorigenic, RWPE1, and tumorigenic, RWPE2) were investigated. Effects of over-expression of ZIP1 in RWPE2 on cell proliferation and apoptosis were also studied. Results RWPE2 accumulated less intracellular zinc than RWPE1 due to the decreased zinc uptake activity. The mRNA expression of ZIP1 and ZIP3 in RWPE1 and RWPE2 was comparable. However, the protein expression of ZIP1 in RWPE2 was lower than that in RWPE1. ZIP3 was detected in a lysosomal compartment of RWPE2 while no ZIP3 was detected in the same
Zinc affects both non-specific and specific immune functions. In terms of non-specific immunity, it affects the integrity of epithelial barrier and function of neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. With regard to specific immunity, both lymphopenia and declined lymphocyte function occur in zinc deficiency. Although most of these effects are derived from experimental animals, studies in human subjects have also shown that altered zinc status can affect immune competence. For example, elderly subjects who received supplemental zinc demonstrated improvement in delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity, number of circulating T cells and serum IgG antibody response to tetanus toxoid. In other studies of experimentally induced mild zinc deficiency among adults, a reduction in serum thymulin and specific subpopulations of lymphocytes occurred during zinc depletion, and these returned to normal levels following zinc repletion. Although specific links between altered immunity and different infections are not ...
Some evidence suggests zinc may be helpful for age related macular degeneration, as an appetite stimulant, to help with bad breath, helps boils, burns, and cancer sores (indeed many skin conditions), and helps with cancer prevention and chemotherapy side effects. Zinc seems to help anything involving brain function or lack of it, serious diseases like celiac, cystic fibrosis, Downs syndrome, or any disorder affecting the immune system, including HIV, malaria, and parasitic infections. Diabetics have better blood sugar control with adequate zinc intake, and it can reduce nerve pain. Zinc supplementation has shown improved HDL to LDL ratios, improves thyroid function, helps inflammatory bowel disease and can improve kidney and liver function. Zinc seems to be important in reducing symptoms of inflammation, like rheumatic diseases, psoriasis, and vaginitis to name a few. Zinc may be effective for the treatment of warts. SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY. Although zinc deficiency wasnt recognized until 1961, ...
Zinc (Zn2+) plays a pivotal role in many fundamental cellular processes. Zinc homeostasis is coordinated by zinc import, export and distribution. Both free and chelated zinc are stored in different intracellular spaces, forming a dynamic pool of coordination and interactions. Some selectively targeted genetically encoded sensors revealed the heterogeneous distribution of zinc in the cytoplasm, nucleus and most organelles, including the endoplas-mic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria [1, 2]. Compared to other cell types, pancreatic beta cells contain exceptionally high zinc content; specifically, the insulin-storing vesicle may contain up to 70% of the total beta-cell zinc, the major stored form of which is zinc-insulin crystals with a molecular ratio of 2:6 [3]. By quantitative electron probe microanalysis of thin, dried cryosec-tions of individual secretory vesicles, Foster and his colleagues found that the beta-cell zinc concentration in dense-core vesicles reached the 10-2 mol/L ...
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the best known microorganism and therefore widely used in many branches of industry. This study aims to investigate the accumulation of three inorganic zinc salts. Our research presents the ability of this yeast to absorb zinc from liquid medium and such enriched biomass use as a potential source of microelements in animal and/or human nutrition. It was found that the addition of different zinc forms, i.e. zinc nitrate, zinc sulphate and zinc chloride in fixed concentrations of 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg.100 ml-1 did not affect the amount of dry yeast biomass yielded, i.e. 1.0 - 1.2 g of yeast cells from 100 ml of cultivation medium, while higher presence of zinc solutions caused significantly lower yield of yeast biomass. The highest amount of zinc in yeast cells was achieved when added in the form of zinc nitrate in concentration of 200 mg.100 ml-1 YPD medium. The increment of intracellular zinc was up to 18.5 mg.g-1 of yeast biomass ...
Zinc (Zn) deficiency associated with low dietary intake is a well-documented public health problem, resulting in serious health and socioeconomic problems. Field experiments were conducted with wheat to test the role of both soil and foliar application of ZnSO4 in Zn concentration of whole grain and grain fractions (e.g., bran, embryo and endosperm) in 3 locations. Foliar application of ZnSO4 was realized at different growth stages (e.g., stem elongation, boot, milk, dough stages) to study the effect of timing of foliar Zn application on grain Zn concentration. The rate of foliar Zn application at each growth stage was 4 kg of ZnSO4·7H2O ha-1. Laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS was used to follow the localization of Zn within grain. Soil Zn application at a rate of 50 kg of ZnSO4·7H2O ha-1 was effective in increasing grain Zn concentration in the Zn-deficient location, but not in the locations without soil Zn deficiency. In all locations, foliar application of Zn significantly increased Zn ...
Zinc absorption in the small intestine is one of the main mechanisms regulating the systemic homeostasis of this essential trace element. This review summarizes the key aspects of human zinc homeostasis and distribution. In particular, current knowledge on human intestinal zinc absorption and the influence of diet-derived factors on bioaccessibility and bioavailability as well as intrinsic luminal and basolateral factors with an impact on zinc uptake are discussed. Their investigation is increasingly performed using in vitro cellular intestinal models, which are continually being refined and keep gaining importance for studying zinc uptake and transport via the human intestinal epithelium. The vast majority of these models is based on the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 in combination with other relevant components of the intestinal epithelium, such as mucin-secreting goblet cells and in vitro digestion models, and applying improved compositions of apical and basolateral media to mimic the in ...
Zinc is an essential trace element for humans and plays a critical role both as a structural component of proteins and as a cofactor in about 300 enzymes. Zinc deficiency was, for example, reported to affect the immune response and the endocrine system and to induce and modify brain disorders. Besides hereditary zinc deficiency, zinc deficiency - at least in mild forms - is nowadays a very abundant health issue. Today, an estimated 20% of the population worldwide is at risk of developing zinc deficiency with a high number also in industrialized countries. The major risk factors to develop zinc deficiency in industrialized nations are aging and pregnancy. Mechanistic and behavioral studies on the effects of zinc deficiency have mainly been performed using animal models. However, in combination with the few studies on human subjects, a picture emerges that shows importance of adequate nutritional zinc supply for many processes in the body. Especially the immune system and brain development and function
The yeast ADR1 protein contains two zinc finger domains that are essential for its role in transcriptional activation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2). These domains are thought to function as DNA-binding structures. An ADR1-beta-galactosidase fusion protein made in Escherichia coli and containing the finger domains of ADR1 binds in vitro in a zinc-dependent manner to DNA fragments containing the two ADH2 upstream activation sequences. The strongest binding is to upstream activation sequence 1, a 22-base-pair palindrome. ...
Despite a growing body of evidence implicating T-channels in nociception (Todorovic et al., 2001; Bourinet et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2007), the cellular and molecular basis of their function in nociceptors is poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that reducing agents sensitize nociceptors both in vitro and in vivo in a manner that is dependent on Cav3.2. In current-clamp experiments on acutely dissociated rat DRG neurons, we show that l-cys lowers the threshold for excitability in C-type cells that express Cav3.2 currents but not in C-type cells expressing only HVA Ca2+ currents. Furthermore, we show that a similar form of sensitization is present in Cav3.2 current-containing, C-type nociceptors from wild-type mice but not from Cav3.2−/− mice. Additionally, we demonstrated that reducing agents induce thermal sensitization when injected into peripheral receptive fields in vivo, in which putative Cav3.2 channels are located on nociceptor endings. Importantly, this ...
Despite a growing body of evidence implicating T-channels in nociception (Todorovic et al., 2001; Bourinet et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2007), the cellular and molecular basis of their function in nociceptors is poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that reducing agents sensitize nociceptors both in vitro and in vivo in a manner that is dependent on Cav3.2. In current-clamp experiments on acutely dissociated rat DRG neurons, we show that l-cys lowers the threshold for excitability in C-type cells that express Cav3.2 currents but not in C-type cells expressing only HVA Ca2+ currents. Furthermore, we show that a similar form of sensitization is present in Cav3.2 current-containing, C-type nociceptors from wild-type mice but not from Cav3.2−/− mice. Additionally, we demonstrated that reducing agents induce thermal sensitization when injected into peripheral receptive fields in vivo, in which putative Cav3.2 channels are located on nociceptor endings. Importantly, this ...
Selan Plus Zinc Oxide with NDC 0159-2200 is a a human over the counter drug product labeled by Trividia Manufacturing Solutions, Inc. The generic name of Selan Plus Zinc Oxide is selan plus zinc oxide.
Eseja: Classificaion of Scandium and Zinc are not transitional metal base on their general chemistry and properties. Introduction The three series of elements s
Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is caused by loss of function mutations in the TRPML1 ion channel. We previously reported that tissue zinc levels in MLIV were abnormally elevated; however, the mechanism behind this pathologic accumulation remains unknown. Here, we identify transmembrane (TMEM)-163 prot …
178 patients were treated with zinc sulphate, 3x200mg p.o. for 6 months whilst 129 patients received a placebo. Both groups were comparable in terms of duration of disease (diameter 3,7 yrs), extent of alopecia (diameter 52% of the scalp) and age at first manifestation of the disease (diameter 28, 5 yrs). However the number of atopic patients was higher in the placebo group (45%) rather than the zinc treated group (35%). After 6 months the data of 108 of the zinc-treated patients and 83 of the placebo group were analysed. The zinc-treated group showed an overall response of 44%, complete remission in 13% and partial remission in 31% of cases. The control group showed complete remission in 4% and partial remission in 19% of cases. The authors also noted an even greater beneficial effect in the treated group for those patients whose alopecia was of shorter duration and more limited in extent. They recommended a trial with zinc treatment in such cases ...
D4185-17 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Metals in Workplace Atmospheres by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry trace metals content~ sample collection~ flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry~
Celiac disease (CD) is apparently changing in its clinical presentation, from chronic diarrhea and malnutrition to a silent clinic at older ages. The basal enteropathy of CD induces macro-and micronutrient malabsorption. Described micronutrient deficiencies in CD include: Fe, Zn, Cu, folate, Ca, vitamin E, D, B12 and B6, with complex transporter mechanisms altered. Ferropenic anemia has been described in CD as the exclusive sign and the most common extraintestinal sign. Zn deficiency is frequent in CD, associated with growth delay and immune alterations. Even though the main basis for vitamin D metabolic status is the activation of subdermal vitamin precursors by sun-UVB rays, the small bowel compromise may affect activity and vitamin D absorption. Pathophysiology of vitamin B12 deficiency in CD is unknown; it must be suspected in CD patients presenting neurological and haematological alterations. Copper deficiency has been described mainly in adult CD patients. Micronutrient deficiencies should be
Deficiency in zinc can occur due to not getting enough zinc through our food and not being able to absorb zinc properly because of poor gut health. Symptoms of zinc deficiency can manifest themselves in negative reactions like fatigue, frequently falling ill, stunted growth, poor concentration, and inability to heal wounds.. The highest levels of zinc are found in foods high in protein. Vegan and vegetarian diets are at a higher risk of zinc deficiency since both diets are naturally lower in zinc than diets that include protein from animal sources. However, plant-based diets can still meet zinc requirements through a variety of zinc sources. Plant-based rich sources of zinc are grains, beans & legumes, raw cacao, nuts & seeds, nutritional yeast, and oats. Keep in mind when consuming grains, beans, and legumes, as these also contain phytates which block zinc absorption. Thus, it is necessary to soak these before cooking and consuming them.. If you are an individual that has a leaky gut, suffer ...
To evaluate the physiological responses of wheat to zinc (Zn) fertilizer application under drought stress, pot and field experiments were conducted on wheat plants grown under different soil moistures and treated with soil and foliar Zn applications. Photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant content, Zn element concentration and the transcription level of genes involved in antioxidant biosynthesis were analyzed. Zn application increased SPAD and Fv/Fm of wheat flag leaves, while decreased lipid peroxidation levels and H2O2 content. Zn application increased the antioxidant content (ascorbate, reduced glutathione, total phenolic and total flavonoid) of wheat flag leaves, and enhanced the relative expression levels of two antioxidant enzyme genes, four ascorbate-glutathione cycle genes, and two flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes under drought stress. Soil Zn application increased grain yield and Zn concentration by 10.5% and 15.8%, 22.6% and 9.7%, and 28.2% and 32.8% under adequate water supply,
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1. The effect of erythropoietin and some trace elements on superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of dialysis patients have been studied. 2. SOD activity of dialysis patients was found to be decreased. 3. The effect of erythropoietin on SOD activity was not found in vitro. 4. Plasma and erythrocyte aluminum increased in dialysis patients, but no significant change in plasma copper was found. 5. Plasma zinc levels of dialysis patients were found to be decreased. 6. These results suggest that inhibition of erythrocyte SOD activity of dialysis patients may contribute to their anemia. ...
Poligrip Zinc-free denture adhesive is available from online sellers including Amazon.com. According to Poligrip, there has recently been a shortage in stores due to difficulty getting their active...
Acid-sensing ion channel 1b (ASIC1b) is a proton-gated Na(+) channel mostly expressed in peripheral sensory neurons. To date, the functional significance of ASIC1b in these cells is unclear due to the lack of a specific inhibitor/blocker. A better understanding of the regulation of ASIC1b may provid …
An individuals zinc status has a significant impact on the immune system, and zinc deficiency, as well as supplementation, modulates immune function. To investigate the effects of zinc on different leukocyte subsets, we used microarray technology to analyze and compare the changes in mRNA expression in cell culture models of monocytes (THP-1), T cells (Jurkat), and B cells (Raji), in response to supplementation for 40 h with 50 µM zinc or 2.5 µM of the membrane-permeant zinc chelator TPEN [N,N,N′,N′- tetrakis-(2-pyridyl-methyl)ethylenediamine], respectively. In each cell type, several hundred genes were identified to be zinc sensitive, but only a total of seven genes were commonly regulated in all three cell lines. The majority of those genes were involved in zinc homeostasis, and none in immune function. Nevertheless, further analysis revealed that zinc affects entire functional networks of genes that are related to proinflammatory cytokines and cellular survival. Although the zinc-regulated
Despite the known importance of zinc for human immunity, molecular insights into its roles have remained limited. Here we report a novel autosomal recessive disease characterized by absent B cells, agammaglobulinemia and early onset infections in five unrelated families. The immunodeficiency results from hypomorphic mutations of SLC39A7, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum-to-cytoplasm zinc transporter ZIP7. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis we have precisely modeled ZIP7 deficiency in mice. Homozygosity for a null allele caused embryonic death, but hypomorphic alleles reproduced the block in B cell development seen in patients. B cells from mutant mice exhibited a diminished concentration of cytoplasmic free zinc, increased phosphatase activity and decreased phosphorylation of signaling molecules downstream of the pre-B cell and B cell receptors. Our findings highlight a specific role for cytosolic Zn(2+) in modulating B cell receptor signal strength and positive selection.
Participants (n = 20) ranged from 19-44 years old; 52% were black or African American. Among those completing the trial (13/17, PC-1005; 3/3, placebo), 11/17 reported liking the gel overall; 7 recommended reducing the volume. Adverse events, which were primarily mild and/or unrelated, were comparable between groups. Low systemic MIV-150 levels were observed, without accumulation. Plasma zinc levels were unchanged from baseline. Seven of seven CVLs collected 4-hour postdose demonstrated antiviral (HIV, human papillomavirus) activity. High baseline CVL anti-herpes-simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) activity precluded assessment of postdose activity.. CONCLUSIONS ...
Post a Comment for The impact of zinc supplementation on morbidity from diarrhea and respiratory infections among rural Guatemalan children ...
Zinc deficiency is usually due to insufficient dietary intake, but can be associated with malabsorption, acrodermatitis enteropathica, chronic liver disease, chronic renal disease, sickle cell disease, diabetes, malignancy, and other chronic illnesses.[10] Groups at risk of zinc deficiency include the elderly, children in developing countries, and those with renal dysfunction. In the United States, a federal survey of food consumption determined that for women and men over the age of 19, average consumption was 9.7 and 14.2 mg/day, respectively. For women, 17% consumed less than the EAR, for men 11%. The percentages below EAR increased with age.[206] The most recent published update of the survey (NHANES 2013-2014) reported lower averages - 9.3 and 13.2 mg/day - again with intake decreasing with age.[207]. Symptoms of mild zinc deficiency are diverse.[208] Clinical outcomes include depressed growth, diarrhea, impotence and delayed sexual maturation, alopecia, eye and skin lesions, impaired ...
Two series of Zn-ZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by ion exchanging two commercial zeolites with different Si/Al ratios (40 and 15) with increasing Zn loadings. The nature of the Zn sites in the zeolite was studied by spectroscopy using laboratory and synchrotron techniques. All the evidences suggest that catalytic activity is associated with [Zn(H2O)n(OH)]+ species located in the exchange positions of the materials with little or no contribution of ZnO or metallic Zn. The effect of Zn/Al ratio on their catalytic performance in methanol conversion to aromatics has been investigated. In all cases, higher Zn content causes an increase in the yield of aromatics while keeping the production of alkanes low. For similar Zn contents, high densities of Al sites favour the hydrogen transfer reactions and alkane formation whereas in samples with low Al contents, and thus higher Zn/Al ratio, the dehydrogenation reactions in which molecular hydrogen is released are favoured ...
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The yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires certain elements for the growth and development of healthy cultures. The divalent cation, zinc is of paramount importance to this yeast, as zinc is a structurally and functionally essential metal that cannot be replaced by any other element. Zinc accumulation by S. cerevisiae is a biphasic response, consisting of a rapid metabolism independent and a metabolism dependent phase. Metabolism-independent metal ion accumulation is a physical process, whereby the ions are associated with the cell wall. This stage of uptake is often referred to as biosorption and zinc uptake is influenced by temperature, pH, biomass concentration and the presence of competing ions. The second phase of zinc uptake (metabolism-dependent metal ion accumulation) concerns the intracellular accumulation of the ions. This biological accumulation, often abbreviated to bioaccumulation, is slower than biosorption as the zinc ions are transported into the cell, via the plasma membrane ...
In this open-label clinical study, 72 patients in various stages of AMD received a daily supplement of 50 mg zinc sulphate and 1 mg cupric sulphate for three months. During the course of the study, six venous blood samples were collected. One sample was collected prior to zinc supplementation and served as the baseline sample. Three samples were collected at the end of months 1, 2 and 3 of the three-month period of zinc supplementation. To check for any reversible effects of zinc on complement activation we collected a two blood sample after ending the zinc administration. From one month prior to zinc supplementation through the end of month 5, the patients were prohibited to take any type of other nutritional supplement. All patients were genotype for the CFH variant Y402H (rs1061170) and ARMS2 (A69S; rs10490924). We performed color fundus photography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography to assist AMD grading based on the 5-grade Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging ...
Highly effective antiviral treatment can suppress HIV-1 infection, but the chronic effects of HIV-1-related viral proteins, including gp120 and Tat, on organs such as the lungs can be damaging. HIV-1 transgenic rodent models are useful for studying the systemic effects of these proteins independently of viral infection. We have previously shown that HIV-1 transgene expression (and therefore, HIV-1-related protein expression) in rats decreases alveolar macrophage zinc levels and phagocytic capacity by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that HIV-1 transgene expression induces chronic inflammation and zinc sequestration within the liver and thereby decreases zinc bioavailability in the lung. We examined the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), the zinc storage protein, metallothionein (MT1), and the zinc exporter, ZNT1 in the livers and the lungs of wild type and HIV-1 transgenic rats ± dietary zinc supplementation. In addition, we measured zinc levels, the
Highly effective antiviral treatment can suppress HIV-1 infection, but the chronic effects of HIV-1-related viral proteins, including gp120 and Tat, on organs such as the lungs can be damaging. HIV-1 transgenic rodent models are useful for studying the systemic effects of these proteins independently of viral infection. We have previously shown that HIV-1 transgene expression (and therefore, HIV-1-related protein expression) in rats decreases alveolar macrophage zinc levels and phagocytic capacity by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that HIV-1 transgene expression induces chronic inflammation and zinc sequestration within the liver and thereby decreases zinc bioavailability in the lung. We examined the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), the zinc storage protein, metallothionein (MT1), and the zinc exporter, ZNT1 in the livers and the lungs of wild type and HIV-1 transgenic rats ± dietary zinc supplementation. In addition, we measured zinc levels, the
Zinc supplementation. In Bangladesh zinc supplementation reduced the duration and severity of diarrhea in children with cholera ... Oral rehydration therapy, zinc supplementation, intravenous fluids, antibiotics[2][6]. Frequency. 3-5 million people a year[2] ... Cholera-Zinc Treatment (Report). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). November 28, 2011. Archived from the ... Zinc supplementation is useful in children.[6] In severe cases, intravenous fluids, such as Ringer's lactate, may be required, ...
Zinc finger protein selection[edit]. To select zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) for protein engineering, methods adapted from the ... "Highly specific zinc finger proteins obtained by directed domain shuffling and cell-based selection". Proceedings of the ... "Engineering zinc finger protein transcription factors: the therapeutic relevance of switching endogenous gene expression on or ...
Zinc-based white metals[edit]. ZAMAK claims that the zinc potmetals are also referred to as "white metal". Here in the UK, I've ... Here's a source that shows a few recipes of white metal that contain zinc.[1] Note that two are zinc based. I know that it ... However I've never heard the term applied to zincs, nor can I think of a lead alloy with significant zinc in it. Anyone got a ...
Zinc phthalocyanine[edit]. A liposomal formulation of zinc phthalocyanine (CGP55847) has undergone clinical trials (Phase I/II ... Zinc and copper cationic derivatives have been investigated. The positively charged zinc complexed PC is less photodynamically ... A zinc-metallated seco-porphyrazine has a high quantum singlet oxygen yield (ΦΔ 0.74). This expanded porphyrin-like ... By contrast, in the higher/expanded π-systems, zinc-chelated dyes form complexes with good to high results.[5] ...
It consists of a central zinc anode dipped into a porous earthenware pot containing a zinc sulfate solution. The porous pot is ... Because of the tendency of the acid mixture to react with the zinc, a mechanism is provided to raise the zinc electrode clear ... Using powdered zinc gives the anode a greater surface area. These batteries were put on the market in 1959.[citation needed] ... wherein minute short-circuits would form around impurities in the zinc, causing the zinc to degrade. The latter problem was ...
... "nothing else but unmeltable zinc" and that zinc was a "half ripe metal."[101] However some earlier high zinc, low iron brasses ... Early copper-zinc alloys[edit]. In West Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean early copper-zinc alloys are now known in small ... By 1513 metallic zinc ingots from India and China were arriving in London and pellets of zinc condensed in furnace flues at the ... Brass made during the early Roman period seems to have varied between 20% to 28% wt zinc.[70] The high content of zinc in ...
Zinc-fingers[edit]. Main article: Zinc finger nuclease. Zinc-finger nucleases consist of DNA binding domains that can precisely ... as opposed to the time consuming assembly of constructs required by zinc-fingers or TALENs.[7] The coupled Cas9 will cause a ... "Targeted gene knockout in mammalian cells by using engineered zinc-finger nucleases". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... target a DNA sequence.[3] Each zinc finger can recognize codons of a desired DNA sequence, and therefore can be modularly ...
Zinc[edit]. Brass spaces contain zinc, which is extremely counterproductive in type metal. Even a tiny amount - less than 1% - ... Brass and zinc should therefore be removed before remelting. The same applies to aluminium, although this metal will float on ...
... (brand name Parkinsan) is an antiparkinson agent marketed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.[2][3][1] While its exact mechanism of action is not well characterized,[2] it is believed to be an NMDA receptor antagonist,[4][5] but also promoting the synthesis of dopamine.[6] Because it provides additional benefits relative to existing treatments, it probably does not precisely mimic the mechanism of an existing known treatment.[6][7] ...
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA4 gene.[5][6] GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified.[6] ...
... and zinc (35%), among others (table).[14][15] When lentils are cooked by boiling, protein content declines to 9% of total ...
Typical of leaf vegetables, Malabar spinach is high in vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, and calcium. It is low in calories by volume, but high in protein per calorie. The succulent mucilage is a particularly rich source of soluble fiber. Among many other possibilities, Malabar spinach may be used to thicken soups or stir-fries with garlic and chili peppers.. In the Philippines, the leaves of this vegetable is one of the main ingredients in an all vegetable dish called utan that is served over rice. It is usually cooked with sardines, onions, garlic, and parsley.. In Karnataka Cuisine (Karavali and Malnad regions), the leaves and stems are used to make Basale Soppu Saaru/Curry (Especially in combination with Jackfruit seed) and soupy raita with curd. Beary Muslims of coastal Karnataka prepare Basalede kunhi Pindi (small rice dumplings smeared in gravy prepared from Malabar spinach and dried tuna ). In Bengali cuisine it is widely used both in a vegetable dish, cooked with red pumpkin, and in ...
zinc deficiency zinc toxicity Manganese 00002.3002.3 11; NE Trace A cofactor in enzyme functions Grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, ... "Zinc-Fact Sheet for Health Professionals". National Institutes of Health. 2016.. *^ a b c Schlenker, Eleanor; Gilbert, Joyce ... Zinc 00011.00011 40; 25 Trace Pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase ...
Broad beans (Amharic: baqella) are one of the most popular legumes in Ethiopia. They are tightly coupled with every aspect of Ethiopian life. They are mainly used as an alternative to peas to prepare a flour called shiro, which is used to make shiro wot (a stew almost ubiquitous in Ethiopian dishes). During the fasting period in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church tradition called Tsome Filliseta, Tsome arbeå, Tsome Tahsas, and Tsome Hawaria (which are in August, end of February-April, mid-November-beginning of January and June-July), two uncooked spicy vegetable dishes are made using broad beans. The first is Hilibet, a thin, white paste of broad bean flour mixed with pieces of onion, green pepper, garlic, and other spices based on personal taste. The second is siljo, a fermented, sour, spicy thin yellow paste of broad bean flour. Both are served with other stews and injera (a pancake-like bread) during lunch and dinner. Baqella nifro (boiled broad beans) are eaten as a snack during some holidays ...
In Indian cuisine, ginger is a key ingredient, especially in thicker gravies, as well as in many other dishes, both vegetarian and meat-based. Ginger has a role in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. It is an ingredient in traditional Indian drinks, both cold and hot, including spiced masala chai. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Fresh ginger together with peeled garlic cloves is crushed or ground to form ginger garlic masala. Fresh, as well as dried, ginger is used to spice tea and coffee, especially in winter. In south India, "sambharam" is a summer yogurt drink made with ginger as a key ingredient, along with green chillies, salt and curry leaves. Ginger powder is used in food preparations intended primarily for pregnant or nursing women, the most popular one being katlu, which is a mixture of gum resin, ghee, nuts, and sugar. Ginger is also consumed in candied and pickled form. In Japan, ginger is pickled to make ...
Bitter melon is generally consumed cooked in the green or early yellowing stage. The young shoots and leaves of the bitter melon may also be eaten as greens. In Chinese cuisine, bitter melon (苦瓜, pinyin: kǔguā, POJ: khó͘-koe) is valued for its bitter flavor, typically in stir-fries (often with pork and douchi), soups, dim sum, and herbal teas (gohyah tea). It has also been used in place of hops as the bittering ingredient in some beers in China and Okinawa.[3] Bitter melon is commonly eaten throughout India. In North Indian cuisine, it is often served with yogurt on the side to offset the bitterness, used in curry such as sabzi or stuffed with spices and then cooked in oil. In South Indian cuisine, it is used in the dishes thoran/thuvaran (mixed with grated coconut), mezhukkupuratti (stir-fried with spices), theeyal (cooked with roasted coconut) and pachadi (which is considered a medicinal food for diabetics). Other popular recipes include preparations with curry, deep-frying with ...
Usually the deep purple roots of beetroot are eaten boiled, roasted or raw, and either alone or combined with any salad vegetable. A large proportion of the commercial production is processed into boiled and sterilized beets or into pickles. In Eastern Europe, beet soup, such as borscht, is a popular dish. In Indian cuisine, chopped, cooked, spiced beet is a common side dish. Yellow-coloured beetroots are grown on a very small scale for home consumption.[9]. The green, leafy portion of the beet is also edible. The young leaves can be added raw to salads, whilst the adult leaves are most commonly served boiled or steamed, in which case they have a taste and texture similar to spinach. Those greens selected should be from bulbs that are unmarked, instead of those with overly limp leaves or wrinkled skins, both of which are signs of dehydration. The domestication of beets can be traced to the emergence of an allele which enables biennial harvesting of leaves and taproot.[10]. Beetroot can be boiled ...
... is an antimicrobial medication used to treat African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Balamuthia infections,[2] babesiosis, and to prevent and treat pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in people with poor immune function.[1] In African trypanosomiasis it is used for early disease before central nervous system involvement, as a second line option to suramin.[1] It is an option for both visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis.[1] Pentamidine can be given by injection into a vein or muscle or by inhalation.[1] Common side effects of the injectable form include low blood sugar, pain at the site of injection, nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, and kidney problems.[1] Common side effects of the inhaled form include wheezing, cough, and nausea.[1] It is unclear if doses should be changed in those with kidney or liver problems.[1] Pentamidine is not recommended in early pregnancy but may be used in later pregnancy.[1] Its safety during breastfeeding is unclear.[3] Pentamidine is in the ...
Forerunners to modern Brussels sprouts were probably cultivated in Ancient Rome.[citation needed] Brussels sprouts as they are now known were grown possibly as early as the 13th century in what is now Belgium. The first written reference dates to 1587. During the 16th century, they enjoyed a popularity in the southern Netherlands that eventually spread throughout the cooler parts of Northern Europe. Brussels sprouts grow in temperature ranges of 7-24 °C (45-75 °F), with highest yields at 15-18 °C (59-64 °F).[2] Fields are ready for harvest 90 to 180 days after planting. The edible sprouts grow like buds in helical patterns along the side of long, thick stalks of about 60 to 120 cm (24 to 47 in) in height, maturing over several weeks from the lower to the upper part of the stalk. Sprouts may be picked by hand into baskets, in which case several harvests are made of five to 15 sprouts at a time, or by cutting the entire stalk at once for processing, or by mechanical harvester, depending on ...
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The wax gourd requires very warm weather to grow but can be stored for many months much like winter squash. Ash gourds of the Indian subcontinent have a white coating with rough texture (hence the name ash gourd, literally, in some vernaculars). South East Asian varieties have a smooth waxy texture. It is one of the few vegetables available during winter in areas of deciduous vegetation, hence its Chinese name literally means 'winter gourd'. The Wax Gourd can typically be stored for 12 months. In India, the wax gourd is recognized for its medicinal properties in the Ayurvedic system of medicine.[8] It is also has significance in spiritual traditions of India and Yoga, where it is identified as a great source of Prana.[10]. In Vietnamese cuisine, it is called bí đao, which is usually used to make soup or stew.[11] When cooked with pork short ribs, the resulting soup is traditionally thought to help produce more milk for breastfeeding mothers.[citation needed]. In Chinese cuisine the gourds are ...
Gourds were cultivated in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas for thousands of years before Columbus' discovery of America. Historically, in Europe,[9] Walahfrid Strabo (808-849), abbot and poet from Reichenau and advisor to the Carolingian kings, discussed the gourd in his Hortulus as one of the 23 plants of an ideal garden.[10][11]. Recent research indicates some gourds have an African origin and that there were at least two unrelated domestications: one is thought to have occurred 8,000-9,000 years ago, based on the analysis of archeological samples found in Asia, and the second domestication is believed to have occurred 4,000 years ago, and has been traced from archeological discoveries in Egypt.. The mystery of the bottle gourd - namely that this African or Eurasian species was being grown in America over 8,000 years ago[12] - comes from the difficulty in understanding how it arrived in the Americas. The bottle gourd was originally thought to have drifted across the Atlantic Ocean from ...
... (CHF-3381, V-3381) is a drug which was formerly being investigated as an anticonvulsant and neuroprotective and is now under development for the treatment of neuropathic pain and chronic cough in Europe by Vernalis and Chiesi.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] It acts as a competitive, reversible, and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor,[5][6][9] and as a low affinity, non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist.[1][2][10] A pilot study of indantadol for chronic cough was initiated in October 2009 and in April 2010 it failed to achieve significant efficacy in neuropathic pain in phase IIb clinical trials.[7][8][11][12] ...
Annona muricata is a small, upright, evergreen tree that can grow to about 30 feet (9.1 m) tall.[4][5][8][9] Its young branches are hairy.[9] Leaves are oblong to oval, 8 centimetres (3.1 in) to 16 centimetres (6.3 in) long and 3 centimetres (1.2 in) to 7 centimetres (2.8 in) wide. They are a glossy dark green with no hairs above, and paler and minutely hairy to no hairs below.[9] The leaf stalks are 4 millimetres (0.16 in) to 13 millimetres (0.51 in) long and without hairs.[9] Flower stalks (peduncles) are 2 millimetres (0.079 in) to 5 millimetres (0.20 in) long and woody. They appear opposite from the leaves or as an extra from near the leaf stalk, each with one or two flowers, occasionally a third.[9] Stalks for the individual flowers (pedicels) are stout and woody, minutely hairy to hairless and 15 millimetres (0.59 in) to 20 millimetres (0.79 in) with small bractlets nearer to the base which are densely hairy.[9] The petals are thick and yellowish. Outer petals meet at the edges without ...
Prepared by bombardment of lead with zinc.[158][159] 114 Flerovium 1999 Y. Oganessian et al. (JINR in Dubna) Prepared by ... "30 Zinc". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ Weeks, Mary Elvira (1933). "III. Some Eighteenth-Century Metals ... Zinc Before 1000 BC 1000 BC Indian metallurgists Indian subcontinent Used as a component of brass since antiquity (before 1000 ... The earliest known use of charcoal was for the reduction of copper, zinc, and tin ores in the manufacture of bronze, by the ...
In 2001, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, BfR) objected to the addition of isolated theanine to beverages.[39][40] The institute stated the amount of theanine consumed by regular drinkers of tea or coffee is virtually impossible to determine. While it was estimated the quantity of green tea consumed by the average Japanese tea drinker per day contains about 20 mg of the substance, there are no studies measuring the amount of theanine being extracted by typical preparation methods, or the percentage lost by discarding the first infusion. Therefore, with the Japanese being exposed to possibly much less than 20 mg per day, and Europeans presumably even less, it was the opinion of the BfR that pharmacological reactions to drinks typically containing 50 mg of theanine per 500 milliliters could not be excluded-reactions such as impairment of psychomotor skills and amplification of the sedating effects of alcohol and hypnotics.[41] In 2006, a study ...
This reaction is catalyzed by a variety of Lewis acids, mainly aluminium chloride, iron(III) chloride, or zinc chloride. The 1, ...
Zinc 4% Copper 4% Pop culture[edit]. *Tori Amos was featured in a 1980s commercial promoting the brand. ...
... phosphorus and zinc. Chocolate is a good source (10-19% DV) of calcium, magnesium and iron. ...
Transcrocetinate sodium can be prepared by reacting saffron with sodium hydroxide and extracting the salt of the trans crocetin isomer from the solution.[10] John L. Gainer and colleagues have investigated the effects of transcrocetinate sodium in animal models.[10][11] They discovered that the drug could reverse the potentially fatal decrease in blood pressure produced by the loss of large volumes of blood in severe hemorrhage, and thereby improve survival.[11] Early investigations of transcrocetinate sodium suggested that it had potential applications in battlefield medicine, specifically in treatment of the many combat casualties with hemorrhagic shock.[8][11] Additional studies, carried out in animal models and in clinical trials in humans, indicated that transcrocetinate sodium might prove beneficial in the treatment of a variety of conditions associated with hypoxia and ischemia (a lack of oxygen reaching the tissues, usually due to a disruption in the circulatory system), including ...
Zinc phosphate is formed from zinc phosphate cement and used in dentistry. Zinc phosphate dental cement is one of the oldest ... Zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) is an inorganic chemical compound used as a corrosion resistant coating on metal surfaces either as ... Natural forms of zinc phosphate include minerals hopeite and parahopeite, Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O. A somewhat similar mineral is natural ... Zinc phosphate cement is used for cementation of inlays, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances and occasionally as a ...
Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS. This is the main form of zinc found ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zinc sulfide.. *Zinc and Sulfur at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of ... It is easily produced by igniting a mixture of zinc and sulfur.[8] Since zinc sulfide is insoluble in water, it can also be ... Zinc sulfide is a common pigment, sometimes called sachtolith. When combined with barium sulfate, zinc sulfide forms lithopone. ...
Zinc Description Zinc is a mineral that is essential for a healthy immune system, production of certain hormones, wound healing ... Zinc in nutritional supplements is available as zinc gluconate, zinc oxide, zinc aspartate, zinc picolinate, zinc citrate, zinc ... Zinc in nutritional supplements is available as zinc gluconate, zinc oxide, zinc aspartate, zinc picolinate, zinc citrate, zinc ... Five naturally occurring isotopes of zinc are known. They are zinc-64, zinc-66, zinc-67, zinc-68, and zinc-70. Isotopes are two ...
Summary: A piece of zinc is placed in a copper sulfate solution. ... Copper is plated out simply by placing the zinc in the copper ...
Zinc is an essential trace element commonly found in red meat, poultry, and fish. It is necessary in small amounts for human ... Zinc Murakab, Zinc Nicotinate, Zinc Orotate, Zinc Oxide, Zinc Picolinate, Zinc Pyrithione, Zinc Sulfate, Zinc Sulphate, Zincum ... Zinc Chelate, Zinc Chloride, Zinc Citrate, Zinc Difumarate Hydrate, Zinc Gluconate, Zinc Glycinate, Zinc Methionine, Zinc ... Orotate de Zinc, Oxyde de Zinc, Picolinate de Zinc, Polaprezinc, Pyrithione de Zinc, Sulfate de Zinc, Zinc Acetate, Zinc ...
El zinc es un oligoelemento esencial que se encuentra comúnmente en carnes rojas, aves y pescado. Es necesario en pequeñas ... Zinc Murakab, Zinc Nicotinate, Zinc Orotate, Zinc Oxide, Zinc Picolinate, Zinc Pyrithione, Zinc Sulfate, Zinc Sulphate, Zincum ... Zinc Chelate, Zinc Chloride, Zinc Citrate, Zinc Difumarate Hydrate, Zinc Gluconate, Zinc Glycinate, Zinc Methionine, Zinc ... Orotate de Zinc, Oxyde de Zinc, Picolinate de Zinc, Polaprezinc, Pyrithione de Zinc, Sulfate de Zinc, Zinc Acetate, Zinc ...
Low levels of zinc are essential for maintaining good health. Exposure to large amounts of zinc can be harmful. It can cause ... Zinc has been found in at least 953 of the 1,636 National Priority List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency ... Exposure to high levels of zinc occurs mostly from eating food, drinking water, or breathing workplace air that is contaminated ... Common zinc compounds found at hazardous waste sites include zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, and zinc sulfide. Zinc ...
Children who received zinc supplementation had 8 fewer hours of diarrheal illness and 10% less diarrheal stool volume, on ... but those in the intervention group also received zinc supplementation. Children who received zinc supplementation had 8 fewer ... Zinc has also been shown to have a similar effect in children with diarrhea caused by infections other than cholera, and is ... Note: administering zinc with certain antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, may reduce the absorption of these antibiotics. In ...
Sulfuric acid, zinc salt (1:1). Zinc sulfate (anhydrous). Zinc sulphate. November 2007. ...
Zinc Fingers. They play a key part in regulating the activity of genes in many species, from yeast to humans Fewer than 10 ...
... is a monoatomic dication (CHEBI:30412) zinc(2+) (CHEBI:29105) is a zinc cation (CHEBI:63056) ... zinc sulfate (CHEBI:35176) has part zinc(2+) (CHEBI:29105). ziram (CHEBI:79736) has part zinc(2+) (CHEBI:29105). ... zinc(2+) (CHEBI:29105) has role human metabolite (CHEBI:77746) zinc(2+) (CHEBI:29105) is a divalent metal cation (CHEBI:60240) ... CHEBI:29105 - zinc(2+). Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
... is a metalloprotoporphyrin (CHEBI:36158) zinc protoporphyrin (CHEBI:28783) is a zinc ... CHEBI:28783 - zinc protoporphyrin. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Nutritional deficiency of zinc is widespread throughout the developing countries and a conditioned deficiency of zinc is known ... Zinc is known to play an important role in the immune system and zinc deficient subjects may experience increased ... Nutritional deficiency of zinc is widespread throughout the developing countries and a conditioned deficiency of zinc is known ... We have studied the effects of a mild deficiency of zinc on T cells in an experimental model of human zinc deficiency. We ...
Zinc is found in the air, soil, and water and is present in all foods. In its pure elemental (or metallic) form, zinc is a ... Metallic zinc is also mixed with other metals to form alloys such as brass and bronze. A zinc and copper alloy is used to make ... Powdered zinc is explosive and may burst into flames if stored in damp places. Metallic zinc has many uses in industry. A ... Metallic zinc is also used to make dry cell batteries. ... There is no information on the taste and odor of metallic zinc ...
All the essentials of zinc signaling are discussed, and the significance of the zinc signal in a wide range of disorders is ... describes the crucial role of the zinc signal in biological processes on a molecular and physiological basis. ... Detailed information is provided on all the essentials of zinc signaling, covering molecular aspects and the roles of zinc ... Here, readers will find up-to-date information on the significance of the zinc signal in a wide range of conditions, including ...
Carbon Zinc - For products that draw small amounts of current - such as portable radios, flashlights and remote controllers - ... Carbon Zinc - Super Heavy Duty Batteries. For products that draw small amounts of current - such as portable radios, ... Carbon Zinc batteries are best suited to low-current applications, where they keep working long after the competition products ... Combined with an extended shelf life, our Carbon Zinc series deliver performance when you need it. ...
Sun + Zinc = Clean Hydrogen. A revolutionary recipe to cook hydrogen has been elaborated by European scientists, and this might ... Wait until you get some pure zinc powder. Mix this powder with some water. And here is the result: pure hydrogen with almost no ... Take some common metal such as zinc oxide (ZnO). Put it under a heat source generated by solar energy. Dont forget to ... In the meantime, Epstein is considering more immediate uses for Zn such as Zinc-Air batteries which are similar to existing ...
If you cant think, and your feet stink, you need Zinc. This old saying tells of a couple of symptoms of low zinc levels. Zinc ... Zinc, v. t. [imp. & p. p. ZinckedZinced (); p. pr. & vb. n. ZinckingZincing ().] To coat with zinc; to galvanize. ... as zinc ethyl, zinc amyle, etc. -- Zinc oxide Chem., the oxide of zinc, ZnO, forming a light fluffy sublimate when zinc is ... Butter of zinc Old Chem., zinc chloride, ZnCl2, a deliquescent white waxy or oily substance. -- Oxide of zinc. Chem. See Zinc ...
Zinc oxide fume. CAS No: 1314-13-2. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references include ... Zinc oxide fume. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
... zinc-carbon battery, zinc-carbon cell, zinc-carbon cell (en); Suchý článek, Zinkouhlíkový článek (cs); 碳性電池, 碳性電芯, 鋅碳電池, 錳乾電池, ... Pila de zinc-carbono (es); 碳性電芯 (yue); Tsinksüsielement (et); Pila de zinc-carboni (ca); زنک کاربن بیٹری (pnb); Zink-Kohle- ... zinc-carbon battery type of zinc-manganese dioxide battery with acidic electrolyte ... Pila de zinc carbono, Pila de carbono-zinc (es); マンガン電池 (ja); සින්ක්-කාබන් කෝෂය (si); Сухая батарея,
... zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and copernicium (Cn). They have properties... ... zinc group element: Any of the four chemical elements that constitute Group 12 (IIb) of the periodic table-namely, ... Both zinc and zinc salts are well tolerated by the human skin. Excessive inhalation of zinc compounds can cause such toxic ... it is always found associated with zinc or zinc-lead ores and is produced only as a by-product of zinc and lead smelting. The ...
A look at zinc deficiency, a condition where the body doesnt have enough of the mineral. Included are details on causes and ... the weight of the actual zinc molecule) and are labeled as zinc gluconate, zinc sulfate, or zinc acetate. ... Symptoms of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency tend to be linked to the roles that zinc performs in the body. Some of ... Tips for preventing zinc deficiency. There are ways a person can prepare and eat foods to make zinc more available in their ...
... cadmium in a specimen of zinc oxide. Both zinc compounds were being examined because their purity as pharmaceuticals was ... Other articles where Zinc oxide is discussed: cadmium: Properties, occurrence, and uses: … ... In zinc: Compounds. Zinc oxide, ZnO, is one of the most important zinc compounds. It can be prepared in a state of high purity ... In zinc processing: Zinc oxide. Two main processes are employed for producing zinc oxide, a white powder. In the direct, or ...
Zinc, insulin and diabetes.. Chausmer AB1.. Author information. 1. Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Section, VA Medical ... Diabetes effects zinc homeostasis in many ways, although it is most probably the hyperglycemia, rather than any primary lesion ... The relationship between diabetes, insulin and zinc (Zn) is complex with no clear cause and effect relationships. In Type 1 ... related to diabetes, which is responsible for the increased urinary loss and decreases in total body zinc. The role of Zn ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Zinc Sulfate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Zinc Sulfate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Bio T Zinc (Zinc Sulfate and Biotin). Indunidas, Ecuador. *Bioglan Kids Smart Vita Vitamin C + Zinc (Zinc Sulfate and Ascorbic ... Hima (Zinc Sulfate and Zinc Oxide). Mundipharma, Switzerland. *Lipactin (Zinc Sulfate and Heparin). Louis Widmer, Austria; ...
A zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle photodetector was fabricated using a simple method. Under a 5 V applied bias, its dark current ... Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Photodetector. Sheng-Po Chang1,2 and Kuan-Jen Chen3 ...
One reader complained last time about suffering from zinc levels that are 10,000 times higher than normal. ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Zinc Chloride is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Zinc Chloride is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Zinc Chloride. In the US, Zinc Chloride (zinc chloride systemic) is a member of the drug class minerals and electrolytes. ... Zinc Chloride (PH: BP 2016, JP XVI, Ph. Int. 4, USP 38) ... DBL Zinc chloride. Hospira, New Zealand. *Odamida (Zinc ...
  • It is prepared by mixing zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders with a liquid consisting principally of phosphoric acid , water, and buffers . (wikipedia.org)
  • Common zinc compounds found at hazardous waste sites include zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, and zinc sulfide. (cdc.gov)
  • Zinc sulfide and zinc oxide are used to make white paints, ceramics, and other products. (cdc.gov)
  • Zinc oxide is also used in producing rubber. (cdc.gov)
  • Take some common metal such as zinc oxide (ZnO). (zdnet.com)
  • See Zinc oxide , below. (everything2.com)
  • Zinc white , a white powder consisting of zinc oxide, used as a pigment. (everything2.com)
  • cadmium in a specimen of zinc oxide. (britannica.com)
  • useful as a vehicle) and zinc oxide (a white pigment) in the 18th century brought a rapid expansion of the European paint industry. (britannica.com)
  • Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an interesting material with respect to conductivity. (britannica.com)
  • are known as "activators," commonly zinc oxide and stearic acid. (britannica.com)
  • and accelerators, carbon black or zinc oxide is usually added, not merely as an extender, but to improve further the qualities of the rubber. (britannica.com)
  • Zinc oxide , ZnO, is one of the most important zinc compounds. (britannica.com)
  • Two main processes are employed for producing zinc oxide, a white powder. (britannica.com)
  • A zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle photodetector was fabricated using a simple method. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we'll take a more in-depth look into the benefits of the superstar ingredient found in physical sunscreens, zinc oxide, and explore why it may be better for your skin than a chemical sunscreen. (obagi.com)
  • That's a heavy dose of zinc oxide. (obagi.com)
  • 1 Used in physical sunscreen, zinc oxide is the preferred active ingredient because it sits on top of the skin and deflects the sun's harmful rays, providing full UVA and UVB protection-also known as broad spectrum protection. (obagi.com)
  • Obagi uses zinc oxide as the active sun-deflecting ingredient in our Obagi Sun Shield Matte Broad Spectrum SPF 50 sunscreen. (obagi.com)
  • While it may not contain as much zinc oxide as that white-paste you are familiar with, it does provide agentle, yet effective physical protection from the sun with an elegant, matte finish perfect for all skin types. (obagi.com)
  • So why choose a physical zinc oxide-containing sunscreen? (obagi.com)
  • Many doctors and consumers prefer it because zinc oxide is often less irritating than a chemical sunscreen and is recommended for those with sensitive skin, acne or rosacea. (obagi.com)
  • In fact, in addition to its sun-fighting abilities, zinc oxide is sometimes used to treat diaper rash, minor burns, chapped skin, and other skin irritations. (obagi.com)
  • We seem to be so aware of the ingredients we should avoid-MSG, PABA and propylene to name a few-it's time we spent some energy learning about the ingredients we should seek out, like zinc oxide. (obagi.com)
  • Do you have more questions about physical sunscreens or zinc oxide? (obagi.com)
  • 2. Zinc Oxide Topical. (obagi.com)
  • http://www.drugs.com/mtm/zinc-oxide-topical.html Accessed June 26th, 2013. (obagi.com)
  • What made you want to look up zinc oxide ointment ? (merriam-webster.com)
  • What is zinc oxide? (medicinenet.com)
  • Topical zinc oxide is a non-prescription (OTC) over-the-counter) mild astringent with weak antiseptic properties. (medicinenet.com)
  • What brand names are available for zinc oxide? (medicinenet.com)
  • Is zinc oxide available as a generic drug? (medicinenet.com)
  • Do I need a prescription for zinc oxide? (medicinenet.com)
  • Why is zinc oxide prescribed to patients? (medicinenet.com)
  • Topical zinc oxide products are used to treat and prevent minor skin irritations associated with diaper rash , burns, cuts , scrapers, allergic reactions, and insect bites. (medicinenet.com)
  • Topical zinc oxide is available without a prescription. (medicinenet.com)
  • What are the side effects of zinc oxide? (medicinenet.com)
  • No significant side effects have been reported with the use of topical zinc oxide products. (medicinenet.com)
  • What is the dosage for zinc oxide? (medicinenet.com)
  • Topical zinc oxide products may be applied to affected areas several times daily as necessary. (medicinenet.com)
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with zinc oxide? (medicinenet.com)
  • No significant drug interactions have been reported with topical zinc oxide. (medicinenet.com)
  • Is zinc oxide safe to use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding? (medicinenet.com)
  • Zinc oxide when used topically on unbroken skin is not expected to be absorbed systemically to an appreciable level. (medicinenet.com)
  • Appropriate use of topical zinc oxide during pregnancy is generally considered to be safe. (medicinenet.com)
  • What else should I know about zinc oxide? (medicinenet.com)
  • What preparations of zinc oxide are available? (medicinenet.com)
  • How should I keep zinc oxide stored? (medicinenet.com)
  • Zinc oxide products should be stored at room temperature between 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F). All products should be kept away from children and pets. (medicinenet.com)
  • How does zinc oxide work? (medicinenet.com)
  • Zinc oxide works by forming a barrier on top of the skin that protects the area from moisture and irritants. (medicinenet.com)
  • Topical zinc oxide is available in various formulations including cream, ointment, paste, powder and solution spray. (medicinenet.com)
  • Zinc oxide paste is commonly used to treat weeping or oozing associated with poison ivy , poison oak , and poison sumac. (medicinenet.com)
  • Zinc oxide is also used with titanium dioxide in sunscreen products. (medicinenet.com)
  • When was zinc oxide approved by the FDA? (medicinenet.com)
  • Topical zinc oxide products have been available in the US before 1938. (medicinenet.com)
  • The zinc oxide nanocrystals produced from organometallic compounds are safe: chemists from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw and the Warsaw University of. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nowadays, zinc oxide nanoparticles are one of the most commonly used nanomaterials. (eurekalert.org)
  • The zinc oxide nanocrystals of unprecedented high quality obtained by us are characterized by significantly better chemical and physical properties than their counterparts currently being produced by the most popular sol-gel method involving inorganic precursors", emphasizes Prof. Janusz Lewinski (IPC PAS, PW). (eurekalert.org)
  • In a recent publication in the well-known scientific journal Chemistry - A European Journal , the Warsaw scientists, in collaboration with a group from the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, showed that their zinc oxide nanoparticles are indeed safe. (eurekalert.org)
  • Zinc oxide is generally considered as a relatively safe and biocompatible material. (eurekalert.org)
  • Prof. Lewinski's team produces quantum dots of zinc oxide from organometallic compounds (precursors). (eurekalert.org)
  • Such cells conventionally use aqueous hydroxide (i.e., potassium hydroxide) electrolytes containing zinc oxide. (google.com)
  • More specifically, once cycling of the zinc electrode has been begun, the zinc electrode will consist of a conductive support, sponge zinc and zinc oxide, while the ambient electrolyte will contain zincate ions. (google.com)
  • This study aims to improve the efficiency of gas sensors with a zinc oxide ( ZnO ) structure by widening the surface area for reaction and using UV-activation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It was found that the addition of silicon carbide (SiC) and zinc oxide ( ZnO ) as decolorizing agents was effective for the decolorization of both the foam glasses made from green and amber glasses. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Although it occurs naturally as the mineral zincite , most zinc oxide is produced synthetically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystalline zinc oxide is thermochromic , changing from white to yellow when heated in air and reverting to white on cooling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc oxide is an amphoteric oxide . (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc oxide can react violently with aluminium and magnesium powders, with chlorinated rubber and linseed oil on heating causing fire and explosion hazard. (wikipedia.org)
  • When combined with barium sulfate, zinc sulfide forms lithopone . (wikipedia.org)
  • A piece of zinc is placed in a copper sulfate solution. (washington.edu)
  • Copper is plated out simply by placing the zinc in the copper sulfate solution. (washington.edu)
  • Zinc compounds, such as zinc acetate, zinc chloride, and zinc sulfate, are used in preserving wood and in manufacturing and dyeing fabrics. (cdc.gov)
  • In the US, Zinc Sulfate (zinc sulfate systemic) is a member of the drug class minerals and electrolytes and is used to treat Dietary Supplementation and Vitamin/Mineral Supplementation and Deficiency . (drugs.com)
  • Zinc sulfate heptahydrate (PH: Ph. (drugs.com)
  • As the largest manufacturer of zinc compounds in North America, we make it our responsibility to provide zinc sulfate specially formulated to optimize your crop production and bottom line. (constantcontact.com)
  • As potential tariff troubles continue to unfold, now's the time to talk with OB about your copper sulfate and zinc sulfate requirements, as well as how Emerald-C can cost-effectively meet your animal feed requirements. (constantcontact.com)
  • Recent Examples on the Web Control efforts include spraying with zinc sulfate in October to cause early leaf fall, and prevent the disease from increasing and then emerging more widespread than ever in spring. (merriam-webster.com)
  • These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'zinc sulfate. (merriam-webster.com)
  • What made you want to look up zinc sulfate ? (merriam-webster.com)
  • Zinc react with sulfuric acid: zinc sulfate is obtained and hydrogen gas released. (answers.com)
  • www.drugs.com/npp/zinc.html Zinc is a metallic element available in various salt forms, including zinc gluconate, zinc gluconate-glycine, zinc acetate, zinc ascorbate, zinc orotate, zinc citrate, zinc chloride, and zinc sulfate. (lycos.com)
  • Putting low levels of zinc acetate and zinc chloride on the skin of rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice caused skin irritation. (cdc.gov)
  • Zinc chloride is also the major ingredient in smoke from smoke bombs. (cdc.gov)
  • zinc chloride, ZnCl2, a deliquescent white waxy or oily substance. (everything2.com)
  • It may also share those electrons, as in zinc chloride, ZnCl 2 , a compound in which the bonds are partly ionic and partly covalent. (britannica.com)
  • In the US, Zinc Chloride (zinc chloride systemic) is a member of the drug class minerals and electrolytes . (drugs.com)
  • Zinc chloride (PH: Ph. (drugs.com)
  • Zinc Chloride is an inorganic salt. (ewg.org)
  • In the United States, Zinc Chloride may be used as an active ingredient in OTC drug products. (ewg.org)
  • When used as an active drug ingredient, the established name is Zinc Chloride. (ewg.org)
  • A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti- dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc chloride and hydrogen gas are formed in the following reaction. (answers.com)
  • The hydrochloric acid and zinc react to produce zinc chloride and hydrogen gas. (answers.com)
  • ZnO forms cement-like products when mixed with a strong aqueous solution of zinc chloride and these are best described as zinc hydroxy chlorides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only form of zinc proven effective for this purpose is the zinc gluconate or zinc acetate lozenge. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Also, zinc gluconate 50 mg daily does not seem to be beneficial. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ATSDR has derived an intermediate-duration oral MRL of 0.3 mg Zn/kg/day for zinc based on decreased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, a sensitive indicator of body copper status, and changes in serum ferritin in women given supplements containing zinc gluconate for 10 weeks (Yadrick et al. (cdc.gov)
  • He suggests only choosing zinc acetate or zinc gluconate lozenges. (webmd.com)
  • Zinc gluconate, zinc gluconate-glycine, and zinc acetate have been studied most often in the lozenge form for the treatment of the common cold. (lycos.com)
  • This product is derived from zinc gluconate for more efficient absorption. (naturessunshine.com)
  • Each tablet contains zinc (zinc gluconate) 25 mg. (naturessunshine.com)
  • Research suggests that people with acne have lower blood and skin levels of zinc. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There is evidence that children with ADHD might have lower blood levels of zinc than children without ADHD. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Exposure to high levels of zinc occurs mostly from eating food, drinking water, or breathing workplace air that is contaminated. (cdc.gov)
  • Low levels of zinc are essential for maintaining good health. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know if high levels of zinc affect reproduction in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know the long-term effects of breathing high levels of zinc. (cdc.gov)
  • It is likely that children exposed to very high levels of zinc will have similar effects as adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Sludge and fertilizer also contribute to increased levels of zinc in the soil. (cdc.gov)
  • 1989). It should be noted that the MRL is calculated based on the assumption of healthy dietary levels of zinc (and copper), and represents the level of exposure above and beyond the normal diet that is believed to be without an appreciable risk of toxic response. (cdc.gov)
  • The dissociation constant (Kd) of 65Zn2+ binding to a single site on purified enterotoxin A was 2 microM, and addition of purified HLA-DR1 did not alter the Kd, indicating that the binding site was exclusive to enterotoxin A. In the presence of saturating levels of zinc the Kd for enterotoxin A binding to purified HLA-DR1 was 25 nM. (pnas.org)
  • Adequate levels of zinc are important in maintaining a healthy immune system. (livestrong.com)
  • Levels of zinc in plasma and zinc's effect on other nutrients, like copper and manganese, influence appetite and taste preference. (hubpages.com)
  • People who have low levels of zinc appear to benefit most from zinc supplements. (lycos.com)
  • Zinc combines with other elements to form zinc compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Depending on the type of soil, some zinc compounds can move into the groundwater and into lakes, streams, and rivers. (cdc.gov)
  • Zinc compounds are widely used in industry. (cdc.gov)
  • Zinc compounds are used by the drug industry as ingredients in some common products, such as vitamin supplements, sun blocks, diaper rash ointments, deodorants, athlete's foot preparations, acne and poison ivy preparations, and antidandruff shampoos. (cdc.gov)
  • It has been of great importance in the synthesis of organic compounds, and is the type of a large series of similar compounds, as zinc ethyl , zinc amyle , etc. (everything2.com)
  • Both zinc compounds were being examined because their purity as pharmaceuticals was suspect. (britannica.com)
  • These compounds react together and with accelerators to form a zinc sulfurating compound, which in turn is the key intermediary in adding sulfur to a diene elastomer and creating sulfur interlinks. (britannica.com)
  • The national and state regulations and guidelines pertaining to zinc and compounds in air, water, food, and other media are summarized in Table 8-1. (cdc.gov)
  • No international regulations or guidelines applicable to zinc or its compounds were found. (cdc.gov)
  • it is less likely that nonsoluble zinc compounds would have these effects at similar exposure levels. (cdc.gov)
  • A variety of zinc compounds are also commonly used for dietary supplements, deodorants, anti-dandruff shampoos and luminescent paints. (hubpages.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about zinc acetate? (cigna.com)
  • You may not be able to use zinc acetate if you have certain medical conditions. (cigna.com)
  • Avoid taking this medication with foods that are high in calcium or phosphorus, which can make it harder for your body to absorb zinc acetate. (cigna.com)
  • Zinc acetate can make certain antibiotics less effective. (cigna.com)
  • Tell your doctor about all other medications you are using before you start taking zinc acetate. (cigna.com)
  • What is zinc acetate? (cigna.com)
  • Zinc acetate is used to treat and to prevent zinc deficiency. (cigna.com)
  • Zinc acetate may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide. (cigna.com)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking zinc acetate? (cigna.com)
  • It is not known whether zinc acetate will harm an unborn baby. (cigna.com)
  • Do not take zinc acetate without telling your doctor if you are pregnant or could become pregnant during treatment. (cigna.com)
  • It is not known whether zinc acetate passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. (cigna.com)
  • How should I take zinc acetate? (cigna.com)
  • Take zinc acetate with a full glass of water. (cigna.com)
  • Take zinc acetate with food if it upsets your stomach. (cigna.com)
  • Your healthcare provider may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results from zinc acetate. (cigna.com)
  • The recommended dietary allowance of zinc acetate increases with age. (cigna.com)
  • What should I avoid while taking zinc acetate? (cigna.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of zinc acetate? (cigna.com)
  • What other drugs will affect zinc acetate? (cigna.com)
  • The following drugs can interact with or be made less effective by zinc acetate. (cigna.com)
  • This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with zinc acetate. (cigna.com)
  • Your pharmacist can provide more information about zinc acetate. (cigna.com)
  • Natural forms of zinc phosphate include minerals hopeite and parahopeite , Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ·4H 2 O. A somewhat similar mineral is natural hydrous zinc phosphate called tarbuttite , Zn 2 (PO 4 )(OH). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the main form of zinc found in nature, where it mainly occurs as the mineral sphalerite . (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc is a mineral that is essential for a healthy immune system, production of certain hormones, wound healing, bone formation, and clear skin. (encyclopedia.com)
  • One study showed yeast-fighting benefits for zinc even for those who were not deficient in the mineral to begin with. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Zinc is a mineral. (medlineplus.gov)
  • El zinc es un mineral. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dado que el cuerpo humano no almacena demasiado zinc, debe consumirse este mineral de manera regular como parte de la dieta. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One essential mineral is zinc, which is found in small amounts in food. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A person's body does not store zinc, which means getting enough of the mineral from food is important in preventing a deficiency. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Zinc is an essential dietary mineral. (healthline.com)
  • Another study demonstrated that using a zinc supplement won't raise your testosterone levels if you're already getting enough of the mineral. (healthline.com)
  • The mineral zinc is responsible for promoting proper growth and development, healing wounds, and preventing blood clotting and thyroid problems. (rd.com)
  • Zinc is a mineral found in every body cell. (healthcastle.com)
  • Natural News) Zinc is an essential mineral necessary for cellular metabolism. (naturalnews.com)
  • Zinc, a mineral found in almost every cell in our bodies, is needed for hundreds of chemical reactions. (clemson.edu)
  • Zinc is a mineral that is critical for our health and yet, worldwide, over 2 billion people are zinc deficient. (dailyherald.com)
  • The mineral zinc is needed in trace amounts for healthy body function including immune health, which may help reduce acne symptoms. (livestrong.com)
  • The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc is an essential mineral , including to prenatal and postnatal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc is an essential mineral that humans need to stay healthy . (rxlist.com)
  • Zinc is usually found in mineral deposits that include copper, lead, iron and other base metals. (reference.com)
  • Zinc is an e ssential mineral of exceptional importance in biology and public health. (hubpages.com)
  • www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-982/zinc Overview Information Zinc is a mineral. (lycos.com)
  • www.drugs.com/mtm/zinc.html Zinc is a naturally occurring mineral. (lycos.com)
  • ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Zinc-HealthProfessional Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. (lycos.com)
  • www.healthline.com/nutrition/best-foods-high-in-zinc Zinc is an essential mineral, and eating enough is important for maintaining good health. (lycos.com)
  • Zinc is a naturally occurring mineral. (cigna.com)
  • Zinc is a trace mineral that has been found to be extremely important to overall health. (naturessunshine.com)
  • People who are deficient in zinc are prone to getting more frequent and longer lasting infections of various types. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Taking zinc by mouth or giving zinc intravenously (by IV) helps to restore zinc levels in people who are zinc deficient. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking zinc by mouth reduces the duration and severity of diarrhea in children who are undernourished or zinc deficient. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zinc is known to play an important role in the immune system and zinc deficient subjects may experience increased susceptibility to a variety of pathogens. (springer.com)
  • The above immunological consequences of zinc deficiency may be responsible for decreased cell mediated immune functions in zinc deficient subjects. (springer.com)
  • Prasad AS, Oberleas D: Changes in activities of zinc-dependent enzymes in zinc-deficient tissues of rats. (springer.com)
  • Fraker PJ, DePasquale-Jardieu P, Zwickl CM, Luecke RW: Regeneration of T-cell helper function in zinc-deficient adult mice. (springer.com)
  • Frost P, Rabbani P, Smith J, Prasad AS: Cell mediated cytotoxicity and tumor growth in zinc-deficient mice. (springer.com)
  • Although the body does not require large amounts of zinc, it is possible for a person to be zinc-deficient. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Worldwide, about 1.1 billion people are zinc-deficient due to inadequate dietary intakes, according to an article published in the journal Scientific Reports . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Moskovitz says if there are any suspicions you may be zinc deficient, you should consult with a primary care physician. (rd.com)
  • When zinc is deficient in the diet, metabolic rate drops, as does the hormonal output by the thyroid gland. (healthcastle.com)
  • A large portion of the earth's soil is zinc deficient. (dailyherald.com)
  • Researchers divided the zinc-deficient participants into two groups. (usda.gov)
  • An increased incidence of difficult and prolonged labor, hemorrhage, uterine dystocia and placental abruption has been documented in zinc deficient animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before May 2010, Poligrip contained a relatively small amount of zinc -- about 34 milligrams per gram in the original formulation and about 27.5 milligrams per gram in the Polyseal formulation, Nations and colleagues found. (webmd.com)
  • For men over the age of 19, the recommended daily amount of zinc is 11 milligrams. (healthline.com)
  • The number you see on the Nutrition Facts label is a percentage calculated by dividing the amount of zinc in one serving of the food by the DV. (healthcastle.com)
  • One recent medical study has demonstrated that an inadequate amount of zinc promotes chronic inflammation and may be crucial in the liver damage in people infected with hepatitis C. (dailyherald.com)
  • Might this be related to the amount of zinc in their diet? (dailyherald.com)
  • The optimal daily amount of zinc for hepatitis C infection is unknown and blood tests for zinc are inaccurate at determining the zinc tissue level, so eating zinc-rich food is important. (dailyherald.com)
  • The amount of zinc present in the natural environment varies from place to place and also from season to season. (hubpages.com)
  • Increasing the amount of zinc in the soil and thus in crops and animals is an effective preventive measure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for zinc is 5 milligrams (mg) for children under one year of age, 10 mg for children aged one to 10 years old, 15 mg for males 11 years or older, 12 mg for females 11 years or older, 15 mg for women who are pregnant, and 16-19 mg for women who are lactating. (encyclopedia.com)
  • According to the University of Michigan Health System, the average American diet commonly provides zinc levels insufficient to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance. (livestrong.com)
  • The recommended dietary allowance for zinc is 11 mg per day for adult men and 8 mg per day for adult women. (lycos.com)
  • Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide ) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its dense synthetic form, zinc sulfide can be transparent , and it is used as a window for visible optics and infrared optics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc sulfide, with addition of few ppm of suitable activator , exhibits strong phosphorescence (described by Nikola Tesla in 1893 [3] ), and is currently used in many applications, from cathode ray tubes through X-ray screens to glow in the dark products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Copper-doped zinc sulfide ("ZnS plus Cu") is used also in electroluminescent panels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc sulfide is also used as an infrared optical material, transmitting from visible wavelengths to just over 12 micrometers . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is made as microcrystalline sheets by the synthesis from hydrogen sulfide gas and zinc vapour, and this is sold as FLIR -grade (Forward Looking Infrared), where the zinc sulfide is in a milky-yellow, opaque form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc sulfide is a common pigment , sometimes called sachtolith. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most zinc ore found naturally in the environment is in the form of zinc sulfide. (cdc.gov)
  • Sphalerite, which is a form of zinc sulfide, is the most heavily mined zinc-containing ore because its concentrate contains 60-62% zinc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here are clues you might not be getting enough zinc in your diet. (rd.com)
  • Appetite loss can also come with impairments of smell and taste when you are not getting enough zinc. (rd.com)
  • When the foods in our diet do not provide us with enough zinc, insulin response decreases, and blood sugar remains high. (healthcastle.com)
  • Not getting enough zinc also can affect the immune system, making the body less resistant to infections. (clemson.edu)
  • These supplements can by used by people who may not get enough zinc in their diets. (clemson.edu)
  • As Dr. Richard Wood, physician at Tufts University, says in the book "Healing With Vitamins," "When you don't get enough zinc, normal healing doesn't occur. (livestrong.com)
  • Eating too many dietary supplements that contain zinc. (cdc.gov)
  • Show all 44 recent products that contain ZINC RICINOLEATE. (ewg.org)
  • Although whole-grains products, wheat germ, black-eyed peas, and fermented soybean paste (miso) also contain zinc, the body cannot absorb it as well from these sources. (clemson.edu)
  • Plants, animals and humans all contain zinc in their make up. (hubpages.com)
  • Many alloys contain zinc, including brass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc phosphate ( Zn 3 ( P O 4 ) 2 ) is an inorganic chemical compound used as a corrosion resistant coating on metal surfaces either as part of an electroplating process or applied as a primer pigment (see also red lead ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Zinc phosphate coats better on a crystalline structure than bare metal, so a seeding agent is often used as a pre-treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc phosphate is formed from zinc phosphate cement and used in dentistry . (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc phosphate cement is used for cementation of inlays , crowns , bridges , and orthodontic appliances and occasionally as a temporary restoration . (wikipedia.org)
  • This specification covers the requirements for producing a zinc phosphate coating on ferrous alloys and the properties of the coating. (sae.org)
  • Section E, on phosphate treatments, of Subcommittee V of ASTM Committee B-8, on Electrodeposited Metallic Coatings was organized for "the general purpose of studying phosphate coatings on zinc plate and suggesting means of evaluation. (astm.org)
  • d ) Corollary to the foregoing, it is necessary (1) to establish an accurately reproducible method for determining the amount of phosphate on a zinc surface, and (2) to correlate the amount (weight) of phosphate coating with differences in the above properties. (astm.org)
  • We do not know whether children are more susceptible to the effects of excessive intake of zinc than the adults. (cdc.gov)
  • By eating a balanced diet your zinc intake should be adequate, as it is found in meat , wholegrains , nuts , seeds , green vegetables , milk , eggs and oysters . (everything2.com)
  • It's a bit technical, but the bottom line is that both too much or too little zinc can have an adverse effect on inflammatory responses, so that modifying zinc intake can be one strategy for coping with unwelcome inflammation. (google.com)
  • A combination of increased sweat loss with a decreased intake of certain foods" is something to look out for among athletes, says Dr. Hadjiev, as these actions can contribute to zinc deficiency. (rd.com)
  • Teens (ages 14-18) have a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for zinc of 34 milligrams daily, while adults have a UL of 40 milligrams a day. (clemson.edu)
  • Most commonly zinc deficiency is a result of inadequate dietary intake. (dailyherald.com)
  • The one-day conference summarized for the public the relevant findings on dietary zinc requirements, zinc and development, zinc and immune function, zinc metabolism in disease, and zinc intake of the U.S. population. (nih.gov)
  • As cold and flu season nears, now is a good time to take stock of zinc intake, because adequate zinc is essential to immune response. (usda.gov)
  • While the recommended dietary intake is 8-11 mg daily, the higher level was used because many volunteers had low blood zinc levels. (usda.gov)
  • A personalized nutrient-intake assessment that includes a zinc-intake audit is available at www.supertracker.usda.gov . (usda.gov)
  • The researchers believe their findings are strong enough that zinc should be included as part of the recommended daily intake of pregnant women something that nutritionists like Dr. Stephen Davies have been maintaining for years (JAMA, August 9, 1995). (healthy.net)
  • Zinc deficiency in humans is caused by reduced dietary intake, inadequate absorption, increased loss, or increased body system use. (wikipedia.org)
  • It found that men who received 30 milligrams of zinc per day showed increased levels of free testosterone in their bodies. (healthline.com)
  • He says on average men and women should not consume more than 40 milligrams on zinc per day, but dosages vary based on age and body conditions, such as pregnancy, or if one is breastfeeding. (rd.com)
  • For three months, one group consumed 30 milligrams (mg) of additional zinc via a daily multivitamin supplement, and a control group received a similar supplement that contained 5 mg of zinc. (usda.gov)
  • commercially, it is always found associated with zinc or zinc-lead ores and is produced only as a by-product of zinc and lead smelting. (britannica.com)
  • In the direct, or American, method of manufacture, zinc ores (or residues) are heated in air with coke or anthracite, and the resulting zinc vapour is subjected to controlled oxidation. (britannica.com)
  • Zinc ores are extracted in more than 50 countries, with China, Australia, Peru, Europe and Canada being the biggest zinc mining countries. (hubpages.com)
  • Good sources of zinc include oysters and other shellfish, fortified breakfast cereals, beef, pork and beans. (usda.gov)
  • According to the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements, "Oysters contain more zinc per serving than any other food, but red meat and poultry provide the majority of zinc in the American diet. (livestrong.com)
  • The highest concentration of dietary zinc is found in oysters, meat, beans, and nuts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc lozenges and sprays may decrease the duration of colds. (clemson.edu)
  • Zinc lozenges or liquids also have their share of side effects, including bad taste and nausea . (webmd.com)
  • Evidence suggests that if zinc lozenges or syrup is taken within 24 hours after cold symptoms start, the supplement can help shorten the length of colds. (lycos.com)
  • Zinc is also found in many cold lozenges and some over-the-counter drugs sold as cold remedies. (lycos.com)
  • Zinc has many commercial uses as coatings to prevent rust, in dry cell batteries, and mixed with other metals to make alloys like brass, and bronze. (cdc.gov)
  • Metallic zinc is also mixed with other metals to form alloys such as brass and bronze. (cdc.gov)
  • Three ranges of zinc-aluminum alloys, ( 1 ) 88 wt. (sae.org)
  • Standardization of definitions, classifications, quality, sampling and acceptance tests of zinc and zinc alloys, as well as of zinc alloy castings. (iso.org)
  • Zinc is alloyed with copper to make brass and with other metals to make alloys used in electrical systems, household fixtures and automobiles. (reference.com)
  • Note: administering zinc with certain antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, may reduce the absorption of these antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
  • Zinc is important in helping the absorption and the metabolism of vitamins and carbohydrates . (everything2.com)
  • Calcium supplementation may decrease dietary zinc absorption. (healthcastle.com)
  • There is early evidence that chromium and zinc could each reduce the absorption of the other. (healthcastle.com)
  • Vegetarians should eat a varied diet that includes zinc-enriched cereals or whole-grain breads leavened with yeast to help with zinc absorption. (clemson.edu)
  • Consuming too much zinc from dietary supplements can cause harmful side effects, such as reduced absorption of copper and iron. (clemson.edu)
  • Some diseases of the bowel may also result in poor absorption or increased loss of zinc. (dailyherald.com)
  • The patented chelated form of zinc in this formulation helps to promote optimal absorption. (wegmans.com)
  • Low levels of vitamin B6, oral penicillin therapy, water pills, alcoholism and certain vegetarian diets may interfere with zinc absorption. (livestrong.com)
  • Clinically, AE is characterized by impaired intestinal zinc absorption, resulting in a triad of symptoms: dermatitis, alopecia, and gastrointestinal (GI) problems such as intractable diarrhea. (intechopen.com)
  • Supplemental zinc, at one to two times RDA amounts, can reverse this tendency and improve immune function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Fraker PJ, Gershwin ME, Good RA, Prasad AS: Interrelationships between zinc and immune function. (springer.com)
  • On top of regulating immune function, zinc also aids in fighting infectious diseases like the flu and pneumonia. (naturalnews.com)
  • In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture 's (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS), a group of older adults with relatively low blood zinc concentrations boosted their immune function by raising their zinc levels. (usda.gov)
  • Night blindness may be a feature of severe zinc deficiency, although most reports of night blindness and abnormal dark adaptation in humans with zinc deficiency have occurred in combination with other nutritional deficiencies (e.g. vitamin A). Impaired immune function in people with zinc deficiency can lead to the development of respiratory, gastrointestinal, or other infections, e.g., pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc is also used as a white pigment in paints and is an ingredient in fire retardants, rubber, skin ointments, lasers and dietary supplements. (reference.com)
  • He says studies following adolescent athletes, particularly gymnasts, have played a factor in understanding zinc deficiencies. (rd.com)
  • Low energy and depression, as well as deficit diseases such as ADD and ADHD, have also been linked to zinc deficiencies, according to Dr. Hadjiev. (rd.com)
  • Zinc insufficiencies or deficiencies are risk factors for diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, as well as an increased risk of death. (dailyherald.com)
  • Zinc deficiencies may increase the risk of infections, particularly in children. (livestrong.com)
  • Moderate and more severe zinc deficiencies are associated with behavioral abnormalities, such as irritability, lethargy, and depression (e.g., involving anhedonia). (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of IFN-g, IL-2, TNF-a (products of TH1 cells) were decreased, whereas the production of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 (products of TH2) were not affected during zinc deficiency. (springer.com)
  • May 7, 2012 -- Adults who take zinc supplements at the first sign of a cold may shave almost two days off of their sniffling, sneezing , and coughing , a new review study suggests. (webmd.com)
  • Women who take zinc supplements during pregnancy will give birth to bigger babies, scientists have discovered. (healthy.net)
  • The symptoms of zinc overdose are the same symptoms I've been having, and I think they have been happening every time I take zinc. (patientslikeme.com)
  • One of the first breakthrough methods of gene targeting was the usage of chimeric proteins called zinc-fingers nucleases (ZFN) to create double-strand breaks. (news-medical.net)
  • Zinc-finger proteins (ZNFs) are one of the most abundant groups of proteins and have a wide range of molecular functions. (nature.com)
  • Given the wide variety of zinc-finger domains, ZNFs are able to interact with DNA, RNA, PAR (poly-ADP-ribose) and other proteins. (nature.com)
  • Zinc-finger proteins (ZNFs) are involved in several cellular processes acting through different molecular mechanisms. (nature.com)
  • In classical C2H2 zinc-finger proteins, two cysteines in one chain and two histidines in other one are coordinated by a zinc ion. (nature.com)
  • The most important and abundant types of zinc-finger domain proteins include C2H2, really interesting new gene (RING), plant homeodomain (PHD), and Lin-ll, Isl-1, and Mec-3 (LIM domains). (nature.com)
  • The body also needs zinc to make proteins and DNA , the genetic materials in cells. (rxlist.com)
  • Zinc is an essential trace element for humans and plays a critical role both as a structural component of proteins and as a cofactor in about 300 enzymes. (intechopen.com)
  • It is called an "essential trace element" because very small amounts of zinc are necessary for human health. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Exposure to large amounts of zinc can be harmful. (cdc.gov)
  • Rats that were fed large amounts of zinc became infertile. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhaling large amounts of zinc (as dusts or fumes) can cause a specific short-term disease called metal fume fever. (cdc.gov)
  • And regardless of how the Nations team measured zinc, Shay -- a geriatric dentist at the Ann Arbor VA who has studied dental-cream use -- admits that many patients with poorly fitting dentures use wildly excessive amounts of denture cream to make them fit. (webmd.com)
  • The study participants included men whose daily diets included the recommended amounts of zinc. (healthline.com)
  • Silver is usually obtained as a by-product of the process of purifying other metals such as copper, lead and zinc. (reference.com)
  • Deep in the Earth's crust, silver is one of the important metals that can be found, along with gold, copper, lead and zinc. (reference.com)
  • Like all metals, zinc is a natural component of the earth's crust. (hubpages.com)
  • Zinc occurs normally in association with lead and other metals, including copper, gold and silver. (hubpages.com)
  • for this reason among others, zinc, cadmium, and mercury are often not considered to be transition metals like the rest of the d-block metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wait until you get some pure zinc powder. (zdnet.com)
  • What happen when hydrochloric acid is added to the zinc powder? (answers.com)
  • Zinc is found in the air, soil, and water and is present in all foods. (cdc.gov)
  • Older adults are at risk for zinc deficiency because they may not eat or have access to a wide variety of foods. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some of the tastiest foods are also rich in zinc. (rd.com)
  • Zinc toxicity can occur from consuming zinc in supplement form and in fortified foods. (healthcastle.com)
  • The best sources of zinc are high-protein foods like seafood, meat, beans, and lentils. (healthcastle.com)
  • The best sources of zinc are animal foods, because the body can absorb it easily. (clemson.edu)
  • Zinc in foods is nontoxic, but zinc supplements can reach toxic doses. (clemson.edu)
  • Foods, rather than supplements, provide the body with the best source of zinc. (livestrong.com)
  • Men with infertility as a result of low testosterone levels may experience improvement from taking a zinc supplement. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The doses used in studies have been in the high range, requiring medical supervision, but increasing dietary zinc or taking a modest supplement in order to get the RDA amount is low risk and may prove helpful for those suffering from acne. (encyclopedia.com)
  • One study researched the effects of a magnesium and zinc supplement. (healthline.com)
  • Recently I began taking a high quality Zinc supplement and experienced lots of inflammation to the point of having to wear sweat pants. (google.com)
  • A zinc supplement may be beneficial to people 51 years of age and older, pregnant women, and women who are breastfeeding. (clemson.edu)
  • Zinc can be taken as a supplement and is often added to multivitamins. (dailyherald.com)
  • Moskovitz agrees that it is rare to experience zinc toxicity on food alone, but warns of greater dangers than nausea and diarrhea, noting severe damage can be done to the stomach lining, and there is the risk of developing anemia. (rd.com)
  • Both zinc deficiency and zinc toxicity are rare in industrialized countries. (healthcastle.com)
  • Zinc is an essential element needed by your body and is commonly found in nutritional supplements. (cdc.gov)
  • A carbon-zinc battery is a primary battery (non-rechargeable) commonly used in low drain consumer applications, such as clocks, calculators, and garage door openers. (daviddarling.info)
  • While zinc deficiency is commonly caused by dietary factors, several inherited defects of zinc deficiency have been identified. (intechopen.com)
  • This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for Zinc . (cdc.gov)
  • Applying zinc to the skin in an ointment does not seem to help treat acne unless used in combination with the antibiotic drug called erythromycin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the duration and severity of diarrhoea, and to prevent subsequent episodes, although the mechanisms by which zinc exerts its anti-diarrhoeal effect are not fully understood. (who.int)
  • In some studies, zinc deficiency has been shown to compromise white blood cell numbers and immune response, while zinc supplementation has been shown to restore conditions to normal. (healthcastle.com)
  • Swallowing or sucking on oral zinc tablets will not work. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Advanced patented process (Solgar's chelated zinc tablets are manufactured under license agreements with Albion Laboratories whose patents and pending patents cover the complexing of minerals with pure amino acids). (wegmans.com)
  • Research shows that taking supplements containing zinc and antioxidant vitamins may modestly slow vision loss and prevent age-related vision loss from becoming advanced in people at high risk. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recently, targeted cleavage of the genome using engineered DNA scissors called zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) has successfully supported the precise manipulation of genetic information in various cells, animals, and plants. (springer.com)
  • Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are targetable DNA cleavage reagents that have been adopted as gene-targeting tools. (genetics.org)
  • Une des premières méthodes de découverte de désignation d'objectifs de gène était l'usage des nucleases appelés de doigts à zinc de protéines chimériques (ZFN) pour produire des interruptions de double-boucle. (news-medical.net)
  • Zinc is used for the treatment and prevention of zinc deficiency and its consequences, including stunted growth and acute diarrhea in children, slow wound healing, and Wilson's disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zinc deficiency might occur in people with severe diarrhea, conditions that make it hard for the bowel to absorb food, liver cirrhosis, and alcoholism. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A study in Bangladesh showed that zinc supplementation significantly reduced the duration and severity of diarrhea in children suffering from cholera. (cdc.gov)
  • Zinc has also been shown to have a similar effect in children with diarrhea caused by infections other than cholera, and is recommended for the treatment of pediatric diarrhea more generally. (cdc.gov)
  • A meta-analysis of the effects of oral zinc in the treatment of acute and persistent diarrhea. (who.int)
  • Role of zinc administration in prevention of childhood diarrhea and respiratory illnesses: a meta-analysis. (who.int)
  • While symptoms vary for everyone, Moskovitz reminds us that, typically with a zinc deficiency, "you would be experience the symptoms more often and continuously versus a sudden attack of nausea or diarrhea. (rd.com)
  • We are conducting research to help scale up a relatively new and potentially tide-turning treatment for diarrhea -- namely zinc supplementation, given in combination with oral rehydration salts (known as ORS). (huffingtonpost.ca)
  • Today, however, zinc deficiency has been recognized as an important human health problem, especially in many developing countries and it is ranked as the 5th leading factor in causing disease, especially diarrhea and pneumonia in children, which are responsible for much of the infant mortality there. (hubpages.com)
  • Zinc has many benefits for child health and its importance lies in preventing common diseases, such as diarrhea and pneumonia, which are responsible for much of the infant mortality in the developing world. (hubpages.com)
  • Zinc deficiency contributes to an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Waste streams from zinc and other metal manufacturing and zinc chemical industries, domestic waste water, and run-off from soil containing zinc can discharge zinc into waterways. (cdc.gov)
  • Detection techniques for zinc signals, involving genetically encoded and chemical probes, are also described. (springer.com)
  • Zinc group element , any of the four chemical elements that constitute Group 12 (IIb) of the periodic table-namely, zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and copernicium (Cn). (britannica.com)
  • Zinc supports cell function, helping an estimated 100 enzymes - molecules that make chemical reactions happen - perform their duties. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A reaction between zinc and sulfur can be used to demonstrate that chemical changes are often accompanied by a large change in energy. (rsc.org)
  • Zinc has long been a potential rival to lithium as the chemical foundation for batteries and energy. (forbes.com)
  • Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical composition has to be right so zinc is released, and it must be started within 24 hours of cold onset to be effective. (webmd.com)
  • Environmen t: Zinc is one of the few materials used in construction that can be recycled indefinitely without losing its physical and chemical characteristics. (archdaily.com)
  • What is the chemical equation for zinc hydroxide and acetic acid is? (answers.com)
  • What is chemical equation of acetic acid with water and zinc metal? (answers.com)
  • 1989. Iron, copper, and zinc status: Response to supplementation with zinc or zinc and iron in adult females. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, we mandate that all our copper and zinc products follow stringent AFIA Safe Feed/Safe Food and OMRI standards. (constantcontact.com)
  • SYDNEY, Oct 3 (Reuters) - London copper and zinc prices eased on Tuesday after starting the week firmer, with investors taking profits in holiday-thinned trading in Asia. (reuters.com)
  • We saw some profit-taking early on in copper and zinc, which had a strong run on Monday (when zinc hit its highest price in more than 10 years)," said a Perth-based trader. (reuters.com)
  • Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc in various proportions, was used as early as the third millennium BC in the Aegean area and the region which currently includes Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Kalmykia, Turkmenistan and Georgia. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, interactions that occur at the interface between the inorganic ZnO core and the biological environment can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species or the dissolution and release of potentially toxic zinc cations. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nutritional deficiency of zinc is widespread throughout the developing countries and a conditioned deficiency of zinc is known to occur in many diseased states. (springer.com)
  • Overdoses would most likely occur from a zinc supplementation, Dr. Hadjiev says. (rd.com)
  • However, more is not better, and zinc overdose can occur with supplements. (livestrong.com)
  • There is some evidence that zinc supplementation may slightly relieve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis , but the studies are not yet conclusive. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Taking zinc by mouth improves symptoms of an inherited disorder called Wilson disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking zinc by mouth seems to help improve symptoms of acrodermatitis enteropathica. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One small study shows that taking zinc alone or as add-on therapy to prescription ADHD medication does not consistently improve symptoms of ADHD. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If the body does not have the zinc it needs, a person could experience symptoms associated with zinc deficiency. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Symptoms of zinc deficiency tend to be linked to the roles that zinc performs in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Severe zinc deficiency can cause even more concerning symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Do Zinc and Vitamin C Reduce COVID Symptoms? (medscape.com)
  • This week, we got one such trial , appearing in JAMA Network Open, looking at the ability of zinc and vitamin C - alone or in combination - to shorten symptoms of COVID-19 in outpatients. (medscape.com)
  • A new Canadian review concludes that taking certain zinc products may help cut the duration of common cold symptoms such as a runny nose in an adult, but there remains "weak rationale" for recommendin. (huffingtonpost.ca)
  • Zinc supplementation has been reported to improve symptoms of ADHD and depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the low requirement, zinc is found in nearly every cell of the body and is a key to the proper function of more than 300 enzymes, including superoxide dismutase. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Zinc helps enzymes break down food and other nutrients. (healthline.com)
  • [9] Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe zinc deficiency in children is common in developing countries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zinc deficiency in children can cause delayed growth and has been claimed to be the cause of stunted growth in one third of the world's population. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who are going to have surgery are well advised to make sure they are getting the RDA of zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin C in order to optimize wound healing. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Zinc may help cells divide and promote wound healing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The study itself was a recent publication examining the effects of dietary zinc on wound-healing in mice. (google.com)
  • 2004 Apr;134(4):811-6 Dietary zinc alters early inflammatory responses during cutaneous wound healing in weanling CD-1 mice. (google.com)
  • Zinc deficiency is a well-known health problem associated with delayed wound healing, yet the precise mechanisms that underlie the delay remain unknown. (google.com)
  • We hypothesized that zinc deficiency delays wound healing as a result of decreased nuclear factor (NF)kappaB activation, reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha], and a decrease in neutrophil infiltration during the early stage of cutaneous wound healing. (google.com)
  • Interestingly, zinc supplementation at 1000 microg/g delayed the rate of wound closure and decreased mRNA levels of TNF-alpha and infiltration of neutrophils compared with mice fed the control diet. (google.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that zinc deficiency and high-dose zinc supplementation delay wound healing as a result of altered inflammatory responses and suggest that adequate zinc supplementation may have beneficial effects on the inflammatory responses to enhance cutaneous wound healing. (google.com)
  • Slow wound healing is one of the more telling signs of a zinc deficiency. (rd.com)
  • Zinc plays a role in supporting smell and taste sensitivity, as well as promoting wound healing. (healthcastle.com)
  • Zinc helps the immune system fight off bacteria and viruses , is important for wound healing and is important for proper senses of taste and smell . (rxlist.com)
  • According to the U.S. Library of Medicine, zinc deficiency can cause poor wound healing. (livestrong.com)
  • Although food ranks as the preferred source of zinc, you can choose from various zinc supplements to stimulate wound healing. (livestrong.com)
  • Zinc has been found in at least 985 of the 1,662 National Priority List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
  • Zinc has been found in at least 985 of the 1,662 current or former NPL sites. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the total number of NPL sites evaluated for zinc is not known, the possibility exists that the number of sites at which zinc is found may increase in the future as more sites are evaluated. (cdc.gov)
  • Zinc has been found to alleviate acne in some cases. (everything2.com)
  • Three of these elements are found in different proportions in the Earth's crust: it has been estimated that zinc is present to the extent of 80 parts per million (compared with 70 for copper and 16 for lead). (britannica.com)
  • Vegetarians traditionally have lower zinc levels because the body breaks down zinc found in meats more efficiently. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They found that the participants who took 30 mg of supplemental zinc had higher blood zinc concentrations and higher T-cell counts as well as better T-cell function than those in the control group. (usda.gov)
  • Researchers from the University of Alabama in the US found that a daily dose of 25 mg of zinc throughout pregnancy, starting from the 19th week, had a significant effect on the birth weight of the newborn. (healthy.net)
  • Additionally, the U.S. Library of Medicine reported that a 2007 British study found that topical application of zinc ranks far superior to oral administration. (livestrong.com)
  • Humans need it to function and it is of vital importance to our health too.Zinc is found in all parts of the body: organs, tissues, bones, fluids and cells. (hubpages.com)
  • Particularly high concentrations of zinc are also to be found in the prostate gland and in semen. (hubpages.com)
  • Inherited AE is an autosomal recessive disorder where in many of the cases mutations in hZIP4 (a member of the SLC39 gene family encoding a membrane-bound zinc transporter) are found [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • More zinc is found in the body than any other trace element except iron. (naturessunshine.com)
  • Zinc is a chalcophile, meaning the element is more likely to be found in minerals together with sulfur and other heavy chalcogens, rather than with the light chalcogen oxygen or with non-chalcogen electronegative elements such as the halogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • An abundant element of the magnesium-cadmium group, extracted principally from the minerals zinc blende, smithsonite, calamine, and franklinite, as an easily fusible bluish white metal, which is malleable, especially when heated. (everything2.com)
  • In some respects, zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc, cadmium, and mercury can lose the two electrons in the outermost shell to form dipositive ions, M 2+ (in which M represents a generalized metal element), thereby exposing the next innermost shell with a stable configuration in each case of 18 electrons. (britannica.com)
  • this tendency is most marked in the case of mercury, less so in that of zinc, and least with cadmium. (britannica.com)
  • Differing from zinc and mercury, cadmium can form the complex ions represented by the formulas [CdCl 3 ] − and [CdCl 4 ] 2− in solution. (britannica.com)
  • Although oral zinc can impact the duration of [the] common cold in adults, there is not enough evidence to recommend its use in children, and only a weak rationale for its use in adults," says researcher Michelle Science, MD. She is an infectious disease specialist at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. (webmd.com)
  • Because your body can't store zinc, you need to take it in every day. (healthline.com)
  • Since the human body does not store excess zinc, it must be consumed regularly as part of the diet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We do not know if excess zinc can cause developmental effects in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Consumption of excess zinc may cause ataxia, lethargy, and copper deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil contains zinc in 5-770 ppm with an average 64 ppm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The more stable cubic form is known also as zinc blende or sphalerite . (wikipedia.org)
  • Its primary ore is sphalerite, which accounts for about 95 percent of zinc produced worldwide. (reference.com)
  • Zinc is important for cellular growth, cellular differentiation and metabolism and deficiency limits childhood growth and decreases resistance to infections. (who.int)
  • Zinc is involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism. (lycos.com)
  • Zinc is an essential trace element that supports various functions throughout your body. (healthline.com)
  • Zinc, considered an "essential trace element," plays many diverse roles in how the body functions. (rd.com)
  • www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/263176 Zinc is a trace element that is essential for regulating the immune system. (lycos.com)
  • We showed that T cell functions were affected adversely even when the deficiency of zinc was mild in humans. (springer.com)
  • Although severe zinc deficiency is rare in humans, mild to moderate deficiency may be common worldwide. (who.int)
  • Zinc one of the most essential elements for humans, plants and animals. (hubpages.com)
  • Here, we provide an overview on the effects of zinc deficiency on different organ systems, biological processes, and the associations of zinc deficiency with pathologies observed in humans and animal models. (intechopen.com)
  • Among them, Acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) is the most common form of inherited zinc deficiency in humans [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Beach RS, Gershwin ME, Hurley LS: The reversibility of developmental retardation following murine fetal zinc deprivation. (springer.com)
  • Earlier work had shown that prenatal alcohol, as well as other toxins, can result in fetal zinc deficiency and (developmental malformations) by inducing the zinc-binding protein, metallothionein, in the mother's liver. (medicinenet.com)
  • Three, dietary zinc supplementation increases the mother's blood zinc to overwhelm the transient drop in zinc caused by alcohol, which we believe prevents the fetal zinc deficiency and subsequent fetal damage. (medicinenet.com)
  • Common dietary sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, and fish. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We further documented that zinc deficiency decreased NK cell lytic activity and caused a decrease in the percentage of CD8+ CD73+ T cells which are known to be predominantly precursors of cytotoxic T cells. (springer.com)
  • Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although neither zinc nor zirconium is ferromagnetic, their alloy ZrZn 2 exhibits ferromagnetism below 35 K. Zinc makes up about 75 ppm (0.0075%) of Earth's crust, making it the 24th most abundant element. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc for the treatment of diarrhoea: effect on diarrhoea morbidity, mortality and incidence of future episodes. (who.int)
  • As our work continues, I'll keep you posted on what we learn from the families in San Marcos and the health workers that support them and how we proceed to reach more children with zinc and ORS for the treatment of diarrhoea. (huffingtonpost.ca)