Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Mechanical Phenomena: The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.Mechanical Processes: The behaviors of materials under force.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Acrylic ResinsComposite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Nasal Cartilages: Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Vocal Cords: A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.ElastinPhantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Viscoelastic Substances: Substances that display the physical properties of ELASTICITY and VISCOSITY. The dual-nature of these substances causes them to resist applied forces in a time-dependent manner.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.beta-Keratins: Keratins that form into a beta-pleated sheet structure. They are principle constituents of the corneous material of the carapace and plastron of turtles, the epidermis of snakes and the feathers of birds.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Ultrasonics: A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Erythrocyte Deformability: Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.Mechanics: The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Patellar Ligament: A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Tin: A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Decalcification Technique: Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Dental Cavity Lining: An inner coating, as of varnish or other protective substance, to cover the dental cavity wall. It is usually a resinous film-forming agent dissolved in a volatile solvent, or a suspension of calcium hydroxide in a solution of a synthetic resin. The lining seals the dentinal tubules and protects the pulp before a restoration is inserted. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Denture Bases: The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Tooth Cervix: The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)Dimensional Measurement Accuracy: The closeness of a determined value of a physical dimension to the actual value.Haversian System: A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Phonation: The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.Ergometry: Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.Siloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.SepharoseLinear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microscopy, Scanning Probe: Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).Vascular Stiffness: Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.AcrylatesSilk: A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Post and Core Technique: Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fibrocartilage: A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Iridoid Glycosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Heptanes: Seven-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Iridoids: A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ear Cartilage: Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.Presbyopia: The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Silicone Gels: Synthetic organosiloxane gels that are formed from synthetic polymers of silicone oxide with organic sidechains (polydimethylsiloxane) by lengthening the polymer chains. Unlike silicone elastomers, they are not treated with amorphous silica. They are used as fillers in breast implants.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Superficial Back Muscles: The top layer of the back muscles whose function is to move the SCAPULA. This group of muscles consists of the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor and levator scapulae.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Niobium: Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Dentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Diamond: Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Ablation Techniques: Removal of tissue by vaporization, abrasion, or destruction. Methods used include heating tissue by hot liquids or microwave thermal heating, freezing (CRYOABLATION), chemical ablation, and photoablation with LASERS.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Tectorial Membrane: A membrane, attached to the bony SPIRAL LAMINA, overlying and coupling with the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI in the inner ear. It is a glycoprotein-rich keratin-like layer containing fibrils embedded in a dense amorphous substance.
Young's modulus of elasticity. Young's modulus quantifies the elasticity of the polymer. It is defined, for small strains, as ... The modulus is strongly dependent on temperature. Viscoelasticity describes a complex time-dependent elastic response, which ... It can be used to determine the viscosity, modulus, and other rheological properties. Rheology is also often used to determine ... Dynamic mechanical analysis or DMA measures this complex modulus by oscillating the load and measuring the resulting strain as ...
Young's modulus of elasticity[edit]. Young's modulus quantifies the elasticity of the polymer. It is defined, for small strains ... The modulus is strongly dependent on temperature. Viscoelasticity describes a complex time-dependent elastic response, which ... Dynamic mechanical analysis or DMA measures this complex modulus by oscillating the load and measuring the resulting strain as ...
Young's modulus. 32 GPa Shear modulus. 12 GPa Bulk modulus. 31 GPa ...
Young's modulus. 8 GPa Shear modulus. 2.8 GPa Bulk modulus. 43 GPa ...
Young's modulus. α form: 37.3 GPa Shear modulus. α form: 14.8 GPa ... "Phase Diagrams of the Elements", David A. Young, UCRL-51902 "Prepared for the U.S. Energy Research & Development Administration ...
Typically the notation G is seen paired with the use of Young's modulus, and the notation μ is paired with the use of λ. ... and are thus related to the other elastic moduli; for instance, the bulk modulus can be expressed as K = λ + 2/3μ. ... In continuum mechanics, the Lamé parameters (also called the Lamé coefficients, Lamé constants or Lamé moduli) are two material ... Although the shear modulus, μ, must be positive, the Lamé's first parameter, λ, can be negative, in principle; however, for ...
This carbyne is of considerable interest to nanotechnology as its Young's modulus is forty times that of the hardest known ... Determining the Cross-Sectional Area and Young's Modulus of Molecular Rods". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 44 (45): 7432-5. doi:10.1002 ... Carbon Nanoparticles Toxic To Adult Fruit Flies But Benign To Young Archived 2011-11-02 at the Wayback Machine. ScienceDaily ( ...
Young's modulus. 1.7 GPa Bulk modulus. 1.6 GPa Mohs hardness. 0.2 Brinell hardness. 0.14 MPa ...
Young's modulus. β form: 23.9 GPa Shear modulus. β form: 9.9 GPa ...
Young's modulus. 10 GPa Shear modulus. 3.3 GPa Bulk modulus. 6.3 GPa ...
Young's modulus) to more closely match that of the bone that such devices are intended to repair. As a result, skeletal loads ... This property is also useful for orthopedic implant applications.[43] These benefit from titanium's lower modulus of elasticity ... Jilek, Robert E.; Tripepi, Giovanna; Urnezius, Eugenijus; Brennessel, William W.; Young, Victor G., Jr.; Ellis, John E. (2007 ...
Young's modulus. 70 GPa Shear modulus. 26 GPa Bulk modulus. 76 GPa ... Young, Thomas (1812). Elements of Chemical Philosophy By Sir Humphry Davy. Quarterly Review. VIII. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-217-88947- ... In 1812, British scientist Thomas Young[100] wrote an anonymous review of Davy's book, in which he objected to aluminum and ...
Young's modulus. 63.5 GPa Shear modulus. 25.6 GPa Bulk modulus. 41.2 GPa ...
Young's modulus. 20 GPa Shear modulus. 7.4 GPa Bulk modulus. 17 GPa ...
Young's modulus. 411 GPa Shear modulus. 161 GPa Bulk modulus. 310 GPa ...
Young's modulus. 74.4 GPa Shear modulus. 29.1 GPa Bulk modulus. 56.6 GPa ...
Young's modulus. 110-128 GPa Shear modulus. 48 GPa Bulk modulus. 140 GPa ... The ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus protects young pine trees from copper toxicity. A sample of the fungus Aspergillus ...
elastic modulus See Young's Modulus. elongation See tendon extension. end block An end section of a prestressed member that ... Young's modulus A mechanical property of linear-elastic solid materials that defines the relationship between stress and strain ...
Young's modulus (E) 2800-3100 MPa Tensile strength (σt) 55-75 MPa ... Decrease of the mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation at break or elastic modulus ...
Young's modulus (E) 3000-3600 MPa Tensile strength (st) 46-60 MPa ...
Young's modulus of nanowires[edit]. The elastic component of the stress-strain curve described by the Young's Modulus, has been ... is the bulk modulus, r. s. {\displaystyle r_{s}}. is the thickness of a shell layer in which the modulus is surface dependent ... is the surface modulus, and D. {\displaystyle D}. is the diameter.[28] This equation implies that the modulus increases as the ... From the stress-strain curve, the elastic constant known as the Young's Modulus can be derived, as well as the toughness, and ...
Young's modulus: 70 GPa, or 10 Msi. Ultimate tensile strength: 190 to 300 MPa, or 28 to 44 ksi. Yield strength: 100 to 260 MPa ...
Young's modulus: 70 GPa, or 10 Msi. Ultimate tensile strength: 130 to 230 MPa, or 19 to 33 ksi. Yield strength: 68 to 190 MPa, ...
Young's modulus: 73 GPa, or 11 Msi. Electrical conductivity: 34 to 50% IACS. Ultimate tensile strength: 190 to 480 MPa, or 28 ...
Young's modulus: 70 GPa, or 10 Msi. Electrical conductivity: 34% IACS. Ultimate tensile strength: 240 to 300 MPa, or 35 to 44 ...
... which has a typical Young's modulus of about 4 GPa (0.58×10. ^. 6 psi). Another important consequence of the molecular ...
Demetracopoulos CA, Gilbert SL, Young E, Baxter JR, Deland JT (2014) Limited open Achilles tendon repair using locking sutures ... Schepull T, Kvist J, Aspenberg P (2012) Early E modulus of healing Achilles tendons correlates with late function: similar ...
Youngs modulus is the ratio of stress (which has units of pressure) to strain (which is dimensionless), and so Youngs modulus ... Youngs modulus E, shear modulus G, bulk modulus K, and Poissons ratio ν) that allow calculating them all as long as two are ... Tangent Modulus, and Chord Modulus" The ASM Handbook (various volumes) contains Youngs Modulus for various materials and ... Youngs modulus), E". "Elastic Properties and Young Modulus for some Materials". The Engineering ToolBox. Retrieved 2012-01-06 ...
Youngs modulus, numerical constant that describes the elastic properties of a solid undergoing tension or compression in only ... Alternative Titles: Young modulus, stretching modulus, tensile modulus. Youngs modulus, numerical constant, named for the 18th ... Strain is dimensionless.) Thus Youngs modulus may be expressed mathematically as. Youngs modulus = stress/strain = (FL0)/A(Ln ... the appropriate modulus is the Youngs, or stretching, modulus (the ratio of the applied stretching force per unit area of the ...
The Youngs modulus of feather keratin. Bonser R, Purslow P.. Abstract. The flexural stiffness of the rachis varies along the ... the possible contribution of variations in the longitudinal Youngs modulus of feather keratin to this was assessed. Tensile ... There was a systematic increase in the modulus distally along the length of the rachis from swan primary feathers. Dynamic ... and temperature-dependent variations in the modulus are, however, relatively small. It is concluded that, in the species ...
Bone has a Youngs modulus of about 1.8 × 1010 Pa .?. Under compression, it can ...
To evaluate the validity of this approach, the tensile Youngs moduli of 6 concrete and mortar mixtures are measured using a ... However, most often, the tensile modulus is considered equal to the compressive modulus and is estimated empirically based on ... The results show that the tensile moduli are approximately 1.0-1.3-times larger than the compressive moduli within the ... To enable a direct estimation of the tensile modulus of concrete, a simple three-phase composite model is developed based on ...
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Microfabrication Of Hydrogel Substrates Of Tunable YoungS Modulus  Charest, Jonathan (2012-01-31) ...
The Youngs modulus is taken as a linear function of the reference temperature. The effects of the thermal loading and the ... The Youngs modulus makes significant effects on all the studied fields where the values of the temperature, the vibration of ... stress-strain energy increase when the Youngs modulus has taken to be variable. ... 2. Variable Youngs Modulus. The temperature dependence of the Youngs modulus for some materials was measured in the range of ...
Having the Poissons ratio, enable us to obtain the Youngs modulus for the membranes in different phases. The approach may be ... as graphene and tethered membranes in order to predict the temperature dependence of its Poissons ratio and Youngs modulus. ... as graphene and tethered membranes in orderto predict the temperature dependence of its Poissons ratio and Youngs modulus. ... Having the Poissons ratio, enable us to obtain the Youngs modulus for the membranes in different phases. The approach may be ...
The elastic modulus value of GM was increased in the model group. A significant negative correlation was found between Youngs ... Correlation between Pathological Characteristics and Youngs Modulus Value of Spastic Gastrocnemius in a Spinal Cord Injury Rat ... to explore the correlation between pathological characteristics changes and Youngs modulus value of GM. 24 Sprague Dawley male ... modulus value of GM and the ratio of type I fibers of GM in model subgroup. Our studies showed that the stiffness of GM is ...
The bone tissue compatibility of a new Ti35Nb2Ta3Zr alloy with a low Youngs modulus.. [Yongyuan Guo, Desheng Chen, Mengqi ... A new β-type Ti35Nb2Ta3Zr alloy with a low Youngs modulus of approximatelyxa048xa0GPa was previously fabricated. In the ... In conclusion, the Ti35Nb2Ta3Zr alloy with a lower elastic modulus closer to that of human bone has significant bone tissue ... alloys of the β-type are highly attractive metallic materials for biomedical applications due to their low elastic modulus, ...
HomeMaterials Science ForumMaterials Science for High TechnologiesInternal Friction and Youngs Modulus in Bismuth... ... R. Barczynski et al., "Internal Friction and Youngs Modulus in Bismuth Superconducting Ceramics", Materials Science Forum, ...
Modulus of Elasticity - and Ultimate Tensile and Yield Strength for steel, glass, wood and other common materials ... Youngs Modulus - Tensile and Yield Strength for common Materials Youngs Modulus or Tensile Modulus alt. Modulus of Elasticity ... Youngs Modulus - Tensile Modulus, Modulus of Elasticity - E. Youngs modulus can be expressed as ... Tensile Modulus. (Youngs Modulus, Modulus of Elasticity). - E -. Ultimate Tensile Strength. - σu -. (MPa). Yield Strength. - σ ...
This paper presents a microfluidics-based approach capable of continuously characterizing instantaneous Youngs modulus ( ... This paper presents a microfluidics-based approach capable of continuously characterizing instantaneous Youngs modulus (E ... Simultaneous Characterization of Instantaneous Youngs Modulus and Specific Membrane Capacitance of Single Cells Using a ... "Simultaneous Characterization of Instantaneous Youngs Modulus and Specific Membrane Capacitance of Single Cells Using a ...
The bending modulus is set by Youngs modulus of the protein, which for actin is ∼2 GPa (primary source).. ...
The value of modulus of rupture is calculated as per Table 6, using SI units. The value in the British. code is too small ... Modulus of. ` (d). Elasticity (E) in 4700 f c (a) 22000[(fck+8)/10]0.3 (b) 1000*(20+0.2*fcu)(c) 4400 f cu. MPa ... The soil subgrade modulus is entered as provided in the soil investigation report, in kN/m 3. This is. used when modeling raft ... It is very important to adjust the cracking modulus of rupture in the menu Run , Cracking Analysis. Options, in order to ...
Measurement of ultimate tensile strength and Young modulus in LYSO scintillating crystals ... Measurement of ultimate tensile strength and Young modulus in LYSO scintillating crystals ... Measurement of ultimate tensile strength and Young modulus in LYSO scintillating crystals ... and the Young elastic modulus (E). Measurements are made by means of a 4-points loading device and the experimental results ...
Capillary forces between rigid spheres and elastic supports: the role of Youngs modulus and equilibrium vapor adsorption M. ... Capillary forces between rigid spheres and elastic supports: the role of Youngs modulus and equilibrium vapor adsorption† ... Youngs modulus E = 1 MPa) in the presence of ethanol. at different vapor pressures. Results were compared to adhesion forces ... Independent of the sample elastic modulus experiments showed a monotonous decrease of capillary forces with increasing ethanol ...
... in order to relate the shear wave speed to the Youngs modulus. ... In vivo estimation of the Youngs modulus in normal human ... As other studies suggest, SAW speed needs to be compensated to reach shear wave speed, for calculating the Youngs modulus. ... in order to relate the shear wave speed to the Youngs modulus. In the epidermis and dermis layers, shear waves are not ... Specifically, the elasticity modulus found was 18.35±1.04 KPa for a vibration frequency of 200 Hz. Results suggest that the ...
Youngs modulus was inversely correlated to porosity at all sites tested, and linearly related to shear strength in the Minas ... Observed values of Youngs modulus ( E) for the gelatine and ethylene-vinyl acetate foam ranged from 6-343 kPa. Sediment stress ... Home » A new instrument for high-resolution in situ assessment of Youngs modulus in shallow cohesive sediments ... A new instrument for high-resolution in situ assessment of Youngs modulus in shallow cohesive sediments. ...
McAnearney S., Fedorov A., Joldes G., Hata N., Tempany C.M., Miller K., Wittek A. The Effects of Youngs Modulus on Predicting ... The Effects of Youngs Modulus on Predicting Prostate Deformation for MRI-guided Interventions. ... The PZ to CG Youngs modulus ratio ECG:EPZ was varied between 1:1 (upper bound of the literature data) to 1:40 (lower bound of ... In this study, we investigated the effects of ratio of Youngs modulus of the central gland ECG to the peripheral zone EPZ when ...
The Young's modulus was evaluated by tensile tests using a strain gage method. Anisotropy of the Young's modulus ... Anisotropy of the Young's modulus and microstructure of a recrystallized β Ti-Mo-Al-Zr alloy with a Goss texture were ... The compliance anisotropy factor, J, and the characteristic modulus, S11, of the alloy were calculated from the measured Young& ... depending on the loading direction was observed: The lowest and highest values of the Young's modulus were 44 and 77 GPa, ...
The Youngs moduli were 1.569, 1.740, 1.899, 2.099, and 2.250 MPa for pressures of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mmHg, respectively. ... The model was run iteratively at each pressure to determine the Youngs modulus required to produce experimentally determined ... Modeling corneal response to an air puff using deformation data to derive Youngs modulus ... Modeling corneal response to an air puff using deformation data to derive Youngs modulus ...
Characterization of the Youngs modulus, residual stress and fracture strength of Cu-Sn-In thin films using combinatorial ... Characterization of the Youngs modulus, residual stress and fracture strength of Cu-Sn-In thin films using combinatorial ... Microcantilevers coupled with combinatorial deposition were used to characterize the Youngs modulus, residual stress and ...
  • the possible contribution of variations in the longitudinal Young's modulus of feather keratin to this was assessed. (nih.gov)
  • Dynamic bending tests on swan primary feather rachises also showed that the longitudinal elastic modulus increases with increasing frequency of bending over the range 0.1-10 Hz and decreases monotonically with increasing temperature over the range -50 to +50 °C. The position-, frequency- and temperature-dependent variations in the modulus are, however, relatively small. (nih.gov)
  • Average Young's modulus values of wood along the longitudinal axis (E L ) obtained from bending tests are given in the following table. (amesweb.info)
  • Average values of elastic moduli along the tangential (E T ) and radial (E R ) axes of wood for samples from a few species are given in the following table as ratios with elastic moduli along the longitudinal (E L ) axis. (amesweb.info)
  • Young's modulus , numerical constant, named for the 18th-century English physician and physicist Thomas Young , that describes the elastic properties of a solid undergoing tension or compression in only one direction, as in the case of a metal rod that after being stretched or compressed lengthwise returns to its original length. (britannica.com)
  • Ce travail présente les corrélations entre la résistance à la compression simple et le module d'élasticité de Young de gabbros et de basaltes, et les mesures au marteau de Schmidt, la résistance à l'écrasement sous charge ponctuelle (I s(50) , ainsi que le degré d'altération. (springer.com)
  • ASTM, 1992: Standard Test Method for Elastic Moduli of Intact Rock core Specimens in Uniaxial Compression, American Society for Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM Designation D 3148-86, vol 04.08, pp. 427-430. (springer.com)
  • Results suggest that the elasticity modulus can be estimated in vivo using crawling wave HF-US for skin application and shows potential for future application in skin disorders. (visualsonics.com)
  • By means of an atomic force microscope, we measured the force between a silica bead of 2 μm radius and a planar polydimethylsiloxane surface (Young's modulus E = 1 MPa) in the presence of ethanol at different vapor pressures. (rsc.org)
  • The Young's modulus of cultured mouse and rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) was measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM). (njit.edu)
  • On a microscale, the elastic modulus is usually measured using the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based indentation method. (springer.com)
  • Young's modulus is also used in order to predict the deflection that will occur in a statically determinate beam when a load is applied at a point in between the beam's supports. (wikipedia.org)
  • I believe that the generally accepted value for the Young's modulus of a single wall carbon nanotube is approximately 1000 GPa, so I am off by more than an order of magnitude with this one. (blogspot.com)
  • Section 2 contains a brief description of the mechanical properties of individual CNTs, in terms of modulus, strength, compressibility, and deformability. (intechopen.com)
  • In radiation therapy, especially using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), a high dose of ionizing radiation is delivered to the patient and, therefore, the bone health is a major concern for young patients. (igi-global.com)
  • There has been, and is still, concern about the high elastic modulus of Ti alloys compared to bone. (bvsalud.org)
  • 6 ] investigated the tensile creep of high-strength concrete at early age, and reported that the tensile Young's moduli are approximately 15% higher than the compressive moduli. (hindawi.com)
  • Medial Open Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy (MOWHTO) is a well-established surgery technique used to treat medial compartment osteoarthritis with varus malalignment in young and active patients (Pape et al. (springer.com)