Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Synthetic analogs of NUCLEIC ACIDS composed of morpholine ring derivatives (MORPHOLINES) linked by phosphorodimidates. One standard DNA nucleic acid base (ADENINE; GUANINE; CYTOSINE; OR THYMINE) is bound to each morpholine ring.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Members of the transforming growth factor superfamily that play a role in pattern formation and differentiation during the pregastrulation and GASTRULATION stages of chordate development. Several nodal signaling ligands are specifically involved in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during development. The protein group is named after a critical region of the vertebrate embryo PRIMITIVE STREAK referred to as HENSEN'S NODE.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The primordial kidney that develops from the INTERMEDIATE MESODERM in the embryos of vertebrates, and is succeeded by the MESONEPHROS. In higher vertebrates and humans, the pronephros is a vestigial and transient structure.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.
A large family of structurally-related transcription factors that were originally discovered based upon their close sequence homology to an HMG-box domain found in SEX-DETERMINING REGION Y PROTEIN. Many SOX transcription factors play important roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION. The numerous members of this family are organized in several subgroups according to structural identities found within the proteins.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
Short fragments of DNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Used in the form of its salts as a dye and as an intermediate in manufacture of Acid Yellow, diazo dyes, and indulines.
A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A fibroblast growth factor that is expressed primarily during development.
Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).
The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Alkaloids with powerful hypotensive effects isolated from American or European Hellebore (Veratrum viride Ait. Liliaceae and Veratrum album L. Liliaceae). They increase cholinergic and decrease adrenergic tone with appropriate side effects and at higher doses depress respiration and produce cardiac arrhythmias; only the ester alkaloids have been used as hypotensive agents in specific instances. They have been generally replaced by drugs with fewer adverse effects.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the jaw.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The dorsal posterior subdivision of the diencephalon. The epithalamus is generally considered to include the habenular nuclei (HABENULA) and associated fiber bundles, the PINEAL BODY, and the epithelial roof of the third ventricle. The anterior and posterior paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus are included with the THALAMIC NUCLEI although they develop from the same pronuclear mass as the epithalamic nuclei and are sometimes considered part of the epithalamus.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and is involved in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. In the developing heart, GATA5 becomes restricted to the ENDOCARDIUM and regulates transcription of genes such as cardiac TROPONIN C.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
A family of VERTEBRATE homeodomain proteins that share homology with orthodenticle protein, Drosophila. They regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and play an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the BRAIN.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Signaling ligands that act in opposition to NODAL PROTEIN. During vertebrate development they regulate the degree of left-right asymmetry by controlling the spatiotemporal influence of NODAL PROTEIN.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
A small protuberance at the dorsal, posterior corner of the wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE, adjacent to the dorsal THALAMUS and PINEAL BODY. It contains the habenular nuclei and is a major part of the epithalamus.
The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.
Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Messenger RNA that is stored in a masked state for translation at a later time. Distinguish from RNA, UNTRANSLATED which refers to non-messenger RNA, i.e. RNA that does not code for protein.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.
The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Short fragments of RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subclass are expressed in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and may play a role in vasculogenesis.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.
A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.
A large maf protein that regulates HINDBRAIN development, contributes to CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MONOCYTES, and interacts with ETS-1 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (1/8702)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (2/8702)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (3/8702)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Isolation of zebrafish gdf7 and comparative genetic mapping of genes belonging to the growth/differentiation factor 5, 6, 7 subgroup of the TGF-beta superfamily. (4/8702)

The Growth/differentiation factor (Gdf) 5, 6, 7 genes form a closely related subgroup belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily. In zebrafish, there are three genes that belong to the Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup that have been named radar, dynamo, and contact. The genes radar and dynamo both encode proteins most similar to mouse GDF6. The orthologous identity of these genes on the basis of amino acid similarities has not been clear. We have identified gdf7, a fourth zebrafish gene belonging to the Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup. To assign correct orthologies and to investigate the evolutionary relationships of the human, mouse, and zebrafish Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup, we have compared genetic map positions of the zebrafish and mammalian genes. We have mapped zebrafish gdf7 to linkage group (LG) 17, contact to LG9, GDF6 to human chromosome (Hsa) 8 and GDF7 to Hsa2p. The radar and dynamo genes have been localized previously to LG16 and LG19, respectively. A comparison of syntenies shared among human, mouse, and zebrafish genomes indicates that gdf7 is the ortholog of mammalian GDF7/Gdf7. LG16 shares syntenic relationships with mouse chromosome (Mmu) 4, including Gdf6. Portions of LG16 and LG19 appear to be duplicate chromosomes, thus suggesting that radar and dynamo are both orthologs of Gdf6. Finally, the mapping data is consistent with contact being the zebrafish ortholog of mammalian GDF5/Gdf5.  (+info)

Sequential PKC- and Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation events elicit zebrafish nuclear envelope disassembly. (5/8702)

Molecular markers of the zebrafish inner nuclear membrane (NEP55) and nuclear lamina (L68) were identified, partially characterized and used to demonstrate that disassembly of the zebrafish nuclear envelope requires sequential phosphorylation events by first PKC, then Cdc2 kinase. NEP55 and L68 are immunologically and functionally related to human LAP2beta and lamin B, respectively. Exposure of zebrafish nuclei to meiotic cytosol elicits rapid phosphorylation of NEP55 and L68, and disassembly of both proteins. L68 phosphorylation is completely inhibited by simultaneous inhibition of Cdc2 and PKC and only partially blocked by inhibition of either kinase. NEP55 phosphorylation is completely prevented by inhibition or immunodepletion of cytosolic Cdc2. Inhibition of cAMP-dependent kinase, MEK or CaM kinase II does not affect NEP55 or L68 phosphorylation. In vitro, nuclear envelope disassembly requires phosphorylation of NEP55 and L68 by both mammalian PKC and Cdc2. Inhibition of either kinase is sufficient to abolish NE disassembly. Furthermore, novel two-step phosphorylation assays in cytosol and in vitro indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of L68 prior to Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation of L68 and NEP55 is essential to elicit nuclear envelope breakdown. Phosphorylation elicited by Cdc2 prior to PKC prevents nuclear envelope disassembly even though NEP55 is phosphorylated. The results indicate that sequential phosphorylation events elicited by PKC, followed by Cdc2, are required for zebrafish nuclear disassembly. They also argue that phosphorylation of inner nuclear membrane integral proteins is not sufficient to promote nuclear envelope breakdown, and suggest a multiple-level regulation of disassembly of nuclear envelope components during meiosis and at mitosis.  (+info)

Comparative synteny cloning of zebrafish you-too: mutations in the Hedgehog target gli2 affect ventral forebrain patterning. (6/8702)

Zebrafish you-too (yot) mutations interfere with Hedgehog (Hh) signaling during embryogenesis. Using a comparative synteny approach, we isolated yot as a zinc finger transcription factor homologous to the Hh target gli2. Two alleles of yot contain nonsense mutations resulting in carboxy-terminally truncated proteins. In addition to causing defects in midline development, muscle differentiation, and retinal axon guidance, yot mutations disrupt anterior pituitary and ventral forebrain differentiation. yot mutations also cause ectopic lens formation in the ventral diencephalon. These findings reveal that truncated zebrafish Gli2 proteins interfere with Hh signaling necessary for differentiation and axon guidance in the ventral forebrain.  (+info)

Retinal neurogenesis: the formation of the initial central patch of postmitotic cells. (7/8702)

We have investigated the relationship between the birthdate and the onset of differentiation of neurons in the embryonic zebrafish neural retina. Birthdates were established by a single injection of bromodeoxyuridine into embryos of closely spaced ages. Differentiation was revealed in the same embryos with a neuron-specific antibody, zn12. The first bromodeoxyuridine-negative (postmitotic) cells occupied the ganglion cell layer of ventronasal retina, where they formed a small cluster of 10 cells or less that included the first zn12-positive cells (neurons). New cells were recruited to both populations (bromodeoxyuridine-negative and zn12-positive) along the same front, similar to the unfolding of a fan, to produce a circular central patch of hundreds of cells in the ganglion cell layer about 9 h later. Thus the formation of this central patch, previously considered as the start of retinal neurogenesis, was actually a secondary event, with a developmental history of its own. The first neurons outside the ganglion cell layer also appeared in ventronasal retina, indicating that the ventronasal region was the site of initiation of all retinal neurogenesis. Within a column (a small cluster of neuroepithelial cells), postmitotic cells appeared first in the ganglion cell layer, then the inner nuclear layer, and then the outer nuclear layer, so cell birthday and cell fate were correlated within a column. The terminal mitoses occurred in three bursts separated by two 10-h intervals during which proliferation continued without terminal mitoses.  (+info)

beta-thymosin is required for axonal tract formation in developing zebrafish brain. (8/8702)

beta-Thymosins are polypeptides that bind monomeric actin and thereby function as actin buffers in many cells. We show that during zebrafish development, &bgr;-thymosin expression is tightly correlated with neuronal growth and differentiation. It is transiently expressed in a subset of axon-extending neurons, essentially primary neurons that extend long axons, glia and muscle. Non-neuronal expression in the brain is restricted to a subset of glia surrounding newly forming axonal tracts. Skeletal muscle cells in somites, jaw and fin express beta-thymosin during differentiation, coinciding with the time of innervation. Injection of beta-thymosin antisense RNA into zebrafish embryos results in brain defects and impairment of the development of beta-thymosin-associated axon tracts. Furthermore, irregularities in somite formation can be seen in a subset of embryos. Compared to wild-type, antisense-injected embryos show slightly weaker and more diffuse engrailed staining at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary and a strong reduction of Isl-1 labeling in Rohon Beard and trigeminal neurons. The decreased expression is not based on a loss of neurons indicating that beta-thymosin may be involved in the maintenance of the expression of molecules necessary for neuronal differentiation. Taken together, our results strongly indicate that beta-thymosin is an important regulator of development.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Nodal/Bozozok-independent induction of the dorsal organizer by zebrafish cell lines. AU - Hashiguchi, Megumi. AU - Shinya, Minori. AU - Tokumoto, Mika. AU - Sakai, Noriyoshi. PY - 2008/9/15. Y1 - 2008/9/15. N2 - Formation of the dorsal organizer (Spemann organizer) is an important process in early vertebrate development. In zebrafish, two molecular cascades-Bozozok/Dharma (Boz) and Nodal signaling-act in parallel to induce the dorsal organizer. However, the complete molecular mechanism regulating this event remains unclear. Here we report that zebrafish cell lines derived from various developmental stages can induce a secondary axis when they are implanted into the mid-blastula but not the early gastrula. The implanted cellsthemselves did not differentiate, but instead induced ectopic expression of dorsal organizer markers incells around the implanted cells and induced notochord formation in the secondary axis. These results indicate that cultured cell lines have the ability to ...
View details for Studies on the effect of certain supplements in cryoprotective medium on zebrafish (Danio rerio) oocytes quality after controlled slow cooling..
The availability of a gynogenetic isogenic homozygous diploid clonal strain (C) of the zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio), combined with the small adult body size of the species, made possible a study of the following two questions. (1) Is the genetic uniformity of a group of fish reflected in decreased variability of features of organismic performance physiology? (2) Is the metabolic cost of subcarangiform swimming significantly different in small fishes compared with large ones? Wild-type (WT) and C strain zebrafish maintained at 28 °C can all swim very rapidly [up to relative swimming speeds of 13 body lengths s-1 (BL s-1)] for extended periods (at least 2 h) without visibly tiring. Oxygen consumption rates were measured for both types at swimming speeds of 1.5­13 BL s-1. Whole-body lactate concentrations were also measured during routine activity and after prolonged exercise for both fish types. The slopes of the linear regressions between the logarithm of mass-specific oxygen consumption ...
In this study we set out to investigate the transcriptome dynamics of early zebrafish embryogenesis with a comprehensive experimental set-up that interroga
Embryonic and larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) behavior is commonly used to identify neurotoxic compounds. Here, we investigated whether sub-lethal exposures to the common solvents dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 0.01-1%) and methanol (MeOH, 0.01-1%), or the anti-fungal agent methylene blue (MB, 0.0001-0.0005%), can influence larval behavior in a simple light/dark paradigm conducted in 96-well plates. In addition, we tested whether the media volume within the behavioral arena or the zebrafish strain, AB wild type, AB Tübingen (AB/TU), or Tüpfel long-fin (TL), could also influence larval behavior. Following the single exposures, we co-exposed larvae to DMSO and either MB or two other compounds with known behavioral effects in larval zebrafish, flutamide and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). We found ≥0.55% DMSO and 0.0005% MB significantly affected larval behavior, but there was no effect of MeOH. Similarly, TL showed less movement compared to AB and AB/TU strains, whereas lower media volumes also ...
Rajaram K, Harding RL, Hyde DR, Patton JG. miR-203 regulates progenitor cell proliferation during adult zebrafish retina regeneration. Dev Biol. 2014 May 20. p
Live Imaging of Host-Parasite Interactions in a Zebrafish Infection Model Reveals Cryptococcal Determinants of Virulence and Central Nervous System Invasion.
Cell cycle analysis of transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing PCNA-CB. (A) Overview of the dorsal midbrain of a wnt1:gal4,UAS:GFP (green); UAS:PCNA-CB (magenta
BioAssay record AID 620365 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiangiogenic activity in fli-1:enhanced GFP expressing transgenic zebrafish embryo assessed as inhibition of neovacularisation at 5 uM after 24 hrs relative to control.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of stanniocalcin 1 on calcium uptake in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. AU - Tseng, Deng Yu. AU - Chou, Ming Yi. AU - Tseng, Yung Che. AU - Hsiao, Chung Der. AU - Huang, Chang Jen. AU - Kaneko, Toyoji. AU - Hwang, Pung Pung. PY - 2009/3/1. Y1 - 2009/3/1. N2 - Stanniocalcin (STC) formerly called hypocalcin or teleocalcin, is a 50-kDa disulfide-linked homodimeric glycoprotein that was originally identified in fish and secreted from the corpuscles of Stannius (CS). One of the main functions of STC-1 is Ca2+ uptake inhibition; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, we provide molecular evidence to elucidate how zebrafish STC-1 regulates Ca2+ uptake in zebrafish embryos. In a wide variety of tissues including the kidney, brain, gill, muscle, and skin, zstc-1 was expressed. Incubating zebrafish embryos in low-Ca2+ (0.02 mM) freshwater stimulated whole body Ca2+ influx and zebrafish epithelial Ca2+ channel (zECaC) mRNA expression, while downregulated ...
Claudin 5 as a prominent TJ protein is a consistent feature between the BBB and blood-CSF barrier (Bill and Korzh, 2014). Here we have used this feature to create an in vivo model for real-time analysis of the development, structure and function of the BBB and CP by generating a transgenic zebrafish line that expresses EGFP under the claudin 5a promoter. The high homology and synteny with human, the conservation along the teleost lineage and the previous characterisation of Claudin 5a in zebrafish makes cldn5a a logical candidate (Abdelilah-Seyfried, 2010; Xie et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2012).. We show that developmental expression of cldn5a:EGFP is restricted to, and starts in both CPs and the midline at 1 dpf, thereby narrowing down the previously shown whole-mount in situ hybridizations (Zhang et al., 2010). The presence of Claudin 5a at the CPs at 1 dpf coincides with the inflation of the ventricles (Zhang et al., 2010, 2012) and corroborates its role in this process. Claudin 5a is crucial ...
We have characterized Tdr1, a family of Tc1-like transposable elements found in the genome of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The copy number and distribution of the sequence in the zebrafish genome have been determined, and by these criteria Tdr1 can be classified as a moderately repetitive, interspersed …
2015. The diets of populations in industrialized nations have shifted to dramatically increased consumption of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with a corresponding decrease in the consumption of ω3 PUFA. This dietary shift may be related to observed increases in obesity, chronic inflammation, and comorbidities in the human population. We examined the effects of ω3:ω6 fatty acid ratios in the context of constant total dietary lipid on the growth, total body fat, and responses of key inflammatory markers in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were fed diets in which the ω3:ω6 PUFA ratios were representative of those in a purported ancestral diet (1:2) and more contemporary Western diets (1:5 and 1:8). After 5 mo, weight gain (fat free mass) of zebrafish was highest for those that received the 1:8 ratio treatment, but total body fat was lowest at this ratio. Measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, mRNA levels from liver samples of 3 chronic inflammatory response genes ...
The advent of high-throughput sequencing has greatly accelerated the identification of inherited and de novo disease causing mutations. Following discovery the analysis of the developmental and cellular pathways of the affected genes is a crucial step on the path towards therapy with model organisms as the central tool. Traditionally, vertebrate model organisms such as mouse and zebrafish have been used on a gene-by-gene basis, however, in order to keep pace with the increasing speed of discovery, new approaches are needed. Owing to a high quality genome reference sequence and its genetic and embryological tractability the zebrafish is a vertebrate model especially suited for large scale studies. Previously having established methods to generate and identify disruptive zebrafish point mutations on a genome wide scale the Zebrafish Mutation Project is now assigning biological function to every protein-coding gene in the zebrafish genome. We submit alleles to a high-throughput assessment of ...
We used microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses in adult female zebrafish (Danio rerio) to identify metabolic pathways regulated by starvation in the liver and brain. The transcriptome of whole zebrafish brain showed little response to 21 days of starvation. Only agouti-related protein 1 (agrp1) significantly responded, with increased expression in brains of starved fish. In contrast, a 21-day period of starvation significantly downregulated 466 and upregulated 108 transcripts in the liver, indicating an overall decrease in metabolic activity, reduced lipid metabolism, protein biosynthesis, proteolysis, and cellular respiration, and increased gluconeogenesis. Starvation also regulated expression of many components of the unfolded protein response, the first such report in a species other than yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mice (Mus musculus). The response of the zebrafish hepatic transcriptome to starvation was strikingly similar to that of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Danio rerio commonly known as zebrafish is a tropical fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae). It is a major model for studying developmental biology; aided by the transparency of the embryo and adult body, researchers can modify the fishs genotype at the egg stage and see resulting changes as little as three days later.. Zebrafish have the ability to regenerate many of their tissues including fins, skin, heart and, in larval stages, brain. Zebrafish have been used to study cancers, including melanoma, leukemia, pancreatic cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Tubingen strain was used as the the reference strain for the genome sequencing project as it had been used extensively to identify mutations affecting embryogenesis. Sequencing revealed that 71.4% of human genes have at least one zebrafish ortholog. Currently the zebrafish genome is thought to have more than 26,000 protein-coding genes. ...
Because of its permeability to small molecules, zebrafish can be used for testing and screening of drugs affecting different biological processes.50-52 Single and multiple compounds tests can be easily and successfully achieved on both zebrafish embryos and adults.53,54 The reason for this resides in the fact that (1) a high quantity of zebrafish embryos (≈5000) can be obtained synchronously, and (2) the small size of the embryos allows them to fit in a 384-well plate and thus allows high-throughput analyses. In this way, libraries of thousands of compounds can be screened for their effects in a reasonable time frame (eg, weeks). Progresses for drug screening in zebrafish embryos are also subjected to automatic readout for phenotypic effects. An automated high-throughput platform for in vivo chemical screenings on zebrafish embryos has been developed aiming for the highest possible throughput and minimization of human error. It includes an automated method for embryo collection and ...
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized as excessive lipid accumulation within hepatocytes, is growing in prevalence. The exploitation of effective drugs for NAFLD has been proven challenging. Herein, we aimed to establish a dietary model of hepatic steatosis using transparent zebrafish larvae in which high-throughput chemical screens could be conducted. Zebrafish larvae fed with high fat (HF) diet and high fat plus high cholesterol (HFC) diet were compared to the control. We analyzed intrahepatic lipid accumulation, biological indexes and various pathways including lipid metabolism, ER stress and inflammation. In addition, the effects of ezetimibe and simvastatin on HFC diet-induced steatosis were evaluated. Zebrafish larvae fed with HF and HFC diets developed steatosis for 7 and 10 days. The incidence and degree of steatosis were more severe in HFC diet-fed larvae compared with the control and HF diet-fed larvae, suggesting that adding cholesterol to the HF diet promotes the hepatic
Won M, Ro H, Dawid IB. Lnx2 ubiquitin ligase is essential for exocrine cell differentiation in the early zebrafish pancreas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Sep
Purpose: Emran et al (2010) reported that the amplitudes of the electroretinograms (ERGs) recorded from isolated eyes of larval zebrafish were normal throughout the day, but were almost absent after several hours of darkness at night. The purpose of our study was to confirm this circadian rhythm of the ERGs in living zebrafish.. Methods: Initially, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were kept in a 14:10 light:dark cycle (room fluorescent light, 9:00 to 23 hours). ERGs were elicited by stimulus intensities of 790 mW/m2 and durations of 1000 msec. The ERGs were recorded with an Ag/AgCl wire electrode that was inserted into a glass micropipette filled with E3 medium. A glasspipette electrode was positioned in the center of the cornea and a reference electrode was an Ag/AgCl pellet that placed beneath the larvae body. The zebrafish was anesthetized by 3-aminobenzoic acid methylester and placed on its side on a moisture sponge with one eye facing toward a light. We recorded ERGs of larval (5 days ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dna hypomethylation induces a dna replication-associated cell cycle arrest to block hepatic outgrowth in uhrf1 mutant zebrafish embryos. AU - Jacob, Vinitha. AU - Chernyavskaya, Yelena. AU - Chen, Xintong. AU - Tan, Poh Seng. AU - Kent, Brandon. AU - Hoshida, Yujin. AU - Sadler, Kirsten C.. PY - 2015/2/1. Y1 - 2015/2/1. N2 - UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains, 1) recruits DNMT1 to hemimethylated DNA during replication and is essential for maintaining DNA methylation. uhrf1 mutant zebrafish have global DNA hypomethylation and display embryonic defects, includinga small liver, and theydie as larvae. Wemake the surprising finding that, despite their reduced organ size, uhrf1 mutants express high levels of genes controlling S-phase and have many more cells undergoing DNA replication, as measured by BrdU incorporation. In contrast to wild-type hepatocytes, which are continually dividing during hepatic outgrowth and thus dilute the BrdU label, uhrf1 mutant ...
We provide the first analysis of how a segmentally reiterated pattern of neurons is specified along the anteroposterior axis of the vertebrate spinal cord by investigating how zebrafish primary motoneurons are patterned. Two identified primary motoneuron subtypes, MiP and CaP, occupy distinct locations within the ventral neural tube relative to overlying somites, express different genes and innervate different muscle territories. In all vertebrates examined so far, paraxial mesoderm-derived signals specify distinct motoneuron subpopulations in specific anteroposterior regions of the spinal cord. We show that signals from paraxial mesoderm also control the much finer-grained segmental patterning of zebrafish primary motoneurons. We examined primary motoneuron specification in several zebrafish mutants that have distinct effects on paraxial mesoderm development. Our findings suggest that in the absence of signals from paraxial mesoderm, primary motoneurons have a hybrid identity with respect to ...
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a well-recognized model for the study of vertebrate developmental genetics, yet at the same time little is known about the transcriptional events that underlie zebrafish embryogenesis. Here we have employed microarray analysis to study the temporal activity of developmentally regulated genes during zebrafish embryogenesis. Transcriptome analysis at 12 different embryonic time points covering five different developmental stages (maternal, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, and pharyngula) revealed a highly dynamic transcriptional profile. Hierarchical clustering, stage-specific clustering, and algorithms to detect onset and peak of gene expression revealed clearly demarcated transcript clusters with maximum gene activity at distinct developmental stages as well as co-regulated expression of gene groups involved in dedicated functions such as organogenesis. Our study also revealed a previously unidentified cohort of genes that are transcribed prior to the mid-blastula transition,
Purpose: Ca2+ regulates a variety of cellular processes including signal transduction, energy production, and mitochondrial function. Because photoreceptors (PRs) use significant quantities of energy, consuming more ATP/minute per gram tissue than even the brain, our goal is to understand how PRs respond to external fluctuations of Ca2+, and how intracellular Ca2+ dynamics influence energy metabolism. We have previously shown that larval zebrafish PRs display heterogeneous Ca2+ transients. In this study we investigate Ca2+ dynamics in adult zebrafish PRs.. Methods: Adult zebrafish retinas expressing the genetically encoded fluorescent Ca2+ sensor GCaMP in cone PRs were dissected, flat-mounted, and sliced into 400-µm sections. Retinas were stained with propidium iodide or BODIPY and slices were imaged in a temperature-controlled chamber. Retinas were perfused with 0 mM or 3 mM Ca2+ Ringers solution with and without 10 mM isridipine. GCaMP fluorescence was monitored by confocal ...
The genomic organization of the mammalian Pcdh and Ugt1 gene clusters is strikingly similar in that both contain a tandem array of highly similar variable exons followed by a common set of downstream constant exons (Zhang et al., 2004). In contrast to the cell-specific expression of Pcdh genes in the brain, members of the mouse Ugt1 cluster display tissue-specific expression patterns in a wide variety of tissues, especially in the digestive and respiratory systems (Zhang et al., 2004). In addition, the variable and constant genomic organizations of both the Pcdh and Ugt1 clusters are conserved in zebrafish (Wu, 2005; Li and Wu, 2007). The zebrafish has become an important vertebrate model organism for developmental biology, physiology, and pathology studies (Howe et al., 2013). Recently, there has been great interest in developing the zebrafish as a vertebrate model organism for drug discovery as well as for environmental toxicology (Hill et al., 2005; Peterson and Macrae, 2012). The full ...
We recently identified Rbm24 as a novel gene expressed during mouse cardiac development. Due to its tightly restricted and persistent expression from formation of the cardiac crescent onwards and later in forming vasculature we posited it to be a key player in cardiogenesis with additional roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. To determine the role of this gene in cardiac development, we have identified its zebrafish orthologs (rbm24a and rbm24b), and functionally evaluated them during zebrafish embryogenesis. Consistent with our underlying hypothesis, reduction in expression of either ortholog through injection of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides results in cardiogenic defects including cardiac looping and reduced circulation, leading to increasing pericardial edema over time. Additionally, morphant embryos for either ortholog display incompletely overlapping defects in the forming vasculature of the dorsal aorta (DA), posterior caudal vein (PCV) and caudal vein (CV) which are the first blood
In the past decade, the zebrafish, Danio rerio, has risen to much greater prominence as a vertebrate model system for drug discovery and toxicity testing. Zebrafish larvae represent an in vivo vertebrate model, with high throughput potential and proven efficacy as a model of human disease and drug responses. Specifically, zebrafish have been used for cardiotoxicity studies and cardiac arrhythmia modelling.. This project aims to develop and optimise tools for electrocardiographic recording in zebrafish larvae for use in cardiotoxicity screening and human arrhythmia modelling. Steps were taken towards a high throughput ECG system for zebrafish larvae through establishing viability of non-contact capillary electrode recording and development of microfabricated electrode arrays capable of replacing glass capillary electrodes. In depth analysis of atrium and ventricle signals using wavelet analysis was performed and the frequency profiles for these chambers examined. The utility of the larval ECG ...
The genetic pathways underlying the induction and anterior-posterior patterning of the heart are poorly understood. The recent emergence of the zebrafish model system now allows a classical genetic approach to such challenging problems in vertebrate development. Two large-scale screens for mutations affecting zebrafish embryonic development have recently been completed; among the hundreds of mutations identified were several that affect specific aspects of cardiac morphogenesis, differentiation, and function. However, very few mutations affecting induction and/or anterior-posterior patterning of the heart were identified. We hypothesize that a directed approach utilizing molecular markers to examine these particular steps of heart development will uncover additional such mutations. To test this hypothesis, we are conducting two parallel screens for mutations that affect either the induction or the anterior-posterior patterning of the zebrafish heart. As an indicator of cardiac induction, we ...
Had gathered much info from this site, so thought I should contribute my experience. Im new to breeding Danios, all by accident really. Within a month of setting up my 5ft tank, I had very busy zebra danios chasing each other. A few days later I did a gravel vacuum, and emptied the water into the bath, letting it go down the drain. On the 4th bucket I decided to put the plug in, and discovered babies in the bucket. (Who knows how many I sent down the drain...)We moved them to the main tank, in a floating fry tank covered with an ankle stocking around it for finer holes. Left this to float on the top. Discovered that the water surface doesnt get agitated enough in these and babies died off. When I let fresh water in the top daily, the fish were much happier. Did another gravel vac 2 weeks later, and found more fry, so suspected theyd had another batch. My Leopard Danio girl got very plump, so I moved her and her mate into a small tank for spawning one night, and the next morning she was very ...
Basic research in pattern formation is concerned with the generation of phenotypes and tissues. It can therefore lead to new tools for medical research. These include phenotypic screening assays, applications in tissue engineering, as well as general advances in biomedical knowledge. Our aim here is to discuss this emerging field with special reference to tools based on zebrafish developmental biology. We describe phenotypic screening assays being developed in our own and other labs. Our assays involve: (i) systemic or local administration of a test compound or drug to zebrafish in vivo; (ii) the subsequent detection or readout of a defined phenotypic change. A positive readout may result from binding of the test compound to a molecular target involved in a developmental pathway. We present preliminary data on assays for compounds that modulate skeletal patterning, bone turnover, immune responses, inflammation and early-life stress. The assays use live zebrafish embryos and larvae as well as adult
a. SOX10/MyoD in situ experiments on zebrafish colec11 and masp1 morphants showing an abnormal distribution of the CNCC in the hindbrain of 10 somite-stage embr
The easy-to-use in vivo model, zebrafish larva, is being increasingly used to screen chemical-induced hepatotoxicity, with a good predictivity for various mechanisms of liver injury. However, nothing is known about its applicability in exploring the mechanism called membrane remodeling, depicted as changes in membrane fluidity or lipid raft properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to substantiate the zebrafish larva as a suitable in vivo model in this context. Ethanol was chosen as a prototype toxicant because it is largely described, both in hepatocyte cultures and in rodents, as capable of inducing a membrane remodeling leading to hepatocyte death and liver injury. The zebrafish larva model was demonstrated to be fully relevant as membrane remodeling was maintained even after a 1-week exposure without any adaptation as usually reported in rodents and hepatocyte cultures. It was also proven to exhibit a high sensitivity as it discriminated various levels of cytotoxicity depending on the extent
Autoimmunity exhibits a female bias which is consistent across many disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis. However, much of the interplay between environment, sex and autoimmunity is not understood. FoxP3 is the primary transcription factor controlling the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs) which help control the immune system through suppressive effects. This study aims to evaluate how an increase in dietary sodium affects the expression of zFoxP3. Additionally, this study examines if zFoxP3is differentially expressed between males and females. Zebrafish were separated into test and control groups with each group having equal numbers of male and female fish. Following an acclimation period, the diet of the test fish was modified to include a ten-times increase in sodium concentration. Three male and three female zebrafish from each group were sampled at 1, 2, and 4 weeks following the introduction of the increased sodium ...
Autoimmunity exhibits a female bias which is consistent across many disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis. However, much of the interplay between environment, sex and autoimmunity is not understood. FoxP3 is the primary transcription factor controlling the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs) which help control the immune system through suppressive effects. This study aims to evaluate how an increase in dietary sodium affects the expression of zFoxP3. Additionally, this study examines if zFoxP3is differentially expressed between males and females. Zebrafish were separated into test and control groups with each group having equal numbers of male and female fish. Following an acclimation period, the diet of the test fish was modified to include a ten-times increase in sodium concentration. Three male and three female zebrafish from each group were sampled at 1, 2, and 4 weeks following the introduction of the increased sodium ...
Zebrafish neurogenesis (nerve-cell creation): Left: zebrafish brain showing microglia cells. Center: lesion (damage) results in microglia activation and
While such recovery from biological limbo seemingly defies scientific or medical explanation, researchers at Seattles Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have developed a method to induce a similar state of so-called suspended animation in the zebrafish, a relatively new model of vertebrate developmental biology.
The underlying processes of nociception and pain are, despite the rodent models available, still not fully understood. One of the drawbacks of rodent model systems is the difficulty to screen compound libraries for their influence on nociception, thus slowing down the discovery of novel analgesics for clinical use.. Rodent behavioural tasks have been previously adapted for larval zebrafish in our group and in the current manuscript we investigated the possibilities of zebrafish larvae as an additional model system to study nociception and pain and their underlying mechanisms.. Zebrafish larvae were exposed to different concentrations of diluted acetic acid, a chemical noxious stimulus, and we measured nociceptive-specific behaviours. Cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2), a gene known to be involved in nociception, was used as a marker for the activation of nociceptive pathways. Upon exposure to diluted acetic acid, five-day old larval zebrafish showed a concentration dependent increase in locomotor ...
Genomes and Genes, Publications, Species, Locale, Scientific Experts, Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on zebrafish in Iowa City, Iowa, United States
My lab uses zebrafish as a model to study myelination in the development central nervous system. The small size, optical transparency, relative simplicity, and rapid development of zebrafish embryos are properties that allow direct observation of entire developmental (or repair) events as they occur in live animals. We have developed a non-invasive transgenic method to induce demyelination in zebrafish and have also generated a suite of tools to visualise myelin and myelinated axons at high-resolution in live zebrafish, which allows us to observe cellular, sub-cellular and molecular behaviours during myelination, demyelination, and remyelination as they occur in a living animal. Zebrafish are well established as a powerful system with which to identify new genes required for biological events. In a genetic screen carried out at Stanford University I identified new roles for genes with known involvement in myelination, established zebrafish models of human disease, and identified new genes ...
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The zebrafish model organism database (ZFIN) provides a Web resource of zebrafish genomic, genetic, developmental, and phenotypic data
Insects represent a valuable and sustainable alternative ingredient for aquafeed formulation. However, insect-based diets have often highlighted controversial results in different fish species, especially when high inclusion levels were used. Several studies have demonstrated that nutritional programming through parental feeding may allow the production of fish better adapted to use sub-optimal aquafeed ingredients. To date, this approach has never been explored on insect-based diets. In the present study, five experimental diets characterized by increasing fish meal substitution levels with full-fat Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens; BSF) prepupae meal (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) were used to investigate the effects of programming via broodstock nutrition on F1 zebrafish larvae development. The responses of offspring were assayed through biometric, gas chromatographic, histological, and molecular analyses. The results evidenced that the same BSF-based diets provided to adults were able to ...
The zebrafish, Danio rerio, has become a popular vertebrate model for the study of infections, mainly because of its excellent optical accessibility at the
Due to the important biological role of red blood cells (RBCs) in vertebrates, the analysis of reshaping and dynamics of RBCs motion is a critical issue in physiology and biomechanics. In this paper the behavior of RBCs within the immature capillary plexus during embryonic development of zebrafish has been analyzed. Relying on the fact that zebrafish embryos are small and optically transparent, it is possible to image the blood flow.. In this way the anatomy of blood vessels is monitored along with the circulation throughout their development. Numerical simulations were performed using a specific numerical model that combines fluid flow simulation, modeling of interaction of individual red blood cells immersed in blood plasma with the surrounding fluid and modeling the deformation of individual cells. The results of numerical simulations are in accordance with the in vivo observed region of interest within the caudal vein plexus of the zebrafish embryo. Good agreement of results demonstrates the
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We investigated the effects of short-term exposure of bare TiO2NPs and polyelectrolyte-coated TiO2NPs in the 5-25 nm size range, at relatively high concentrations (of 500 and 1000 mg/L) under light or dark conditions, in D. rerio embryos. The biological endpoints investigated included embryo viability and mRNA transcript levels of antioxidant and membrane transport genes relative to control embryos. The presence of nanoparticles on the surface of embryos was assessed using TEM. The results confirm an accumulation of TiO2NPs on the outer surface (chorion) of the embryo, but not within the embryo. No significant difference in embryo viability was detected following each exposure regime. The expression of antioxidant biomarker, SOD2, was significantly impacted by the type of TiO2NP, with TiO2NPs/PSS/PAH coating exposure showing down regulation; the concentration of the nanoparticles, with down regulation at 500 mg/L; and dark/light condition with down regulation in the light. The expression levels ...
Collective migration of cells in the zebrafish Posterior Lateral Line primordium (PLLp) along a path defined by Cxcl12a expression depends on Cxcr4b receptors in leading cells and on Cxcr7b in trailing cells. Cxcr7b-mediated degradation of Cxcl12a by trailing cells generates a local gradient of Cxcl12a that guides PLLp migration. Agent-based computer models were built to explore how a polarized response to Cxcl12a, mediated by Cxcr4b in leading cells and prevented by Cxcr7b in trailing cells, determines unidirectional migration of the PLLp. These chemokine signaling-based models effectively recapitulate many behaviors of the PLLp and provide potential explanations for the characteristic behaviors that emerge when the PLLp is severed by laser to generate leading and trailing fragments. As predicted by our models, the bilateral stretching of the leading fragment is lost when chemokine signaling is blocked in the PLLp. However, movement of the trailing fragment toward the leading cells, which was ...
We investigated the mechanisms of intermediate cell mass (ICM) expansion in zebrafish chordin (Chd) morphant embryos and examined the role of BMPs in relation to this phenotype. At 24 h post-fertilization (hpf), the expanded ICM of embryos injected with chd morpholino (MO) (Chd MO embryos) contained a monotonous population of hematopoietic progenitors. In situ hybridization showed that hematopoietic transcription factors were ubiquitously expressed in the ICM whereas vascular gene expression was confined to the periphery. BMP4 (but not BMP2b or 7) and smad5 mRNA were ectopically expressed in the Chd MO ICM. At 48 hpf, monocytic cells were evident in both the ICM and circulation of Chd MO but not WT embryos. While injection of BMP4 MO had no effect on WT hematopoiesis, co-injecting BMP4 with chd MOs significantly reduced ICM expansion. Microarray studies revealed a number of genes that were differentially expressed in Chd MO and WT embryos and their roles in hematopoiesis has yet to be ...
One of the fundamental problems in developmental biology is understanding how the behaviour of single cells affects global tissue and organ morphogenesis. The development of the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium (PLLP) provides an excellent system for the study of dynamic single cell behaviours that contribute to higher order tissue organization (Ghysen and Dambly-Chaudière, 2007). The lateral line is a sensory system found in fish and amphibians that is dedicated to the detection of water movements. These movements are registered by specialized sense organs, the neuromasts, which consist of a central mechanosensory hair cell bundle and surrounding support cells. The lateral line system itself can be divided into two parts: an anterior one, which comprises the neuromasts of the head; and a posterior one, which comprises the neuromasts of the body and tail. Most of the research in the field has focused on the development of the posterior lateral line (PLL), owing to its stereotypy and ...
Despite the well-characterized occurrence of uranium (U) in the aquatic environment, very little is known about the chronic exposure of fish to low levels of U and its potential effect on reproduction. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of environmental concentrations of depleted U on the reproductive output of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and on survival and development of the F1 embryo-larvae following parental exposure to U. For that purpose, sexually mature male and female zebrafish were exposed to 20 and 250 µg/L of U for 14 days and allowed to reproduce in clean water during a further 14-day period. At all sampling times, whole-body vitellogenin concentrations and gonad histology were analyzed to investigate the effects of U exposure on these reproductive endpoints. In addition, accumulation of U in the gonads and its genotoxic effect on male and female gonad cells were quantified. The results showed that U strongly affected the capability of fish to reproduce and to
Currently, there is no other whole-animal reporter for epigenetic regulation established in any vertebrate. The inventors generated this novel zebrafish line using a transgene construct containing dazl gene silencing sequences (CpG island) fused to a destabilized GFPd2 gene driven by the ubiquitously expressing ef1alpha promoter. The resulting transgenic line permits detailed tissue- or cellular- level visualization of dynamic changes in GFPd2 expression in response to changes in DNA methylation or downstream epigenetic regulation in developing or adult animals. GFPd2 is off in the fertilized egg but turns on during early development, peaking at approximately 24 hours post-fertilization, and is then rapidly and ubiquitously silenced. The reporter is off in adults, except in particular stages of germline development in the gonads. Experimental treatments or genetic mutants that interfere with epigenetic silencing result in global or tissue-specific reactivation of GFPd2 expression. The ...
Crude oil spills have caused substantial impacts to aquatic ecosystems. Chemical dispersants are used to palliate the impact of oil spillages, but their use is polemic due to their additional potential toxic effect when mixed with oil-derived components. In this work, we used a 16S-based metagenomic approach to analyze the changes of the gut microbiota of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of a light crude oil (35° API gravity), and the chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF), prepared with Nokomis 3-F4® dispersant. After 96 h of exposure, WAF induced an increase in the alpha and beta diversity, altering the relative abundance of Vibrio, Flavobacterium, and Novosphingobium. In contrast, CEWAF only caused an increase in the beta diversity, and an enrichment of the genus Pseudomona. Both treatments diminished the abundances of Aeromonas, Cetobacterium, Coxiella, Dinghuibacter, and Paucibacter. Moreover, the co-occurrence network among genera was more complex ...
Article Exposure to a PBDE/OH‐BDE mixture alters juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) development. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their metabolites (e.g. hydroxylated BDEs (OH‐BDEs)) are contaminants detected together frequently in human tiss...
It has been widely supported that individual animals express different strategies to cope with environmental challenge. In ectothermic species such as fish, individuals must use behavioral thermoregulation mechanisms to optimize physiological performance. In the present study, thermal preference was tested in groups of wild-type zebrafish, Danio rerio, screened for proactive and reactive animal personalities. Three replicate groups of proactive, reactive, and naive randomly sampled non-screened controls were used for the experiments. The frequency distribution of the animals was recorded in a custom-built multichamber tank under both constant temperature (temperature restricted conditions: TR) and a continuous thermal gradient profile (temperature choice: TCh ranging from 21°C to 35°C). Proactive and reactive animal personalities expressed significantly different thermal preferences and general activity within the temperature gradient. Our results show that proactive fish, generally ...
Effects of 3,4-dichloroaniline and diazinon on different biological organisation levels of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and ...
Effects of the Protein Kinase Inhibitor PKC412 on Gene Expression and Link to Physiological Effects in Zebrafish Danio rerio Eleuthero- ...
This dissertation describes research to elucidate the early steps in the process of synapse formation in the zebrafish spinal cord. One question is how presynaptic proteins are trafficked and recruited to nascent synapses. Previous work has suggested two possible models of presynaptic transport, either (1) most presynaptic proteins are transported together or (2) two types of transport packets, synaptic vesicle (SV) protein transport vesicles (STVs) and Piccolo-containing active zone precursor transport vesicles (PTVs), transport the necessary components separately. We tested these models using in vivo imaging in zebrafish spinal cord and found that the recruitment of at least three distinct transport packets during presynaptic assembly of a glutamatergic synapse occurs in an ordered sequence. First, STVs are stabilized at future synaptic sites, then PTVs, followed by a third transport packet type carrying Synapsin, a cytosolic protein that can tether SVs to actin. These results identify an ...
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The zebrafish posterior lateral line (pLL) is a sensory system that comprises clusters of mechanosensory organs called neuromasts (NMs) that are stereotypically positioned along the top of trunk. occasions that are controlled from the Wnt pathway arent known. We determined a mutant stress mutants absence posterior NMs and live imaging reveals that rosette renewal fails during later on phases of migration. Remarkably NVP-ADW742 the entire primordium patterning as assayed from the expression of varied markers shows up unaltered in mutants. Lineage tracing and mosaic analyses exposed how the leading cells (presumptive progenitors) re-locate from the primordium and so are integrated into NMs; this total leads to a reduction in the amount of proliferating progenitor cells and eventual primordium disorganization. We figured Lef1 function is not needed for preliminary primordium corporation or migration but is essential for proto-NM renewal during later on phases of pLL development. These findings ...
Macquarie University researchers have developed the first zebrafish model of the neurodegenerative Machado-Joseph Disease - and have used this model to test drugs that could potentially be used to treat the disease, which disproportionately affects Indigenous Australians.. Machado-Joseph Disease, or spinocerebellar ataxia-3, is a hereditary disease caused by a gene mutation, which leads to a progressive loss of muscle control and movement. Most people living with MJD are wheelchair bound and need constant support within 15 years of symptoms first emerging.. Researchers gave the zebrafish the human disease-causing gene, creating the first transgenic zebrafish model of MJD, allowing them to compare the movement, pathology and lifespan of fish carrying the healthy version of the human gene to those with the disease-causing version.. Zebrafish are small and transparent, allowing us to see how a disease develops. Being able to use zebrafish to model MJD is a great win for those of us working to ...
Sexually dimorphic breeding tubercles (BTs) are keratinized epidermal structures that form clusters on the dorsal surface of the anterior rays of zebrafish male pectoral fins. BTs appear during sexual maturation and are maintained through regular shedding and renewal of the keratinized surface. Following pectoral fin amputation, BT clusters regenerate after the initiation of revascularization, but concomitantly with a second wave of angiogenesis. This second wave of regeneration forms a web-like blood vessel network that penetrates the supportive epidermis of BTs. Upon analyzing the effects of sex steroids and their inhibitors, we show that androgens induce and estrogens inhibit BT cluster formation in intact and regenerating pectoral fins. Androgen-induced BT formation in females is accompanied by the formation of a male-like blood vessel network. Treatment of females with both androgens and an angiogenesis inhibitor results in the formation of undersized BT clusters when compared with females ...
LPA signaling plays important roles during cell migration and proliferation in normal and pathological conditions. However, its role during sensory organ development remains unknown. Here we show a LPA receptor Lpar2b is expressed in the posterior lateral line primordium (pLLP) and mechanosensory organs called neuromasts (NMs) in zebrafish embryos. Lpar2b loss-of-function significantly reduces the number of NMs and hair cells in the posterior lateral line (pLL). Further analysis reveals that Lpar2b regulates the patterning and organ size of the pLLP. Interestingly, we show that knocking down a Hippo effector Yap1 phenocopies the result of Lpar2b depletion, and Lpar2b regulates the phosphorylation and activity of Yap1 in the pLLP. Importantly, a phosphorylation-resistant Yap1 rescues pLLP organ size and NM number in Lpar2b-depleted embryos. Our results indicate Lpar2b controls the sensory organ size and NM number by regulating Yap1 activity in the lateral line system.
Because Ras signaling is frequently activated by major hepatocellular carcinoma etiological factors, a transgenic zebrafish constitutively expressing the krasV12 oncogene in the liver was previously generated by our laboratory. Although this model depicted and uncovered the conservation between zebrafish and human liver tumorigenesis, the low tumor incidence and early mortality limit its use for further studies of tumor progression and inhibition. Here, we employed a mifepristone-inducible transgenic system to achieve inducible krasV12 expression in the liver. The system consisted of two transgenic lines: the liver-driver line had a liver-specific fabp10 promoter to produce the LexPR chimeric transactivator, and the Ras-effector line contained a LexA-binding site to control EGFP-krasV12 expression. In double-transgenic zebrafish (driver-effector) embryos and adults, we demonstrated mifepristone-inducible EGFP-krasV12 expression in the liver. Robust and homogeneous liver tumors developed in 100% ...
Prenatal propofol exposure induced neurotoxicity in the developing brains and led to persistent learning deficits in the offspring. Our goal was to use zebrafish to explore whether the decline in learning and memory was correlated with inhibition of neuronal growth after propofol exposure. Zebrafish embryos at 6 hours postfertilization (hpf) were exposed to control or 1, 2 or 4 μg/mL propofol until 48 hpf. Spontaneous locomotor activity and swimming behavior in response to dark‐to‐light photoperiod stimulation were studied in zebrafish larvae at 6 days postfertilization (dpf). The adaptability to repeated stimulation was used to indicate learning and memory function of larvae. Transgenic NBT line zebrafish was used to quantitate the effect of propofol on motor neuronal growth of embryos in vivo. Six dpf transgenic zebrafish larvae went through photoperiod stimulation after their neuronal length had been analyzed during the embryonic period. Our data indicate that embryonic exposure to 1, 2 ...
Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) are potential endocrine disrupting compounds that have been detected in the aquatic environment around the world in the low ng/L (nanomolar) range. GCs are used as immunosuppressants in medicine. It is of high interest whether clobetasol propionate (CP), a highly potent GC, suppresses the inflammatory response in fish after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was used to induce inflammation and thus mimic pathogen infection. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to ≤1000 nM CP from ~1 h post fertilization (hpf) to 96 hpf, and CP uptake, survival after LPS challenge, and expression of inflammation-related genes were examined. Our initial experiments were carried out using 0.001% DMSO as a solvent vehicle, but we observed that DMSO interfered with the LPS challenge assay, and thus masked the effects of CP. Therefore, DMSO was not used in the subsequent experiments. The internal CP concentration was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intrinsic expression of a multiexon type 3 deiodinase gene controls zebrafish embryo size. AU - Guo, Cuicui. AU - Chen, Xia. AU - Song, Huaidong. AU - Maynard, Michelle A.. AU - Zhou, Yi. AU - Lobanov, Alexei V.. AU - Gladyshev, Vadim N.. AU - Ganis, Jared J.. AU - Wiley, David. AU - Jugo, Rebecca H.. AU - Lee, Nicholas Y.. AU - Castroneves, Luciana A.. AU - Zon, Leonard I.. AU - Scanlan, Thomas S.. AU - Feldman, Henry A.. AU - Huang, Stephen A.. PY - 2014/10/1. Y1 - 2014/10/1. N2 - Thyroid hormone is a master regulator of differentiation and growth, and its action is terminated by the enzymatic removal of an inner-ring iodine catalyzed by the selenoenzyme type 3 deiodinase (dio3). Our studies of the zebrafish reveal that the dio3 gene is duplicated in this species and that embryonic deiodination is an important determinant of embryo size. Although both dio3 paralogs encode enzymatically active proteins with high affinity for thyroid hormones, their anatomic patterns of ...
Most human birth defects are highly variable. Our ability to diagnose, treat and prevent defects relies on our understanding of this variability. Mutation of the transcription factor GATA3 in humans causes the highly variable Hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural Deafness and Renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome. Although named for a triad of defects patients with HDR can also exhibit craniofacial defects. Through a forward genetic screen for craniofacial mutants, we isolated a zebrafish mutant in which the first cysteine of the second zinc finger of Gata3 is mutated. Because mutation of the homolgous cysteine causes HDR in humans, these zebrafish mutants will be a rapid and effective animal model for understanding the role of gata3 in the HDR disease spectrum. We demonstrate that, unexpectedly, the chaperone proteins Ahsa1 and Hsp90 promote severe craniofacial phenotypes in our zebrafish model of HDR Syndrome. The strengths of the zebrafish system, including rapid development, genetic tractability and ...
Specifically, qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression in living zebrafish embryos was applied to detect and characterize the effects of: (1) EDCs that act via ERs to induce brain P450 aromatase (P450aromB) and hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) expression; (2) EDCs that act via AhRs to reduce gonadal aromatase (P450aromA) and increase hepatic P4501A1 expression; (3) EDCs that interact directly with preformed aromatase enzymes to block aromatization; and (4) EDCs that perturb ER and AhR expression.. Primer Design and Optimization of qRT-PCR Conditions. P450aromB and -A. Assay development and validation in embryonic, larval, and adult male and female zebrafish has been completed (Sawyer and Callard, in preparation, 2004). Results show that the assay is sensitive and precise (linear between 1 x 10-6 and 1.0 ng mRNA). Reproducibility is excellent within and across operators when tested in multiple experiments and at multiple starting points within a single experiment (e.g., RNA extraction, RT, PCR)(intra- and ...
Despite detailed in vivo knowledge of glycolytic enolases and many bacterial non-enolase members of the superfamily, little is known about the in vivo function of vertebrate non-enolase enolase superfamily members (ENOSF1s). Results of previous studies suggest involvement of the β splice form of ENOSF1 in breast and colon cancers. This study used the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a vertebrate model of ENOSF1β function. Whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) showed that zebrafish ENOSF1β (enosf1b) is zygotic and expressed ubiquitously through the first 24 hours post fertilization (hpf). After 24 hpf, enosf1b expression is restricted to the notochord. Embryos injected with enosf1b-EGFP mRNA grew slower than EGFP mRNA-injected embryos but caught up to the EGFP-injected embryos by 48 hpf. Embryos injected with ATG or exon 10 enosf1b mRNA-targeting morpholinos had kinked notochords, shortened anterior-posterior axes, and circulatory edema. WISH for ntl or pax2a expression showed that embryos injected with
Using a 3D deformable cell-based simulation, coupled to reaction-diffusion PDEs for chemical concentrations, we model and simulate the polarization, migration, and neuromast deposition in the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium (PLLP). This primordium migrates from head to tail of the fish embryo, and deposits sensory neuromasts at regular intervals in its wake. The model combines realistic cell-cell adhesion, chemotaxis and interaction forces to describe the emergence of tissue polarity, as well as the cell-cluster shape and speed of collective cell migration. We base the chemical signalling model on receptor-ligand kinetics and mutually inhibitory FGF-Wnt signalling. Our signalling submodel allows predictions to be made for the position of the front-rear boundary in the PLLP, as a function of aggregate parameters such as steady-state receptor expression levels and IC50 parameters for the mutually-inhibitory effect. Our 3D model allows an investigation of the role of cell division, ...
5G Networks Health Impact Is Predominately Benign: New Analysis From Oregon State On Zebrafish Finds That 5G Likely Not Harmful, read now.
J Vis Exp. 2012 Dec 16;(70). pii: 4243. doi: 10.3791/4243. Chang JT, Sive H. Source Department of Biology, Whitehead Institute of Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Abstract Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a protein rich fluid contained within the brain ventricles. It is present during early vertebrate embryonic development and persists throughout life. Adult CSF is thought to cushion the brain, remove waste, and carry secreted molecules(1,2). In the adult and older embryo, the majority of CSF is made by the choroid plexus, a series of highly vascularized secretory regions located adjacent to the brain ventricles(3-5). In zebrafish, the choroid plexus is fully formed at 144 hours post fertilization (hpf)(6). Prior to this, in both zebrafish and other vertebrate embryos including mouse, a significant amount of embryonic CSF (eCSF) is present . These data and studies in chick suggest that the neuroepithelium is secretory early in development and may be the major source of ...
Modeling signaling and migration of the Posterior Lateral Line primordium with agent based models Formation of the Posterior Lateral Line (PLL) is spearheaded b...
etv5a expression was analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR of zebrafish embryos at developmental stages ranging from one-cell stage to 48 hours post fertilization (hpf). A strong and ubiquitous signal was detected from one-cell to the oblong stage, which indicated that etv5a was expressed as a maternal mRNA (Fig. 1A-C). Ubiquitous expression was observed throughout the whole embryo before gastrulation (Fig. 1D,E). During early gastrulation (75% epiboly), expression localized to the ventral mesoderm (arrowhead in Fig. 1F,G). At later stages, etv5a expression became confined to the lateral mesoderm as demonstrated by the presence of two longitudinal stripes at the six-somite stage (Fig. 1H-J). A previous study showed that cells present in this region are multipotent progenitors that give rise to hematopoietic, endothelial and pronephric derivatives (Gering et al., 1998). etv5a expression was maintained in the posterior lateral mesoderm (Fig. 1K-N) during ...
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The use of nicotine, a known anxiolytic with addictive properties, is prevalent; however, the effects on the brain are not fully elucidated. Previous studies investigating the effects of nicotine on the brain have been limited to developmental models. In this two-part study, we investigated the effect of nicotine on protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in the brain of adult zebrafish. AKT plays a role in neuronal growth, plasticity, and metabolism. AKT is activated via phosphorylation on Ser473 or Thr308 by growth factors and increased neuronal activity. AKT regulates constitutively active GSK-3β via phosphorylation on Ser9. This is important in neurophysiology, because unregulated GSK-3β is associated with cell death, dysregulated metabolic function, and neuro-inflammation. Two protocols were used for measuring the effect of nicotine on the adult zebrafish brain: an in-vivo (immersion) treatment, and an ex-vivo treatment. The protocol for immersion experiment included
2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME), an endogenous metabolite of 17β-estradiol, has been previously reported to possess antiangiogenic and antitumor properties. Herein, we demonstrate that the effects of this antiangiogenic steroid can be readily assayed in live zebrafish, introducing a convenient and robust new model system as a screening tool for both single cell and collective cell migration assays. Using the in vitro mammalian endothelial cell line EA.hy926, we first show that cell migration and angiogenesis, as estimated by wound assay and tube formation respectively, are antagonized by 2ME. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, dose-dependent exposure to 2ME diminishes (1) larval angiogenesis, (2) leukocyte recruitment to damaged lateral line neuromasts and (3) retards the lateral line primordium in its migration along the body. Our results indicate that 2ME has an effect on collective cell migration in vivo as well as previously reported anti-tumorigenic activity and suggests that the molecular mechanisms
Interest in using zebrafish is on the rise for several reasons. Zebrafish are small and inexpensive to maintain, and they produce hundreds of offspring in every mating, easily accumulating statistically significant numbers of animals. Whats more, zebrafish embryos are transparent and develop outside the uterus, making it easy to monitor developing fish. In fact, zebrafish embryos are tiny enough to be raised in microplate wells for high-throughput whole-animal assays. Many test compounds can diffuse into zebrafish embryos, simplifying drug administration. Researchers can also readily identify zebrafish with gene mutations. Lastly, as vertebrates, zebrafish and other fish have most of the same organs and organ systems that mammals do, making them more relevant in whole-animal assays than fruit flies or roundworms, which have also been used in early drug discovery screening.. ...
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Wild-type zebrafish (Danio rerio) are characterized by black and yellow stripes, which form on their body and fins due to the self-organization of thousands of pigment cells. Mutant zebrafish and sibling… ...
Avoiding temperatures outside the physiological range is critical for animal survival, but how temperature dynamics are transformed into behavioral output is largely not understood. Here, we used an infrared laser to challenge freely swimming larval zebrafish with white-noise heat stimuli and built quantitative models relating external sensory information and internal state to behavioral output. These models revealed that larval zebrafish integrate temperature information over a time-window of 400 ms preceding a swimbout and that swimming is suppressed right after the end of a bout. Our results suggest that larval zebrafish compute both an integral and a derivative across heat in time to guide their next movement. Our models put important constraints on the type of computations that occur in the nervous system and reveal principles of how somatosensory temperature information is processed to guide behavioral decisions such as sensitivity to both absolute levels and changes in stimulation ...
Danio rerio (zebrafish) have rapidly gained popularity in the study of vertebrate development and gene function. Zebrafish are an excellent model for performing large-scale genetic and drug screens to be performed coupled with the visualization of downstream perturbations on live, developing organisms. Due to the fact that large numbers of embryos are required to perform these experiments, we investigated ways to efficiently increase zebrafish embryo production while not being overly invasive or using chemicals that might affect the developmental processes. To perform these experiments, we mated wild type (wt) zebrafish while exposing them to the different wavelengths of light. Fish were exposed to 12 h of dark, followed by 4 h with the different colored light treatments. Once this light cycle was over, embryo production was enumerated. Results indicated that exposing zebrafish to the different wavelengths of fluorescent and LED light had little effect on embryo production. Further research may
The bromophenol 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) is widely used as an industrial chemical, formed by degradation of tetrabromobisphenol-A, and it occurs naturally in marine organisms. Concentrations of TBP in fish have been related to intake via feed, but little is known about effects on fish health after oral exposure. In this study, we exposed adult male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) to TBP via feed in nominal concentrations of 33, 330, and 3300 μg/g feed (or control feed) for 6 weeks to assess the effects of TBP on reproductive output, gonad morphology, circulatory vitellogenin levels, and early embryo development. The aim was also to investigate the extent to which TBP was metabolised to 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in dietary exposed zebrafish, and the amounts of TBP and TBA found in offspring. After 6 weeks of exposure, we found about 3% of the daily dose of TBP in adult fish and the mean concentration of TBA was 25-30% of the TBP concentration. TBP and TBA were detected in offspring with ...
and Characterization of zebrafish von Willebrand factor reveals conservation of domain structure, multimerization, and intracellular storage by J. Zebrafish are ideal model animals for in vivo testing of anti-obesity NPs, and disease models of several types of obesity have been developed. Maintaining the Barrier Function of Blood Vessels. I. Zebrafish are a promising model for obesity research, as lipid metabolism pathways are conserved between mammals and fish [44-46].Zebrafish have the key organs that are important for energy homeostasis and metabolism in mammals, as well as other key functions such as appetite regulation in the brain [], insulin regulation [], endocrine signaling through leptin [], and … The present review provides a brief overview of recent studies on wild‐type and transgenic zebrafish as a model system to monitor toxic heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, and organic pollutants for toxicology. Zebrafish are ideal model animals for in vivo testing of anti-obesity NPs, ...
The epithelium is the outer most layer of cells responsible for mediating the interactions of an organism with its external environment. Squamous cells are scale-like flattened cells that form the most superficial layer of the epithelium. Regulatory errors in these cells can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of skin cancer. Understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is integral for improved diagnostics and therapeutics. IKK1 is a known regulator of several important pathways including regulation of epidermal differentiation and proliferation. Changes in IKK1 expression have been linked to tumor proliferation in squamous cell carcinomas. IKK1 -/- knockout mice have proven critical in understanding the function of IKK1 but are difficult in studies of early epidermal development. The novel zebrafish maternal-effect mutant poky contains a mutation in the zebrafish homolog ikk1. This study focuses on a related protein kinase called Ripk4. The mouse homolog RIP4 is ...
I have been reading a lot about zebrafish research lately and I thought it would be nice to share some of my favorite articles with you.
The present approach of expressing hydrodynamic scaling in terms of regimes is useful for interpreting large-scale ontogenetic change but has the danger of concealing physically important phenomena. For example, it is informative that drag varies directly with speed and not to its second power in juvenile fish. However, it would be inaccurate to predict that larvae and juvenile fish should generate identical flow fields because they both operate in the viscous regime. Inertia is present and dynamically relevant at low Re, and viscosity is required for generating turbulence at high Re. Furthermore, drag coefficients may vary with Re within regimes, although to a lesser degree than observed across regimes (Fig. 5). Hydrodynamic regime categorization provides a useful first-order approximation of dominant hydrodynamic forces but is limited in its ability to predict the flow fields that generate those forces or higher-order effects. Nonetheless, our results provide an empirical basis for verifying ...
Description Liraglutide (LRT) ELISA Kit is an ELISA kit for the quantitative in vitro measurement of liraglutide (LRT) concentrations in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernatants, and other biological fluids. Introduction Liraglutide (NN2211) is a derivative of human incretin (metabolic hormone) glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) that is used as a long-acting glucagon-like […]. ...
The Importance of Shoaling on Behavioral and Stress Responses in Zebrafish". Zebrafish. 10 (3): 338-342. doi:10.1089/zeb. ...
Zebrafish. 16 (3): 291-299. doi:10.1089/zeb.2018.1710. PMID 30939077. S2CID 92999901. Ryu WS (2016). "Chapter 11 - Picornavirus ... "A highly divergent picornavirus infecting the Gut Epithelia of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in research institutions worldwide". ...
Ekker SC (2008). "Zinc finger-based knockout punches for zebrafish genes". Zebrafish. 5 (2): 121-3. doi:10.1089/zeb.2008.9988. ...
Ekker SC (2008). "Zinc finger-based knockout punches for zebrafish genes". Zebrafish. 5 (2): 121-3. doi:10.1089/zeb.2008.9988. ...
Genus information: Kallman, Klaus D.; Kazianis, Steven (2006). "The GenusXiphophorusin Mexico and Central America". Zebrafish. ...
Ekker SC (2008). "Zinc Finger-Based Knockout Punches for Zebrafish Genes". Zebrafish. 5 (2): 1121-1123. doi:10.1089/zeb. ... Similar research of using ZFNs to create specific mutations in zebrafish embryo has also been carried out by other research ... The kdr gene in zebra fish encodes for the vascular endothelial growth factor-2 receptor. Mutagenic lesions at this target site ... Meng X, Noyes MB, Zhu LJ, Lawson ND, Wolfe SA (June 2008). "Targeted gene inactivation in zebrafish using engineered zinc ...
Some fish like carp and zebrafish have pharyngeal teeth only. Sea horses, pipefish, and adult sturgeon have no teeth of any ... Zebrafish. 2 (4): 243-257. CiteSeerX doi:10.1089/zeb.2005.2.243. PMID 18248183. Koentges, G; Matsuoka, T (2002 ...
Kallman, K.D.; S. Kazianis (2006). "The genus Xiphophorus in Mexico and Central America". Zebrafish. 3 (3): 271-285. doi: ...
Grush J, Noakes DL, Moccia RD (February 2004). "The efficacy of clove oil as an anesthetic for the zebrafish, Danio rerio ( ... Hamilton)". Zebrafish. 1 (1): 46-53. doi:10.1089/154585404774101671. PMID 18248205. Monks, Neale (2 April 2009). "Aquarium Fish ...
Begemann, Gerrit (2009). "Evolutionary Developmental Biology". Zebrafish. 6 (3): 303-4. doi:10.1089/zeb.2009.0593. Cole, ...
S.C. Ekker (2008). "Zinc finger-based knockout punches for zebrafish genes". Zebrafish. 5 (2): 1121-3. doi:10.1089/zeb. ... zebrafish, various types of mammalian cells, and rats. An ongoing clinical trial is evaluating Zinc finger nucleases that ...
Kallman, K.D.; S. Kazianis (2006). "The genus Xiphophorus in Mexico and Central America". Zebrafish. 3 (3): 271-285. doi: ...
"Animal personality relates to thermal preference in wild-type zebrafish, Danio rerio". Zebrafish. 12 (3): 243-249. doi:10.1089/ ... Similarly, zebrafish have been used as a neurobehavioral model species for studying personality using the trait approach in non ... In zebrafish (Danio rerio), Proactive and Reactive personalities express different thermal preferences and general activity ...
Page L, Polok B, Bustamante M, Schorderet DF (2013). "Bigh3 is upregulated in regenerating zebrafish fin". Zebrafish. 10 (3): ...
Ekker SC (2008). "Zinc finger-based knockout punches for zebrafish genes". Zebrafish. 5 (2): 121-3. doi:10.1089/zeb.2008.9988. ...
Price, Anna; Weadick, Cameron; Shim, Janet; Rodd, Frieda (2009-01-01). "Pigments, Patterns, and Fish Behavior". Zebrafish. 5 (4 ...
"KSI - Domain". Zebrafish. 25 December 2020. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 5 December 2020. "KSI - ...
Her lab uses zebrafish as a genetic model to research retinal stem cells. From 1997 to 2002, Raymond was the associate provost ... Zebrafish. 2 (3): 157-164. 2005. doi:10.1089/zeb.2005.2.157. ISSN 1545-8547. "Raymond Lab , Molecular, Cellular, and ...
March 2013). "A sequence-based variation map of zebrafish". Zebrafish. 10 (1): 15-20. doi:10.1089/zeb.2012.0848. PMC 3629779. ... "Genome of Zebrafish Wild-type Strain (ASWT)". Retrieved 17 April 2013. "Detailed map of TB genome to help treatment". ... analysis of the first Malaysian Genome sequencing and analysis of the Wild-type strain of Zebrafish and the IndiGen programme ... colleagues at the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology announced the sequencing of the wild-type strain of zebrafish ...
Bill BR, Petzold AM, Clark KJ, Schimmenti LA, Ekker SC (March 2009). "A primer for morpholino use in zebrafish". Zebrafish. 6 ( ... Flynt AS, Li N, Thatcher EJ, Solnica-Krezel L, Patton JG (February 2007). "Zebrafish miR-214 modulates Hedgehog signaling to ... Draper BW, Morcos PA, Kimmel CB (July 2001). "Inhibition of zebrafish fgf8 pre-mRNA splicing with morpholino oligos: a ... These molecules have been applied to studies in several model organisms, including mice, zebrafish, frogs and sea urchins. ...
... "mc1r Pathway regulation of zebrafish melanosome dispersion". Zebrafish. 5 (4): 289-95. doi:10.1089/zeb.2008.0541. PMID 19133827 ... For example, zebrafish larvae are used to study how chromatophores organise and communicate to accurately generate the regular ... It is known in zebrafish embryos, for example, that by 3 days after fertilization each of the cell classes found in the adult ... It has been demonstrated that MC1R is required in zebrafish for dispersion of melanin. Inside the cell, cyclic adenosine ...
Clark KJ, Voytas DF, Ekker SC (September 2011). "A TALE of two nucleases: gene targeting for the masses?". Zebrafish. 8 (3): ...
Zebrafish given access to a barren, brightly lit chamber or an enriched chamber prefer the enriched area. When these fish are ... In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio) reduce their frequency of swimming and increase their ventilation rate but do not display ... Five-day-old zebrafish larvae show a concentration dependent increase in locomotor activity in response to different ... When the same noxious stimulus is applied to zebrafish (Danio rerio), they respond by decreasing their activity. As with the ...
Fleisch, VC; Neuhauss, SCF (2006). "Visual Behavior in Zebrafish". Zebrafish. 3 (2): 191-201. doi:10.1089/zeb.2006.3.191. PMID ... In zebrafish, the optomotor response is frequently used as a metric of visual performance as it can be reliably evoked from 7 ... Schmitt, EA; Dowling, JE (1994). "Early eye morphogenesis in the zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio". J Comp Neurol. 344 (4): 532-42 ... Krauss, Andrea; Neumeyer, Christa (1 May 2003). "Wavelength dependence of the optomotor response in zebrafish (Danio rerio)". ...
Zebrafish and prairie voles have also become more common, especially in the social and behavioral scopes of neurogenetics. In ... Oliveira RF, Silva JF, Simões JM (June 2011). "Fighting zebrafish: characterization of aggressive behavior and winner-loser ... Burgess HA, Granato M (November 2008). "The neurogenetic frontier--lessons from misbehaving zebrafish". Briefings in Functional ... and zebrafish, to try to determine specific genes that correlate to behavior and attempt to match these with human genes. While ...
The Zebrafish Genome, which is being fully sequenced and manually annotated. The Zebrafish genome currently has 18,454 ... "Havana Project". Sprague, J. (1 January 2006). "The Zebrafish Information Network: the zebrafish model organism database". ... It was designed to view manual annotations of human, mouse and zebrafish genomic sequences, and it is the central cache for ... "Zebrafish Genome". "Mouse Genome". "Pig Genome". "Dog Genome". "Chimpanzee Genome". "Wallaby Genome". "Gorilla Genome". "Pre! ...
"Zebrafish SHHa". University of Oregon. Archived from the original on 2009-06-25. "Zebrafish SHHb". University of Oregon. ... In the zebrafish, two of the three vertebrate hh genes are duplicated: SHH a and SHH b (formerly described as tiggywinkle ... Currie PD, Ingham PW (August 1996). "Induction of a specific muscle cell type by a hedgehog-like protein in zebrafish". Nature ... Lewis KE, Eisen JS (September 2001). "Hedgehog signaling is required for primary motoneuron induction in zebrafish". ...
JME - Pull Up". Zebrafish Media. 4 May 2019. Archived from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2019. "KSI & Randolph ...
Zebrafish Information Network. Retrieved 10 November 2017. Westerfield, Monte; Doerry, Eckehard; Kirkpatrick, Arthur E.; ... and led the technology team that conceived of and built the Zebrafish Information Network, an international online multimedia ... Driever, Wolfgang; Douglas, Sarah Ann (1997). "An on-line database for zebrafish development and genetics". Seminars in Cell & ... database of information for zebrafish researchers. She is the author of over 70 technical papers and a research monograph, The ...
"Breeding Zebrafish" (Chapter 2). The Zebrafish Book. Retrieved 2006-05-02. "Substrate Materials". The Tropical Tank. Retrieved ...
Access to many published fish genome sequences provide us with the incentive to undertake a comprehensive study of detected TEs in complete genome of fish and establish a fish own TEs database, FishTEDB.
We are pleased to offer the third meeting on Zebrafish Neurobiology, which will be held at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New ... presentation and discussion of the most innovative and exciting research currently ongoing in neuroscience using the zebrafish ...
... all zebrafish cells readily respond to this technique. We also developed also morpholino-based zebrafish models of human ... 10) function exhibit partial cyclopia and other specific midline abnormalities, providing a zebrafish genetic model for the ... are effective and specific translational inhibitors in zebrafish. We generated phenocopies of mutations of the genes no tail ( ... The sequencing of the zebrafish genome should be completed by the end of 2002. Direct assignment of function on the basis of ...
Multiple zebrafish genome assemblies in the Genome Evaluation Browsers, gEVAL Download Browse and compare multiple zebrafish ... Genome Reference Consortium zebrafish pages Download Data on zebrafish genome assembly curation by the GRC. ... Zebrafish. Zebrafish Genome Project. Danio rerio reference genome assemblies and assemblies of additional D. rerio strains and ... The zebrafish genome project at the Wellcome Sanger Institute produced the zebrafish reference assembly of the Tuebingen strain ...
The zebrafish cells were mimicked using two glass microscope slides sandwiching a silicone layer. Two pumps, made from flexible ... On the other hand, the cells in the zebrafish contain a small reservoir of black pigmented fluid that, when activated, travels ... The natural dark spots on the surface of the zebrafish therefore appear to get bigger and the desired optical effect is ... Inspired by extraordinary camouflaging abilities of organisms such as squid and zebrafish, a group of researchers from the ...
Vitamin E deficiency decreases long-chain PUFA in zebrafish (Danio rerio). ... We hypothesized that α-tocopherol deficiency in zebrafish compromises PUFA status. Zebrafish were fed for 1 y either an α- ... Vitamin E deficiency decreases long-chain PUFA in zebrafish (Danio rerio).. Title. Vitamin E deficiency decreases long-chain ... Vitamin E deficiency in zebrafish decreased by ~20% (n-6) (P , 0.05) and (n-3) (P , 0.05) PUFA and increased the (n-6):(n-3) ...
... Front Neural Circuits. 2013 Jul 16;7:118. doi: 10.3389/fncir ... Here, we present the first mecp2-null allele mutation zebrafish model. Surprisingly and in contrast to MeCP2-null mouse models ... mecp2-null zebrafish are viable and fertile. They present nonetheless clear behavioral alterations during their early ...
... zebrafish). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments. ...
We exploit the optical transparency of zebrafish larvae to image cell migration during wound repair. We will discuss the ... How does inflammation and tissue damage resolve? Real time imaging in zebrafish - 19 October 2021. ...
A list of all pages that have property "Published in" with value "Zebrafish". *GBrowse + ...
Learn more about Zebrafish on our Behavioral research blog: interesting publications, events, facts, or innovations. ... Behavioral Research Blog - Zebrafish How to capture the 3D swimming patterns of fish. Zebrafish have more in common with humans ... How zebrafish are changing neuroscience. Zebrafish. This little fish is a vertebrate, and a relatively complex one. Looking at ... How to mark zebrafish without compromising their behavior. How to mark zebrafish without compromising their behavior? They may ...
Zebrafish Conference on Development and Genetics. The Zebrafish Conference on Development and Genetics allows attendees to ... The International Zebrafish Society (IZFS) was started in 2015 and IZFS now organizes these meetings. In 2020, GSA will again ... network with premier Zebrafish geneticists, forge new collaborations, and get updated on cutting-edge research in a diverse ... team up with the IZFS to include the zebrafish community at The Allied Genetics Conference (TAGC). ...
Home ▸ zebrafish All Posts: zebrafish. * Zebrafish Research Strengthens Students Interest in STEM ... A 10-minute documentary featuring Georgetown and other leading researchers describes how the silver-and-black-striped zebrafish ...
The zebrafish cerebellum. / Kaslin, Jan; Brand, Michael.. Essentials of Cerebellum and Cerebellar Disorders: A Primer for ... title = "The zebrafish cerebellum",. abstract = "The overall architecture and cell types are highly conserved from mammals to ... Furthermore, zebrafi sh model have a comprehensive genetic toolbox that allow forward and reverse genetic approaches to study ... Furthermore, zebrafi sh model have a comprehensive genetic toolbox that allow forward and reverse genetic approaches to study ...
Ill go out and say that at least to me, that boys life is far more important than the lives of thousands of zebrafish. Not ... Zebrafish are used as a model organism for research extensively. They have similar early development and genetics to humans so ... Zebrafish are used as a model organism for research extensively. They have similar early development and genetics to humans so ... If you stop and ask whether you should sacrifice a bunch of zebrafish to save a kids life, the only morally valid answer is to ...
The failure so far to influence tooth replacement in the zebrafish by perturbing Wnt signaling is discussed in the light of (i ... Here, we report a strong and dynamic expression of the soluble Wnt inhibitor dickkopf1 (dkk1) in developing zebrafish (Danio ... The failure so far to influence tooth replacement in the zebrafish by perturbing Wnt signaling is discu... ... Here, we report a strong and dynamic expression of the soluble Wnt inhibitor dickkopf1 (dkk1) in developing zebrafish (Danio ...
Toxicometabolomic study and behavioral analysis of zebrafish embryos exposed to the unknown cannabinoid ... Behavioral evaluations of zebrafish larvae. Chousidis and his colleagues studied the behavioral changes in zebrafish larvae ... The search for robust fear inducing stimuli in zebrafish research Zebrafish behavioral research has grown by leaps and bounds, ... Zebrafish video tracking Rodent video tracking Rodent gait analysis Novel object recognition test Cognition & memory Elevated ...
Eye of the Zebrafish. Prof. Kara Cerveny [biology 2012-] won $429,000 from the NSF to advance her research on cell behavior ... Shape-shifting Cells, Zebrafish Eyes, & Silly Putty. The NSF makes three big grants to Reed professors.. September 1, 2017 ... inside the eye of the zebrafish. Prof. Cervenys research will focus on understanding the specific mechanisms employed within ...
Zebrafish A Practical Approach. Zebrafish A Practical Approach. by Nusslein-Volhard, Christiane, Dahm, Ralf by Nusslein-Volhard ... The zebrafish has become an important model organism to study biologial processes in vivo. Among the topics discussed in this ... Zebrafish A Practical Approach, published 2002 under ISBN 9780199638086 and ISBN 019963808X. ... book are technical advances which allow the rapid testing of in vivo function of as yet uncharacterized genes in zebrafish. ...
The Zebrafish Genetics Lab of Xiaolei Xu, Ph.D., at Mayo Clinic studies cardiac diseases, such as cardiomyopathy, using ... The Zebrafish Information Network (ZFIN). Funding. The Zebrafish Genetics Lab gratefully acknowledges the support from the ... Xus Zebrafish Genetics Laboratory at Mayo Clinic studies cardiac diseases using zebrafish as a vertebrate model to discover ... The mission of the Zebrafish Genetics Laboratory is to use zebrafish as an animal model to elucidate molecular mechanisms of ...
In zebrafish, recovery of function occurs in a few days for larvae or a few weeks for adults due to regrowth of axons and de ... Together with its genetic amenability and optical clarity, this makes zebrafish a powerful animal model to study circuit ... Neural circuit reorganisation after spinal cord injury in zebrafish. El-Daher François, Catherina G Becker ...
In recent years, using zebrafish, a teleost phylogenetically distant from mammals, we and others have genetically analyzed the ... Evolution of gonadotropin signaling on gonad development: insights from gene knockout studies in zebrafish. †. ... insights from gene knockout studies in zebrafish. †. ," Biology of Reproduction, 99(4), 686-694, (26 April 2018) Include:. ... insights from gene knockout studies in zebrafish. †. ," Biology of Reproduction 99(4), 686-694, (26 April 2018). https://doi. ...
Photo: Zebra Fish March 14, 2011, midnight , By Tolu Omokehinde , 11 years, 8 months ago ...
While the FD of zebrafish trajectories did not differ over time in either the control or sham group, the FDs of the treatment ... Fractal analysis of zebrafish locomotion could potentially be adopted as a tool for fish welfare assessment. ... The present study investigated the impact of invasive procedures on the patterns of movement of zebrafish (Danio rerio). ... PIT tagging and a standard pain test and these were compared with control and sham handled zebrafish. The fractal dimension (FD ...
Reciprocal zebrafish-medaka hybrids reveal maternal control of zygotic genome activation timing. Krista R. Gert, Luis Enrique ... By combining expression of zebrafish Bouncer on the medaka egg with artificial egg activation, we demonstrate the in vitro ... Here we report a reciprocal zebrafish-medaka hybrid system as a powerful tool to investigate paternal vs. maternal influence ... Overall, our study establishes the reciprocal zebrafish-medaka hybrid system as a versatile tool to dissect parental control ...
The results established zebrafish as a good model to study in vivo phosphorylation and reveal that surprising homology exists ... An on-line TiO2 based LC MS/MS was used to enrich for all phosphorylated peptides in 1 day old zebrafish embryo samples. We ... Morpholino knock down of the kinases Fyn and Yes, induced characteristic phenotypes in 1 day old zebrafish embryos and the ... Therefore we have explored the possibilities to use zebrafish development as a model system to study in vivo phosphorylation ...
Injury to the beating zebrafish embryo heart was induced by laser using a transgenic zebrafish expressing cardiomyocyte ... While the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart demonstrates a remarkable capacity for self-renewal following apical resection ... Laser-targeted ablation of the zebrafish embryonic ventricle: A novel model of cardiac injury and repair. Matrone G, Taylor JM ... Laser-targeted injury of the zebrafish embryonic heart is a novel and reproducible model of cardiac injury and repair suitable ...
Development of social behavior in young zebrafish..pdf Download (1MB) , Preview Abstract. Adult zebrafish are robustly social ... One week old zebrafish do not show significant social preference whereas most 3 weeks old zebrafish strongly prefer to remain ... Development of social behaviour in young zebrafish. Frontiers in Neural Circuits , 9 , Article 39. 10.3389/fncir.2015.00039. ... NMDA receptors, ethanol, social behavior, visual behavior, zebrafish model system. UCL classification:. UCL. UCL , Provost and ...
It is already known that zebrafish can flexibly regenerate their hearts after injury. ... It is already known that zebrafish can flexibly regenerate their hearts after injury.. Read More: Zebrafish News and Zebrafish ... Related Zebrafish Articles from Brightsurf:. Zebrafish embryos help prove what happens to nanoparticles in the blood. What ... Social experiences impact zebrafish from an early age. Study in zebrafish demonstrates that early social experiences have an ...
Winning Is All In The Mind Of The Zebrafish ... The claim has been vindicated with the discovery that zebrafish ... Hitoshi Okamoto of the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Japan put pairs of male zebrafish in tanks. The fights began as usual ... Typical fight behavior between male zebrafish - the winner depends as much on the brain as physical attributes. RIKEN ... play an important part in controlling aggression levels in zebrafish during such encounters. Imaging of neural activity ...
  • Vitamin E deficiency decreases long-chain PUFA in zebrafish (Danio rerio). (
  • The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly being used as model in behavioural, neurobiological and genetic research. (
  • Here, we report a strong and dynamic expression of the soluble Wnt inhibitor dickkopf1 ( dkk1 ) in developing zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) tooth germs, suggesting an active repression of Wnt signaling during morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of a tooth, and derepression of Wnt signaling during start of replacement tooth formation. (
  • While the adult zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) heart demonstrates a remarkable capacity for self-renewal following apical resection little is known about the response to injury in the embryonic heart. (
  • The objective of this thesis is to study the cellular compartmentalization and the chelation of uranium (U) by cytosolic proteins of gill cells of the zebrafish ( Danio rerio , model specie in aquatic toxicology) under different direct exposure conditions (chronic vs. acute, 20 and 250 μg.L-1). (
  • The number of zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) in particular is steadily increasing in biomedical research each year. (
  • Increasing survival rates in the Zebrafish (Zebra danio) at the University of Manchester. (
  • Previous studies showed that CYP20A1, an orphan, is expressed in human hippocampus and substantia nigra, and in zebrafish (Danio rerio) CYP20A1 maternal transcript occurs in eggs, suggesting involvement in brain and in early development. (
  • 2022. Internal temperatures of packaging for overnight cross-country shipping of zebrafish (Danio rerio). (
  • As the use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a research model continues to rise, so too will the shipping and sharing of zebrafish strains across collaborating institutions. (
  • 2022. Propofol immersion as a euthanasia method for adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). (
  • The exponential rise of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model organism in biomedical research has far outstripped our un- derstanding of basic husbandry and welfare for this species. (
  • Huang W , Shi X , Chen Y , Zhang Q , Peng J , Zheng S , Wu K . Comparative pharyngeal cartilage developmental toxicity of bisphenol A, bisphenol S and bisphenol AF to zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae: A combination of morphometry and global transcriptome analyses. (
  • The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is routinely used in biological studies as a vertebrate model system that provides unique strengths allowing applications in studies of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Dietary lysine imbalance affects muscle proteome in zebrafish (Danio rerio): a comparative 2D-DIGE study. (
  • Recently, a preference for dark was demonstrated in zebrafish ( Danio rerio) , another common laboratory fish (Serra et al. (
  • Injury to the beating zebrafish embryo heart was induced by laser using a transgenic zebrafish expressing cardiomyocyte specific green fluorescent protein. (
  • Mr. Castranova's winning Small World in Motion movie captures the first 22 hours of the development of a developing transgenic zebrafish embryo. (
  • Functional studies showed that ectopic expression of bovine TWIST2 in neural crest in transgenic zebrafish led to a decrease in melanocyte numbers. (
  • Confocal micrograph of the head region of a transgenic zebrafish embryo. (
  • The in vitro kinase chip technology was also used to determine protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity profiles from morpholino mediated knock down zebrafish embryo lysates. (
  • An on-line TiO2 based LC MS/MS was used to enrich for all phosphorylated peptides in 1 day old zebrafish embryo samples. (
  • MOVIE 1: Laser pulse injury (without synchronisation) of the zebrafish embryonic heart ventricle at 72 h post-fertilization- A single laser pulse, using the XYClone Laser Ablator, to the ventricle of a zebrafish embryo (72 hpf) results in instantaneous cardiac injury associated with marked bradycardia and gradual recovery of cardiac rhythm over the next few minutes. (
  • 4-day old zebrafish embryo. (
  • The montage shows the zebrafish digital embryo (left halves, colors encode movement directions of cells) and the microscopy data (right halves) at different time points in zebrafish development. (
  • Researchers at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) have generated a digital zebrafish embryo - the first complete developmental blueprint of a vertebrate. (
  • Two newly developed technologies were key to the scientists' interdisciplinary approach to tracking a living zebrafish embryo from the single cell stage to 20,000 cells: a Digital Scanned Laser Light Sheet Microscope that scans a living organism with a sheet of light along many different directions so that the computer can assemble a complete 3D image, and a large-scale computing pipeline operated at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. (
  • New insights provided by the digital embryo include: fundamental cell movements that later on form the heart and other organs are different than previously thought and the position of the headtail body axes of the zebrafish is induced early on by signals deposited in the egg by the mother. (
  • We exploit the optical transparency of zebrafish larvae to image cell migration during wound repair. (
  • At the Zoology and Analytical Chemistry laboratory of the University of Ioannina, CBN was examined for toxicity, effects on heart physiology, morphological malformations, behavioral changes and alterations in metabolic pathways of zebrafish larvae. (
  • Malformations in zebrafish larvae increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner and exposure to CBN concentrations greater than 0.75 mg/l provoked abnormalities like pericardial edema, yolk sac anomalies and tail bending. (
  • Chousidis and his colleagues studied the behavioral changes in zebrafish larvae using DanioVision and Ethovision XT software. (
  • The total movement, distance moved, and velocity of the zebrafish larvae were increased during dark and decreased during light conditions, in a concentration-dependent manner. (
  • In zebrafish, recovery of function occurs in a few days for larvae or a few weeks for adults due to regrowth of axons and de novo neurogenesis. (
  • Researchers were able to track the activity of each neuron in the entire brain of zebrafish larvae and reconstruct the unfolding of neuronal events as the animals repeatedly made 'left or right' choices in a behavioral experiment. (
  • Specifically, the group used videotracking software to observe the effects of nearly 5600 small molecules on the rest and wake of more than 60,000 zebrafish larvae and found 463 compounds that induced significantly altered behavior. (
  • Morpholino knockdown of CYP20A1 in developing zebrafish resulted in behavioral effects, including hyperactivity and a slowing of the optomotor response in larvae. (
  • In this thesis in vivo phosphorylation was studied at different stages and under different experimental conditions in developing zebrafish embryos. (
  • We showed that embryos with reduced sonic hedgehog (ref. 9 ) signalling and reduced tiggy-winkle hedgehog (ref. 10 ) function exhibit partial cyclopia and other specific midline abnormalities, providing a zebrafish genetic model for the common human disorder holoprosencephaly. (
  • Conserved vertebrate processes and diseases are now amenable to a systematic, in vivo , reverse-genetic paradigm using zebrafish embryos. (
  • Born with a rare, complex genetic condition, he owes his life to zebrafish , the nearly transparent creatures that have become the go-to lab animal in countless studies of genetics, development, and disease. (
  • Toward this goal, the first adult zebrafish models of human cardiomyopathies have been generated and a mutagenesis screen-based strategy has been established that enables systematic identification of genetic modifiers for cardiomyopathy. (
  • Dr. Xu's team includes biochemists and molecular biologists using genetic tools offered by zebrafish to discover how cardiomyopathy develops and to identify targets for treatment. (
  • Together with its genetic amenability and optical clarity, this makes zebrafish a powerful animal model to study circuit reorganisation after spinal cord injuries. (
  • Genetic research in zebrafish at the University of Copenhagen has surprised the researchers behind the study. (
  • Led by Jeffrey Saffitz at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, researchers used genetic engineering techniques to produce zebrafish with genetic mutations identical to those in some people who suffer from a rare inherited disease called arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM). (
  • In this scenario, the zebrafish has arisen as a promising animal model to progress further due to its unique characteristics, such as transparency, ease of genetic manipulation, ethical and economic advantages and also conservation of the major brain regions and blood-brain-barrier (BBB) which are similar to a human structure. (
  • A few papers described in this review, using genetic and xenotransplantation zebrafish models have been used to study GBM as well as to test the anti-tumoral efficacy of new drugs, their ability to interact with target cells, modulate the tumor microenvironment, cross the BBB and/or their toxicity. (
  • Chemical and genetic Zebrafish models to define mechanisms of and treatments for dopaminergic neurodegeneration. (
  • Next, zebrafish genetic knockdown models of dj1, pink1, and prkn established for investigating mechanisms of Parkinson's disease are discussed. (
  • Prof. Kara Cerveny [biology 2012-] won $429,000 from the NSF to advance her research on cell behavior inside the eye of the zebrafish. (
  • Finally, social preference and coupled interactions are differentially modified by an NMDAR antagonist and acute exposure to ethanol, both of which are known to alter social behavior in adult zebrafish. (
  • Typical fight behavior between male zebrafish - the winner depends as much on the brain as physical attributes. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Cef (100 µM) on behavior patterns, glutamate transport activity, and oxidative stress in zebrafish brains subjected to EtOH (0.3% v/v) withdrawal. (
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins at two different stages in zebrafish embryonic development was studied by immuno-affinity purification and multi-dimensional LC-MS. Tyrosine kinases including members of the Src family of kinases, Eph receptors and Focal adhesion kinase as well as adaptor proteins such as Paxillin, Crk and p130Cas were identified. (
  • Among the topics discussed in this book are technical advances which allow the rapid testing of in vivo function of as yet uncharacterized genes in zebrafish.Nusslein-Volhard, Christiane is the author of 'Zebrafish A Practical Approach', published 2002 under ISBN 9780199638086 and ISBN 019963808X. (
  • This is the case of some fish, including the zebrafish, a well-established animal model in biomedical research which shares with humans most of its genes. (
  • This effort showed that their genome is remarkably similar to the human one, with at least 70% of human genes having a zebrafish equivalent - a figure that is even higher when only disease-causing genes are considered. (
  • Using zebrafish as a proxy, scientists have shed light on how changes to specific genes alter the coordinated direction that these cells are laid out. (
  • In their study, the team investigated the genes underlining two signaling pathways-PCP and Wnt-that are present in both humans and zebrafish and are known to affect the way in which hair cells coordinate their orientations. (
  • By systematically switching these genes off in the zebrafish, the team were able to study the multiple effects that this could have on hair cell direction. (
  • First author Joaquin Navajas Acedo, a student at the Graduate School of the Stowers Institute for Medical Research, said, "The lateral line of zebrafish represents a unique tool to study this problem, in particular, because of its accessibility and size. (
  • We analyzed spontaneous spike patterns recorded from the lateral line of zebrafish and found that distributions of interspike intervals (ISIs) either have an exponential shape or an "L" shape that is characterized by a sharp decay but wide tail. (
  • The sequencing of the zebrafish genome should be completed by the end of 2002. (
  • The zebrafish genome project at the Wellcome Sanger Institute produced the zebrafish reference assembly of the Tuebingen strain. (
  • Data on zebrafish genome assembly curation by the GRC. (
  • Browse and compare multiple zebrafish genome assemblies, assess assembly quality. (
  • As EMBL-EBI's associate director Ewan Birney highlighted in a recent article for the MRC Insight blog , by studying the biology of a wide variety of model organisms - including humans and zebrafish among many others - the more than one thousand scientists working on the Genome Campus a gaining critical insights into biology that are advancing 21st century medical science. (
  • The zebrafish genome has been fully sequenced , which is a must-have for model organisms nowadays. (
  • There are also efforts underway (by the same group that sequenced the zebrafish genome, which coincidentally happens to be right next to my research group) to mutate every single gene in the zebrafish genome. (
  • To determine that, the scientists genetically engineered zebrafish embryos to carry the mutation. (
  • Researchers in Korea have worked on genetically-engineered zebrafish to develop a way to study remyelination for multiple sclerosis. (
  • Genetically engineered zebrafish as models of skeletal development and regeneration. (
  • Xu's lab generated the first embryonic and adult zebrafish models for cardiomyopathies. (
  • Adult zebrafish are robustly social animals whereas larva is not. (
  • The laboratory of Zebrafish Neurogenetics, led by Dr. Laure Bally-Cuif, is seeking a highly motivated Postdoctoral Research Associate to contribute to our ongoing research on adult neurogenesis in zebrafish. (
  • CYP20A1 mRNA expression was observed in adult zebrafish organs including the liver, heart, gonads, spleen and brain, as well as the eye and optic nerve. (
  • 2022. Anesthesia overdose versus rapid cooling for euthanasia of adult zebrafish. (
  • This meeting will provide a forum for presentation and discussion of the most innovative and exciting research currently ongoing in neuroscience using the zebrafish model. (
  • We are all very familiar with zebrafish as a model species in neuroscience research. (
  • Current efforts in the Schier lab aim to use techniques from genetics and neuroscience to pursue the roles of these drug-targeted pathways in zebrafish sleep/wake regulation. (
  • Neuroscience research in zebrafish is cost-effective and efficient with our versatile platform. (
  • In the next phase of their drug search, the researchers took two-day-old ACM zebrafish embryos, which already displayed abnormal heart activity, and placed them in a high-throughput system to screen for drug-like compounds, called "small molecules" to distinguish them from antibodies or other proteins, that could halt and/or reverse their cardiac problems. (
  • In collaboration with scientists from UCSD and the University of Alberta, Canada, we have marked B cell populations with fluorescent proteins to understand how and where the B cells develop in zebrafish and how and where they respond to pathogens. (
  • Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH . (
  • Dr. Xu's Zebrafish Genetics Laboratory at Mayo Clinic studies cardiac diseases using zebrafish as a vertebrate model to discover molecular mechanisms of cardiomyopathy and develop novel therapeutic strategies. (
  • He studies cardiac diseases using zebrafish as a vertebrate model. (
  • Our research focuses on cardiac diseases using zebrafish as a vertebrate model to discover the molecular mechanisms of cardiomyopathy and heart failure. (
  • Zebrafish CYP20A1 cDNA was cloned, sequenced, and aligned with cloned human CYP20A1 and predicted vertebrate orthologs. (
  • One specific advantage is that the neurotransmitter systems are highly conserved throughout vertebrate evolution, including between zebrafish and humans. (
  • In work published in the Jan. 15th issue of Science , Jason Rihel, David Prober, Alex Schier and their collaborators discovered that zebrafish behavioral responses to drugs can be used to predict a drug's biological target, suggesting that drug testing in zebrafish may facilitate the drug discovery process. (
  • Title: Expression of the Ku70 subunit (XRCC6) and protection from low dose ionizing radiation during zebrafish embryogenesis. (
  • The zebrafish mutant nrf is characterized by apoptotic photoreceptor death during embryogenesis followed by late larval lethality. (
  • In a large-scale systematic screen of mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish we identified 65 mutations that fall into 29 complementation groups, each leading to a defect in the formation and/or maintenance of the notochord. (
  • A 10-minute documentary featuring Georgetown and other leading researchers describes how the silver-and-black-striped zebrafish provides a biomedical research model that is helping to advance human medicine. (
  • In addition to the hope it raises for drug-based approaches to arrhythmia prevention, this new work provides yet another powerful example of the value of zebrafish and other animal models for biomedical research. (
  • First of all is something that makes zebrafish more attractive to scientists who pressed for time, such as PhD students wanting to graduate punctually (like me! (
  • This makes zebrafish a very efficient species for research. (
  • In addition, over the same 1-3 weeks period larval zebrafish increasingly tend to coordinate their movements, a simple form of social interaction. (
  • Previous work by the same team led them to believe two areas of the dorsal habenula, known as the dHbL and the dHbM, play an important part in controlling aggression levels in zebrafish during such encounters. (
  • Dorsal cell movements during zebrafish gastrulation includes a combination of epiboly, involution, and convergence and extension along the embryonic axis. (
  • We are pleased to offer the third meeting on Zebrafish Neurobiology, which will be held at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York. (
  • The mission of the Zebrafish Genetics Laboratory is to use zebrafish as an animal model to elucidate molecular mechanisms of human cardiomyopathy and to develop novel therapies. (
  • Dr. Xu's Zebrafish Genetics Laboratory is affiliated with the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Research and the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine at Mayo Clinic. (
  • Video made available by Mark Cooper through Zebrafish - The Living Laboratory. (
  • The Zebrafish Conference on Development and Genetics allows attendees to network with premier Zebrafish geneticists, forge new collaborations, and get updated on cutting-edge research in a diverse array of topics. (
  • In 2020, GSA will again team up with the IZFS to include the zebrafish community at The Allied Genetics Conference (TAGC). (
  • Zebrafish have more in common with humans than meets the eye. (
  • As part of their effort to find drugs that can head off arrhythmias in ACM patients, Saffitz, Calum MacRae of Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, and their colleagues engineered zebrafish to contain a specific mutation in the plakoglobin gene-the same mutation that causes a severe form of ACM in humans. (
  • Now the researchers show that not all cardiomyocytes in the zebrafish heart contribute equally to regenerate the lost muscle, but that there is a specific subset of cardiomyocytes with enhanced regenerative capacity. (
  • It is already known that zebrafish can flexibly regenerate their hearts after injury. (
  • Critically, zebrafish can regenerate these hairs when they are damaged, providing scientists with an ideal test bed to understand when things may go wrong. (
  • Figure 4: The zebrafish as an effective model for the role of sonic hedgehog signalling in HPE. (
  • Here, we present the first mecp2-null allele mutation zebrafish model. (
  • The CB1 receptor has a key role in the central nervous system, and is also found in zebrafish, making them a suitable model to study the effects of CBN on several health aspects. (
  • The zebrafish has become an important model organism to study biologial processes in vivo. (
  • Therefore we have explored the possibilities to use zebrafish development as a model system to study in vivo phosphorylation using mass spectrometry. (
  • The results established zebrafish as a good model to study in vivo phosphorylation and reveal that surprising homology exists with human phosphoproteins. (
  • Laser-targeted injury of the zebrafish embryonic heart is a novel and reproducible model of cardiac injury and repair suitable for pharmacological and molecular studies. (
  • Zebrafish is a widely used model organism that shares many features with higher vertebrates. (
  • Xie H , Li M , Kang Y , Zhang J , Zhao C . Zebrafish: an important model for understanding scoliosis. (
  • A mutation linked to Gaucher disease in the Ashkenazi Jewish population appears to boost Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance in a zebrafish model of the lysosomal storage condition, a new PNAS study finds. (
  • The failure so far to influence tooth replacement in the zebrafish by perturbing Wnt signaling is discussed in the light of (i) potential technical pitfalls related to dose- or time-dependency, (ii) the complexity of the canonical Wnt pathway, and (iii) species-specific differences in the nature and activity of pathway components. (
  • Inspired by extraordinary camouflaging abilities of organisms such as squid and zebrafish, a group of researchers from the University of Bristol have created artificial muscles that can change their state and appearance at the push of a button, and demonstrated two different transforming mechanisms that could lead to new clothes with camouflaging tricks analogous to those seen in nature. (
  • University of Bristol researchers decided to mimic two different mechanisms used by squids and zebrafishes. (
  • Animal patterns are a source of endless fascination, and now researchers at the University Bath have worked out how zebrafish develop their stripes. (
  • Zhang, J., Talbot, W.S. & Schier, A.F. Positional cloning identifies zebrafish one-eyed pinhead as a permissive EGF-related ligand required during gastrulation. (
  • On the other hand, the cells in the zebrafish contain a small reservoir of black pigmented fluid that, when activated, travels to the skin surface and spreads out. (
  • The zebrafish cells were mimicked using two glass microscope slides sandwiching a silicone layer. (
  • Using transgenic tools, Marcos Sande-Melón, lead author of the study and colleagues could identify a small subset of cardiomyocytes in the zebrafish heart, marked by sox10 gene expression that expanded more than the rest of myocardial cells in response to injury. (
  • Zebrafish have very similar hairs cells along their body, within the so-called lateral line organ, which they use to read pressure differences in water. (
  • To test whether SB216763 also works in mammals, Saffitz's team engineered rat heart cells to contain the same ACM mutation as that in the zebrafish. (
  • With a newly developed microscope scientists could for the first time track all cells for the first 24 hours in the life of a zebrafish. (
  • Six days after implantation of cancer cells in zebrafish embryos, automated imaging in 96 well plates coupled to image analysis algorithms quantifies spreading throughout the host. (
  • Parichy, D.M., Rawls, J.F., Pratt, S.J., Whitfield, T.T. & Johnson, S.L. Zebrafish sparse corresponds to an orthologue of c-kit and is required for the morphogenesis of a subpopulation of melanocytes, but is not essential for hematopoiesis or primordial germ cell development. (
  • Jianzhen Li and Christopher H.K. Cheng "Evolution of gonadotropin signaling on gonad development: insights from gene knockout studies in zebrafish † ," Biology of Reproduction 99(4), 686-694, (26 April 2018). (
  • Here we report a reciprocal zebrafish-medaka hybrid system as a powerful tool to investigate paternal vs. maternal influence during early development. (
  • Overall, our study establishes the reciprocal zebrafish-medaka hybrid system as a versatile tool to dissect parental control mechanisms during early development. (
  • Mapping protein phosphorylation in zebrafish development Reversible protein phosphorylation plays a key role in signaling processes that are vital for a cell and organism. (
  • We designed an assay to determine at what stage of development zebrafish begin to interact with and prefer other fish. (
  • An image of zebrafish brain neuronal development at 4 days post-fertilization. (
  • We looked at various feeding regimes with different variations of live and powdered feeds and the benefits of cutting down stocking densities at 1 month rather than the usual 2 monthsThis trial was conducted over the first 2 months of the life of the Zebrafish as this period is critical in the development of healthy fish. (
  • These results suggest that Nrf1 plays a permissive role in zebrafish photoreceptor maintenance and is crucial for the formation and survival of the outer nuclear layer, but is not strictly necessary for the initial development of individual photoreceptors. (
  • Her research involves exploring B cell development and maturation in zebrafish, and she recently had her findings published in the medical journal Blood . (
  • My students and I are exploring B cell development and maturation in zebrafish. (
  • Effects and accumulation patterns of silver nanoparticles were studied using zebrafish embryos. (
  • To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying these decisions, a team led by Dr. Hitoshi Okamoto of the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Japan put pairs of male zebrafish in tanks. (
  • The Zebrafish Genomes Project releases sequence data and variant calls as a service to the research community. (
  • In research, we use the term coping style, something that emerges early on in life for zebrafish. (
  • Request a free trial and find out what EthoVision XT can do for your zebrafish research! (
  • The zebrafish, a rising star star of medical research. (
  • The rapid increase in zebrafish use needs to be accompanied by research into the refinement of procedures. (
  • Zebrafish are extremely well suited to study organ regeneration. (
  • Biologists from the University of Bayreuth have discovered a uniquely rapid form of regeneration in injured neurons and their function in the central nervous system of zebrafish. (
  • Healthy zebrafish (top) compared to zebrafish with arrhythmia-causing mutation (bottom). (
  • By integrating efficient zebrafish models with in vitro cell culture systems and in vivo rodent models, individualized medicine for people with cardiomyopathy can be achieved. (
  • Concentrations of components in the zebrafish blastocyst assay. (
  • Please refer to the zebrafish resource centres ZIRC and EZRC for guidance. (
  • By combining expression of zebrafish Bouncer on the medaka egg with artificial egg activation, we demonstrate the in vitro generation of paternal zebrafish x maternal medaka (reripes) hybrids. (
  • Previous experience with the zebrafish and with imaging and genomic techniques is preferred. (
  • PCR artifact in testing for homologous recombination in genomic editing in zebrafish. (
  • In fact, scientists at the University of Utah recently discovered that, if given the opportunity, zebrafish will willingly dose themselves with opioids. (
  • We show here that antisense, morpholino-modified oligonucleotides 1 (morpholinos) are effective and specific translational inhibitors in zebrafish. (
  • We also developed also morpholino-based zebrafish models of human disease. (
  • Morpholino knock down of the kinases Fyn and Yes, induced characteristic phenotypes in 1 day old zebrafish embryos and the lysates induced distinct changes in the PTK activity profiles compared to wild-type lysates. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Toxicity Assessment of Silver Nanoparticles in Zebrafish Embryos. (
  • Chemical modulators of the dopaminergic system are also highlighted to showcase the applicability of the zebrafish to identify mechanisms and treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease associated with the dopaminergic system. (
  • To create mutant alleles in zebrafish, we injected the CRISPR/sgRNA stock volume with concentrations given in Table 2. (
  • Inflammatory signaling pathways had been thought to increase sleep amount during infection, but the zebrafish data suggests that immune signals may also regulate normal waking activity. (
  • Cytochrome P450 20A1 in zebrafish: Cloning, regulation and potential involvement in hyperactivity disorders. (
  • Putative binding sites in proximal promoter regions of CYP20A1s, and response of zebrafish CYP20A1 to selected nuclear and xenobiotic receptor agonists, point to up-regulation by agents involved in steroid hormone response, cholesterol and lipid metabolism. (
  • One week old zebrafish do not show significant social preference whereas most 3 weeks old zebrafish strongly prefer to remain in a compartment where they can view conspecifics. (
  • Reelin Signaling Controls the Preference for Social Novelty in Zebrafish. (
  • The claim has been vindicated with the discovery that zebrafish battles are won and lost in the brain, along with identification of the regions that determine success and failure. (
  • Drug Discovery from A to Z … Arrhythmias to Zebrafish! (