A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.
Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.
An HIV protease inhibitor which acts as an analog of an HIV protease cleavage site. It is a highly specific inhibitor of HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases, and also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.

Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.(1/1569)

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Modulation of the cytotoxicity of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and methotrexate after transduction of folate receptor cDNA into human cervical carcinoma: identification of a correlation between folate receptor expression and thymidine kinase activity. (2/1569)

Cervical carcinoma is an AIDS-defining illness. The expression of folate receptors (FRs) in cervical carcinoma (HeLa-IU1) cells was modulated by stable transduction of FR cDNA encapsidated in recombinant adeno-associated virus-2 in the sense and antisense orientation (sense and antisense cells, respectively). Although sense cells proliferated slower than antisense or untransduced cells in vivo and in vitro in 2% (but not 10%) FCS, [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA was significantly increased in sense cells in 10% serum; therefore, the basis for this discrepancy was investigated. The activity of thymidine kinase (TK) was subsequently directly correlated with the extent of FR expression in single cell-derived clones of transduced cells. This elevated TK activity was not a result of recruitment of the salvage pathway based on the presence of adequate dTTP pools, normal thymidylate synthase (TS) activity, persistence of increased thymidine incorporation despite the exogenous provision of excess 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate, and documentation of adequate folates in sense cells. The increase in TK activity conferred significant biological properties to sense cells (but not antisense or untransduced cells) as demonstrated by augmented phosphorylation of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and concomitantly greater sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of AZT. Conversely, sense cells were highly resistant to methotrexate, but this was reversed by the addition of AZT. The direct correlation of FR expression and TK activity indicates a previously unrecognized consequence of FR overexpression.  (+info)

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. (3/1569)

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase in rat liver mitochondria by added 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. (4/1569)

The effect of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine on nucleoside diphosphate kinase of isolated rat liver mitochondria has been studied. This is done by monitoring the increase in the rate of oxygen uptake by nucleoside diphosphate (TDP, UDP, CDP or GDP) addition to mitochondria in state 4. It is shown that 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibits the mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of about 10 microM as measured for each tested nucleoside diphosphate. It is also shown that high concentrations of GDP prevent 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibition of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase.  (+info)

Suppression of replication of multidrug-resistant HIV type 1 variants by combinations of thymidylate synthase inhibitors with zidovudine or stavudine. (5/1569)

The replication of recombinant multidrug-resistant HIV-1 clones modeled on clinically derived resistant HIV-1 strains from patients receiving long-term combination therapy with zidovudine (AZT) plus 2',3'-dideoxycytidine was found to regain sensitivity to AZT and stavudine (D4T) as a consequence of a pharmacologically induced decrease in de novo dTMP synthesis. The host-cell system used was phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells; dTMP and dTTP depletion were induced by single exposures to a low level of the thymidylate synthase inhibitor 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its deoxynucleoside, 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine. The host-cell response to the latter was biphasic: a very rapid decrease in the rate of de novo dTMP formation and, consequently, in intracellular dTTP pools, followed by slower recovery in both indices over 3 to 24 h. With the additional presence of AZT or D4T, however, replication of the multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains remained inhibited, indicating dependence of HIV DNA chain termination by AZT-5'-monophosphate or 2',3'-didehydro-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate in these resistant strains on simultaneous inhibition of host-cell de novo synthesis of thymidine nucleotides. No effect on viability of control (uninfected) phytohemagglutinin-stimulated/peripheral blood mononuclear cells was noted on 6-day exposures to 5-FU or 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine alone or in combination with AZT or D4T, even at drug levels severalfold higher than those used in the viral inhibition studies. These studies may provide useful information for the potential clinical use of AZT/5-FU or D4T/5-FU combinations for the prevention or reversal of multidrug resistance associated with long-term dideoxynucleoside combination therapy.  (+info)

Treatment with amprenavir alone or amprenavir with zidovudine and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 347 Study Team. (6/1569)

Amprenavir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and good in vitro activity. Ninety-two lamivudine- and protease inhibitor-naive individuals with >/=50 CD4 cells/mm3 and >/=5000 HIV RNA copies/mL were assigned amprenavir (1200 mg) alone or with zidovudine (300 mg) plus lamivudine (150 mg), all given every 12 h. After a median follow-up of 88 days, the findings of a planned interim review resulted in termination of the amprenavir monotherapy arm. Among 85 subjects with confirmed plasma HIV RNA determination, 15 of 42 monotherapy versus 1 of 43 triple-therapy subjects had an HIV RNA increase above baseline or 1 log10 above nadir (P=.0001). For subjects taking triple therapy at 24 weeks, the median decrease in HIV RNA was 2.04 log10 copies/mL, and 17 (63%) of 27 evaluable subjects had <500 HIV RNA copies/mL. Treatment with amprenavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine together reduced the levels of HIV RNA significantly more than did amprenavir monotherapy.  (+info)

2-mercapto N-(azolyl)benzenesulfonamides. VI. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of some new 2-mercapto-N-(1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives containing the 1,2,4-triazole moiety fused with a variety of heteroaromatic rings. (7/1569)

A series of 2-mercapto-N-(1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives containing the triazole moiety fused with a variety of heteroaromatic rings [XVI-XXVIII] was obtained by the reactions of 3-methylthio-1,4-2-benzodithiazine 1,1-dioxide derivatives [Ia-d] with 2-hydrazines [IIa-f]. Some of the intermediate 1,1-dioxide-1,4,2-benzodithiazin-3-ylhydrazines [III-XV] initially formed were also isolated. Preliminary screening data indicated that compounds [XVI-XIX and XXVII] were anti-HIV inactive, whereas other compounds showed a high [XXI and XXIII], fairly high [XXIII and XXVI] or moderate [XX, XXIV, XXV and XXVIII] activity. The compound [XXI] exhibited also high activity against ten selected HIV mutants.  (+info)

Effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to protease inhibitors on reverse transcriptase processing, activity, and drug sensitivity. (8/1569)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants resistant to protease inhibitors often display a reduced replicative capacity as a result of an impairment of protease function. Such fitness-impaired viruses display Gag precursor maturation defects. Here, we report that some protease inhibitor-resistant viruses also display abnormalities in the processing of reverse transcriptase (RT) by the protease. In three recombinant viruses carrying resistant protease sequences from patient plasma, we observed a marked decrease in the amount of mature RT subunits and of particle-associated RT activity compared to their parental pretherapy counterparts. We investigated the possibility that a decrease in the amount of particle-associated mature RT could affect the sensitivity of the corresponding virus to RT inhibitors. We observed a twofold increase of sensitivity to zidovudine (AZT) when a virus which carried AZT mutations was processed by a resistant protease. Interestingly, the presence of AZT-resistance mutations partially rescued the replication defect associated with the mutated protease. The interplay between resistance to protease inhibitors and to RT inhibitors described here may be relevant to the therapeutic control of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Maternal viral genotypic zidovudine resistance and infrequent failure of zidovudine therapy to prevent perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076. AU - Eastman, P. Scott. AU - Shapiro, David E.. AU - Coombs, Robert W.. AU - Frenkel, Lisa M.. AU - McSherry, George D.. AU - Britto, Paula. AU - Herman, Steven A.. AU - Sperling, Rhoda S.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Maternal samples were assessed from 96 women enrolled in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genotypic zidovudine resistance at entry, if zidovudine resistance developed on study, and the role of zidovudine resistance in vertical transmission of HIV-1 despite zidovudine therapy. Low and high levels of genotypic resistance were assessed by differential hybridization, oligoligation, or direct sequencing of plasma HIV-1 RNA for codons K70R and T215Y/F. None of the ...
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BACKGROUND: To assess the effects of zidovudine, didanosine, and zalcitabine on HIV disease progression and survival, we undertook meta-analyses of individual patient data and tabular data from all randomised trials that compared these agents. METHODS: Individual patient data were available for 7722 participants without AIDS in the nine randomised trials of immediate versus deferred zidovudine, and 7700 participants with or without AIDS in the six trials comparing zidovudine plus didanosine, zidovudine plus zalcitabine, or zidovudine alone. The main outcomes were mortality and disease progression (new AIDS-defining event or death before any such event). FINDINGS: In the comparison of immediate versus deferred zidovudine, during a median follow-up of 50 months, 1908 individuals progressed, of whom 1351 died. In the deferred group, 61% started antiretroviral therapy (median time to therapy 28 months, which was zidovudine monotherapy in 94%). During the first year of follow-up, immediate zidovudine halved
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vivo antagonism with zidovudine plus stavudine combination therapy. AU - Havlir, Diane V.. AU - Tierney, Camlin. AU - Friedland, Gerald H.. AU - Pollard, Richard B.. AU - Smeaton, Laura. AU - Sommadossi, Jean Pierre. AU - Lawrence, Fox. AU - Kessler, Harold. AU - Fife, Kenneth. AU - Richman, Douglas D.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects receiving zidovudine were randomized either to add stavudine (d4T) or didanosine (ddI) to their current regimen or to switch to ddI or d4T monotherapy. After 16 weeks of therapy, the mean reduction in HIV RNA from baseline was 0.14 log10 copies/mL in patients receiving d4T or zidovudine plus d4T. In subjects receiving ddI or ddI plus zidovudine, reductions were 0.39 and 0.56 log10, respectively. CD4 cell counts remained stable or showed modest increases in all arms except the zidovudine plus d4T arm. Patients receiving zidovudine plus d4T showed progressive declines in CD4 cell counts with a median ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Zidovudine therapy in an inner city population. AU - Samuels, Jonathan E.. AU - Hendrix, Josephine. AU - Hilton, Madeline. AU - Marantz, Paul R.. AU - Sloan, Victor. AU - Small, Catherine Butkus. PY - 1990/9. Y1 - 1990/9. N2 - To determine the compliance and tolerance with zidovudine (azi-dothymidine or AZT) therapy among poor, minority, and intravenous drug-using patients, data were collected on all AIDS and ARC patients followed for at least 4 weeks in a New York City Human Immunodeficiency Virus clinic. Ninety-nine patients received zidovudine, of whom 75% were males, 92% were minorities, and 59% had a history of intravenous drug use. Of the 99 patients, 72 had AIDS and 27 had ARC with T-helper (CD4) lymphocytes ≤500 mm3. Eighty-seven of the 99 patients (88%) were compliant with zidovudine therapy. Fifty-seven percent of these had at least one adverse drug reaction requiring dose reduction (44%) or cessation (13%). Adverse reactions were similar to those reported in other ...
If a therapy delays progression from A to B and from B to C, does it not follow that it delays progression from A to C? The answer is not necessarily yes. For convenience, let us define middle-stage HIV infection as asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic disease with a CD4 count between 0.2 and 0.5 × 109/L. Recent trials have shown that zidovudine delays progression from middle-stage HIV infection to AIDS or AIDS-related complex. Furthermore, other trials have demonstrated that zidovudine prolongs survival in persons with AIDS or AIDS-related complex. Unfortunately, it does not necessarily follow that early institution of zidovudine therapy in patients with middle-stage HIV infection will prolong their overall survival. One reason is that the trials of zidovudine in patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex involved subjects who had not received zidovudine before. It is conceivable that the early benefit of zidovudine could be counterbalanced by longer-term effects, including viral resistance and ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiac structure and function in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection treated with zidovudine. AU - Lipshultz, Steven E. AU - Orav, E. John. AU - Sanders, Stephen P.. AU - Hale, Andrea Rubin. AU - Mcintosh, Kenneth. AU - Colan, Steven D.. PY - 1992/10/29. Y1 - 1992/10/29. N2 - Background. Abnormalities of cardiac structure and function are common in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is unclear, however, whether these abnormalities are attributable to the disease itself, associated infections, or possible cardiotoxic effects of the most commonly used treatment, zidovudine. Methods. We performed echocardiography in 24 children with symptomatic HIV infection immediately before they started zidovudine therapy and a mean of 1.32 years after therapy began. Sixteen of these children were also studied a mean of 1.26 years before starting zidovudine treatment. Comparison groups included 27 age-matched children with symptomatic HIV infection ...
Other side-effects occasionally reported from zidovudine include rashes, severe muscle pain and inflammation, nausea, insomnia, nail discoloration, and kidney disorders. These toxicities are more severe and more common in people with damaged immune systems.. When first prescribed, zidovudine was given in high doses, which commonly caused severe side-effects. Recommended doses are now much lower, and as a result, side-effects have lessened.. Zidovudine may damage the bone marrow, the substance in the body that produces blood cells. People with more advanced HIV infection are more likely to suffer blood deficiencies such as anaemia (low levels of red blood cells) or neutropenia (low levels of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell).[ref] In combination with other risk factors for anaemia, such as other medications and opportunistic infections, taking zidovudine may result in more severe side-effects.. A recent meta-analysis of 54 trials of zidovudine, funded by GlaxoSmithKline, concluded that ...
Microdialysis is a minimally invasive sampling technique that can be used to continuously monitor drug concentrations in the ECF of tissues that are accessible to microdialysis probe placement. The free drug concentration at the site of drug action in tissues is a critical determinant of the intensity of the drugs effect, and therefore monitoring tissue free drug concentration may be more informative than monitoring plasma drug concentrations.. We compared microdialysis sampling from blood and tissues to conventional sampling methods in a nonhuman primate model at steady state during a continuous infusion of zidovudine and after a bolus dose of zidovudine. The pharmacology of this nucleoside analog has been previously characterized in our animal model and the CSF penetration was 0.21 (Klecker et al., 1987; Collins et al., 1988; Balis et al., 1989). Zidovudine (mol. wt., 267) is well tolerated, lipophilic, and minimally protein bound, and a sensitive and specific assay for its detection and ...
Results:. The median follow-up time was 17.7 months. The estimated 12-month event-free rates were 70%, 67%, and 73%, respectively, for the zidovudine, zalcitabine, and combination groups (P =0.26). A trend analysis showed significantly lower progression rates for combination therapy compared with zidovudine therapy as the pretreatment CD4 cell count increased (P = 0.027). For patients with 150 or more CD4 cells/mm3, those receiving combination therapy were less likely to have disease progression or to die than were those receiving zidovudine (relative risk, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.93; P = 0.029). We observed no difference between the zalcitabine and zidovudine groups (relative risk, 0.74; CI, 0.40 to 1.36; P = 0.33). For patients with 50 to 150 CD4 cells/mm3 or fewer than 50 CD4 cells/mm3, we found no differences among the treatment groups (P = 0.69 and P = 0.57, respectively). Severe toxic effects occurred less frequently among patients with 150 or more CD4 cells/mm3. ...
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Perinatal trial PACTG 076 established that zidovudine prophylaxis given during pregnancy, labor, and delivery, and to the newborn reduced risk of perinatal transmission of HIV by nearly 70%28 (see the Perinatal Guidelines for further discussion on the use of zidovudine for the prevention of perinatal transmission of HIV). Zidovudine 4 mg/kg body weight every 12 hours (prophylactic dose) is recommended for neonates/infants ≥35 weeks gestation for prevention of transmission (see the Perinatal Guidelines). Infants who are HIV-exposed but uninfected should be continued on the prophylactic dose for 4 to 6 weeks depending on assessment of risk for perinatal transmission and gestational age at time of delivery (see Perinatal Guidelines). For full-term neonates who are diagnosed with HIV, the zidovudine dose should be increased at age 4 weeks to the continuation dose (see dosing table). The activity of the enzymes responsible for glucuronidation is low at birth and increases dramatically over the ...
Azidothymidine (now zidovudine; Retrovir, Burroughs Wellcome Company, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) is an agent that appears to be efficacious in the treatment of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in patients with a history of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (1). Information on the type and frequency of side effects with this agent, however, is limited (2, 3). We noted progressive pigmentation of all ten fingernails in two black patients after they had received azidothymidine orally at a dose of 200 mg every 4 hours for 2 to 6 weeks. Neither patient was receiving any other drug.. A 36-year-old black woman with a history of P. carinii pneumonia after infection with human immunodeficiency virus began receiving azidothymidine in oral doses of 200 mg every 4 hours according to the Burroughs Wellcome Azidothymidine Treatment Investigational New Drug Protocol. Six weeks later the patient went to an emergency room for evaluation of cyanosis after having noted a darkened bluish ...
3 -azidothymidine significantly alters glycosphingolipid synthesis in melanoma cells and decreases the shedding of gangliosides Journal Article ...
Zidovudine is used alongside other drugs to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Zidovudine is given to decrease the odds of passing the infection. Zidovudine is in a class of drugs called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). It works by lowering the quantity of HIV in the blood. Though zidovudine doesnt cure HIV, it might decrease your odds of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HIV-related disorders like severe infections or cancer.. Taking these drugs together with practicing safer sex and creating other lifestyle changes can reduce the chance of transmitting (dispersing) that the HIV virus into other individuals.. ...
To evaluate and compare 3 anti-pneumocystis regimens plus zidovudine (AZT) in persons with HIV infection and T4 cell count less than 200 cells/mm3. All persons completing at least 8 weeks of therapy on 081 will be offered the opportunity to participate in the nested study (ACTG 981) of systemic antifungal therapy (fluconazole) versus local therapy (Clotrimazole) for the prevention of serious fungal disease.. Persons with HIV disease who are receiving AZT are at risk for PCP, toxoplasmosis, bacterial pneumonia, and other serious infections. It is therefore important to find drugs that can be given along with AZT to control these infections. Aerosolized pentamidine (PEN) has been shown to be useful in preventing PCP and is expected to lower the 2-year risk of PCP. Both sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMX/TMP) and dapsone probably also provide effective preventive treatment against PCP, and both may be useful in preventing toxoplasmosis and extrapulmonary pneumocystosis. ...
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Placebo matched to maraviroc 300 mg tablet orally twice daily and efavirenz 600 mg tablet orally once daily in the evening co-administered with combination therapy containing zidovudine 300 mg and lamivudine 150 mg (combivir [CBV]) tablet orally twice daily, during the DB phase. DB phase nominally ended at last participants Week 96 visit. Efavirenz 600 mg tablet orally once daily in the evening co-administered with combination therapy containing zidovudine 300 mg and lamivudine 150 mg (combivir [CBV]) tablet orally twice daily, during the OL phase. OL phase continued for at least 3 years after DB phase ...
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The SCID-hu mouse, engrafted with human hematolymphoid organs, is permissive for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This mouse model was used to test compounds for antiviral efficacy. Two weeks after infection with HIV, 100 percent (40/40) of SCID-hu mice were positive for HIV by the polymerase chain reaction. When first treated with 3-azido-3-deoxythymidine (AZT), none (0/17) were HIV-positive by this assay. However, AZT-treated SCID-hu mice did have a few infected cells; after AZT treatment was stopped, viral spread was detected by polymerase chain reaction in such mice. Thus, the SCID-hu mouse provides a means to directly compare new antiviral compounds with AZT and to further improve antiviral efficacy. ...
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Zidovudine is an antiviral medicine that prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from multiplying in your body. Zidovudine is used to treat HIV, the virus that can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Zidovudine is also given during pregnancy to prevent an HIV-infected woman from passing the virus to her...
Objectives: To evaluate the use of zidovudine prophylaxis in HIV-exposed health-care workers HCW in Italy and to determine its short-term toxicity. Design: Longitudinal, open study with retrospective and prospective collection of data. Setting: All Italian clinical centres that care for HIV-infected patients and are licensed by the Ministry of...
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OBJECTIVES. The main objective of this project was to assess the therapeutic effect of Zidovudine (AZT) on cats infected with either FIV or FeLV at late but not terminal stages of the respective diseases.. MATERIALS. The clinical trial was started with 10 FIV-infected cats (group 1), 3 FeLV-infected cats (group 2) and 15 healthy FIV/FeLV negative cats (control group). The control group was used just for techniques standardization, i.e., Flow Cytometry. Diagnosis was performed by ELISA, detecting p27 antigen for FeLV or antibodies for FIV, in whole blood samples. A nested PCR was standarized to confirm FIV status. Treatment with AZT was attempted at an oral dose of 5 mg/Kg, TID during 5 weeks with resting intervals of 4 weeks. The patients follow up was done weekly, including clinical check up, hemogram, plasmatic globulin dosage and evaluation of CD4/CD8 rate by means of flow cytometry. During therapeutic phase AZT was the only drug used on study groups.. RESULTS. The FIV (+) study group ...
Take Retrovir exactly as prescribed by your doctor. The recommended dose when treating adults (age 18 years and older) with HIV or AIDS is 200 mg three times daily or 300 mg twice daily. For children aged 3 months to 12 years the dosage is based on body size. The maximum dose for children in this age range is 200 mg three times daily (or 300 mg twice daily). If you have kidney disease, your doctor may recommend a lower dosage. Take this medication by mouth with a full glass of water. You can take Retrovir with or without food. Take this medication 2 hours before or after taking clarithromycin. Clarithromycin may prevent your body from fully absorbing zidovudine ...
3KLG: Crystal structure of AZT-resistant HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase crosslinked to pre-translocation AZTMP-Terminated DNA (COMPLEX N)
A shorter course of AZT therapy than currently prescribed for HIV-infected pregnant women may allow women in developing countries to afford the treatment that can reduce their babies chances of contracting AIDS, but at a much lower cost, according to a study in the October 5 New England Journal of Medicine. The study, conducted by researchers from Thailand, France, and the United States, showed that transmission of HIV from a mother to her child can be reduced with shorter treatments of the drug AZT (zidovudine) at 1/5 the usual cost (in U.S. dollars). The study was funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the Fogarty International Center, both of the National Institutes of Health. This is a large step forward in reducing pediatric AIDS, said Duane Alexander, M.D., Director of the NICHD. The less-expensive alternative could provide millions of women with treatment that could spare thousands of babies from being infected with the AIDS virus. Of the ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 19275589. Curr. HIV Res. 2009 Mar;7(2):211-7. Placental cytokine balance may be critical for the control of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. We assessed whether the type and duration of antiretrovirals used for prevention of HIV-1-MTCT modified the inflammatory cytokine profile. We investigated the levels of cytokine expression in the placentas of 61 HIV-1-infected women who received zidovudine (ZDV) plus single dose nevirapine (SD-NVP) or ZDV only for prevention of MTCT. Placentas of 38 HIV-1-uninfected women were included as controls. All placentas were obtained after vaginal delivery. Levels of mRNA and cytokine expression were quantified using real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively, in placental explants and 24-hour culture supernatants and analyzed in relation to the womens characteristics and the type and duration of antiretroviral prophylaxis. HIV-1-infected and uninfected women did not show any differences in the expression of placental cytokine ...
315 medications are known to interact with zidovudine. Includes Ativan (lorazepam), Bactrim (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), Combivir (lamivudine/zidovudine).
Zidovudine is a medication used to treat HIV, originally marketed under the brand name Retrovir. Generic versions of zidovudine are now available too.
Abacavir sulfate, lamivudine and zidovudine carries a standard black box opens warning against paediatric use as a result strictly of its zidovudine content. In addition, there is no explanation for why there is a high incidence of hives or welts in children treated with prescription of medicine. At this time she said she believed she had chosen right arm hives or welts due physiologi
Primer unblocking and rescue of DNA synthesis by azidothymidine (AZT)-resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: comparison between initiation and elongation of reverse transcription and between (-) and (+) strand DNA synthesis.
Variants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with reduced sensitivity to zidovudine (3-azido-3-deoxythymidine) have been selected by passage of virus in cell culture in the presence of drug. Wild-type, sensitive virus became partially resistant to zidovudine by passage 12 (50% inhibitory dose values measured in HeLa CD4+ cells increased from 0.014 to 0.2 microM), and genetic analysis using the polymerase chain reaction revealed that mutations in the reverse transcriptase coding region identical to those seen in clinical isolates from treated individuals had occurred. The order of appearance of these resistance mutations in passaged virus was also similar to that in clinical isolates. The partially resistant strain, HIVRTMC/F, became highly zidovudine resistant by passage 12 (50% inhibitory dose values increased from 0.4 to 2.5 microM during passages 7 to 11). Nucleotide sequence analysis of the reverse transcriptase from this variant revealed a novel amino acid substitution (Lys----Glu) at ...
Aurobindo Pharma has developed zidovudine for the treatment of HIV-1 infections, to be used in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Zidovudine is a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficacy of zidovudine and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin for reducing perinatal HIV transmission from HIV- infected women with advanced disease. T2 - Results of pediatric AIDS clinical trials group protocol 185. AU - Stiehm, E. Richard. AU - Lambert, John S.. AU - Mofenson, Lynne M.. AU - Bethel, James. AU - Whitehouse, Jean. AU - Nugent, Robert. AU - John, Moye. AU - Fowler, Mary Glenn. AU - Mathieson, Bonnie J.. AU - Reichelderfer, Patricia. AU - Nemo, George J.. AU - Korelitz, James. AU - Meyer, William A.. AU - Sapan, Christine V.. AU - Jimenez, Eleanor. AU - Gandia, Jorge. AU - Scott, Gwendolyn. AU - OSullivan, Mary Jo. AU - Kovacs, Andrea. AU - Stek, Alice. AU - Shearer, William T.. AU - Hammill, Hunter. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185 evaluated whether zidovudine combined with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune ...
Maintenance with a triple nucleoside reverse transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI) regimen after successful induction with a dual NRTI/protease inhibitor (PI) combination may be advantageous, because of low pill burden, favorable lipids, and less drug interactions. This strategy to become free of PI-related problems without losing viral efficacy has not been formally tested. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter, 96-week comparative study in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive patients with CD4 <or=350 cells/mm(3) and HIV-1 RNA concentrations (viral load [VL]) greater than 30,000 copies per milliliter. Patients were randomized after reaching VL less than 50 copies per milliliter on two consecutive occasions between 12 and 24 weeks after start of zidovudine/lamuvidine and lopinavir/ritonavir combination. Eligible subjects switched to abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine (TZV) or continued the PI-containing regimen. Here we present the 48-week data with virologic success rate (failure: VL > ...
lamivudine and zidovudine - description, side Effects of lamivudine and zidovudine, dosage (lamivudine and zidovudine), proper use of lamivudine and zidovudine. Drugs review.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Zidovudine-induced reversible pure red cell aplasia. AU - Balakrishnan, Anuja. AU - Valsalan, Rohith. AU - Sheshadri, Shubha. AU - Pandit, Vinay R.. AU - Medep, Vikas. AU - Agrawal, Ravindra Kumar. PY - 2010/5/1. Y1 - 2010/5/1. N2 - Hematological abnormalities are frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and may be directly attributable to the virus or may be caused by opportunistic infections, neoplasms or drugs that cause bone marrow suppression or hemolysis. Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon hematological disorder that causes anemia. We report a 37-year-old male with HIV infection who developed PRCA 6 weeks after commencing Zidovudine and recovered following cessation of the drug. This is the first case of Zidovudine-induced PRCA reported from the Indian subcontinent.. AB - Hematological abnormalities are frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and may be directly attributable to the virus or may be caused by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A phase i/ii trial of zidovudine, interferon-α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. AU - Davey, Richard T.. AU - Davey, Victoria J.. AU - Metcalf, Julia A.. AU - Zurlo, John J.. AU - Kovacs, Joseph A.. AU - Falloon, Judith. AU - Polis, Michael A.. AU - Zunich, Kathryn M.. AU - Masur, Henry. AU - Lane, H. Clifford. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - Twenty-four patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who had CD4+ counts of 0.2-0.5 X 109 cells/l received granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in combination with zidovudine plus escalating doses of daily subcutaneous inter- feron-a. Mean neutropenia-inducing doses of interferon-α were 9.4 X 106 and 10.6 X 106 IU/day for groups receiving 100 or 200 mg zidovudine every 4 h, respectively. Mean GM-CSF doses used to reverse neutropenia were 0.64 and 0.63 μg/kg/day for these two groups, respectively, ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Maternal characteristics associated with antenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal zidovudine use in four U.S. cities, 1994-1998. AU - Orloff, Sherry L.. AU - Bulterys, Marc. AU - Vink, Peter. AU - Nesheim, Steven. AU - Abrams, Elaine J.. AU - Schoenbaum, Ellie. AU - Palumbo, Paul. AU - Steketee, Richard W.. AU - Simonds, R. J.. PY - 2001/9/1. Y1 - 2001/9/1. N2 - Objectives: To evaluate implementation of 1994 United States Public Health Service guidelines for zidovudine (ZDV) use in HIV-infected women and their newborns by describing the prevalence of use of perinatal ZDV and other antiretrovirals and by investigating determinants of not receiving perinatal ZDV. Design/Methods: The Perinatal AIDS Collaborative Transmission Study is a prospective cohort study designed to collect information related to mother-to-child HIV transmission that was conducted in New York City (NY), Newark (NJ), Baltimore (MD), and Atlanta (GA), U.S.A. The current analysis was restricted to infants born ...
As this eMedTV page explains, if you are taking valganciclovir, valproic acid, divalproex sodium, or zalcitabine, you may have problems if you are also taking lamivudine/zidovudine. Readers should discuss their medication list with their doctor.
This page of the eMedTV Web site describes in detail how lamivudine/zidovudine works to treat HIV/AIDS and keep the virus from spreading. It also covers whether this drug can be given to children and if it is ever prescribed for off-label reasons.
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PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
OBJECTIVE--To assess the incidence of the AIDS dementia complex and the presence of HIV I p24 antigen in cerebrospinal fluid in relation to zidovudine treatment. DESIGN--Retrospective study of a consecutive series of patients with AIDS from 1982 to 1988. SETTING--An academic centre for AIDS. PATIENTS--196 Patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms examined from 1982 to 1988. INTERVENTIONS--Zidovudine treatment, which was introduced to The Netherlands on 1 May 1987 for patients with severe symptoms of HIV infection (Centers for Disease Control groups IVA, B, C, and D). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and presence of HIV I p24 antigen in cerebrospinal fluid. RESULTS--The AIDS dementia complex was diagnosed in 40 of the 196 (20%) patients with AIDS. Thirty eight of 107 patients with AIDS (36%) not taking zidovudine developed the AIDS dementia complex compared with two of the 89 (2%) taking the drug (p less than 0.00001). The incidence of the AIDS dementia complex ...
div class=citation vocab=http://schema.org/,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource=http://link.denverlibrary.org/portal/Program-advisory--use-of-zidovudine-ZDV-to/kyKYBjJkPaM/ typeof=CreativeWork http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/Item,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a href=http://link.denverlibrary.org/portal/Program-advisory--use-of-zidovudine-ZDV-to/kyKYBjJkPaM/,Program advisory : use of zidovudine (ZDV) to reduce perinatal HIV transmission in HRSA-funded programs,/a,,/span, - ,span property=offers typeOf=Offer,,span property=offeredBy typeof=Library ll:Library resource=http://link.denverlibrary.org/#_default,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a property=url href=http://link.denverlibrary.org/,Denver Public Library,/a,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/div ...
RFS Pharma Announces a 2 Log Plasma Viral Load Decline Following 10 Day Treatment with a Dual Combination of Amdoxovir (DAPD) and Retrovir (AZT) in HIV-1 Infect
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The bioequivalence of formulations is usually evaluated in healthy adult volunteers. In our study in 19 HIV-1-infected Ugandan children (1.8-4 years of age, weight 12 to 15 kg) receiving zidovudine, lamivudine, and abacavir solutions twice a day for 24 weeks, the use of scored tablets allowed comparison of plasma pharmacokinetics of oral solutions vs. tablets. Samples were collected 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h after each childs last morning dose of oral solution before changing to scored tablets of Combivir (coformulated zidovudine + lamivudine) and abacavir; this was repeated 4 weeks later. Dose-normalized area under curve (AUC)0-12 and peak concentration (Cmax) for the tablet formulation were bioequivalent with those of the oral solution with respect to zidovudine and abacavir (e.g., dose-normalized geometric mean ratio (dnGMR) (tablet:solution) for zidovudine and abacavir AUC0-12 were 1.01 (90% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.18) and 0.96 (0.83-1.12), respectively). However, lamivudine ...
Alternating treatment with didanosine and zidovudine versus either drug alone for the treatment of advanced HIV infection: The ALTER study ...
Learn about the prescription medication Combivir (Lamivudine, Zidovudine), drug uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, reviews and patient
Zidovudine in combination with alpha interferon and interleukin-2 as prophylactic therapy for FeLV-induced immunodeficiency syndrome (FeLV-FAIDS). - N S Zeidner, L M Rose, C K Mathiason-DuBard, M H Myles, D L Hill, J I Mullins, E A Hoover
Ghada Kchour, Sa Rahim Rezaee, Reza Farid, Akram Ghantous, Houshang Rafatpana, et al.. The combination of arsenic, interferon-alpha, and zidovudine restores an immunocompetent-like micro-environment in patients with adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma. Retrovirology, BioMed Central, 2014, 11 (Suppl 1), pp.O4. ⟨inserm-00924965⟩ ...
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Page contains details about zidovudine solid lipid nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
"Zidovudine". PubChem Public Chemical Database. NCBI. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved April 10, 2011. ...
ZIDOVUDINE (AZT) 1. DIODROEPIANDROSTERONE (DHEA) 2. ESTANOZOLOL 3. FLUOXIMESTERONE OR FLUOXIMETHYLTESTOSTERONE 4. MESTEROLONE 5 ...
In zidovudine (AZT; ATC:J05AF01) the 3'-hydroxyl group has been replaced by an azido group, in stavudine (ATC: J05AF04) it has ... Sun R, Eriksson S, Wang L (November 2014). "Zidovudine induces downregulation of mitochondrial deoxynucleoside kinases: ...
The Zidovudine Epidemiology Study Group". Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146 (2): 285-9. doi:10.1164/ajrccm/146.2.285. PMID 1362634. ... Mycobacterium avium-complex infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease treated with zidovudine. ...
"Zidovudine Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com". Drugs.com. Retrieved 30 November 2017. Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, ...
This was the NRTI called zidovudine. In the late 1980s, during further development of NRTIs, the field of NNRTIs discovery ...
The antiviral drug zidovudine (AZT) contains an azido group. Some azides are valuable as bioorthogonal chemical reporters. ...
Zidovudine was initially developed as a treatment for cancer. Horwitz was also first to synthesize stavudine (d4T) and ... Horwitz synthesized a compound that was to become known as zidovudine (AZT) - an antiviral drug used to treat HIV patients; ...
ZIDOVUDINE HYDROCHLORIDE 532. ZIPRASIDONE HYDROCHLORIDE 533. ZOLEDRONIC ACID 534. ZOLPIDEM 535. ZOPICLONE ...
Larder, B; Darby, G; Richman, DD (1989). "HIV with reduced sensitivity to zidovudine isolated during prolonged therapy". ...
Lamivudine/zidovudine. Medicines for prevention of HIV-related opportunistic infections[edit]. *Isoniazid/pyridoxine/ ...
After 1993, using zidovudine during pregnancy led to an estimated reduction of mother-to-infant transmission of HIV in the ... "Zidovudine for the Prevention of HIV Transmission from Mother to Infant". 43 (16). 29 April 1994: 285-287. Cite journal ... Years into the AIDS epidemic there had not been any medication to treat HIV infection, but when zidovudine was approved, " ... France started the clinical trial of zidovudine (AZT) in HIV-infected pregnant women otherwise known as "ACTG protocol 076". ...
Cardiac dysfunction in the HIV-1 transgenic mouse treated with zidovudine. Lab Invest 2000;80:187-97. Lewis W, Simpson JF, ... Cardiac mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma is inhibited competitively and noncompetitively by phosphorylated zidovudine. Circ ... Zidovudine is an example of a nucleoside analogue and has been shown to cause: myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy as well ...
It also transports the anti-viral nucleoside analogues Zidovudine and Zalcitabine. Che M, Ortiz DF, Arias IM (Jun 1995). " ...
Combination therapy with zidovudine and didanosine compared to zidovudine alone in HIV-1 infection. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Oct 15 ... Zidovudine in Asymptomatic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection - A Controlled Trial in Persons with Fewer Than 500 CD4- ... Zidovudine in Asymptomatic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection - A Controlled Trial in Persons with Fewer Than 500 CD4- ... Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection with saquinavir, zidovudine, and zalcitabine. N Engl J Med. 1996 Apr 18;334 ...
Minocycline and Zidovudine can also turn the nail plate blue-gray. There are also reports of hydroxyurea as a rare cause. In ...
... /zidovudine, tradename Trizivir. *Abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine, tradename Triumeq. References[edit]. *^ ...
Research in 1994 revealed how the drug zidovudine can reduce vertical transmission. The testing and treatment of HIV-positive ... "Reduction of Maternal-Infant Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 with Zidovudine Treatment". New England ...
August 1997). "Clarithromycin lowers plasma zidovudine levels in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection". ...
AZT/Retrovir (zidovudine) was first manufactured by Wellcome in 1987 in Kent; they also introduced Zovirax (aciclovir), and the ...
Zidovudine, also called AZT, ZDV, and azidothymidine, has the trade name Retrovir. Zidovudine was the first antiretroviral drug ... A virus with Q151M alone is intermediately resistant to zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), zalcitabine (ddC), stavudine (d4T ... 1994). "Combination therapy with zidovudine and didanosine selects for drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T) Cytidine analogues: zalcitabine (ddC), lamivudine (3TC), and emtricitabine (FTC) Guanosine ...
Its FDA approval helped bring down the price of zidovudine (ZDV), the initial anti-HIV drug. [Source needed on pricing effect ... Drug resistance to didanosine does develop, though slower than to zidovudine (ZDV). The most common mutation observed in vivo ...
Since stavudine and zidovudine are OAT1 substrates, they may have similar effects on proximal renal tubule cells as they do on ... Combining zidovudine with stavudine does not increase the mitochondrial toxicity compared to stavudine alone. Both of these ... Zidovudine inhibits the phosphorylation of stavudine. This might reduce the toxicity of the combination. Using indinavir in ... In vitro the antiviral drugs didanosine and zidovudine are more potent inhibitors of mitochondrial DNA synthesis than tenofovir ...
A short course of maternal zidovudine/lamivudine is recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service Task Force to reduce this ... A subsequent study in Thailand showed that prophylaxis with single-dose nevirapine in addition to zidovudine is more effective ... 2004) Single-Dose Perinatal Nevirapine plus Standard Zidovudine to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1 in Thailand. N ... Guay LA, Musoke P, Fleming T (Sep 1999). "Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for ...
AZT (azidothymidine) or zidovudine is an antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV/AIDS. AZT or azt may also refer to: Azerbaijan ...
In particular, diaryl phosphates were prepared from zidovudine (AZT) using simple phosphorochloridate chemistry. For the first ...
The first nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor with in vitro anti-HIV activity was zidovudine. Since zidovudine was ... However, zidovudine is relatively toxic since it is converted into the triphosphate by the cellular enzymes and therefore it is ... In 1964 zidovudine (AZT) was synthesized by Horwitz at the Michigan Cancer Foundation. The 3´hydroxyl group in the deoxyribose ... In 1974 zidovudine was reported to have activity against retroviruses and was subsequently re-screened as an antiviral when the ...
... /zidovudine (with zidovudine) Abacavir/lamivudine (with abacavir) Abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine (with zidovudine and ... Do not prescribe lamivudine/zidovudine, abacavir/lamivudine, or abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine to patients taking emtricitabine ... Lamivudine was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on November 17, 1995 for use with zidovudine (AZT) and again ... Lamivudine is often given in combination with zidovudine, with which it is highly synergistic. Lamivudine treatment has been ...
Alvarez D, Dieterich DT, Brau N, Moorehead L, Ball L, Sulkowski MS (October 2006). "Zidovudine use but not weight-based ... Ribavirin should not be given with zidovudine because of the increased risk of anemia; concurrent use with didanosine should ...
Critics claimed that the Zidovudine trials in developing countries were in breach of this because Zidovudine was now the best ... This was a placebo controlled trial which showed a reduction of nearly 70% in the risk of transmission, and Zidovudine became a ... The AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Study 076 of 100 Zidovudine in maternal-infant transmission of HIV had been published in ... "Reduction of Maternal-Infant Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 with Zidovudine Treatment". New England ...
... has role antimetabolite (CHEBI:35221) zidovudine (CHEBI:10110) has role antiviral drug (CHEBI:36044) ... zidovudine (CHEBI:10110) has role HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor (CHEBI:53756) zidovudine (CHEBI:10110) is a azide ( ... CHEBI:10110 - zidovudine. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min- ...
Zidovudine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Zidovudine is given to HIV-positive pregnant women to reduce the chance of passing the infection to the baby. Zidovudine is in ... Zidovudine controls HIV infection but does not cure it. Continue to take zidovudine even if you feel well. Do not stop taking ... Before taking zidovudine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to zidovudine, any other medications, or any of ...
Zidovudine is supplied most commonly in film-coated tablets (300 mg, biconvex, round and white) with GXCW3 on one side and ... Retrovir (Zidovudine, AZT). Retrovir (Zidovudine). The Center for AIDS Information & Advocacy. Nov. 1, 2005. ... Early use of zidovudine showed some effect on viral replication resulting in approximately a 0.6 log drop in viral load. This ... the FDA approved a generic version of zidovudine. ... effect was short-lived when zidovudine was used as monotherapy ...
Zidovudine Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Zidovudine is given to HIV-positive pregnant women to reduce the chance of passing the infection to the baby. Zidovudine ... Before using zidovudine injection,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to zidovudine, any other medications, ... Zidovudine injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: *headache ...
Who Should Take Zidovudine? What About Drug Resistance? How Is Zidovudine Taken? What Are the Side Effects? How Does Zidovudine ... How Is Zidovudine Taken?. The recommended dose of zidovudine for adults is 500 mg to 600 mg daily. Zidovudine comes in 100 mg ... Methadone may increase blood levels of zidovudine. If you take zidovudine and methadone, watch for zidovudine side effects. ... How Does Zidovudine React With Other Drugs?. Zidovudine can interact with other drugs or supplements you are taking. These ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Includes Ativan (lorazepam), Bactrim (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), Combivir (lamivudine/zidovudine). ... Show all medications in the database that may interact with zidovudine.. Check for interactions with zidovudine. Type in a drug ... There is 1 alcohol/food interaction with zidovudine. zidovudine disease Interactions. There are 4 disease interactions with ... A total of 315 drugs (2162 brand and generic names) are known to interact with zidovudine. ...
If you have an allergy to zidovudine or any other part of this drug. ...
Zidovudine. Last Updated: April 27, 2017; Last Reviewed: April 27, 2017. Zidovudine (ZDV, AZT, Retrovir). Zidovudine (ZDV, AZT ... intracellular zidovudine metabolites were measured after delivery. Plasma zidovudine and intracellular zidovudine monophosphate ... Zidovudine in Combination with Lamivudine. *Zidovudine with lamivudine has been extensively studied in children and has been a ... Zidovudine in Combination with Abacavir or Didanosine *In a large pediatric study, the combination of zidovudine and didanosine ...
... zidovudine) is a combination of antiviral medications that treat infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... Zidovudine. Agents Antagonistic With Zidovudine. Concomitant use of zidovudine with the following drugs should be avoided since ... and zidovudine 300 mg twice daily compared with indinavir 800 mg 3 times daily, lamivudine 150 mg twice daily, and zidovudine ... Trizivir (abacavir, lamivudine, zidovudine) Side Effects, Warnings, and Interactions. *What is Trizivir (abacavir, lamivudine, ...
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Zidovudine Capsules and Tablets. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, ... What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Zidovudine Capsules and Tablets?. *If you have an allergy to zidovudine or any ... How is this medicine (Zidovudine Capsules and Tablets) best taken?. Use this medicine (zidovudine capsules and tablets) as ... Generic Name: Zidovudine Capsules and Tablets (zye DOE vyoo deen). Brand Name: Retrovir ...
Information about this zidovudine-intravenous-route. Pregnancy Category. Explanation. All Trimesters. C. Animal studies have ... Zidovudine injection will not cure or prevent HIV infection or AIDS; however, it helps keep HIV from reproducing and appears to ... Zidovudine (also known as AZT) injection is used in combination with other anti-virus medicines in the treatment of the ... Zidovudine injection will not keep you from spreading HIV to other people. People who receive this medicine may continue to ...
Zidovudine Regimen: -- Oral administration of 100 mg zidovudine (ZDV) five times daily, initiated at 14-34 weeks gestation and ... Zidovudine for the Prevention of HIV Transmission from Mother to Infant Worldwide, perinatal (i.e., mother to infant) ... Eligibility Criteria and Zidovudine Regimen for HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Their Infants Participating in AIDS Clinical ... double-blinded clinical trial of zidovudine (ZDV) to prevent HIV transmission from mothers to their infants (AIDS Clinical ...
Lamivudine and zidovudine are medications used to treat HIV. They are antiretroviral drugs combined in one pill, taken twice a ... How do I take lamivudine/zidovudine?. You should take lamivudine/zidovudine twice a day, with some water. You can take it with ... What are lamivudine and zidovudine?. Lamivudine and zidovudine are medications used to treat HIV. They are antiretroviral drugs ... Lamivudine/zidovudine has often been used by women who are pregnant or planning to have a baby but it is not the only option. ...
7.1 Zidovudine. Agents Antagonistic with Zidovudine Concomitant use of zidovudine with the following drugs should be avoided ... Zidovudine: Zidovudine is a synthetic nucleoside analogue. Intracellularly, zidovudine is phosphorylated to its active 5- ... Zidovudine single 200 mg. 11. ↓35%. Range: 28% to 41%. ↔. Probenecid. 500 mg every 6 h x. 2 days. Zidovudine 2 mg/kg every 8 h ... Zidovudine, USP: The chemical name of zidovudine, USP is 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine. It has a molecular formula of C10H13N5O4 ...
... J. Sudhakar Reddy,1 MD. S. Maqsood Ahmed,1 I. E ... The method was based on the formation of chloroform extractable complex of zidovudine with wool fast blue. The absorbance of ... Statistical analysis proves that the proposed methods are reproducible and selective for the estimation of zidovudine in bulk ... A simple, sensitive and economical spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of zidovudine in ...
... J. Sudhakar Reddy,1 MD. S. Maqsood Ahmed,1 I. E ... S. Maqsood Ahmed, I. E. Chakravarthy, and K. Prabhavathi, "Spectrophotometric Determination of Zidovudine in Pharmaceutical ...
Zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir) is an anti-HIV drug that reduces the amount of virus in the body. Anti-HIV drugs such as zidovudine ... Zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir) is a common component of combination anti-HIV regimens. Zidovudine was taken as a single drug ... Zidovudine may be taken with or without food. However, to achieve maximum zidovudine levels in the body the drug should be ... Zidovudine may therefore be a suitable option after failure of a didanosine-containing regimen, even if zidovudine resistance ...
Zidovudine is not a cure for HIV or AIDS. Zidovudine may also be used for purposes not... ... Zidovudine is also given during pregnancy to prevent an HIV-infected woman from passing the virus to her baby. ... Zidovudine is an antiviral medicine used to treat HIV, the virus that can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... What is zidovudine?. Zidovudine is an antiviral medicine used to treat HIV, the virus that can cause acquired immunodeficiency ...
Zidovudine diphosphate , C10H15N5O10P2 , CID 455742 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
Zidovudine will not cure or prevent HIV infection or AIDS, however, it helps keep HIV from reproducing and appears to slow down ... Zidovudine will not keep you from spreading HIV to other people. People who receive this medicine may continue to have the ... Zidovudine (also known as AZT) is used together with other medicines for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ... HIV is the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Zidovudine is used to slow the progression of disease ...
... zidovudine? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or reduce ... Considering taking medication to treat anemia+caused+by+zidovudine? Below is a list of common medications used to treat or ... reduce the symptoms of anemia+caused+by+zidovudine. Follow the links to read common uses, side effects, dosage details and read ... the symptoms of anemia+caused+by+zidovudine ... 5 medications found for anemia+caused+by+zidovudine. Sorted by ...
APO ZIDOVUDINE, 100MG, CAPSULE. Common uses. This medication is typically used for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Lamivudine-Zidovudine (3TC/ZDV) at PatientsLikeMe. 10 patients ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Lamivudine-Zidovudine (3TC/ZDV). ... Showing 3 of 5 patient evaluations for Lamivudine-Zidovudine (3TC/ZDV) Previous page 1 2 Next page ...
... and zidovudine were recovered from subjects treated for at least 1 year with zidovudine plus didanosine or zidovudine plus ... The AMT AUC was one-fifth of the zidovudine AUC.. The mean steady-state peak and trough concentrations of zidovudine at 2.5 mg/ ... Zidovudine elimination was determined immediately following birth in 8 neonates who were exposed to zidovudine in utero. The ... However, because zidovudine is eliminated primarily by hepatic metabolism, it is expected that zidovudine clearance would be ...
Lamivudine and Zidovudine as described in the medical literature. In case of any doubt consult your doctor or pharmacist. ... Abacavir Sulfate, Lamivudine and Zidovudine - Information. Abacavir Sulfate, Lamivudine and Zidovudine contains a nucleoside ... Side effect(s) of Abacavir Sulfate, Lamivudine and Zidovudine Read the side effects of Abacavir Sulfate, Lamivudine and ... Zidovudine as described in the medical literature. In case of any doubt consult your doctor or pharmacist. ...
Zidovudine is used to treat HIV, the virus that can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Zidovudine is also given ... Zidovudine is an antiviral medicine that prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from multiplying in your body. ... Zidovudine is not a cure for HIV or AIDS. Zidovudine is usually given by injection only if you are unable to take the medicine ... What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before using zidovudine?. Do not use zidovudine if you have ever had an ...
... (Azidothymidine or AZT) is a thymidine analogue that selectively inhibits HIVs reverse transcriptase. It is ... Zidovudine can also be used to decrease CRISPR-mediated homology-directed repair efficiency. ...
  • It is sold both by itself and together as lamivudine/zidovudine and abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trizivir contains zidovudine, lamivudine, and abacavir. (thebody.com)
  • What is Trizivir (abacavir, lamivudine, zidovudine)? (medicinenet.com)
  • Trizivir ( abacavir, lamivudine, zidovudine ) is a combination of antiviral medications used for treating infections with the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ). (medicinenet.com)
  • What are the important side effects of Trizivir (abacavir, lamivudine, zidovudine)? (medicinenet.com)
  • Trizivir causes the same side effect as its component drugs, abacavir , lamivudine and zidovudine . (medicinenet.com)
  • A pill that combines 300mg zidovudine, 150mg lamivudine and 300mg abacavir, known as Trizivir , is also available from GlaxoSmithKline. (aidsmap.com)
  • NRTIs (also known as 'nukes') include abacavir, emtricitabine, lamivudine and zidovudine. (aidsmap.com)
  • Thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) are selected by zidovudine and confer cross-resistance to abacavir, didanosine, stavudine, tenofovir, and zalcitabine. (nih.gov)
  • Read the side effects of Abacavir Sulfate, Lamivudine and Zidovudine as described in the medical literature. (medindia.net)
  • Abacavir Sulfate, Lamivudine and Zidovudine contains a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), prescribed for HIV-1 infection. (medindia.net)
  • What is the most important information I should know about abacavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine (Trizivir)? (wellspan.org)
  • Abacavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine affects your immune system, which may cause certain side effects (even weeks or months after you've taken this medicine). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Safety and Effectiveness of TRIZIVIR (Abacavir/Lamivudine/Zidovudine) with Efavi. (goldbamboo.com)
  • Chicago, Sept. 14, 2003 - A treatment regimen of Ziagen® (abacavir sulfate) (ABC), Epivir® (lamivudine) (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV) has been shown to be non-inferior to the often prescribed regimen of Retrovir® (zidovudine) (ZDV) and 3TC and EFV in a large Phase III clinical trial comparing virologic response in treatment-naïve HIV+ adults. (ptcommunity.com)
  • Limited data derived from a small subset of individuals who switched away from zidovudine in the RAVE ( R andomized A bacavir V iread E valuation) study suggested that replacing zidovudine with either abacavir (ABC, Ziagen) or tenofovir (TDF, Viread) could yield benefits in hemoglobin increases and body morphology. (thebodypro.com)
  • Objective: To evaluate antiretroviral equivalence and safety of an abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine regimen compared with an indinavir-lamivudine-zidovudine regimen. (eurekamag.com)
  • Conclusions: In this study of antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected adults, the triple nucleoside regimen of abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine was equivalent to the regimen of indinavir-lamivudine-zidovudine in achieving a plasma HIV RNA level of less than 400 copies/mL at 48 weeks. (eurekamag.com)
  • Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • RETROVIR is the brand name for zidovudine (formerly called azidothymidine [AZT]), a pyrimidine nucleoside analogue active against HIV. (nih.gov)
  • Zidovudine (Azidothymidine or AZT) is a thymidine analogue that selectively inhibits HIV's reverse transcriptase. (peprotech.com)
  • Additionally, some physicians and some institutions have offered the option of using zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT, ZDV, Retrovir) after occupational exposure to HIV (6). (cdc.gov)
  • Another KSHV lytic gene, ORF21 , encodes a thymidine kinase that can phosphorylate zidovudine (azidothymidine) and to a variable extent ganciclovir ( 24 , 25 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Zidovudine is also available in Combivir and Trizivir. (thebody.com)
  • Do not take Retrovir with any other medicine that contains zidovudine or stavudine, including: Combivir, Trizivir, or Zerit. (cigna.com)
  • Do not use zidovudine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to Retrovir or any medicine that contains zidovudine, including Combivir or Trizivir. (uwhealth.org)
  • In a trial of 167 HIV-infected subjects, isolates (n = 2) with multi-drug resistance to didanosine, lamivudine, stavudine, zalcitabine, and zidovudine were recovered from subjects treated for at least 1 year with zidovudine plus didanosine or zidovudine plus zalcitabine. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to see how treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) patients with ribavirin (RBV) affects the anti-HIV drugs stavudine (d4T) or zidovudine (ZDV). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To compare stavudine (d4T) and zidovudine (AZT) in slowing the progression of HIV disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Do not take Retrovir if you have high lactic acid levels in the blood, or you taking doxorubicin, ribavirin, stavudine, or any medicine that contains zidovudine. (alldrugpharmacy.com)
  • To compare the safety and tolerance of stavudine (d4T) versus zidovudine (ZDV, AZT) in symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected children 3 months to 6 years of age. (aappublications.org)
  • The pill combines 150mg lamivudine and 300mg zidovudine. (aidsmap.com)
  • Each Combivir pill contains 300mg zidovudine and 150mg lamivudine. (aidsmap.com)
  • Zidovudine comes in 100mg capsules and 300mg tablets. (aids.org)
  • This effect was short-lived when zidovudine was used as monotherapy. (thebody.com)
  • However, zidovudine monotherapy is sometimes taken during pregnancy, to avoid the possible side-effects of other anti-HIV drugs, as a way of reducing the risk of HIV being passed on from mother to child. (aidsmap.com)
  • The pattern of resistance-associated mutations with such combination therapies was different (A62V, V75I, F77L, F116Y, Q151M) from the pattern with zidovudine monotherapy, with the Q151M mutation being most commonly associated with multi-drug resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Zidovudine monotherapy leads to development of in vitro and in vivo resistance to zidovudine. (intekom.com)
  • The inexorable disease progression seen despite zidovudine therapy and the isolation of clinical strains of HIV-1 resistant to zidovudine in vitro highlight the limitations of prolonged monotherapy with this agent. (annals.org)
  • Exacerbation of anemia in HIV-1/ HCV co-infected patients receiving ribavirin and zidovudine . (medicinenet.com)
  • Liver function has gotten worse in people who were taking this medicine (zidovudine capsules and tablets) and interferon alfa with or without ribavirin. (drugs.com)
  • Discontinue lamivudine and zidovudine tablets as medically appropriate and consider dose reduction or discontinuation of interferon alfa, ribavirin, or both. (nih.gov)
  • Co-administration of ribavirin and zidovudine is not advised. (nih.gov)
  • Ribavirin has been found to inhibit the phosphorylation of zidovudine in cell culture. (nih.gov)
  • Zidovudine is used along with other medications to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zidovudine is given to HIV-positive pregnant women to reduce the chance of passing the infection to the baby. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zidovudine controls HIV infection but does not cure it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zidovudine is also used along with other medications in certain situations to treat healthcare workers and other individuals exposed to HIV infection after accidental contact with HIV-contaminated blood, tissues, or other body fluids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zidovudine was approved in 1987 as an antiretroviral (ARV) drug for people with HIV infection. (thebody.com)
  • If you have an infection that you did not know you had, it may show up when you take this medicine (zidovudine capsules and tablets). (drugs.com)
  • Zidovudine (also known as AZT) injection is used in combination with other anti-virus medicines in the treatment of the infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (mayoclinic.org)
  • Lamivudine and zidovudine tablets, USP a combination of 2 nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, are indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV - 1 infection. (nih.gov)
  • Zidovudine will not cure or prevent HIV infection or AIDS, however, it helps keep HIV from reproducing and appears to slow down the destruction of the immune system. (mayoclinic.org)
  • INTERVENTIONS--Zidovudine treatment, which was introduced to The Netherlands on 1 May 1987 for patients with severe symptoms of HIV infection (Centers for Disease Control groups IVA, B, C, and D). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and presence of HIV I p24 antigen in cerebrospinal fluid. (bmj.com)
  • This report reviews Public Health Service (PHS) recommendations for postexposure management of workers who have occupational exposures that may place them at risk of acquiring HIV infection, provides background information on zidovudine and experience with zidovudine postexposure prophylaxis, and presents considerations relevant to a decision to offer postexposure prophylaxis. (cdc.gov)
  • ASPEN ZIDOVUDINE 100 MG and ASPEN ZIDOVUDINE 250 MG are indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in adults, children and mothers who are not breast-feeding. (intekom.com)
  • Zidovudine can weaken your immune system and cause signs of infection (fever, mouth sores, skin sores, flu symptoms, pale skin). (wellspan.org)
  • Zidovudine, a nucleoside analog, was the first agent proved to be effective in the management of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. (annals.org)
  • Lamivudine and zidovudine are used in combination to treat HIV infection by preventing reverse transcriptase from working properly. (canada.com)
  • In vitro sensitivity results vary greatly depending upon the time between virus infection and zidovudine treatment of cell cultures, the particular assay used, the cell type employed, and the laboratory performing the test. (sidasante.com)
  • Partial inhibition of viral activity in cells with chronic HIV infection (presumed to carry integrated HIV DNA) required concentrations of zidovudine (8.8 µg/ml in one laboratory to 13.3 µg/ml in another) which are approximately 100 times as high as those necessary to block HIV replication in acutely infected cells. (sidasante.com)
  • ddC ) dose and zidovudine ( AZT ) schedule for use in combination therapy in patients with HIV infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This phase III study will evaluate the relative efficacy of zidovudine (AZT) vs. AZT + alpha interferon (IFN) vs. IFN in increasing time to first opportunistic infection, reducing HIV viremia, and lessening immune system deterioration in HIV-infected persons. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Concorde Coordinating Committee, Concorde: MRC/ANRS randomised double-blind controlled trial of Immediate [Imm] and deferred [Def] zidovudine in symptom-free HIV infection, The Lancet , Vol 343, April 9, 1994. (sidasante.com)
  • Zidovudine treats HIV infection. (rxwiki.com)
  • Zidovudine is a prescription medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (rxwiki.com)
  • To review the efficacy and adverse effects of zidovudine in patients with AIDS and in patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV infection. (acpjc.org)
  • Trials demonstrated that zidovudine therapy delays the progression to AIDS or to AIDS-related complex in patients who have asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic HIV infection with impaired immunity (an absolute CD4 count of about 0.5 × 10 9 /L or less). (acpjc.org)
  • For convenience, let us define middle-stage HIV infection as asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic disease with a CD4 count between 0.2 and 0.5 × 10 9 /L. Recent trials have shown that zidovudine delays progression from middle-stage HIV infection to AIDS or AIDS-related complex. (acpjc.org)
  • Unfortunately, it does not necessarily follow that early institution of zidovudine therapy in patients with middle-stage HIV infection will prolong their overall survival. (acpjc.org)
  • Influence of mother and infant zidovudine treatment duration on the age at which HIV infection can be detected by polymerase chain reaction in infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of zidovudine (ZDV) prophylaxis duration in mothers and infants on the age at which infection becomes detectable by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in non-breastfed infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Zidovudine (ZDV) is widely used in patients with HIV infection. (springer.com)
  • Pharmacokinetics of zidovudine administered intravenously and orally in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. (springer.com)
  • The duration of zidovudine benefit in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection. (acpjc.org)
  • To determine the duration of the clinical benefit of zidovudine in patients with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (acpjc.org)
  • Zidovudine was effective in delaying the progression to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or to death in patients with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. (acpjc.org)
  • Zidovudine may lower your body's ability to fight infection. (buydrugsnoprescription.com)
  • In addition, higher concentrations of such viruses were required to initiate infection in the presence of the drug, and these viruses possessed lower IC50's for zidovudine. (ubc.ca)
  • Combivir contains zidovudine and lamivudine. (thebody.com)
  • Zidovudine (Retrovir) is a drug used for antiretroviral therapy (ART). (thebody.com)
  • Your doctor will prescribe lamivudine/zidovudine as part of your HIV treatment, along with an antiretroviral from another class of drugs. (aidsmap.com)
  • Although alternative dideoxynucleoside agents (for example, didanosine [dideoxyinosine and zalcitabine dideoxycytidine]) are available for the management of HIV-infected persons, zidovudine remains the cornerstone of antiretroviral therapy. (annals.org)
  • For the forseeable future, zidovudine will continue to play a role in the development and in our understanding of antiretroviral therapy. (annals.org)
  • ZIDOVUDINE (zye DOE vue deen) is an antiretroviral medicine. (ahealthyme.com)
  • ZIDOVUDINE, ZDV (zye DOE vue deen) is an antiretroviral medicine. (ahealthyme.com)
  • In an initially double-blind trial, 212 evaluable human immunodeficiency virus-infected children who had received no more than 6 weeks of previous antiretroviral therapy were randomized to receive either d4T (1 mg/kg orally every 12 hours, maximum 40 mg orally every 12 hours) or zidovudine (180 mg/m 2 orally every 6 hours, maximum 200 mg orally every 6 hours). (aappublications.org)
  • Nowadays, zidovudine, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir are important components of the second-line antiretroviral therapeutic regimen of National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program in China. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Zidovudine (Retrovir®, AZT) is a drug used for antiretroviral therapy (ART) . (aids.org)
  • They are also evaluating other antiretroviral agents used in combination or in sequence with zidovudine. (acpjc.org)
  • A U.S. cohort study known as COMET ( Com bination of E favirenz and T ruvada) has already evaluated, in a non-comparative way, the effects of switching from twice-daily zidovudine/lamivudine to once-daily tenofovir/emtricitabine in individuals receiving efavirenz as the third agent in a successful antiretroviral regimen. (thebodypro.com)
  • Although zidovudine does not cure HIV, it may decrease your chance of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HIV-related illnesses such as serious infections or cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • On February 21, 1994, the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) announced preliminary results from a randomized, multicenter, double-blinded clinical trial of zidovudine (ZDV) to prevent HIV transmission from mothers to their infants (AIDS Clinical Trials Group {ACTG} protocol 076). (cdc.gov)
  • Anti-HIV drugs such as zidovudine slow down or prevent damage to the immune system, and reduce the risk of developing AIDS-related illnesses. (aidsmap.com)
  • Zidovudine is an antiviral medicine used to treat HIV, the virus that can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (cigna.com)
  • Zidovudine is not a cure for HIV or AIDS. (cigna.com)
  • Declining incidence of AIDS dementia complex after introduction of zidovudine treatment. (bmj.com)
  • OBJECTIVE--To assess the incidence of the AIDS dementia complex and the presence of HIV I p24 antigen in cerebrospinal fluid in relation to zidovudine treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Thirty eight of 107 patients with AIDS (36%) not taking zidovudine developed the AIDS dementia complex compared with two of the 89 (2%) taking the drug (p less than 0.00001). (bmj.com)
  • The incidence of the AIDS dementia complex increased to 53% in the first half of 1987, after the introduction of zidovudine in May 1987, decreasing to 10% in the second half of 1987 and to 3% in 1988. (bmj.com)
  • Sixteen of 61 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (26%) from patients with AIDS (10 with the AIDS dementia complex) not taking zidovudine were positive for HIV I p24 antigen, whereas none of 37 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with AIDS (two with the AIDS dementia complex) taking zidovudine were positive. (bmj.com)
  • RESULTS--Patients given early treatment with zidovudine remained without AIDS for an extra two months at a cost of $10,750 for each extra month without AIDS (at 1991 costs). (bmj.com)
  • Zidovudine (AZT) inhibits HIV-1 replication in AIDS. (jci.org)
  • Lamivudine and zidovudine is a combination medicine used to treat HIV, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (wellspan.org)
  • Maintenance therapy for active AIDS defining opportunistic infections for patients with 9 to 47 weeks' experience with zidovudine (AZT). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We describe the marginal structural Cox proportional hazards model and use it to estimate the causal effect of zidovudine on the survival of human immunodeficiency virus-positive men participating in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of zidovudine resistance mutations on virologic response to treatment with zidovudine-lamivudine-ritonavir: genotypic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from AIDS clinical trials group protocol 315.ACTG Protocol 315 Team. (nih.gov)
  • Zidovudine prolongs survival in patients with AIDS or advanced AIDS-related complex and delays progression to AIDS or AIDS-related complex in asymptomatic patients and in those with mild symptoms. (acpjc.org)
  • Furthermore, other trials have demonstrated that zidovudine prolongs survival in persons with AIDS or AIDS-related complex. (acpjc.org)
  • One reason is that the trials of zidovudine in patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex involved subjects who had not received zidovudine before. (acpjc.org)
  • In 1989, because of a 2-fold reduction in clinical progression to AIDS in the zidovudine groups compared with the placebo group, all patients were offered open-label zidovudine, 500 mg/d. (acpjc.org)
  • In all 3 analyses, the risk for progression to AIDS increased or tended to increase with duration of zidovudine use (for the pooled zidovudine groups, P = 0.005, 0.08, and 0.04 for the 3 analyses, respectively). (acpjc.org)
  • The study is valuable because it was placebo controlled, included a dosing regimen that is commonly used today (zidovudine, 500 mg/d), used a clinical end point (time to progression to AIDS or death) as its main outcome, and had a sufficient duration of follow-up (up to 4.5 y) to yield more clinical end points than any other North American-based clinical trial to date. (acpjc.org)
  • However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related liver, kidney, or heart problems which may require caution and an adjustment of dosage in patients receiving zidovudine injection. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Because Lamivudine and zidovudine tablets, USP is a fixed-dose tablet and cannot be dose adjusted, lamivudine and zidovudine tablets are not recommended in patients requiring dosage adjustment or with hepatic impairment or experiencing dose-limiting adverse reactions. (nih.gov)
  • A simple, sensitive and economical spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of zidovudine in commercial dosage forms. (hindawi.com)
  • Statistical analysis proves that the proposed methods are reproducible and selective for the estimation of zidovudine in bulk drug and in its tablet dosage form. (hindawi.com)
  • What is the recommended dosage of Zidovudine? (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • The dosage of Zidovudine prescribed to each patient will vary. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • In conclusion, the results suggest that the developed sustained-release tablets of zidovudine could perform therapeutically better than conventional dosage forms, leading to improve efficacy and better patient compliance. (springer.com)
  • The minimum effective dosage of zidovudine remains unknown. (acpjc.org)
  • If the hemoglobin concentration falls, the zidovudine dosage should be reduced, but transfusion may be required if the patient is symptomatic. (acpjc.org)
  • The zidovudine dosage should also be reduced if the granulocyte count is 0.5 to 0.75 × 10 9 /L. (acpjc.org)
  • The minimum effective dosage of zidovudine remains to be established. (acpjc.org)
  • These trials are assessing the minimum effective dosage of zidovudine and the role of viral resistance in zidovudine therapy. (acpjc.org)
  • Patients will be assigned to receive treatment with either zidovudine alone, zidovudine plus interferon or interferon alone. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Barbiturates and myelosuppressive drugs should be particularly avoided as they may interfere with the metabolism or enhance the toxicities of either zidovudine or interferon alfa-2a. (knowcancer.com)
  • You may receive zidovudine injection in a hospital, or you may administer the medication at home. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you will be receiving zidovudine injection at home, your healthcare provider will show you how to use the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zidovudine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (cigna.com)
  • Considering taking medication to treat anemia+caused+by+zidovudine? (webmd.com)
  • Lamivudine and zidovudine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (wellspan.org)
  • For adults weighing less than 30 kg (70 pounds), children below 12 years of age, and people with reduced kidney function, it is recommended that lamivudine and zidovudine be taken separately so each medication dose can be adjusted as needed. (canada.com)
  • The effectiveness of the medication depends on the right amount of lamivudine and zidovudine in the bloodstream. (canada.com)
  • If your physician has instructed or directed you to take Zidovudine medication in a regular schedule and you have missed a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as you remember. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Combivir is an antiviral medication containing a combination of lamivudine and zidovudine. (genericdoctor.com)
  • Retrovir is a brand medication with Zidovudine, which is its generic counterpart. (rxmedscanada.com)
  • Do not use this treatment if you are allergic to the active ingredient or any other component of the medication, have experienced kidney or liver problems, take other Zidovudine containing drugs, have low white or red blood cell level, suffer from diabetes or currently have any other health condition. (rxmedscanada.com)
  • Zidovudine comes in 100 mg capsules and 300 mg tablets. (thebody.com)
  • Zidovudine capsules, tablets, syrup, and injection are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for manufacture and distribution in the United States. (nih.gov)
  • Low white and red blood cell counts have happened with this medicine (zidovudine capsules and tablets). (drugs.com)
  • The newborn will also be given this medicine ( zidovudine capsules and tablets) after birth. (drugs.com)
  • What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Zidovudine Capsules and Tablets? (drugs.com)
  • If you have an allergy to zidovudine or any other part of this medicine (zidovudine capsules and tablets). (drugs.com)
  • Do not breast-feed while you take this medicine (zidovudine capsules and tablets). (drugs.com)
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with this medicine (zidovudine capsules and tablets). (drugs.com)
  • You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take this medicine (zidovudine capsules and tablets) with all of your drugs and health problems. (drugs.com)
  • What are some things I need to know or do while I take Zidovudine Capsules and Tablets? (drugs.com)
  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take this medicine (zidovudine capsules and tablets). (drugs.com)
  • A change in body fat may happen with this medicine (zidovudine capsules and tablets). (drugs.com)
  • You will need to be checked for any changes in body fat while you take this medicine (zidovudine capsules and tablets). (drugs.com)
  • Loss of body fat in the legs, arms, buttocks, and face can happen with this medicine (zidovudine capsules and tablets). (drugs.com)
  • You will need to talk about the benefits and risks of using this medicine (zidovudine capsules and tablets) while you are pregnant. (drugs.com)
  • Tell your doctor right away if you have any new signs after you start this medicine (zidovudine capsules and tablets), even after taking it for several months. (drugs.com)
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Lamivudine and zidovudine tablets, USP safely and effectively. (nih.gov)
  • Lamivudine and zidovudine tablets, USP [150/300 mg] for oral use. (nih.gov)
  • Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues including lamivudine and zidovudine (components of lamivudine and zidovudine tablets). (nih.gov)
  • Severe, acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and have discontinued lamivudine, a component of lamivudine and zidovudine tablets. (nih.gov)
  • Lamivudine and zidovudine tablets, USP are contraindicated in patients with a previous hypersensitivity reactions to lamivudine or zidovudine. (nih.gov)
  • Each white to off-white, modified capsule-shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets with deep breakline in between 'J' and '59' on one side and deep breakline on the other side, contains 150 mg of lamivudine and 300 mg of zidovudine. (canada.com)
  • Children and patients with poor kidney or liver function who may require dose correction should not take tablets of Combivir as they contain fixed doses of amivudine or zidovudine. (arfamed.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize extended-release matrix tablets of zidovudine using hydrophilic Eudragit RLPO and RSPO alone or their combination with hydrophobic ethyl cellulose. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo newly formulated sustained-release zidovudine tablets were compared with conventional marketed tablet (Zidovir, Cipla Ltd, Mumbai, India). (springer.com)
  • In vivo investigation in rabbits showed sustained-release pharmacokinetic profile of zidovudine from the matrix tablets formulated using combination of Eudragits and ethylcellulose. (springer.com)
  • The most serious side effects of zidovudine are anemia, neutropenia, and myopathy. (thebody.com)
  • Although appropriate studies on the relationship of age to the effects of zidovudine injection have not been performed in the geriatric population, no geriatric-specific problems have been documented to date. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This is to track the outcome of the pregnancy and to evaluate any effects of zidovudine on the baby. (uwhealth.org)
  • To evaluate the immunologic effects of zidovudine and ddI or ddC. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The long-term consequences of in-utero and infant exposure to zidovudine [AZT] are unknown. (sidasante.com)
  • Lack of long-term effects of in utero exposure to zidovudine among uninfected children born to HIV-infected women. (harvard.edu)
  • Symptomatic myopathy associated with prolonged use of zidovudine. (nih.gov)
  • If you take zidovudine with other ARV drugs, you can reduce your viral load to extremely low levels, and increase your CD4 cell counts. (thebody.com)
  • Most new drugs have been tested by comparing them to zidovudine. (thebody.com)
  • A total of 315 drugs (2162 brand and generic names) are known to interact with zidovudine . (drugs.com)
  • Lamivudine and zidovudine are from a class of drugs known as NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors). (aidsmap.com)
  • Zidovudine belongs to a class of drugs known as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). (aidsmap.com)
  • Zidovudine should be taken in combination with at least two other anti-HIV drugs to suppress HIV in the blood to very low levels. (aidsmap.com)
  • Zidovudine, which may be combined with other anti-HIV drugs, is also prescribed during pregnancy as it prevents transmission of HIV from mother to baby. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • What other drugs could interact with Zidovudine? (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • It may be noted that drugs other than those listed above may also interact with Zidovudine. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • These drugs reduce the elimination of zidovudine and may lead to its increased blood concentration. (arfamed.com)
  • Zidovudine can interact with other drugs or supplements you are taking. (aids.org)
  • To determine this, BALB/c mice were treated with zidovudine, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, the combination of both drugs, or vehicle only (control) via oral gavage for 21 days. (asm.org)
  • Zidovudine is an antiviral medicine that prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from multiplying in your body. (uwhealth.org)
  • Lamivudine and zidovudine are antiviral medications that prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from multiplying in your body. (wellspan.org)
  • Zidovudine is an antiviral. (buydrugsnoprescription.com)
  • Zidovudine is in a class of medications called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lamivudine and zidovudine belong to a class of medications called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). (canada.com)
  • Moreover, the initiation of zidovudine-containing regimens is sometimes associated with smaller increases in CD4+ cell counts than the initiation of alternative nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). (thebodypro.com)
  • Genotypic analyses of the isolates selected in cell culture and recovered from zidovudine-treated subjects showed mutations in the HIV-1 RT gene resulting in 6 amino acid substitutions (M41L, D67N, K70R, L210W, T215Y or F, and K219Q) that confer zidovudine resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Combination therapy with lamivudine plus zidovudine delayed the emergence of mutations conferring resistance to zidovudine. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro studies indicate that zidovudine-resistant virus isolates can become zidovudine-sensitive when they acquire resistance to lamivudine. (intekom.com)
  • Current research efforts are directed at elucidating the clinical relevance of zidovudine resistance and studying regimens in which zidovudine is used in combination with other agents. (annals.org)
  • Effect of zidovudine resistance mutations on virologic response to treatment with zidovudine-lamivudine-ritonavir: genotypic analysis of human immu. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of baseline drug resistance mutations on response to zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir was evaluated in zidovudine-experienced persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). (nih.gov)
  • Suppression of plasma HIV-1 RNA despite presence of zidovudine resistance mutations implies that the presence of these mutations does not preclude a durable response to treatment with a potent 3-drug regimen. (nih.gov)
  • The virus passage procedure described here may be useful for gaining further insight into the mutational events occurring during the development of resistance to zidovudine and other HIV inhibitors. (asm.org)
  • It is conceivable that the early benefit of zidovudine could be counterbalanced by longer-term effects, including viral resistance and cumulative toxicity. (acpjc.org)
  • Among patients from whom virus could be amplified, resistance to nevirapine was found in all 11 patients receiving zidovudine plus nevirapine and in all 5 patients receiving triple drug therapy. (ubc.ca)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus fitness in vivo: calculations based on a single zidovudine resistance mutation at codon 215 of reverse transcriptase. (asm.org)
  • We monitored a subject newly infected with a zidovudine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain and found that in the absence of drug, the viral population with the resistance-conferring tyrosine (TAC) codon 215 of reverse transcriptase was gradually replaced. (asm.org)
  • After one year of therapy, over 30 percent of individuals had developed variants of HIV-1 that displayed in vitro resistance to zidovudine. (ubc.ca)
  • The drug resistance phenotype remained stable, in that zidovudine-insensitive species could still be identified, following many replication cycles in the absence of drug pressure. (ubc.ca)
  • Zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir ) is a common component of combination anti-HIV regimens. (aidsmap.com)
  • Two recent clinical trials [Six-Week Extended Nevirapine (SWEN) and Post-Exposure Prophylaxis of Infants (PEPI)-Malawi] demonstrated that providing infants with daily extended nevirapine (NVP) prophylaxis to 6-14 weeks of age decreases the risk of postnatal mother-to-infant transmission of HIV (MTCT) compared with shorter regimens such as single-dose NVP (sdNVP) or sdNVP along with 1 week of daily zidovudine (ZDV) [1,2]. (natap.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Triple drug therapy with zidovudine, didanosine, and nevirapine led to a substantially greater and sustained decrease in plasma viral load than the 2-drug regimens studied. (ubc.ca)
  • Hence the objective of this PhD dissertation is to compare the economic, clinical and quality of life outcomes in patients living with HIV on treatment with zidovudine (along with lamivudine and nevirapine) and tenofovir (emtricitabine and efavirenz) regimens from an infectious disease clinic, at a private tertiary care hospital in southern India. (tufts.edu)
  • Opportunistic infections were similar between regimens without PS, while zidovudine regimen had 1.2 times (p-value: 0.63) more opportunistic infections with PS. (tufts.edu)
  • The third project was a pragmatic randomized clinical trial comparing treatment nave HIV positive patients started on zidovudine and tenofovir containing regimens based on costs, clinical and quality of life outcomes. (tufts.edu)
  • Overall treatment costs did not differ between the two regimens, however the cost of treatment in patients with adverse drug reactions or opportunistic infections or both was greater in patients receiving zidovudine regimen compared to those receiving tenofovir regimen. (tufts.edu)
  • A randomized, double-blinded trial comparing combinations of nevirapine, didanosine and zidovudine for HIV infected patients. (ubc.ca)
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the virologic effects of various combinations of nevirapine, didanosine, and zidovudine. (ubc.ca)
  • INTERVENTION: Patients received zidovudine plus nevirapine (plus didanosine placebo), zidovudine plus didanosine (plus nevirapine placebo), or zidovudine plus didanosine plus nevirapine. (ubc.ca)
  • Viral isolation was unsuccessful in 19 (79%) of 24, 10 (53%) of 19, and 5 (31%) of 16 patients in the triple drug therapy, zidovudine plus didanosine, and zidovudine plus nevirapine groups, respectively. (ubc.ca)
  • Rates of disease progression or death were 23% (11/47), 25% (13/53), and 12% (6/51) for the zidovudine plus nevirapine, zidovudine plus didanosine, and triple drug therapy groups, respectively (P=.08). (ubc.ca)
  • Zidovudine is an inhibitor of the in vitro replication of some retroviruses including HIV. (sidasante.com)
  • In vitro , zidovudine triphosphate has been shown to be incorporated into growing chains of DNA by viral reverse transcriptase. (sidasante.com)
  • The relationship between in vitro susceptibility of HIV to zidovudine and the inhibition of HIV replication in humans or clinical response to therapy has not been established. (sidasante.com)
  • The pharmacokinetics of zidovudine have been evaluated in 22 adult HIV-infected subjects in a Phase 1 dose-escalation trial. (nih.gov)
  • To study the safety, tolerance, pharmacokinetics, and anti-HIV effects of combination zidovudine (AZT) and PMEA (adefovir) therapy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Blum MR, Liao SH, Good SS, De Miranda P. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of zidovudine in humans. (springer.com)
  • DESIGN--Markov chain analysis of cost effectiveness based on results of use of health care and efficacy from a trial of zidovudine treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Since the licensure of zidovudine in 1987, an intensive clinical research effort has established the drug's efficacy in the prevention of disease progression in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic HIV-infected persons and has established the success of lower-dose therapy in patients at all stages of disease. (annals.org)
  • Zidovudine - A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy. (springer.com)
  • In children over the age of five months, the pharmacokinetic profile of zidovudine is similar to that in adults. (intekom.com)
  • Early use of zidovudine showed some effect on viral replication resulting in approximately a 0.6 log drop in viral load. (thebody.com)
  • Zidovudine triphosphate interferes with the HIV viral RNA dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase) and thus, inhibits viral replication. (sidasante.com)
  • We concluded that a viral population with a serine at reverse transcriptase codon 215 conferring zidovudine sensitivity was between 0.4 and 2.3% more fit. (asm.org)
  • Zidovudine injection may decrease the number of certain cells in your blood, including red and white blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zidovudine injection may cause muscle disease, especially when used for a longer period of time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving zidovudine injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zidovudine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to inject intravenously (into a vein). (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you become pregnant while receiving zidovudine injection, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should not breastfeed if you are infected with HIV or if you are using zidovudine injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zidovudine injection is used to slow the progression of disease in patients infected with HIV who have advanced symptoms, early symptoms, or no symptoms at all. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Zidovudine injection will not keep you from spreading HIV to other people. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated pediatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of zidovudine injection in children. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Each mL contains 10 mg zidovudine in Water for Injection. (nih.gov)
  • Zidovudine is usually given by injection only if you are unable to take the medicine by mouth. (uwhealth.org)
  • Zidovudine injection must be given slowly, and the IV infusion can take up to 1 hour to complete. (uwhealth.org)
  • CSF and brain ECF zidovudine concentrations were comparable at steady state, and the corresponding AUCs were comparable after bolus injection. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Zidovudine is usually administered as an injection at your doctor's office, hospital, or clinic. (buydrugsnoprescription.com)
  • If you are using Zidovudine at home, carefully follow the injection procedures taught to you by your health care provider. (buydrugsnoprescription.com)
  • The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and bioavailability of GPO-VIR Z30, a combination fixed dose tablet containing zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), and nevirapine (NVP), in HIV-infected children in Thailand. (nih.gov)
  • Background: In the Post-Exposure Prophylaxis of Infants (PEPI)-Malawi trial, most women received single-dose nevirapine (NVP) at delivery, and infants in the extended study arms received single-dose NVP along with 1 week of daily zidovudine (ZDV), followed by either extended daily NVP or extended daily NVP and ZDV up to 14 weeks of age. (natap.org)
  • Inspite of higher rates of drug related toxicities zidovudine containing regimen with lamivudine and nevirapine is considered the first-line treatment of choice in resource limited settings, since they are less expensive. (tufts.edu)
  • Controlled studies, studies of long-term zidovudine therapy, and studies of the incidence and management of side effects were evaluated. (acpjc.org)
  • Although the initial nausea associated with the commencement of zidovudine-containing therapy usually settles within a matter of weeks, anemia, neutropenia, dyslipidemia and peripheral lipoatrophy are all well-documented adverse events associated with long-term zidovudine use. (thebodypro.com)
  • Zidovudine was the first drug approved for the treatment of HIV. (thebody.com)
  • Early treatment' with zidovudine was tested in people with no symptoms of HIV disease. (thebody.com)
  • Zidovudine was taken as a single drug treatment when there were no other treatments available for HIV. (aidsmap.com)
  • In some subjects harboring zidovudine-resistant virus at baseline, phenotypic sensitivity to zidovudine was restored by 12 weeks of treatment with lamivudine and zidovudine. (nih.gov)
  • Cost effectiveness analysis of early zidovudine treatment of HIV infected patients. (bmj.com)
  • OBJECTIVE--To compare cost effectiveness of early and later treatment with zidovudine for patients infected with HIV. (bmj.com)
  • Cost effectiveness ratio was most sensitive to the cost of zidovudine and to the quality of life of patients receiving early treatment. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS--Early treatment with zidovudine is expensive and is very sensitive to the cost of zidovudine and to potential reductions in quality of life of patients who experience side effects. (bmj.com)
  • Doctors should reconsider early treatment with zidovudine for patients who experience side effects that substantially compromise their quality of life. (bmj.com)
  • The objective of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of Roxane's zidovudine 300 mg tablet compared to GlaxoSmithKline's Retrovir® 300 mg tablet under fed conditions using a single-dose, randomized, 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover design. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Previous treatment with zidovudine (AZT) up to 48 weeks. (knowcancer.com)
  • Zidovudine is an orally administered drug indicated for the treatment of HIV. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • In this study, CD4 lymphocyte count is both a time-dependent confounder of the causal effect of zidovudine on survival and is affected by past zidovudine treatment. (nih.gov)
  • 1-3 Moreover, a regimen consisting of tenofovir + emtricitabine (FTC, Emtriva) + efavirenz (EFV, Sustiva, Stocrin) has been shown to produce fewer side effects, leading to significantly fewer treatment discontinuations due to adverse events (9% versus 4%, P = .02), than a regimen consisting of zidovudine/lamivudine (AZT/3TC, Combivir) + efavirenz. (thebodypro.com)
  • 1030 (67%) patients continued treatment with open-label zidovudine in 1989 and 683 (66%) of those received open-label zidovudine until study end. (acpjc.org)
  • The sterile variant of treatment contains 10 mg of Zidovudine in each dose and is free of any preservatives. (rxmedscanada.com)
  • Treatment with zidovudine in patients with HIV may cause anemia. (procrit.com)
  • Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus with Zidovudine and Tenofovir Regimen in India: A Comparative Effectiveness Study. (tufts.edu)
  • To achieve this objective we conducted four different projects: The first project documented the toxicities and the cost of treatment for six months in patients living with HIV, initiated on the current first-line zidovudine containing regimen. (tufts.edu)
  • Six of these zidovudine resistant variants of HIV-1 were compared with drug sensitive isolates obtained from the same subjects prior to initiation of treatment. (ubc.ca)
  • Zidovudine also may cause life-threatening damage to the liver and a potentially life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis (buildup of lactic acid in the blood). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people develop a life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis while taking lamivudine and zidovudine. (wellspan.org)
  • Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis (including fatal cases) have occurred with use of nucleoside analogs alone or in combination, including zidovudine and other antiretrovirals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Zidovudine can cause serious damage to the liver and a condition called lactic acidosis. (rxwiki.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to zidovudine, any other medications, or any of the other ingredients in zidovudine products. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Show all medications in the database that may interact with zidovudine. (drugs.com)
  • Lamivudine and zidovudine are medications used to treat HIV. (aidsmap.com)
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of anemia+caused+by+zidovudine. (webmd.com)
  • All individuals had HIV-1 RNA below 400 copies/mL for at least eight weeks, zidovudine/lamivudine-associated adverse events or a desire to switch medications, and a creatinine clearance rate at or above 50 mL/min by the Cockcroft-Gault method. (thebodypro.com)
  • Combivir should not be taken together with any other medications that contain either lamivudine and zidovudine. (genericdoctor.com)
  • Do not take Combivir with any other medicine that contains lamivudine, zidovudine, or emtricitabine. (wellspan.org)
  • 4 As such, several ongoing randomized studies in Europe are comparing the consequences of remaining on the fixed-dose coformulation of zidovudine/lamivudine as opposed to switching to the tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC, Truvada) coformulation. (thebodypro.com)
  • Zidovudine comes as a capsule, tablet, and syrup to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each capsule contains 100 mg of zidovudine and the inactive ingredients corn starch, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium starch glycolate. (sidasante.com)
  • I. Following diffusion into both infected and uninfected host cells, zidovudine is phosphorylated to the monophosphate derivative by cellular thymidine kinase. (intekom.com)
  • Cellular thymidine kinase converts zidovudine into zidovudine monophosphate. (sidasante.com)
  • Hematologic/bone marrow suppressive/cytotoxic agents: May increase the hematologic toxicity of zidovudine. (nih.gov)
  • Before taking Combivir Do not use Combivir if you are allergic to lamivudine or zidovudine. (genericdoctor.com)
  • The main objective of this project was to assess the therapeutic effect of Zidovudine (AZT) on cats infected with either FIV or FeLV at late but not terminal stages of the respective diseases. (vin.com)
  • INTERVENTIONS--Zidovudine 1500 mg/day started either at recruitment to the trial or when CD4 cell count fell below 200 x 10(6)/l. (bmj.com)
  • High-dose zidovudine therapy (1200 to 1500 mg/d) may be preferable in patients with neurologic disease. (acpjc.org)
  • or zidovudine, 1500 mg/d ( n = 530). (acpjc.org)
  • Most commonly reported adverse reactions (incidence greater than or equal to 15%) in clinical trials of combination lamivudine and zidovudine were headache, nausea, malaise and fatigue, nasal signs and symptoms, diarrhea, and cough. (nih.gov)
  • History of allergic or adverse responses to zidovudine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Low-dose zidovudine therapy, 500 mg/d, appears to be at least as efficacious as high-dose zidovudine therapy (1200 mg/d), but low-dose zidovudine therapy results in fewer adverse effects. (acpjc.org)
  • Low-dose zidovudine therapy (500 mg/d) is efficacious for asymptomatic patients and has fewer adverse effects. (acpjc.org)
  • The study findings suggest that compared to zidovudine regimen, the tenofovir regimen has fewer adverse drug reactions and opportunistic infections with greater improvement in CD4 levels and quality of life. (tufts.edu)
  • Data collected in an ongoing CDC surveillance project of health-care workers who have been occupationally exposed to blood from HIV-infected patients (7) indicate that during the period April-December 1989, 13 (8.6%) of 151 newly enrolled participants began a postexposure regimen of zidovudine. (cdc.gov)
  • We have previously shown that zidovudine plus sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim exposure decreases immune cell populations in the bone marrow of healthy mice by inducing apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • Patients on a tenofovir regimen had better clinical outcomes with improved general health than patients on zidovudine regimen. (tufts.edu)
  • The proportion of patients on zidovudine regimen experiencing opportunistic infections exceeded the corresponding proportion for patients on the tenofovir regimen (46% vs 31%, p-value: 0.22). (tufts.edu)
  • The long-term toxicity of zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir) remains an important obstacle for sustained therapy with this drug. (thebodypro.com)
  • Your doctor will order certain lab tests to check your response to zidovudine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Wild-type, sensitive virus became partially resistant to zidovudine by passage 12 (50% inhibitory dose values measured in HeLa CD4+ cells increased from 0.014 to 0.2 microM), and genetic analysis using the polymerase chain reaction revealed that mutations in the reverse transcriptase coding region identical to those seen in clinical isolates from treated individuals had occurred. (asm.org)
  • Combivir is a combination of lamivudine (Epivir) and zidovudine (Retrovir), both components are active against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and inhibit the activity of reverse transcriptase blocking the production of DNA and new viruses. (arfamed.com)
  • Variants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with reduced sensitivity to zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine) have been selected by passage of virus in cell culture in the presence of drug. (asm.org)
  • How was your experience with Zidovudine? (rxwiki.com)
  • Patients who could afford to pay opted for the expensive tenofovir containing regimen, while those who could not afford opted for a less expensive zidovudine containing regimen. (tufts.edu)
  • Patients on the tenofovir regimen tend to have better quality of life and improved CD4 values than patients on the zidovudine regimen. (tufts.edu)