A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.
Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.
An HIV protease inhibitor which acts as an analog of an HIV protease cleavage site. It is a highly specific inhibitor of HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases, and also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Pyrimidinones are heterocyclic organic compounds that consist of a pyrimidine ring fused with a ketone group, which have significant applications in medicinal chemistry due to their wide range of biological activities, including antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer properties.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.

Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.(1/1569)

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Modulation of the cytotoxicity of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and methotrexate after transduction of folate receptor cDNA into human cervical carcinoma: identification of a correlation between folate receptor expression and thymidine kinase activity. (2/1569)

Cervical carcinoma is an AIDS-defining illness. The expression of folate receptors (FRs) in cervical carcinoma (HeLa-IU1) cells was modulated by stable transduction of FR cDNA encapsidated in recombinant adeno-associated virus-2 in the sense and antisense orientation (sense and antisense cells, respectively). Although sense cells proliferated slower than antisense or untransduced cells in vivo and in vitro in 2% (but not 10%) FCS, [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA was significantly increased in sense cells in 10% serum; therefore, the basis for this discrepancy was investigated. The activity of thymidine kinase (TK) was subsequently directly correlated with the extent of FR expression in single cell-derived clones of transduced cells. This elevated TK activity was not a result of recruitment of the salvage pathway based on the presence of adequate dTTP pools, normal thymidylate synthase (TS) activity, persistence of increased thymidine incorporation despite the exogenous provision of excess 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate, and documentation of adequate folates in sense cells. The increase in TK activity conferred significant biological properties to sense cells (but not antisense or untransduced cells) as demonstrated by augmented phosphorylation of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and concomitantly greater sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of AZT. Conversely, sense cells were highly resistant to methotrexate, but this was reversed by the addition of AZT. The direct correlation of FR expression and TK activity indicates a previously unrecognized consequence of FR overexpression.  (+info)

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. (3/1569)

8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase in rat liver mitochondria by added 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. (4/1569)

The effect of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine on nucleoside diphosphate kinase of isolated rat liver mitochondria has been studied. This is done by monitoring the increase in the rate of oxygen uptake by nucleoside diphosphate (TDP, UDP, CDP or GDP) addition to mitochondria in state 4. It is shown that 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibits the mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of about 10 microM as measured for each tested nucleoside diphosphate. It is also shown that high concentrations of GDP prevent 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibition of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase.  (+info)

Suppression of replication of multidrug-resistant HIV type 1 variants by combinations of thymidylate synthase inhibitors with zidovudine or stavudine. (5/1569)

The replication of recombinant multidrug-resistant HIV-1 clones modeled on clinically derived resistant HIV-1 strains from patients receiving long-term combination therapy with zidovudine (AZT) plus 2',3'-dideoxycytidine was found to regain sensitivity to AZT and stavudine (D4T) as a consequence of a pharmacologically induced decrease in de novo dTMP synthesis. The host-cell system used was phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells; dTMP and dTTP depletion were induced by single exposures to a low level of the thymidylate synthase inhibitor 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its deoxynucleoside, 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine. The host-cell response to the latter was biphasic: a very rapid decrease in the rate of de novo dTMP formation and, consequently, in intracellular dTTP pools, followed by slower recovery in both indices over 3 to 24 h. With the additional presence of AZT or D4T, however, replication of the multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains remained inhibited, indicating dependence of HIV DNA chain termination by AZT-5'-monophosphate or 2',3'-didehydro-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate in these resistant strains on simultaneous inhibition of host-cell de novo synthesis of thymidine nucleotides. No effect on viability of control (uninfected) phytohemagglutinin-stimulated/peripheral blood mononuclear cells was noted on 6-day exposures to 5-FU or 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine alone or in combination with AZT or D4T, even at drug levels severalfold higher than those used in the viral inhibition studies. These studies may provide useful information for the potential clinical use of AZT/5-FU or D4T/5-FU combinations for the prevention or reversal of multidrug resistance associated with long-term dideoxynucleoside combination therapy.  (+info)

Treatment with amprenavir alone or amprenavir with zidovudine and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 347 Study Team. (6/1569)

Amprenavir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and good in vitro activity. Ninety-two lamivudine- and protease inhibitor-naive individuals with >/=50 CD4 cells/mm3 and >/=5000 HIV RNA copies/mL were assigned amprenavir (1200 mg) alone or with zidovudine (300 mg) plus lamivudine (150 mg), all given every 12 h. After a median follow-up of 88 days, the findings of a planned interim review resulted in termination of the amprenavir monotherapy arm. Among 85 subjects with confirmed plasma HIV RNA determination, 15 of 42 monotherapy versus 1 of 43 triple-therapy subjects had an HIV RNA increase above baseline or 1 log10 above nadir (P=.0001). For subjects taking triple therapy at 24 weeks, the median decrease in HIV RNA was 2.04 log10 copies/mL, and 17 (63%) of 27 evaluable subjects had <500 HIV RNA copies/mL. Treatment with amprenavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine together reduced the levels of HIV RNA significantly more than did amprenavir monotherapy.  (+info)

2-mercapto N-(azolyl)benzenesulfonamides. VI. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of some new 2-mercapto-N-(1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives containing the 1,2,4-triazole moiety fused with a variety of heteroaromatic rings. (7/1569)

A series of 2-mercapto-N-(1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives containing the triazole moiety fused with a variety of heteroaromatic rings [XVI-XXVIII] was obtained by the reactions of 3-methylthio-1,4-2-benzodithiazine 1,1-dioxide derivatives [Ia-d] with 2-hydrazines [IIa-f]. Some of the intermediate 1,1-dioxide-1,4,2-benzodithiazin-3-ylhydrazines [III-XV] initially formed were also isolated. Preliminary screening data indicated that compounds [XVI-XIX and XXVII] were anti-HIV inactive, whereas other compounds showed a high [XXI and XXIII], fairly high [XXIII and XXVI] or moderate [XX, XXIV, XXV and XXVIII] activity. The compound [XXI] exhibited also high activity against ten selected HIV mutants.  (+info)

Effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to protease inhibitors on reverse transcriptase processing, activity, and drug sensitivity. (8/1569)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants resistant to protease inhibitors often display a reduced replicative capacity as a result of an impairment of protease function. Such fitness-impaired viruses display Gag precursor maturation defects. Here, we report that some protease inhibitor-resistant viruses also display abnormalities in the processing of reverse transcriptase (RT) by the protease. In three recombinant viruses carrying resistant protease sequences from patient plasma, we observed a marked decrease in the amount of mature RT subunits and of particle-associated RT activity compared to their parental pretherapy counterparts. We investigated the possibility that a decrease in the amount of particle-associated mature RT could affect the sensitivity of the corresponding virus to RT inhibitors. We observed a twofold increase of sensitivity to zidovudine (AZT) when a virus which carried AZT mutations was processed by a resistant protease. Interestingly, the presence of AZT-resistance mutations partially rescued the replication defect associated with the mutated protease. The interplay between resistance to protease inhibitors and to RT inhibitors described here may be relevant to the therapeutic control of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

Zidovudine is defined as an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. It is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) that works by blocking the action of the reverse transcriptase enzyme, thereby preventing the virus from replicating in human cells.

Zidovudine is often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to manage HIV infection and reduce the risk of transmission. It is also used to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV during pregnancy, labor, delivery, and breastfeeding.

The most common side effects of zidovudine include headache, nausea, vomiting, and muscle pain. Prolonged use of zidovudine can lead to serious side effects such as anemia, neutropenia, and lactic acidosis. Therefore, regular monitoring of blood counts and liver function tests is necessary during treatment with this medication.

Anti-HIV agents are a class of medications specifically designed to treat HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. These drugs work by interfering with various stages of the HIV replication cycle, preventing the virus from infecting and killing CD4+ T cells, which are crucial for maintaining a healthy immune system.

There are several classes of anti-HIV agents, including:

1. Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs): These drugs act as faulty building blocks that the virus incorporates into its genetic material, causing the replication process to halt. Examples include zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and tenofovir.
2. Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs): These medications bind directly to the reverse transcriptase enzyme, altering its shape and preventing it from functioning properly. Examples include efavirenz, nevirapine, and rilpivirine.
3. Protease Inhibitors (PIs): These drugs target the protease enzyme, which is responsible for cleaving viral polyproteins into functional components. By inhibiting this enzyme, PIs prevent the formation of mature, infectious virus particles. Examples include atazanavir, darunavir, and lopinavir.
4. Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors (INSTIs): These medications block the integrase enzyme, which is responsible for inserting the viral genetic material into the host cell's DNA. By inhibiting this step, INSTIs prevent the virus from establishing a permanent infection within the host cell. Examples include raltegravir, dolutegravir, and bictegravir.
5. Fusion/Entry Inhibitors: These drugs target different steps of the viral entry process, preventing HIV from infecting CD4+ T cells. Examples include enfuvirtide (T-20), maraviroc, and ibalizumab.
6. Post-Attachment Inhibitors: This class of medications prevents the virus from attaching to the host cell's receptors, thereby inhibiting infection. Currently, there is only one approved post-attachment inhibitor, fostemsavir.

Combination therapy using multiple classes of antiretroviral drugs has been shown to effectively suppress viral replication and improve clinical outcomes in people living with HIV. Regular adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen is crucial for maintaining an undetectable viral load and reducing the risk of transmission.

Didanosine is a medication used to treat HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection. It is an antiretroviral drug, specifically a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), that works by interfering with the replication of the virus in the body. Didanosine is often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to help control HIV infection and reduce the risk of HIV-related illnesses.

The medical definition of 'Didanosine' is:

A synthetic nucleoside analogue that inhibits the reverse transcriptase activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is converted in vivo to the active metabolite dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, which competitively inhibits HIV DNA polymerase and has antiviral properties. The drug is used in the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS.

Stavudine is an antiviral medication used to treat HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infections. It works by blocking the action of reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that the virus needs to multiply. By preventing the multiplication of the virus, Stavudine helps reduce the amount of HIV in the body and slows down the progression of the disease.

Stavudine is often prescribed in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. It is available in oral form, typically taken twice daily, and is usually prescribed at a dose of 40 milligrams per dose for adults.

It's important to note that Stavudine can cause serious side effects, including peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage that causes pain, numbness, or tingling in the hands and feet), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), and lipoatrophy (loss of fat tissue under the skin). As a result, it is generally only prescribed when other antiretroviral drugs are not effective or tolerated.

If you have any questions about Stavudine or your HIV treatment regimen, be sure to talk with your healthcare provider.

Lamivudine is an antiretroviral medication used in the treatment and management of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection and HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) infection. It is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), which means it works by blocking the action of the reverse transcriptase enzyme that the viruses need to multiply. By doing this, Lamivudine helps to reduce the amount of the virus in the body, which in turn helps to slow down or prevent the damage that the virus can cause to the immune system and improve the patient's quality of life.

The medical definition of Lamivudine is: "A synthetic nucleoside analogue with activity against both HIV-1 and HBV. It is used in the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as chronic hepatitis B."

Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (RTIs) are a class of antiretroviral drugs that are primarily used in the treatment and management of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. They work by inhibiting the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which is essential for the replication of HIV.

HIV is a retrovirus, meaning it has an RNA genome and uses a unique enzyme called reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into DNA. This process is necessary for the virus to integrate into the host cell's genome and replicate. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors interfere with this process by binding to the reverse transcriptase enzyme, preventing it from converting the viral RNA into DNA.

RTIs can be further divided into two categories: nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). NRTIs are analogs of the building blocks of DNA, which get incorporated into the growing DNA chain during replication, causing termination of the chain. NNRTIs bind directly to the reverse transcriptase enzyme, causing a conformational change that prevents it from functioning.

By inhibiting the reverse transcriptase enzyme, RTIs can prevent the virus from replicating and reduce the viral load in an infected individual, thereby slowing down the progression of HIV infection and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

Zalcitabine (also known as ddC) is an antiretroviral medication used in the treatment of HIV infection. It belongs to a class of drugs called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Zalcitabine works by interfering with the replication of the virus, thus slowing down the progression of the disease.

The medical definition of Zalcitabine is: "A synthetic pyrimidine nucleoside analogue used as an antiretroviral agent in the treatment of HIV infection. It is converted to its active 5'-triphosphate form, which inhibits the activity of reverse transcriptase and results in chain termination."

It is important to note that Zalcitabine has been largely replaced by other antiretroviral drugs due to its significant side effects and the development of better treatment options.

Vertical transmission of infectious diseases refers to the spread of an infection from an infected mother to her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. This mode of transmission can occur through several pathways:

1. Transplacental transmission: The infection crosses the placenta and reaches the fetus while it is still in the womb. Examples include HIV, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis.
2. Intrauterine infection: The mother's infection causes direct damage to the developing fetus or its surrounding tissues, leading to complications such as congenital defects. Examples include rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV).
3. Perinatal transmission: This occurs during childbirth when the infant comes into contact with the mother's infected genital tract or bodily fluids. Examples include group B streptococcus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and hepatitis B.
4. Postnatal transmission: This occurs after birth, often through breastfeeding, when the infant ingests infected milk or comes into contact with the mother's contaminated bodily fluids. Examples include HIV and HTLV-I (human T-lymphotropic virus type I).

Vertical transmission is a significant concern in public health, as it can lead to severe complications, congenital disabilities, or even death in newborns. Preventive measures, such as prenatal screening, vaccination, and antimicrobial treatment, are crucial for reducing the risk of vertical transmission and ensuring better outcomes for both mothers and their offspring.

HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1) is a species of the retrovirus genus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, exposure to infected blood or blood products, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV-1 infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, leading to a decline in their numbers and weakening of the immune response over time. This results in the individual becoming susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers that ultimately cause death if left untreated. HIV-1 is the most prevalent form of HIV worldwide and has been identified as the causative agent of the global AIDS pandemic.

Nevirapine is defined as an antiretroviral medication used to treat and prevent HIV/AIDS. It is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that works by binding to and disrupting the activity of the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which is necessary for HIV replication. By blocking this enzyme, Nevirapine prevents the virus from multiplying in the body, reducing the amount of virus in the bloodstream and slowing down the progression of the disease.

Nevirapine is often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. It is available in tablet form and is usually taken once or twice daily, depending on the dosage prescribed by a healthcare provider. Common side effects of Nevirapine include rash, nausea, headache, and fatigue. In rare cases, Nevirapine can cause severe liver toxicity, so patients should be closely monitored for signs of liver damage during treatment.

Dideoxynucleotides are analogs of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In a nucleotide, there is a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA) attached to a phosphate group and one of four nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine in DNA; adenine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil in RNA).

In a dideoxynucleotide, there are two fewer oxygen molecules on the sugar component. Specifically, instead of having a hydroxyl group (-OH) at both the 2' and 3' carbons of the sugar, a dideoxynucleotide has a hydrogen atom (-H) at the 3' carbon and a hydroxyl or another group at the 2' carbon.

Dideoxynucleotides are used in scientific research and medical diagnostics, most notably in the Sanger method of DNA sequencing. In this process, DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to a single-stranded DNA template during replication. When a dideoxynucleotide is incorporated into the growing DNA chain, it acts as a terminator because there is no 3' hydroxyl group for the next nucleotide to be added. By running multiple reactions with different dideoxynucleotides and comparing the lengths of the resulting DNA fragments, researchers can determine the sequence of the template DNA.

Dideoxynucleotides are also used as antiretroviral drugs in the treatment of HIV infection. They inhibit the reverse transcriptase enzyme that HIV uses to convert its RNA genome into DNA, thus preventing the virus from replicating. Examples of dideoxynucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (ddNRTIs) include zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), stavudine (d4T), and lamivudine (3TC).

Dideoxynucleosides are a type of modified nucleoside used in the treatment of certain viral infections, such as HIV and HBV. These compounds lack a hydroxyl group (-OH) at the 3'-carbon position of the sugar moiety, which prevents them from being further metabolized into DNA.

When incorporated into a growing DNA chain during reverse transcription, dideoxynucleosides act as chain terminators, inhibiting viral replication. Common examples of dideoxynucleosides include zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), stavudine (d4T), and lamivudine (3TC). These drugs are often used in combination with other antiretroviral agents to form highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens for the treatment of HIV infection.

AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) is a term that was used to describe a group of symptoms and conditions that occurred in people who were infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), but had not yet developed full-blown AIDS. It was characterized by the presence of certain opportunistic infections or malignancies, as well as constitutional symptoms such as fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

The term ARC is no longer commonly used in clinical practice, since it has been largely replaced by the concept of "stages of HIV infection" based on CD4+ T-cell count and viral load. However, historically, the diagnosis of ARC required the presence of certain clinical conditions, such as:

* A CD4+ T-cell count between 200 and 500 cells/mm3
* The presence of constitutional symptoms (such as fever, night sweats, or weight loss)
* The presence of one or more opportunistic infections or malignancies (such as Pneumocystis pneumonia, oral candidiasis, or Kaposi's sarcoma)

It is important to note that the diagnosis and management of HIV infection have evolved significantly over time, and people with HIV can now live long and healthy lives with appropriate medical care. If you have any concerns about HIV or AIDS, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider for accurate information and guidance.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by the significant weakening of the immune system, making the person more susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers.

The medical definition of AIDS includes specific criteria based on CD4+ T-cell count or the presence of certain opportunistic infections and diseases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a person with HIV is diagnosed with AIDS when:

1. The CD4+ T-cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (mm3) - a normal range is typically between 500 and 1,600 cells/mm3.
2. They develop one or more opportunistic infections or cancers that are indicative of advanced HIV disease, regardless of their CD4+ T-cell count.

Some examples of these opportunistic infections and cancers include:

* Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
* Candidiasis (thrush) affecting the esophagus, trachea, or lungs
* Cryptococcal meningitis
* Toxoplasmosis of the brain
* Cytomegalovirus disease
* Kaposi's sarcoma
* Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
* Invasive cervical cancer

It is important to note that with appropriate antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV can maintain their CD4+ T-cell counts, suppress viral replication, and prevent the progression to AIDS. Early diagnosis and consistent treatment are crucial for managing HIV and improving life expectancy and quality of life.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

HIV Reverse Transcriptase is an enzyme that is encoded by the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses. It plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS.

Reverse transcriptase is responsible for transcribing the viral RNA genome into DNA, a process known as reverse transcription. This allows the viral genetic material to integrate into the host cell's DNA and replicate along with it, leading to the production of new virus particles.

The enzyme has three distinct activities: a polymerase activity that synthesizes DNA using RNA as a template, an RNase H activity that degrades the RNA template during reverse transcription, and a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity that synthesizes DNA using a DNA template.

Reverse transcriptase inhibitors are a class of antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV infection. They work by binding to and inhibiting the activity of the reverse transcriptase enzyme, thereby preventing the virus from replicating.

Infectious pregnancy complications refer to infections that occur during pregnancy and can affect the mother, fetus, or both. These infections can lead to serious consequences such as preterm labor, low birth weight, birth defects, stillbirth, or even death. Some common infectious agents that can cause pregnancy complications include:

1. Bacteria: Examples include group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause sepsis, meningitis, or pneumonia in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.
2. Viruses: Examples include cytomegalovirus, rubella, varicella-zoster, and HIV, which can cause congenital anomalies, developmental delays, or transmission of the virus to the fetus.
3. Parasites: Examples include Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause severe neurological damage in the fetus if transmitted during pregnancy.
4. Fungi: Examples include Candida albicans, which can cause fungal infections in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.

Preventive measures such as vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding high-risk behaviors can help reduce the risk of infectious pregnancy complications. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infections during pregnancy are also crucial to prevent adverse outcomes.

Indinavir is an antiretroviral medication used in the treatment and management of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. It belongs to a class of drugs known as protease inhibitors, which work by blocking the action of protease enzymes that are necessary for the HIV virus to replicate. By inhibiting this process, indinavir helps prevent the spread of HIV in the body and reduces the risk of developing AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).

Indinavir is often prescribed as part of a combination therapy regimen with other antiretroviral drugs. It is available in capsule form and is typically taken several times a day, usually on an empty stomach. As with all medications, indinavir can have side effects, which may include nausea, diarrhea, headache, and changes in liver function. Regular monitoring of blood tests is necessary to ensure that the drug is working effectively and not causing any harmful side effects.

It's important to note that while antiretroviral therapy can help manage HIV infection and improve quality of life, it does not cure the disease. Therefore, it is essential for individuals with HIV to continue taking their medications as prescribed and to follow up regularly with their healthcare provider.

A CD4 lymphocyte count is a laboratory test that measures the number of CD4 T-cells (also known as CD4+ T-cells or helper T-cells) in a sample of blood. CD4 cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune response, particularly in fighting off infections caused by viruses and other pathogens.

CD4 cells express a protein on their surface called the CD4 receptor, which is used by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to infect and destroy these cells. As a result, people with HIV infection or AIDS often have low CD4 lymphocyte counts, which can make them more susceptible to opportunistic infections and other complications.

A normal CD4 lymphocyte count ranges from 500 to 1,200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (cells/mm3) in healthy adults. A lower than normal CD4 count is often used as a marker for the progression of HIV infection and the development of AIDS. CD4 counts are typically monitored over time to assess the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to guide clinical decision-making regarding the need for additional interventions, such as prophylaxis against opportunistic infections.

HIV Core Protein p24 is a structural protein that forms the cone-shaped core of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is one of the earliest and most abundant viral proteins produced during the replication cycle of HIV. The p24 antigen is often used as a marker for HIV infection in diagnostic tests, as its levels in the blood tend to correlate with the amount of virus present.

The core protein p24 plays a critical role in the assembly and infectivity of the virus. It helps to package the viral RNA and enzymes into the virion, and is also involved in the fusion of the viral and host cell membranes during infection. The p24 protein is produced by cleavage of a larger precursor protein called Gag, which is encoded by the HIV genome.

In addition to its role in the viral life cycle, p24 has also been the target of HIV vaccine development efforts, as antibodies against this protein can neutralize the virus and prevent infection. However, developing an effective HIV vaccine has proven to be a significant challenge due to the virus's ability to mutate and evade the immune system.

Drug resistance, viral, refers to the ability of a virus to continue replicating in the presence of antiviral drugs that are designed to inhibit or stop its growth. This occurs when the virus mutates and changes its genetic makeup in such a way that the drug can no longer effectively bind to and inhibit the function of its target protein, allowing the virus to continue infecting host cells and causing disease.

Viral drug resistance can develop due to several factors, including:

1. Mutations in the viral genome that alter the structure or function of the drug's target protein.
2. Changes in the expression levels or location of the drug's target protein within the virus-infected cell.
3. Activation of alternative pathways that allow the virus to replicate despite the presence of the drug.
4. Increased efflux of the drug from the virus-infected cell, reducing its intracellular concentration and effectiveness.

Viral drug resistance is a significant concern in the treatment of viral infections such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, herpes simplex virus, and influenza. It can lead to reduced treatment efficacy, increased risk of treatment failure, and the need for more toxic or expensive drugs. Therefore, it is essential to monitor viral drug resistance during treatment and adjust therapy accordingly to ensure optimal outcomes.

Benzoxazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a benzene fused to an oxazine ring. They are known for their diverse chemical and pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities. Some benzoxazines also exhibit potential as building blocks in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and materials. However, it is important to note that specific medical definitions for individual compounds within this class may vary depending on their unique structures and properties.

Thymine nucleotides are biochemical components that play a crucial role in the structure and function of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which is the genetic material present in living organisms. A thymine nucleotide consists of three parts: a sugar molecule called deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base called thymine.

Thymine is one of the four nucleobases in DNA, along with adenine, guanine, and cytosine. It specifically pairs with adenine through hydrogen bonding, forming a base pair that is essential for maintaining the structure and stability of the double helix. Thymine nucleotides are linked together by phosphodiester bonds between the sugar molecules of adjacent nucleotides, creating a long, linear polymer known as a DNA strand.

In summary, thymine nucleotides are building blocks of DNA that consist of deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and the nitrogenous base thymine, which pairs with adenine in the double helix structure.

Viral load refers to the amount or quantity of virus (like HIV, Hepatitis C, SARS-CoV-2) present in an individual's blood or bodily fluids. It is often expressed as the number of virus copies per milliliter of blood or fluid. Monitoring viral load is important in managing and treating certain viral infections, as a higher viral load may indicate increased infectivity, disease progression, or response to treatment.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Oxazines are heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with one nitrogen atom, one oxygen atom, and four carbon atoms. The structure of oxazine is similar to benzene, but with one methine group (=CH−) replaced by a nitrogen atom and another methine group replaced by an oxygen atom.

Oxazines have important applications in the pharmaceutical industry as they are used in the synthesis of various drugs, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer agents. However, oxazines themselves do not have a specific medical definition, as they refer to a class of chemical compounds rather than a medical condition or treatment.

Organophosphonates are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbon-phosphorus bond. They contain a phosphonic acid group, which consists of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen or nitrogen atoms, with one of those bonds being replaced by a carbon atom.

In a medical context, organophosphonates are commonly used as radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures, such as bone scans. These compounds have the ability to bind to hydroxyapatite, the mineral component of bones, and can be labeled with radioactive isotopes for imaging purposes. They may also be used in therapeutic settings, including as treatments for conditions such as tumor-induced hypercalcemia and Paget's disease of bone.

It is important to note that organophosphonates are distinct from organophosphates, another class of compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to three oxygen or sulfur atoms and one carbon atom. Organophosphates have been widely used as pesticides and chemical warfare agents, and can pose significant health risks due to their toxicity.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active (HAART) is a medical treatment regimen used to manage HIV infection. It involves the combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs from at least two different classes, aiming to maximally suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance. The goal of HAART is to reduce the amount of HIV in the body to undetectable levels, preserve immune function, and improve quality of life for people living with HIV. Commonly used antiretroviral classes include nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), and fusion inhibitors.

HIV Protease Inhibitors are a class of antiretroviral medications used in the treatment of HIV infection. They work by blocking the activity of the HIV protease enzyme, which is necessary for the virus to replicate and infect new cells. By inhibiting this enzyme, the medication prevents the virus from maturing and assembling into new infectious particles.

HIV protease inhibitors are often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. This approach has been shown to effectively suppress viral replication, reduce the amount of virus in the bloodstream (viral load), and improve the health and longevity of people living with HIV.

Examples of HIV protease inhibitors include saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, fosamprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, and tipranavir. These medications are usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules, and may be prescribed alone or in combination with other antiretroviral drugs.

It is important to note that HIV protease inhibitors can have significant side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, as well as metabolic changes such as increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Therefore, regular monitoring of liver function, lipid levels, and other health parameters is necessary to ensure safe and effective use of these medications.

Multiple drug resistance (MDR) in viruses refers to the ability of a virus to resist or inhibit the effects of multiple antiviral agents. This occurs when a virus mutates and develops mechanisms that prevent antiviral drugs from effectively binding to their target sites, rendering the drugs unable to suppress viral replication.

In the context of virology, "multiple" typically means resistance to at least three or more classes of antiviral drugs. This is a significant concern in the management of viral infections such as HIV, HCV, and influenza, where MDR can lead to reduced treatment options, increased risk of disease progression, and potential transmission of resistant strains. Regular monitoring and appropriate use of antiviral agents are crucial for preventing and managing multiple drug resistance in viruses.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Botswana" is the name of a country located in Southern Africa, and it's not a medical term or concept. Botswana is known for its wildlife and nature, with places like the Chobe National Park and the Okavango Delta attracting tourists from around the world. The country has a population of approximately 2.3 million people and is a member of organizations such as the United Nations and the African Union.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a species of lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time, HIV infection can lead to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). This virus attacks the immune system, specifically the CD4 cells, also known as T cells, which are a type of white blood cell that helps coordinate the body's immune response. As HIV destroys these cells, the body becomes more vulnerable to other infections and diseases. It is primarily spread through bodily fluids like blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk.

It's important to note that while there is no cure for HIV, with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. Treatment for HIV is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). If taken as prescribed, this medicine reduces the amount of HIV in the body to a very low level, which keeps the immune system working and prevents illness. This treatment also greatly reduces the risk of transmission.

Nelfinavir is a medication that belongs to a class of antiretroviral drugs called protease inhibitors. It is used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nelfinavir works by blocking the activity of HIV protease, an enzyme that is necessary for the replication of the virus. By inhibiting this enzyme, nelfinavir prevents the virus from multiplying and thus slows down the progression of the disease.

Here's a medical definition of Nelfinavir:

"Nelfinavir mesylate is a synthetic peptidomimetic inhibitor of the HIV-1 protease, an enzyme essential for the processing of viral gag and gag-pol polyproteins, reverse transcriptase, and integrase. Nelfinavir is used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS."

It's important to note that nelfinavir is not a cure for HIV or AIDS, but it can help manage the disease by reducing the amount of virus in the body and improving the immune system function. As with any medication, nelfinavir has potential side effects and risks, so it should be taken under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare provider.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Anti-retroviral agents are a class of drugs used to treat and prevent infections caused by retroviruses, most commonly the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These medications work by interfering with the replication process of the retrovirus, thereby preventing it from infecting and destroying immune cells.

There are several different classes of anti-retroviral agents, including:

1. Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) - These drugs block the action of the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which is necessary for the retrovirus to convert its RNA into DNA.
2. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) - These drugs bind directly to the reverse transcriptase enzyme and alter its shape, preventing it from functioning properly.
3. Protease inhibitors (PIs) - These drugs block the action of the protease enzyme, which is necessary for the retrovirus to assemble new viral particles.
4. Integrase inhibitors (INIs) - These drugs block the action of the integrase enzyme, which is necessary for the retrovirus to integrate its DNA into the host cell's genome.
5. Fusion inhibitors - These drugs prevent the retrovirus from entering host cells by blocking the fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.
6. Entry inhibitors - These drugs prevent the retrovirus from attaching to and entering host cells.

Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) typically involves a combination of at least three different anti-retroviral agents from two or more classes, in order to effectively suppress viral replication and prevent drug resistance. Regular monitoring of viral load and CD4+ T cell counts is necessary to ensure the effectiveness of ART and make any necessary adjustments to the treatment regimen.

Adenine is a purine nucleotide base that is a fundamental component of DNA and RNA, the genetic material of living organisms. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine via double hydrogen bonds, while in RNA, it pairs with uracil. Adenine is essential for the structure and function of nucleic acids, as well as for energy transfer reactions in cells through its role in the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy currency of the cell.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Lopinavir is an antiretroviral medication used in the treatment and management of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. It is a protease inhibitor, which works by blocking the action of protease, an enzyme that the virus needs to multiply. Lopinavir is often prescribed in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The medication is available under the brand name Kaletra, which is a fixed-dose combination of lopinavir and ritonavir.

It's important to note that while lopinavir can help manage HIV infection and reduce the risk of transmission, it does not cure the disease. Regular adherence to the medication regimen is necessary to maintain its effectiveness and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains of the virus.

RNA-directed DNA polymerase is a type of enzyme that can synthesize DNA using an RNA molecule as a template. This process is called reverse transcription, and it is the mechanism by which retroviruses, such as HIV, replicate their genetic material. The enzyme responsible for this reaction in retroviruses is called reverse transcriptase.

Reverse transcriptase is an important target for antiretroviral therapy used to treat HIV infection and AIDS. In addition to its role in viral replication, RNA-directed DNA polymerase also has applications in molecular biology research, such as in the production of complementary DNA (cDNA) copies of RNA molecules for use in downstream applications like cloning and sequencing.

Appetite stimulants are medications or substances that increase the desire to eat or improve appetite. They work by affecting brain chemicals, hormones, or other systems involved in regulating hunger and fullness. Some commonly used appetite stimulants include:

1. Megestrol acetate: a synthetic progestin hormone that is often prescribed for cancer-related weight loss and anorexia. It works by stimulating appetite and promoting weight gain.
2. Dronabinol: a synthetic form of THC, the active ingredient in marijuana. It is approved for treating AIDS-related anorexia and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Dronabinol can increase appetite and promote weight gain.
3. Corticosteroids: medications that mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. They can help improve appetite, but their long-term use is associated with significant side effects.
4. Cyproheptadine: an antihistamine medication that can also stimulate appetite. It is sometimes used off-label to treat appetite loss in various conditions, such as cancer or HIV/AIDS.
5. Ghrelin agonists: these are medications that mimic the effects of ghrelin, a hormone produced by the stomach that increases hunger and appetite. Currently, there are no FDA-approved ghrelin agonists for appetite stimulation, but research is ongoing.

It's important to note that while appetite stimulants can help improve food intake in some individuals, they may not be effective for everyone, and their use should be carefully monitored due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications. Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any new medication or supplement.

Saquinavir is an antiretroviral medication used in the treatment and management of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. It is a type of protease inhibitor, which works by blocking the action of protease, an enzyme that the virus needs to multiply. By inhibiting this enzyme, saquinavir helps prevent the virus from replicating and slows down the progression of HIV to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).

Saquinavir is often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. It is important to note that saquinavir does not cure HIV or AIDS, but it can help reduce the amount of virus in the body and improve the immune system function, reducing the risk of opportunistic infections and other complications associated with HIV/AIDS.

As with any medication, saquinavir can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, as well as headaches, rash, and elevated liver enzymes. It is essential to take saquinavir exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to report any side effects or changes in health status promptly.

In the context of pharmacology, "half-life" refers to the time it takes for the concentration or amount of a drug in the body to be reduced by half during its elimination phase. This is typically influenced by factors such as metabolism and excretion rates of the drug. It's a key factor in determining dosage intervals and therapeutic effectiveness of medications, as well as potential side effects or toxicity risks.

HIV seropositivity is a term used to describe a positive result on an HIV antibody test. This means that the individual has developed antibodies against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), indicating that they have been infected with the virus. However, it's important to note that this does not necessarily mean that the person has AIDS, as there can be a long period between HIV infection and the development of AIDS.

Pyrimidinones are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a pyrimidine ring fused with a ketone group. The basic structure of a pyrimidinone consists of two nitrogen atoms and four carbon atoms in a six-membered ring, with a carbonyl (C=O) group attached to one of the carbon atoms.

In a medical context, pyrimidinones are important because many naturally occurring and synthetic compounds that contain this structure have been found to have biological activity. For example, some pyrimidinones have antiviral, antibacterial, or anticancer properties, making them useful in the development of new drugs for various medical conditions.

One well-known drug that contains a pyrimidinone ring is the antiviral medication Ribavirin, which is used to treat hepatitis C and certain viral hemorrhagic fevers. Other pyrimidinones are being studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in areas such as cancer therapy, neuroprotection, and inflammation.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

Thymidine Monophosphate (TMP or dTMP) is a nucleotide that is a ester of phosphoric acid with thymidine, a nucleoside consisting of deoxyribose sugar linked to the nitrogenous base thymine. It is one of the four monophosphate nucleotides that are the building blocks of DNA, along with adenosine monophosphate (AMP), guanosine monophosphate (GMP), and cytidine monophosphate (CMP). TMP plays a crucial role in DNA replication and repair processes. It is also used as a marker in biochemical research and medical diagnostics.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

A nucleoside is a biochemical molecule that consists of a pentose sugar (a type of simple sugar with five carbon atoms) covalently linked to a nitrogenous base. The nitrogenous base can be one of several types, including adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, or uracil. Nucleosides are important components of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, which are the genetic materials found in cells. They play a crucial role in various biological processes, including cell division, protein synthesis, and gene expression.

Ritonavir is an antiretroviral medication used in the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. It is a protease inhibitor, which works by blocking the action of protease, an enzyme that the virus needs to multiply. By doing this, Ritonavir helps to reduce the amount of HIV in the body, keeping it at a low level and preventing the disease from progressing.

Ritonavir is often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is also sometimes used at lower doses to boost the levels of other protease inhibitors in the body, a practice known as "pharmacologic boosting."

It's important to note that Ritonavir does not cure HIV/AIDS, but it can help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. As with all medications, Ritonavir can have side effects, and it may interact with other drugs, so it's important to take it exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider.

A leukocyte count, also known as a white blood cell (WBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood. Leukocytes are a vital part of the body's immune system and help fight infection and inflammation. A high or low leukocyte count may indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder. The normal range for a leukocyte count in adults is typically between 4,500 and 11,000 cells per microliter (mcL) of blood. However, the normal range can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the individual's age and sex.

AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) is a neurological disorder that occurs in people with advanced HIV infection or AIDS. It is also known as HIV-associated dementia (HAD) or HIV encephalopathy. ADC is characterized by cognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, and behavioral changes that can significantly affect the individual's daily functioning and quality of life.

The symptoms of AIDS Dementia Complex may include:
- Difficulty with concentration and memory
- Slowness in thinking, processing information, or making decisions
- Changes in mood or personality, such as depression, irritability, or apathy
- Difficulty with coordination, balance, or speech
- Progressive weakness and wasting of muscles
- Difficulty with swallowing or speaking

The exact cause of ADC is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to the direct effects of HIV on the brain. The virus can infect and damage nerve cells, leading to inflammation and degeneration of brain tissue. Treatment for ADC typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART) to control HIV replication, as well as medications to manage specific symptoms. In some cases, supportive care such as physical therapy or occupational therapy may also be recommended.

Treatment failure is a term used in medicine to describe the situation when a prescribed treatment or intervention is not achieving the desired therapeutic goals or objectives. This may occur due to various reasons, such as:

1. Development of drug resistance by the pathogen or disease being treated.
2. Inadequate dosage or frequency of the medication.
3. Poor adherence or compliance to the treatment regimen by the patient.
4. The presence of underlying conditions or comorbidities that may affect the efficacy of the treatment.
5. The severity or progression of the disease despite appropriate treatment.

When treatment failure occurs, healthcare providers may need to reassess the patient's condition and modify the treatment plan accordingly, which may include adjusting the dosage, changing the medication, adding new medications, or considering alternative treatments.

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"Zidovudine". PubChem Public Chemical Database. NCBI. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved April 10, 2011. ...
In zidovudine (AZT; ATC:J05AF01) the 3'-hydroxyl group has been replaced by an azido group, in stavudine (ATC: J05AF04) it has ... Sun R, Eriksson S, Wang L (November 2014). "Zidovudine induces downregulation of mitochondrial deoxynucleoside kinases: ...
Diagnosis of zidovudine related anemia: zidovudine counters HIV in two ways. It can directly inhibit reverse transcriptase from ... Moreover, zidovudine may also increase the destruction of red blood cells, which may continue to decrease the red blood cell ... In addition, zidovudine works as a DNA replication chain terminator. Because of its DNA chain terminator feature, the bone ... Tamir Z, Alemu J, Tsegaye A (January 2018). "Anemia among HIV Infected Individuals Taking ART with and without Zidovudine at ...
The Zidovudine Epidemiology Study Group". Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146 (2): 285-9. doi:10.1164/ajrccm/146.2.285. PMID 1362634. ... Mycobacterium avium-complex infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease treated with zidovudine. ...
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This was the NRTI called zidovudine. In the late 1980s, during further development of NRTIs, the field of NNRTIs discovery ...
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Larder, B; Darby, G; Richman, DD (1989). "HIV with reduced sensitivity to zidovudine isolated during prolonged therapy". ...
Zidovudine: valproate may increase zidovudine serum concentration and lead to toxicity. Although the mechanism of action of ...
After 1993, using zidovudine during pregnancy led to an estimated reduction of mother-to-infant transmission of HIV in the ... "Zidovudine for the Prevention of HIV Transmission from Mother to Infant". 43 (16). 29 April 1994: 285-287. {{cite journal}}: ... Years into the AIDS epidemic there had not been any medication to treat HIV infection, but when zidovudine was approved, " ... France started the clinical trial of zidovudine (AZT) in HIV-infected pregnant women otherwise known as "ACTG protocol 076". ...
Cardiac dysfunction in the HIV-1 transgenic mouse treated with zidovudine. Lab Invest 2000;80:187-97. Lewis W, Simpson JF, ... Cardiac mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma is inhibited competitively and noncompetitively by phosphorylated zidovudine. Circ ... Zidovudine is an example of a nucleoside analogue and has been shown to cause: myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy as well ...
It also transports the anti-viral nucleoside analogues Zidovudine and Zalcitabine. Che M, Ortiz DF, Arias IM (Jun 1995). " ...
Combination therapy with zidovudine and didanosine compared to zidovudine alone in HIV-1 infection. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Oct 15 ... Zidovudine in Asymptomatic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection - A Controlled Trial in Persons with Fewer Than 500 CD4- ... Zidovudine in Asymptomatic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection - A Controlled Trial in Persons with Fewer Than 500 CD4- ... Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection with saquinavir, zidovudine, and zalcitabine. N Engl J Med. 1996 Apr 18;334 ...
Research in 1994 revealed how the drug zidovudine can reduce vertical transmission. The testing and treatment of HIV-positive ... "Reduction of Maternal-Infant Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 with Zidovudine Treatment". New England ...
August 1997). "Clarithromycin lowers plasma zidovudine levels in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection". ...
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Zidovudine, also called AZT, ZDV, and azidothymidine, has the trade name Retrovir. Zidovudine was the first antiretroviral drug ... A virus with Q151M alone is intermediately resistant to zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), zalcitabine (ddC), stavudine (d4T ... 1994). "Combination therapy with zidovudine and didanosine selects for drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T) Cytidine analogues: zalcitabine (ddC), lamivudine (3TC), and emtricitabine (FTC) Guanosine ...
Its FDA approval helped bring down the price of zidovudine (ZDV), the initial anti-HIV drug. [Source needed on pricing effect ... Drug resistance to didanosine does develop, though slower than to zidovudine (ZDV). The most common mutation observed in vivo ...
Since stavudine and zidovudine are OAT1 substrates, they may have similar effects on proximal renal tubule cells as they do on ... Combining zidovudine with stavudine does not increase the mitochondrial toxicity compared to stavudine alone. Both of these ... Zidovudine inhibits the phosphorylation of stavudine. This might reduce the toxicity of the combination. Using indinavir in ... In vitro the antiviral drugs didanosine and zidovudine are more potent inhibitors of mitochondrial DNA synthesis than tenofovir ...
A short course of maternal Lamivudine/zidovudine is recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service Task Force to reduce this ... A subsequent study in Thailand showed that prophylaxis with single-dose nevirapine in addition to zidovudine is more effective ... July 2004). "Single-dose perinatal nevirapine plus standard zidovudine to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in ... September 1999). "Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child ...
AZT (azidothymidine) or zidovudine is an antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV/AIDS. AZT or azt may also refer to: Azerbaijan ...
In particular, diaryl phosphates were prepared from zidovudine (AZT) using simple phosphorochloridate chemistry. For the first ...
The first nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor with in vitro anti-HIV activity was zidovudine. Since zidovudine was ... However, zidovudine is relatively toxic since it is converted into the triphosphate by the cellular enzymes and therefore it is ... In 1964 zidovudine (AZT) was synthesized by Horwitz at the Michigan Cancer Foundation. The 3´hydroxyl group in the deoxyribose ... In 1974 zidovudine was reported to have activity against retroviruses and was subsequently re-screened as an antiviral when the ...
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Alvarez D, Dieterich DT, Brau N, Moorehead L, Ball L, Sulkowski MS (October 2006). "Zidovudine use but not weight-based ... Ribavirin should not be given with zidovudine because of the increased risk of anemia; concurrent use with didanosine should ...
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ZIDOVUDINE. Background. Toxicity. Studies of Zidovudine Postexposure Prophylaxis Involving Animals. Studies of Zidovudine ... ZIDOVUDINE. Background. Zidovudine is a thymidine analogue that has been shown in vitro to inhibit replication of some ... Studies of Zidovudine Postexposure Prophylaxis Involving Humans. The efficacy of zidovudine prophylaxis for humans after ... Both the protective effect of zidovudine and the incidence of zidovudine-induced bone marrow depression were greater with ...
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  • It is sold both by itself and together as lamivudine/zidovudine and abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medicines below all contain the following active ingredient(s): abacavir + lamivudine + zidovudine. (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • It is a combination of three drugs: abacavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine. (prescriptiongiant.com)
  • It is a combination drug that contains three active ingredients: abacavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine. (prescriptiongiant.com)
  • Allergies - Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to lamivudine or zidovudine. (3-rx.com)
  • Pregnancy - Lamivudine and zidovudine combination has not been studied in pregnant women. (3-rx.com)
  • Before taking this lamivudine and zidovudine combination, make sure your doctor knows if you are pregnant or if you may become pregnant. (3-rx.com)
  • Children - Either lamivudine or zidovudine used alone may cause serious side effects, and children should receive less of these medicines than adults. (3-rx.com)
  • However, lamivudine and zidovudine combination contains a fixed amount of each medicine that cannot be decreased. (3-rx.com)
  • Therefore, lamivudine and zidovudine combination is not recommended for children less than 12 years of age, or children who weigh less than 50 kilograms (110 pounds) because the amounts of lamivudine and zidovudine in this product cannot be adjusted for smaller body sizes. (3-rx.com)
  • Other medical problems - The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of lamivudine and zidovudine combination. (3-rx.com)
  • Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare clinical, immunological and virological responses of zidovudine-lamivudine-nevirapine (AZT+3TC+ NVP) versus zidovudine-lamivudine-efavirenz (AZT+3TC+EFV) ART regimen among HIV-1 infected children. (benthamopen.com)
  • Indinavir was initially administered as monotherapy and then in combination with zidovudine and lamivudine after 16 weeks. (duke.edu)
  • The combination of indinavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine was well tolerated. (duke.edu)
  • Future studies need to evaluate the efficacy of indinavir when combined de novo with zidovudine and lamivudine. (duke.edu)
  • Exporter of a wide range of products which include zidovudine tablets 300mg, stavudine tablet 30mg, ridsunate 200mg tablet, tavin 300 mg tablets, tavin em tablets and inbec tablet. (actizapharma.co)
  • To compare stavudine (d4T) and zidovudine (AZT) in slowing the progression of HIV disease. (bmsclinicaltrials.com)
  • Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antiretroviral coverage during pregnancy was 95.5%, with most (87.8%) wom- en reporting excellent or good adherence. (who.int)
  • Zidovudine, one of the components of Trizivir, can suppress the bone marrow's ability to produce blood cells, leading to anemia, neutropenia (low white blood cell count), and thrombocytopenia (low platelet count). (prescriptiongiant.com)
  • Conclusion: Zidovudine delayed progression of HIV disease and produced little toxicity in subjects with mildly symptomatic HIV disease and less than 500 CD4 T lymphocytes/mm 3 . (wustl.edu)
  • This report reviews Public Health Service (PHS) recommendations for postexposure management of workers who have occupational exposures that may place them at risk of acquiring HIV infection, provides background information on zidovudine and experience with zidovudine postexposure prophylaxis, and presents considerations relevant to a decision to offer postexposure prophylaxis. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on information suggesting that zidovudine (30516871) (ZDV) may be useful as postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) to reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission following occupational exposure to HIV infected blood, previous Public Health Service recommendations on management of occupational exposure to HIV were updated. (cdc.gov)
  • Zidovudine Tablets exporter, manufacturer, supplier in India. (actizapharma.co)
  • Additionally, some physicians and some institutions have offered the option of using zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT, ZDV, Retrovir) after occupational exposure to HIV (6). (cdc.gov)
  • Zidovudine is used along with other medications to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zidovudine is given to HIV-positive pregnant women to reduce the chance of passing the infection to the baby. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zidovudine controls HIV infection but does not cure it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zidovudine is also used along with other medications in certain situations to treat healthcare workers and other individuals exposed to HIV infection after accidental contact with HIV-contaminated blood, tissues, or other body fluids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Effects of zidovudine on Friend virus complex infection in Rfv-3r/s ge" by John D. Morrey, R P. Warren et al. (usu.edu)
  • Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of zidovudine early in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection. (wustl.edu)
  • When zidovudine is taken by pregnant women, it may be taken 5 times a day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Prenatal and postpartum zidovudine adherence among pregnant women with HIV. (bvsalud.org)
  • Zidovudine is in a class of medications called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to zidovudine, any other medications, or any of the other ingredients in zidovudine products. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although zidovudine does not cure HIV, it may decrease your chance of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HIV-related illnesses such as serious infections or cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Data collected in an ongoing CDC surveillance project of health-care workers who have been occupationally exposed to blood from HIV-infected patients (7) indicate that during the period April-December 1989, 13 (8.6%) of 151 newly enrolled participants began a postexposure regimen of zidovudine. (cdc.gov)
  • If you miss doses or stop taking zidovudine, your condition may become more difficult to treat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, studies in animals have shown that zidovudine causes birth defects when given in very high doses. (3-rx.com)
  • Zidovudine comes as a capsule, tablet, and syrup to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pill with imprint ZVR 100 ZVR 100 is Blue & White, Capsule/Oblong and has been identified as Zidovudine 100 mg. (drugs.com)
  • Zidovudine also has antibacterial properties, though not routinely used in clinical settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zidovudine may cause muscle disease, especially when taken for a longer period of time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Enrollment in another treatment protocol that expressly prohibits concomitant treatment with zidovudine (AZT). (veeva.com)
  • For the stratum of subjects with 500 to 799 CD4 T lymphocytes/mm 3 before treatment, 2 events occurred in placebo recipients and 3 in zidovudine recipients. (wustl.edu)
  • Zidovudine prevents the multiplication of HIV virus in human cells. (actizapharma.co)
  • Your doctor will order certain lab tests to check your response to zidovudine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Talk to your doctor about the risks of taking zidovudine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not stop taking zidovudine without talking to your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When your supply of zidovudine starts to run low, get more from your doctor or pharmacist. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zidovudine may decrease the number of certain cells in your blood, including red and white blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Intervention: Three hundred fifty-one subjects were assigned to placebo and 360 to zidovudine, 200 mg orally every 4 hours. (wustl.edu)
  • Abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine tablets are contraindicated in patients with a prior hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir and in HLA-B*5701-positive patients. (nih.gov)
  • Discontinue abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine tablets as soon as a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected. (nih.gov)
  • Regardless of HLA-B*5701 status, permanently discontinue abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine tablets if hypersensitivity cannot be ruled out, even when other diagnoses are possible. (nih.gov)
  • Following a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine tablets NEVER restart abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine tablets or any other abacavir-containing product. (nih.gov)
  • Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and have discontinued lamivudine, a component of abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine tablets. (nih.gov)
  • Abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine tablet, a combination of abacavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine, each nucleoside analogue HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors, is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. (nih.gov)
  • Before initiating abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine tablets, screen for the HLA-B*5701 allele because abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine tablets contains abacavir. (nih.gov)
  • Tablets: 300 mg abacavir, 150 mg lamivudine, and 300 mg zidovudine. (nih.gov)
  • Discontinue abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine tablets as medically appropriate and consider dose reduction or discontinuation of interferon alfa, ribavirin, or both. (nih.gov)
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  • Your doctor will order certain lab tests to check your response to zidovudine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Human inter-individual variability in metabolism and genotoxic response to zidovudine. (cdc.gov)
  • One tablet contains efavirenz (600mg), while the other two contain a fixed-dose combination of lamivudine (300mg) and zidovudine (150mg). (unitedpharmacies-uk.md)
  • Zidovudine comes as a capsule, tablet, and syrup to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Generic nevirapine, zidovudine, and lamivudine are manufactured in India as a single fixed-dose combination tablet. (medscape.com)
  • Lamivudine & Zidovudine 150 mg/300 mg Tablet is used with other antiretroviral medicines to treat HIV infection in adults and children. (globelapharma.com)
  • Zidovudine is in a class of medications called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues including zidovudine. (nih.gov)
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  • Hematologic toxicity including neutropenia and severe anemia have been associated with the use of zidovudine. (nih.gov)
  • Bone marrow suppressive/cytotoxic agents: May increase the hematologic toxicity of zidovudine. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatotoxicity and rash associated with zidovudine and zalcitabine chemoprophylaxis. (nih.gov)
  • Adco-Zidovudine chemoprophylaxis is indicated for use in HIV-positive pregnant women (over 14 weeks of gestation) for prevention of maternal-foetal HIV transmission and for primary prophylaxis of HIV infection in newborn infants. (pillintrip.com)
  • Symptomatic myopathy associated with prolonged use of zidovudine. (nih.gov)
  • The white tablets (Lamivudine + Zidovudine) should be taken in the morning AND at night. (unitedpharmacies-uk.md)
  • Additionally, some physicians and some institutions have offered the option of using zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT, ZDV, Retrovir) after occupational exposure to HIV (6). (cdc.gov)
  • Discontinue zidovudine as medically appropriate and consider dose reduction or discontinuation of interferon alfa, ribavirin, or both. (nih.gov)
  • Hypersensitivity to zidovudine or any of the components (e.g., anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome). (nih.gov)
  • zidovudine, elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF. (medscape.com)
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  • Severe hepatotoxicity in a patient receiving both acetaminophen and zidovudine. (nih.gov)
  • When your supply of zidovudine starts to run low, get more from your doctor or pharmacist. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to zidovudine, any other medications, or any of the other ingredients in zidovudine products. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Be careful and be sure to specify the information on the section Name of the medicinal product in the instructions to the drug Adco-Zidovudine directly from the package or from the pharmacist at the pharmacy. (pillintrip.com)
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ZIDOVUDINE ORAL SOLUTION safely and effectively. (nih.gov)
  • See full prescribing information for ZIDOVUDINE ORAL SOLUTION. (nih.gov)
  • We conducted a randomized crossover bioequivalence study of generic and brand name formulations of nevirapine, zidovudine, and lamivudine in HIV-negative Indian women using US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria. (medscape.com)
  • The primary objective of the present study was to determine the average bioequivalence of generic and brand name nevirapine, zidovudine, and lamivudine according to the FDA guidance on bioequivalence testing. (medscape.com)
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  • Adco-Zidovudine is indicated in anti-retroviral combination therapy for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected adults and children. (pillintrip.com)
  • On February 21, 1994, the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) announced preliminary results from a randomized, multicenter, double-blinded clinical trial of zidovudine (ZDV) to prevent HIV transmission from mothers to their infants (AIDS Clinical Trials Group {ACTG} protocol 076). (cdc.gov)
  • The required dose of Adco-Zidovudine IV for Infusion must be administered by slow intravenous infusion of the diluted product over a one-hour period . (pillintrip.com)
  • A dose for Adco-Zidovudine IV for Infusion of 1 or 2 mg zidovudine/kg bodyweight every 4 hours provides similar exposure (AUC) to an oral dose of 1.5 or 3.0 mg zidovudine/kg every 4 hours (600 or 1200 mg/day for a 70 kg patient). (pillintrip.com)
  • The current recommended oral dose of Adco-Zidovudine is 250 or 300 mg twice daily. (pillintrip.com)
  • An oral dose of Adco-Zidovudine of 360 to 480 mg/m 2 per day approximately corresponds to an intravenous dose of 240-320 mg/m 2 /day. (pillintrip.com)
  • Exacerbation of anemia has been reported in HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients receiving ribavirin and zidovudine. (nih.gov)
  • Patients should receive Adco-Zidovudine IV for Infusion only until oral therapy can be administered. (pillintrip.com)
  • This study examined drug susceptibilities and pol mutations of HIV-1 strains from patients treated for 1 year with zidovudine, didanosine (ddI), or zidovudine and ddI. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Ten (42%) of 24 patients receiving combination therapy versus 8/26 (31%) receiving only zidovudine had HIV-1 strains with phenotypic zidovudine resistance or a zidovudine resistance pol mutation at codon 215 (P = .6). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Although zidovudine does not cure HIV, it may decrease your chance of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HIV-related illnesses such as serious infections or cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
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  • Combination therapy with zidovudine and didanosine selects for drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains with unique patterns of pol gene mutations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Combination therapy with zidovudine and ddI selects for zidovudine-resistant HIV-1 strains lacking a ddI resistance mutation and for multidrug-resistant strains containing novel pol mutations. (ox.ac.uk)
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  • The information provided in Name of the medicinal product of Adco-Zidovudine is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Adco-Zidovudine . (pillintrip.com)
  • The information provided in Therapeutic indications of Adco-Zidovudine is based on data of another medicine with exactly the same composition as the Adco-Zidovudine . (pillintrip.com)
  • Limited data are available on the use of Adco-Zidovudine IV for Infusion in children. (pillintrip.com)
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  • Lack of average bioequivalence for zidovudine was found for C max but is not expected to be clinically significant, because the total AUC values were similar between formulations. (medscape.com)