The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A species of COLTIVIRUS transmitted by the tick DERMACENTOR andersonii and causing fever, chills, aching head and limbs, and often vomiting. It occurs in the northwestern United States, except the Pacific Coast.
A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The type species of EPHEMEROVIRUS causing disease in cattle. Transmission is by hematophagous arthropods and the virus has been isolated from both culicoides and mosquitoes.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.

Vectors of Chikungunya virus in Senegal: current data and transmission cycles. (1/339)

Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to human beings by Aedes genus mosquitoes. From 1972 to 1986 in Kedougou, Senegal, 178 Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from gallery forest mosquitoes, with most of them isolated from Ae. furcifer-taylori (129 strains), Ae. luteocephalus (27 strains), and Ae. dalzieli (12 strains). The characteristics of the sylvatic transmission cycle are a circulation periodicity with silent intervals that last approximately three years. Few epidemics of this disease have been reported in Senegal. The most recent one occurred in 1996 in Kaffrine where two Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from Ae. aegypti. The retrospective analysis of viral isolates from mosquitoes, wild vertebrates, and humans allowed to us to characterize Chikungunya virus transmission cycles in Senegal and to compare them with those of yellow fever virus.  (+info)

Yellow fever/Japanese encephalitis chimeric viruses: construction and biological properties. (2/339)

A system has been developed for generating chimeric yellow fever/Japanese encephalitis (YF/JE) viruses from cDNA templates encoding the structural proteins prM and E of JE virus within the backbone of a molecular clone of the YF17D strain. Chimeric viruses incorporating the proteins of two JE strains, SA14-14-2 (human vaccine strain) and JE Nakayama (JE-N [virulent mouse brain-passaged strain]), were studied in cell culture and laboratory mice. The JE envelope protein (E) retained antigenic and biological properties when expressed with its prM protein together with the YF capsid; however, viable chimeric viruses incorporating the entire JE structural region (C-prM-E) could not be obtained. YF/JE(prM-E) chimeric viruses grew efficiently in cells of vertebrate or mosquito origin compared to the parental viruses. The YF/JE SA14-14-2 virus was unable to kill young adult mice by intracerebral challenge, even at doses of 10(6) PFU. In contrast, the YF/JE-N virus was neurovirulent, but the phenotype resembled parental YF virus rather than JE-N. Ten predicted amino acid differences distinguish the JE E proteins of the two chimeric viruses, therefore implicating one or more residues as virus-specific determinants of mouse neurovirulence in this chimeric system. This study indicates the feasibility of expressing protective antigens of JE virus in the context of a live, attenuated flavivirus vaccine strain (YF17D) and also establishes a genetic system for investigating the molecular basis for neurovirulence determinants encoded within the JE E protein.  (+info)

Genetic interaction of flavivirus nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS4A as a determinant of replicase function. (3/339)

Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of yellow fever virus (YF) is a glycoprotein localized to extracytoplasmic compartments within infected cells. We have previously shown that NS1 can be supplied in trans and is required for viral RNA replication, a process thought to occur in membrane-bound cytoplasmic complexes. Here we report that the NS1 gene from a related virus, dengue virus (DEN), is unable to function in the process of YF RNA replication. This virus-specific incompatibility leads to a lack of initial minus-strand accumulation, suggesting that DEN NS1 is unable to productively interact with the YF replicase. Based on a YF deletion mutant that requires NS1 in trans, a genetic screen for suppressor mutants was used to select virus variants able to utilize DEN NS1. In three independent selections, a single mutation was mapped to the NS4A gene, which encodes a putative transmembrane replicase component. This mutation, as well as several additional mutations, was engineered into the NS1-deficient genome and confirmed a genetic interaction between NS1 and NS4A. These findings suggest a potential mechanism for integrating NS1 into the cytoplasmic process of RNA replication.  (+info)

Immunogenicity, genetic stability, and protective efficacy of a recombinant, chimeric yellow fever-Japanese encephalitis virus (ChimeriVax-JE) as a live, attenuated vaccine candidate against Japanese encephalitis. (4/339)

Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine virus, having a 60-year history of safe and effective use, is an ideal vector to deliver heterologous genes from other medically important flaviviruses. A chimeric YF/Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (ChimeriVax-JE virus) was constructed by insertion of the premembrane and envelope (prME) genes of an attenuated human vaccine strain (SA14-14-2) of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus between core and nonstructural (NS) genes of a YF 17D infectious clone. The virus grew to high titers in cell cultures and was not neurovirulent for 3- to 4-week-old mice at doses /=10(3) pfu of ChimeriVax-JE virus were solidly protected against intraperitoneal challenge with a virulent JE virus. Genetic stability of the chimera was assessed by sequential passages in cell cultures or in mouse brain. All attenuating residues and the avirulent phenotype were preserved after 18 passages in cell cultures or 6 passages in mouse brains.  (+info)

First case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902. (5/339)

The first case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902 was reported in March 1998. The yellow fever virus genome was detected in postmortem liver biopsies by seminested polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis showed that this strain was most closely related to strains from Brazil and Ecuador.  (+info)

Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of two 17D yellow fever vaccines. (6/339)

As part of the clinical validation process of a new working seed of a licensed yellow fever vaccine (new working seed PV26, Stamaril; Pasteur Merieux Connaught, Lyon, France), the immunogenicity and safety of two batches of this vaccine (PM-YF) were compared with those of another commercially available vaccine (Arilvax; Evans Medical-Wellcome, Liverpool, United Kingdom) in 211 healthy adults. While the geometric mean titer values at days 10-14 and day 28 after vaccination were higher in the PM-YF group, the vaccines provided equivalent seroprotection (titers > or = 1/10) one month after a single vaccine dose (100% PM-YF versus 99% W-YF; P = 0.001, by one-sided equivalence test). Both vaccines were safe. There were no serious local or systemic reactions reported, nor any clinically significant hepatic function abnormalities associated with the use of either vaccine. These two 17D yellow fever vaccines from different European vaccine manufacturers were highly immunogenic and safe, and provided equivalent seroprotection.  (+info)

Molecular and biological changes associated with HeLa cell attenuation of wild-type yellow fever virus. (7/339)

Six passages of the mosquito-borne flavivirus yellow fever (YF) wild-type strain Asibi in HeLa cells attenuated the virus for monkeys and newborn mice and resulted in loss of mosquito competence. Attenuation after the passage in HeLa cells was not unique to YF virus strain Asibi as demonstrated by the HeLa passage attenuation of wild-type YF virus strain French viscerotropic virus and YF vaccine virus 17D-204 for newborn mice. In contrast, wild-type strain Dakar 1279 and the French neurotropic vaccine virus remained virulent for newborn mice after six passages in HeLa cells. Thus not all strains of YF virus can be attenuated by passage in HeLa cells. Attenuation of YF virus strains Asibi and French viscerotropic virus was accompanied by alterations in the antigenic and biological properties of the viruses, including changes to envelope protein epitopes. Attenuation for newborn mice was coincidental with the acquisition by the HeLa-passaged viruses of the vaccine-specific envelope protein epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody H5. This suggests that this conformational change may play a role in the attenuation process. Wild-type Dakar 1279, which remained virulent for newborn mice after passage in HeLa cells, retained its wild-type antigenic character. The genome of Asibi HeLa p6 virus differed from wild-type Asibi virus by 29 nucleotides that encoded 10 amino acid substitutions: 5 in the envelope protein, 1 in NS2A, 3 in NS4B, and 1 in NS5. The substitution at NS4B-95 is seen in three different attenuation processes of wild-type YF virus, leading us to speculate that it is involved in the attenuation of virulence of wild-type strain Asibi.  (+info)

Mutagenesis of the signal sequence of yellow fever virus prM protein: enhancement of signalase cleavage In vitro is lethal for virus production. (8/339)

Proteolytic processing at the C-prM junction in the flavivirus polyprotein involves coordinated cleavages at the cytoplasmic and luminal sides of an internal signal sequence. We have introduced at the COOH terminus of the yellow fever virus (YFV) prM signal sequence amino acid substitutions (VPQAQA mutation) which uncoupled efficient signal peptidase cleavage of the prM protein from its dependence on prior cleavage in the cytoplasm of the C protein mediated by the viral NS2B-3 protease. Infectivity assays with full-length YFV RNA transcripts showed that the VPQAQA mutation, which enhanced signal peptidase cleavage in vitro, was lethal for infectious virus production. Revertants or second-site mutants were recovered from cells transfected with VPQAQA RNA. Analysis of these viruses revealed that single amino acid substitutions in different domains of the prM signal sequence could restore viability. These variants had growth properties in vertebrate cells which differed only slightly from those of the parent virus, despite efficient signal peptidase cleavage of prM in cell-free expression assays. However, the neurovirulence in mice of the VPQAQA variants was significantly attenuated. This study demonstrates that substitutions in the prM signal sequence which disrupt coordinated cleavages at the C-prM junction can impinge on the biological properties of the mutant viruses. Factors other than the rate of production of prM are vitally controlled by regulated cleavages at this site.  (+info)

Yellow fever virus particles (virions), coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). Yellow fever virus belongs to the Flavivirus family (subgroup arbovirus) and is an enveloped RNA virus. The virus shape is icosahedral with a lipid containing envelop. It is also known as a togavirus. Yellow fever virus is carried by mosquitoes and is common in Africa, Central and South America. In Africa, Aedes sp. is the insect vectors that carry the virus, while in South America, Haemagogus sp. is the insect vector. The yellow fever virus is transmitted to humans when an infected female mosquito bites a human. Symptoms include fever, headache and nausea (flu-like symptoms). In serious cases there may be liver and kidney damage (necrosis), and even death. Yellow fever causes yellowing of the skin due to jaundice. There is no treatment for yellow fever and 5% of those infected die. Yellow fever vaccines can provide immunity. Magnification: x30,195 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. Original image
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolutionary and ecological factors underlying the tempo and distribution of yellow fever virus activity. AU - Carrington, Christine V.F.. AU - Auguste, Albert J.. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Yellow fever virus (YFV) is historically one of the most important viruses to affect human populations. Despite the existence of highly effective vaccines for over 70. years, yellow fever remains a significant and re-emerging cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic and high-risk regions of South America and Africa. The virus may be maintained in sylvatic enzootic/epizootic, transitional and urban epidemic transmission cycles with geographic variation in terms of levels of genetic diversity, the nature of transmission cycles and patterns of outbreak activity. In this review we consider evolutionary and ecological factors underlying YFV emergence, maintenance and spread, geographic distribution and patterns of epizootic/epidemic activity.. AB - Yellow fever virus (YFV) is ...
Since YF is a mosquito-borne disease, its eradication can be quite challenging, due to the presence of a sylvatic cycle of this disease, making it a serious public health problem worldwide1 , 5 , 14 . Having a mosquito as a vector makes YF hard to be eradicated, justifying why it is essential to act on vector control measures14 , 37 .. In 1927, the yellow fever virus strain Asibi isolated from a patient in Ghana was used to formulate the first vaccine. The Asibi strain underwent serial passages in chicken tissue cultures to be attenuated for human use as a vaccine, named the 17D vaccine. There are two types of sub-strains obtained from the 17D vaccine, the 17DD and 17D-204. The 17D strain was first used in Brazil in 1937 for vaccination purposes, and since then The Oswald Cruz Foundation has produced the yellow fever 17DD (YF-17D) vaccine. To produce the 17DD vaccine, a sample of the yellow fever virus is inoculated into pathogens-free embryonated chicken eggs, as recommended by the WHO14 , 18 ...
Mouse Monoclonal. Reactivity: Yellow Fever virus. Application: ICC/IF, Functional Assay. Specificity: This antibody is specific for the envelope protein of the wild (Asibi) and vaccine strains of yellow fever virus.. Package: 100μl. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adaptation of yellow fever virus 17D to Vero cells is associated with mutations in structural and non-structural protein genes. AU - Beasley, David W.C.. AU - Morin, Merribeth. AU - Lamb, Ashley R.. AU - Hayman, Edward. AU - Watts, Douglas M.. AU - Lee, Cynthia K.. AU - Trent, Dennis W.. AU - Monath, Thomas P.. PY - 2013/9/1. Y1 - 2013/9/1. N2 - Serial passaging of yellow fever virus 17D in Vero cells was employed to derive seed material for a novel inactivated vaccine, XRX-001. Two independent passaging series identified a novel lysine to arginine mutation at amino acid 160 of the envelope protein, a surface-exposed residue in structural domain I. A third passage series resulted in an isoleucine to methionine mutation at residue 113 of the NS4B protein, a central membrane spanning region of the protein which has previously been associated with Vero cell adaptation of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. These studies confirm that flavivirus adaptation to growth in Vero cells can ...
The RealStar® Yellow Fever Virus RT-PCR Kit 1.0 is an in vitro diagnostic test, based on realtime PCR technology, for the detection of Yellow Fever Virus specific RNA.. ...
Yellow fever virus definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Yellow Fever Monoclonal Antibodies Yellow Fever Virus Reagents Life Science Biofront Technologies. BioFront Technologies offers anti-Yellow Fever Virus NS1 monoclonal antibodies with demonstrated to be effective for Western blot, IF, and ELISA assays. YFV NS1 Mab BF-077-100ug YFV NS1 Mab BF-077-500ug YFV NS1 Mab BF-077-1mg YFV NS1 Mab BF-087-100ug YFV NS1 Mab BF-087-500ug YFV NS1 Mab BF-087-1mg
Using a recently described hamster model of severe yellow fever (YF), we examined the hypothesis that prior infection with heterologous flaviviruses protects against severe or fatal YF. Hamsters were singly or sequentially infected with Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile, and/or dengue-1 viruses, and then challenged with a virulent strain of yellow fever virus (YFV). In contrast to control (naive) hamsters, many of which appeared clinically ill or died after YFV infection, the flavivirus-immune animals remained asymptomatic. The flavivirus-immune hamsters also had a reduced viremia and lower serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin, compared with naive hamsters, following YFV infection. Histologically, livers of animals in the flavivirus-immune and control groups showed comparable levels of multifocal necrapoptosis. However, steatosis was not observed in the flavivirus-immune animals, whereas naive hamsters developed extensive microvesicular steatosis in the
Yellow Fever Virus Reagents Research Reagents Biofront Technologies. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the American tropics have been reinfested with Aedes aegypti, the mosquito known to carry arboviruses such as Yellow Fever. Most urban dwellers are vulnerable because of low immunization coverage and Latin America is now at greater risk of epidemics than at any time in the past 50 years. The BioFront Technologies line of anti-Yellow Fever virus monoclonal antibodies have been demonstratrd to produce reliable and trusted results for researchers leading the fight against this global issue. YELLOW FEVER MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES
Previous studies provided evidence that both YFV infection and YFV-17D infection are rapidly cleared by a type I IFN-mediated innate immune response in mice (7, 12, 13). Indeed, depletion of type I IFN allows extensive viral replication, leading to death or T-cell-mediated clearance during YFV-Asibi or YFV-17D infection, respectively (12, 16). Although YFV-17D inhibits type I IFN signaling in infected cells (15), evidence suggests that type I IFN might have a role in the YFV-17D-induced immunogenicity process in human vaccinees. Analysis of the transcriptome of peripheral immune cells from human vaccinees showed that several genes involved in type I IFN pathways (STAT1) as well as interferon-stimulated genes (ISG15, MX1, and OAS1) are upregulated upon vaccination (41). This correlated with immunogenicity, suggesting a link between the type I IFN response and immunogenicity. However, the precise nature of this link remains to be understood. Although it has been reported that type II IFN signaling ...
Yellow fever virus ATCC ® VR-1268™ Designation: 17D [V-525-001-522] Application: Widely used for immunization of man against yellow fever. Widely used for immunization of man against yellow fever.
Yellow fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV) and transmitted by mosquitoes of the family Culicidae. It is well known that cellular and viral microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in modulation of viral and cellular gene expression, as well as immune response, and are considered by the scientific community as possible targets for an effective therapy against viral infections. This regulation may be involved in different levels of infection and clinical symptomatology. We used viral titration techniques, viral kinetics from 24 to 96 hours postinfection (hpi), and analyzed the expression of key proteins related to the miRNA pathway by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The expression of Dicer was different when compared over the course of infection by the distinct YFV genotypes. Drosha expression was similar during infection by YFV genotype 1 or 2, with a decrease in their expression over time and a slight increase in 96 hpi. Ago1, Ago2, and Ago4
The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil prompted widespread yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccination campaigns, imposing a responsibility to distinguish between vaccine- and wild-type YFV-associated disease. We developed novel multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCRs that differentiate between vaccine and American wild-type YFV. We validated these highly specific and sensitive assays in an outbreak setting.
Summary Thirty monkeys of six genera which occur in the New World were inoculated with strains of type 1 and type 2 dengue virus which had never been passaged in laboratory animals. Although none of the monkeys showed overt signs of illness, almost all developed hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) or neutralizing antibodies. Viremia was demonstrated in four species of monkeys of three different genera 4 to 6 days after inoculation. The dengue and yellow fever HI antibody responses of these monkeys and others inoculated with yellow fever virus were similar to those which have been observed in persons naturally infected with these viruses.
Free Online Library: Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.(DISPATCHES) by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Cladistic analysis Analysis Phylogeny Yellow fever
Structure of Yellow Fever Virus (PDB1NA4). Yellow fever presents in most cases with fever, nausea, and pain and it generally subsides after several days although a more dangerous toxic phase can occur in some patients. - Stock Image C020/4916
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 28687779. Sci Rep 2017 Jul;7(1):4848. Yellow fever virus (YFV) causing a deadly viral disease is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. In Brazil, YFV is restricted to a forest cycle maintained between non-human primates and forest-canopy mosquitoes, where humans can be tangentially infected. Since late 2016, a growing number of human cases have been reported in Southeastern Brazil at the gates of the most populated areas of South America, the Atlantic coast, with Rio de Janeiro state hosting nearly 16 million people. We showed that the anthropophilic mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus as well as the YFV-enzootic mosquitoes Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Sabethes albiprivus from the YFV-free region of the Atlantic coast were highly susceptible to American and African YFV strains. Therefore, the risk of reemergence of urban YFV epidemics in South America is major with a virus introduced either from a forest cycle or by a traveler returning from the ...
Monkeys and mice surviving cerebral infection with yellow fever virus of relatively avirulent strains have been found to resist maximal intracerebral doses of yellow fever virus of a highly neurotropic strain. Such animals, however, do not resist more than very small doses of intracerebrally inoculated virus of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis. Animals immunized by extraneural routes, on the other hand, are not uniformly resistant to neural infection with neurotropic yellow fever virus. Monkeys which have undergone systemic infection with virus of the avirulent 17D strain or of several jungle strains resist only small intracerebral doses of neurotropic virus; while mice, even when possessed of very high serum-antibody levels as the result of intraperitoneal hyperimmunization, manifest only an irregular resistance to intracerebral challenge inocula. The difference in the resistance of neurally and extraneurally immunized animals is not related to similar differences in the levels of protective ...
The prevailing paradigm of yellow fever virus (YFV) ecology in South America is that of wandering epizootics. The virus is believed to move from place to place in epizootic waves involving monkeys and mosquitoes, rather than persistently circulating within particular locales. After a large outbreak of YFV illness in Peru in 1995, we used phylogenetic analyses of virus isolates to reexamine the hypothesis of virus movement. We sequenced a 670-nucleotide fragment of the prM/E gene region from 25 Peruvian YFV samples collected from 1977 to 1999, and delineated six clades representing the states (Departments) of Puno, Pasco, Junin, Ayacucho, San Martin/Huanuco, and Cusco. The concurrent appearance of at least four variants during the 1995 epidemic and the genetic stability of separate virus lineages over time indicate that Peruvian YFV is locally maintained and circulates continuously in discrete foci of enzootic transmission ...
Authors: Volk, David; Gandham, Sai; May, Fiona; Barrett, Alan; Gorenstein, David. Citation: Volk, David; Gandham, Sai; May, Fiona; Anderson, Anjenique; Barrett, Alan; Gorenstein, David. NMR assignments of the yellow fever virus envelope protein domain III Biomol. NMR Assignments 1, 49-50 (2007).. Assembly members: ...
Background: A Src kinase-activating phosphatase (PTPRE) is targeted by a genome-derived yellow fever virus (YFV) short noncoding RNA (vsRNA) in vitro. The vsRNA reduces PTPRE translation, which leads to reduced TCR signaling. vsRNA point mutations restore PTPRE expression and T cell function. We examined TCR signaling and PTPRE levels in individuals before and after YFV vaccination (YFVax). Methods: Fourteen individuals receiving YFVax (104.7–5.6) IM for travel prophylaxis provided written informed consent for these studies. Blood was obtained once before vaccination and four times after vaccination (days 3 to 28). Serum and PBMCs were purified and YFV was quantified by RNA and infectivity. PBMCs were assessed for activation following anti-CD3 stimulation by measuring phospho-tyrosine-394-Lck and IL-2 release. PBMC PTPRE levels were determined by immunoblot analyses (normalized to actin). A YFV-neutralizing antibody was determined by PRNT. Results: YFVax was administered alone (six out of 14
The sequence of the entire RNA genome of the type flavivirus, yellow fever virus, has been obtained. Inspection of this sequence reveals a single long open reading frame of 10,233 nucleotides, which could encode a polypeptide of 3411 amino acids. The structural proteins are found within the amino-terminal 780 residues of this polyprotein; the remainder of the open reading frame consists of nonstructural viral polypeptides. This genome organization implies that mature viral proteins are produced by posttranslational cleavage of a polyprotein precursor and has implications for flavivirus RNA replication and for the evolutionary relation of this virus family to other RNA viruses. ...
Miller, B.R.; Mitchell, C.J., 1986: Passage of yellow fever virus: its effect on infection and transmission rates in Aedes aegypti
Ebola virus + Rift valley virus + yellow fever virus + internal control , FR182 real time PCR kit for detection in different samples: nasal swabs, plasma, serum, stool, nasopharnygeal swabs, respiratory tract samples.
BioAssay record AID 341693 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity against IRES-luciferase tagged Yellow fever virus in BHK15 cells assessed as reduction of luciferase activity at 50 uM after 36 hrs.
The YFV 17D is a live attenuated vaccine strain and is designed to cause an immune response to confer protection to wild-type Yellow fever virus ...
ރީނދޫ ހުން (އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Yellow Fever)އަކީ ފްލެވިވިރިޑޭ(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Flaviridae) ގުރޫޕް ގައި ހިމެނޭ ފްލެވިވައިރަސް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Flavivirus) އެއްކަމުގައިވާ ރީނދޫ ހުން ޖައްސާ ވައިރަސް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Yellow Fever Virus) ގެ ސަބަބުން ޖެހޭ ބައްޔެކެވެ. ހަށިގަނޑުގެ ބައިތަކުން ލޭފޭއްދުން ކުރިމަތިކުރުވާ ބަލިތަކުގެ ތެރޭގައި ރީނދޫ ހުން ހިމެނެއެވެ. ރީނދޫ ހުން މިނަން ނިސްބަތްކުރެވެނީ ރީނދޫ ހުން ޖެހުމާއި ގުޅިގެން ކުރިމަތިވާ ރީނދޫވުން އަށެވެ. ރީނދޫ ހުން ޖައްސާ ވައިރަސް އަކީ އާރްއެންއޭ ވައިރަސް އެކެވެ. ރީނދޫ ފެތުރެނީ މަދިރީގެ ސަބަބުންނެވެ. ރީނދޫ ހުން ޖެހުމުން ...
Yellow fever is a serious hemorrhagic (bleeding) disease that may kill 15%-50% of severely infected people. Artemis One Health is conducting studies to understand the factors that would facilitate emergence of urban (within cities) yellow fever and is developing vaccine candidates that can be used to supplement the current vaccine shortage. Together with other groups we will study which mosquito species other than Aedes aegypi can be infected with the yellow fever virus. Our vaccine candidates will be based on the recombinant protein and the MVA platform (See our Approach). These platforms are convenient as they allow production of affordable vaccines that can be used in resource-poor countries.. What is the context of this research?. Yellow fever virus has the potential to cause big (urban) epidemics as exemplified by the situation before the 1950s. However, the majority of the reported outbreaks to date are mainly seen in Africa and South America and have a forest (sylvatic) origin. Important ...
Figure 2: Number of Sri Lankans travelling to yellow fever endemic countries based on registries at Port Health Medical Offices (1998 to 2011 ...
Although an effective vaccine for YFV does exist, YFV-17D (a live-attenuated strain of the virus), not much is known about the viral and host factors that contribute towards this vaccines attenuating effect.. Study lead, Alexander Ploss from Princeton University (NJ, USA), explained why investigating these factors is important: An improved understanding of the complex mechanisms regulating YFV-17D attenuation will provide insights into key viral-host interactions that regulate host immune responses and infection outcomes, [and]open novel avenues for the development of innovative vaccine strategies.. In this study, researchers at Princeton University investigated the effects of infection with YFV-17D in type III receptor-deficient mice.. Researchers discovered that mice deficient in type III IFN alone were able to survive the infection, as they were able to control viral replication, which helped towards its rapid clearance from the body. However, when mice were deficient in both type I and ...
A method for carrying out antibody absorption studies for antigenic analysis of group B arthropod-borne (arbor) viruses is described and examples of homologous and heterologous absorption curves are presented. Evidence that antigenic structure can be a stable property was obtained with three strains of West Nile virus isolated from different hosts in different countries over a period of years. Comparative studies with viruses of the Japanese B-St. Louis-West Nile subgroup indicate that each virus contains a completely specific antigen as well as one or more cross-reactive components. Strains of yellow fever virus isolated in America were shown to lack an antigen present in strains of African origin although no differences were found between isolates from the same geographical area. The attenuated 17 D vaccine strain of yellow fever was found to have acquired an additional antigen not present in the unadapted parent or in other strains tested. However, alteration in pathogenicity for man was not ...
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Post, Paulo Roberto et al. The early use of yellow fever virus strain 17D for vaccine production in Brazil - a review. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Aug 2001, vol.96, no.6, p.849-857. ISSN 0074- ...
KRISP 2019 Journal of Virology paper that showed that during the recent epidemic YFV was re-introduced from Minas Gerais to Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro states multiple times between 2016 to 2019. The analysis of data from portable sequencing could identify the corridor of spread of YFV. These findings reinforce that continued genomic surveillance strategies can provide information on virus genetic diversity and transmission dynamics that might assist in the understanding arbovirus epidemics.
Hemorrhagic fever syndrome is caused by yellow fever virus which is a form of flavivirus. Yellow fever virus can be detected via virus specific IgM antibody.
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Nucleic Acid: Viral RNA extracted from infected cell culture lysate. (Viral RNA, Diagnostic reagent, Nucleic Acid, Derived product)
Differential diagnosis of infections that cause similar diseases and may be active simultaneously in the same geographical areas is greatly needed. Dengue and yellow fever viruses (DENV and YFV) are transmitted by the same species of mosquito and both can cause haemorrhagic fever symptoms. These viruses are active mainly in regions where expensive and sophisticated technologies are not available. Our objective was to develop a simple, reliable and easy-to-perform method to detect and identify these viruses. Methods ...
YABAR V, Carlos; CHOQUE P, Juana y MONTOYA P, Ysabel. Evaluación serológica de una proteína recombinante a partir de una cepa aislada del virus de la fiebre amarilla en el Perú: un estudio piloto. Rev. perú. med. exp. salud publica [online]. 2003, vol.20, n.4, pp.193-199. ISSN 1726-4634.. Objective: To assess a 66kDa (Er66) recombinant protein of yellow fever (YF) virus using immunoreactive antibodies. Material and methods: Er66 was expressed in Escherichia coli and then it was challenged against 1/100, 1/50 and 1/25 monoclonal antibodies containing dilutions, and against clinical sera containing specific IgM and IgG antibodies against YF virus using western blot assay. Likewise, total protein content from yellow fever virus and Dengue (DEN) virus were also tested as antigenicity control. Results: Er66 recombinant protein showed antigenicity against 1/50 and 1/25 titers of monoclonal antibodies (MAB8701); however, no immunoreactivity was observed in sera positive for yellow fever and dengue ...
A viral infection caused by a flavivirus called yellow fever virus. It is transmitted to humans from infected mosquitoes. The signs and symptoms range from a mild febrile illness to liver damage with jaundice and hemorrhages.
Yellow fever was a widespread and deadly disease at that time. The disease is caused by a virus. The virus is spread by the bites of certain types of mosquitoes. Theiler and other researchers wanted to find a vaccine for yellow fever. A vaccine is a substance that protects people from a disease. At first, researchers used rhesus monkeys for yellow fever experiments. In 1930 Theiler discovered that the yellow fever virus also affected mice.…
A team of researchers at the University of California - Riverside recently determined that the yellow fever virus replicates primarily in the liver and other organ failures that often follow are due to secondary effects.
The Yellow Fever virus can cause serious harm to humans and can be fatal. It is transmitted by mosquitoes. Some countries require proof of vaccination before entry.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombinant yellow fever vaccine virus 17D expressing simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 gag induces SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in rhesus macaques. AU - Bonaldo, Myrna C.. AU - Martins, Mauricio A.. AU - Rudersdorf, Richard. AU - Mudd, Philip A.. AU - Sacha, Jonah B.. AU - Piaskowski, Shari M.. AU - Costa Neves, Patrícia C.. AU - Veloso De Santana, Marlon G.. AU - Vojnov, Lara. AU - Capuano, Saverio. AU - Rakasz, Eva G.. AU - Wilson, Nancy A.. AU - Fulkerson, John. AU - Sadoff, Jerald C.. AU - Watkins, David I.. AU - Galler, Ricardo. PY - 2010/4/1. Y1 - 2010/4/1. N2 - Here we describe a novel vaccine vector for expressing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens. We show that recombinant attenuated yellow fever vaccine virus 17D expressing simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 Gag sequences can be used as a vector to generate SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in the rhesus macaque. Priming with recombinant BCG expressing SIV antigens increased the frequency of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombinant yellow fever vaccine virus 17D expressing simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 gag induces SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in rhesus macaques. AU - Bonaldo, Myrna C.. AU - Martins, Mauricio A.. AU - Rudersdorf, Richard. AU - Mudd, Philip A.. AU - Sacha, Jonah B.. AU - Piaskowski, Shari M.. AU - Costa Neves, Patrícia C.. AU - Veloso De Santana, Marlon G.. AU - Vojnov, Lara. AU - Capuano, Saverio. AU - Rakasz, Eva G.. AU - Wilson, Nancy A.. AU - Fulkerson, John. AU - Sadoff, Jerald C.. AU - Watkins, David I.. AU - Galler, Ricardo. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - Here we describe a novel vaccine vector for expressing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens. We show that recombinant attenuated yellow fever vaccine virus 17D expressing simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 Gag sequences can be used as a vector to generate SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in the rhesus macaque. Priming with ...
Summary Isolates of yellow fever (YF) virus from Africa (Senegambia, Central African Republic, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso) and from South America (Panama, Ecuador, Trinidad) were examined by oligonucleotide fingerprinting of the 40S genome RNA. Geographically isolated and epidemiologically unrelated viruses were very distinct. On the basis of the T1 oligonucleotide fingerprints of each isolate, four geographical variants (topotypes) of YF virus isolated within the same period of time have been established. The Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso topotypes were similar. In the Central African Republic, two variants could be found exhibiting 70 to 75% homology to one another. In South America, the three analysed strains exhibited only about 70% homology, but could be classified in the same topotype. The oligonucleotide fingerprints of the genome RNA offered a useful tool for the understanding of YF virus variability.
The Ministry of Health is encouraging persons to get vaccinated before travelling to yellow fever affected areas. This follows a recent a rise in yellow fever cases in some parts of Africa and continued risk in some South and Central American countries.. Yellow fever is an acute illness caused by the yellow fever virus which is found in the tropics of South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted by the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito, the same vector that transmits the chikungunya, dengue and zika viruses. Yellow fever symptoms may be mild and go unnoticed, or may be severe and affect many organ systems. Symptomatic illness begins with fever, chills, headache, backache, general muscle pain, upset stomach, and vomiting. In severe cases where the disease progresses, weakness, jaundice, bleeding of the gums, hematemesis (vomiting of blood) and the presence of blood and protein in the urine may occur. In most patients these symptoms improve after 3 to 4 days.. Yellow fever vaccines ...
Recently, there is evidence about the Outbreak of Yellow Fever becoming latest global health emergency. Georgetown University professors state that this Yellow fever epidemic is one of the most important emergency that is spreading all over the world. The Professors also calls the World Health Organization for convening the emergency committee of International Health Regulations. Yellow fever epidemic is also considered as the frequent emerging epidemics that they call for creating a standing emergency committee for solving this future health emergency.. Yellow fever is the acute viral disease that has the symptoms of Fever, loss of appetite, chills, muscle pains, nausea and headaches. Most symptoms are typically 5 days so that people could improve within these days. Some of the other disadvantage of Yellow fever is fever, liver damage and abdominal pain causing the yellow skin. There is also a risk of kidney problems and bleeding so that it is necessary to consult doctor for the immediate ...
Traveling Abroad. Yellow Fever. What is yellow fever, how is it spread, and how is it treated?. Epidemics of yellow fever were recorded as long ago as 1648. The yellow fever virus, a member of the flaviviridae (flavus , L. yellow), is spread by the Aedes aeyptimosquito, as demonstrated by Dr. Walter Reed in 1900. Two researchers at the Rockefeller Foundation in New York developed a vaccine that was tested in human volunteers in 1936 and found it to be effective. Indeed, the vaccine, along with mosquito control measures, were so effective that by the end of World War II yellow fever was considered a medical curiosity. In the early 1980s about 200 cases were reported annually to the World Health Organization from the African continent, but by the late 1980s as many as 5,000 cases were reported from this region in a single year. Because the yellow fever is easily mistaken for other diseases, it is likely that only a small fraction of the actual cases are reported.. Although the mosquitoes that ...
In the United States, yellow fever (YF) vaccination is recommended for travelers and active duty military members visiting endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Central/South America (1,2). The American Red Cross recommends that recipients of YF vaccine defer blood product donation for 2 weeks because of the theoretical risk for transmission from a viremic donor (3). On April 10, 2009, a hospital blood bank supervisor learned that, on March 27, blood products had been collected from 89 U.S. active duty trainees who had received YF vaccine 4 days before donation. This report summarizes the subsequent investigation by the hospital and CDC to identify lapses in donor deferral and to determine whether transfusion-related transmission of YF vaccine virus occurred. The investigation found that a recent change in the timing of trainee vaccination had occurred and that vaccinees had not reported recent YF vaccination status at time of donation. Despite a prompt recall, six units of blood products were ...
Trinidad, like many other American regions, experiences repeated epizootics of yellow fever virus (YFV). However, it is unclear whether these result from in situ evolution (enzootic maintenance) or regular reintroduction of YFV from the South American mainland. To discriminate between these hypotheses, we carried out a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis of over 100 prM/E gene sequences sampled from 8 South American countries. These included newly sequenced isolates from the recent 2008-2009 Trinidad epizootic and isolates derived from mainland countries within the last decade. The results indicate that the most recent common ancestor of the 2008-2009 epizootic existed in Trinidad 4.2 years prior to 2009 (95% highest probability density [HPD], 0.5 to 9.0 years). Our data also suggest a Trinidad origin for the progenitor of the 1995 Trinidad epizootic and support in situ evolution of YFV between the 1979 and 1988-1989 Trinidad epizootics. Using the same phylogeographic approach, we also inferred the
What is Yellow fever? Yellow fever is a disease that is caused by a virus that is spread to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. This disease is only found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, primarily South America and Africa. Therefore, only US residents that travel to these foreign countries are at risk for the disease. Yellow fever can be a fatal in approximately 20-50% of people that develop severe symptoms. What are the symptoms of Yellow fever? Most people that are infected with the yellow fever virus have no illness or only very mild illness. For those persons with mild illness, their symptoms will start very quickly and include: high fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, rash, severe headache, pain behind the eyes, and muscle and joint pain. Approximately 15% of persons that experience illness will develop more severe symptoms. Severe symptoms include: high fever, jaundice (a condition of yellow skin and eyes), bleeding, and shock/organ failure. Symptoms of bleeding ...
What is Yellow fever? Yellow fever is a disease that is caused by a virus that is spread to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. This disease is only found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, primarily South America and Africa. Therefore, only US residents that travel to these foreign countries are at risk for the disease. Yellow fever can be a fatal in approximately 20-50% of people that develop severe symptoms. What are the symptoms of Yellow fever? Most people that are infected with the yellow fever virus have no illness or only very mild illness. For those persons with mild illness, their symptoms will start very quickly and include: high fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, rash, severe headache, pain behind the eyes, and muscle and joint pain. Approximately 15% of persons that experience illness will develop more severe symptoms. Severe symptoms include: high fever, jaundice (a condition of yellow skin and eyes), bleeding, and shock/organ failure. Symptoms of bleeding ...
As matta dey boil so, na so that yawa no go gas NCDC dey ginger to kill yellow fever outbreak, before water go pass garri. Na why them con drop press release to tell us how the fight dey go and the way forward, because we the masses go need to do our parts too.. The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control don confam four cases of yellow fever inside Bauchi State. Three of them dey stay Alkaleri Local Government Area (LGA) and the fourth case na person wey stroll go Kano State, come branch Yankari Games Reserve for the same LGA for Bauchi State.. Na on 29th of August NCDC first receive information of the confam cases of Yellow Fever inside Kano State from from one laboratory for their Yellow Fever laboratory network. Them later discover say the confam case of yellow fever inside Kano na from the person wey visit Yankari Game Reserve for Bauchi, August 2019 with him papa. The papa die sha, with symptoms wey look like yellow fever own.. On the 3rd of September 2019, the Borno State Epidemiology Team ...
New research by University of Warwick historian Dr Tim Lockley has found why yellow fever had a green bias in 19th century fever outbreaks in the southern states of the US. Almost half of the 650 people killed by yellow fever in Savannah Georgia in 1854 were Irish immigrants.. Dr Tim Lockley´s study is based on four sources: the burial records of Laurel Grove cemetery; the records of the city´s Catholic cemetery; the minutes of Savannah´s Board of Health; and published lists of the dead in the Savannah Morning News. These sources yielded the names of 650 people who died of yellow fever between early August and the end of November 1854, of which 293 were Irish immigrants (and 10 others were of unknown nationality).. Savannah was not the only southern US city to witness this Irish susceptibility to yellow fever. In nineteenth-century New Orleans annual yellow fever outbreaks killed many Irish and German immigrants. This encouraged a view of yellow fever as less serious than other illnesses such ...
Medical information, Yellow fever. Definition of Yellow fever, symptoms of Yellow fever, treatment of Yellow fever, and prevention of Yellow fever. Exams and Tests Yellow fever.
Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease endemic in Africa and Latin America, causing an estimated 380,000 severe cases including up to 180,000 deaths annually in Africa where around 90% of the global burden occurs. Yellow fever is caused by a virus (genus Flavivirus) that can be transmitted to humans by the bites of infected aedes and haemogogus mosquitoes. The yellow in the name refers to the jaundice that affects some patients. Initial symptoms of yellow fever include fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting and fatigue. A small proportion of patients develop severe symptoms and approximately half of those severe cases die within seven to ten days. There is no medical treatment for yellow fever, but a safe and long-lasting vaccine has been available since the 1930s. Complete elimination of yellow fever is not possible due to a large wildlife reservoir of the virus. Therefore, disease prevention through large-scale vaccination campaigns is the most effective approach for ...
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In September 2017, the Nigerian Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) informed the World Health Organization (WHO) of a confirmed case of yellow fever in Western Nigeria. Since then, Nigeria has experienced resurgent outbreaks of the epidemic in different locations across the country. All states of Nigeria have reported at least one suspected yellow fever case in 2019, with a total of over 2,000 suspected cases reported between 1 January and 31 July 2019 from all the thirty-six states that constitute Nigeria.. There have been efforts to stop the outbreak from spreading and to strengthen its monitoring. On 6 September 2019, a yellow fever outbreak was confirmed in Bauchi state. Bauchi and Katsina are the two states with the highest number of deaths linked to the outbreak. Over thirty deaths from yellow fever have been reported so far in the two states.. Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted to humans by the bites of infected mosquitoes. The mosquitoes breed around houses (domestic), in ...
If you travel to hunt very much, getting inoculated for dangerous diseases becomes almost second nature, and part of the preparations necessary before any big trip. Shots in the arm for tetanus, hepatitis and measles boosters are commonplace. Pills to ward off malaria are easy to swallow and the simple regimen is very effective.. The next time you see your Doctor for shots; dont forget to ask for Yellow Fever, to be up-to-date on your immunizations, especially if plans are taking you to central Africa.. Several media channels have reported in May that Yellow Fever is on the rise, especially in Angola where 2,300 suspected cases have been reported since December. A few hundred have been reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo and a few related cases have just appeared in Zambia and one in Namibia.. Yellow Fever is carried by the same mosquitoes that carry dengue and Zika. Yellow Fever kills 80,000 Africans a year. People who contract Yellow Fever can suffer from bleeding internally and ...
The development of novel approaches to disease control will be definitely more successful if we better understand the differences and similarities in the genomes ofthe yellow fever and malaria vectors, Sharakhova said.. Although the genome of the yellow fever mosquito was published in 2007, the lack of a detailed physical genome map prevented researchers from analyzing the chromosome genetic composition and evolution. The large size of the yellow fever mosquitos genome - about one third of the human genome size and five times larger than the malaria mosquitos genome - complicated genomic mapping efforts.. The physical genome map developed in this study will guide efforts to significantly improve the genome assembly for the yellow fever mosquito and will facilitate more advanced studies of the genome organization and chromosome evolution in mosquitoes, said Igor Sharakhov, an associate professor of entomology in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, a Fralin Life Science Institute ...
Yellow Fever is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. Yellow fever is a very rare cause of illness in U.S. travelers. Illness ranges in severity from a self-limited febrile illness to severe liver disease with bleeding. Yellow fever disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical findings, laboratory testing, and travel history, including the possibility of exposure to infected mosquitoes. There is no specific treatment for yellow fever; care is based on symptoms. Steps to prevent yellow fever virus infection include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and getting vaccinated. - CDC.gov ...
Flavivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Flaviviridae. This genus includes the West Nile virus, dengue virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus and several other viruses which may cause encephalitis, as well as insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) such as cell fusing agent virus (CFAV), Palm Creek virus (PCV), and Parramatta River virus (PaRV). Flaviviruses are named from the yellow fever virus, the type virus for the family; the word flavus means yellow in Latin. The name yellow fever in turn originated from its propensity to cause yellow jaundice in victims. Flaviviruses share several common aspects: common size (40-65 nm), symmetry (enveloped, icosahedral nucleocapsid), nucleic acid (positive-sense, single-stranded RNA around 10,000-11,000 bases), and appearance in the electron microscope. Most of these viruses are transmitted by the bite from an infected arthropod (mosquito or tick) and hence, classified as arboviruses. Human infections with most of these ...
Yellow fever is a mosquito borne disease caused by a virus from the Flaviviridae family, called the yellow fever virus. This virus is transmitted via female
The reason is that yellow fever, which is transmitted by infected mosquitoes, is endemic in Brazil and parts of South America. I studied the measures put in place to ensure compliance, to assess any shortcomings that may inadvertently allow the yellow fever virus to slip into Singapore.. In the group, I found a fellow traveller who had his vaccination a mere 24 hours before travel. To me, this was self-defeating as it takes 10 days after the jab for the immunity to kick in.. Consequently, he had no protection during the time he was in Brazil. If he had been bitten by a mosquito carrying the virus, he would have been infected.. Owing to the incubation period, an infected person may be asymptomatic when he returns to Singapore. Thus, the virus could be introduced to the island in this manner.. A returning Singaporean or permanent resident can also opt to use the lane reserved for the Immigration Automated Clearance System to pass through the Changi Airport checkpoint. Officers are not being ...
by John Bozarjian , Feb 7, 2018 , Blog, Pest Control. Yellow fever is a virus that is transmitted by the aedes aegypti mosquito. Yellow fever originated in Africa and it was brought to the new world in the 1500s during the slave trade. Symptoms of yellow fever normally appear a week after contracting the virus from a ...
Yellow fever is caused by an arbovirus which is a term that describes viruses spread by arthropods such as insects. The arboviruses that cause yellow fever belong to the Flavivirus genus which also includes dengue virus, Zika virus, and West Nile virus. It is transmitted primarily by the Aedes aegypti species of mosquito, the same type responsible for transmission of viruses that cause dengue fever and Zika fever. This mosquito needs very little water to breed, reproduces quickly, and is most active at dawn and dusk-a very common time for people to be out leaving or returning to their homes. This kind of mosquito is efficient at spreading disease, which has led some to discuss the possibility of eradicating the breed. Yellow fever is not passed on directly from one person to another. It is possible, however, that the disease could be transmitted from needle sticks or blood transfusions that were done with infected blood. There are frequently outbreaks in condensed areas due to the small travel ...
Yellow Fever, explained. "Yellow Fever is what is known as a flavivirus, a group of viruses spread by mosquitoes that includes West Nile, dengue and Japanese encephalitis. As a virus, yellow fever is not one of the stronger ones...What the virus lacks in evolutionary prowess, the mosquito makes up for." From "The American Plague" by Molly Caldwell Crosby Join us for this online presentation and learn how Memphis was devastated by an opportunistic vector from Africa called  Aedes aegypti , a terrible lack of sanitation or good hygiene, and a stagnant bayou that sluiced through downtown. This presentation will be offered several times throughout the month of September. You will receive a link to a Zoom webinar one hour before your scheduled call time. Cost is $10 per person.   Register Now
Say: YEL-oh FEE-vur. Yellow fever is caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes. Its usually found only in tropical parts of Africa and South America. Most people who are bitten by an infected mosquito dont get sick. People who do might have a fever or headache, throw up, and get jaundice, which turns the skin yellow and gives the fever its name.. Most people with yellow fever get better with no problems. There is a vaccine to prevent yellow fever if you are travelling to places where the disease is common.. ...
Among natural and man-made disasters, there is perhaps nothing more baffling and terrifying than an infectious disease outbreak. In 1793, a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia killed about 5,000 people and altered the course ...
This teaching guide helps instructors use a specific primary source set, The Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1878, in the classroom.
The mosquito that spreads yellow fever can also carry the Zika virus, dengue fever, and chikungunya.. The Brazilian ministry of health has sent teams to investigate the outbreak, kill mosquitos, and vaccinate residents, as part of an attempt to contain the outbreak. The WHO has warned that states neighboring Minas Gerais are at risk for large outbreaks, since they are also home to the Aedes mosquito, and the population is not vaccinated against yellow fever, since the regions were considered low risk for the disease until recently.. Brazil is still recovering from last years Zika outbreak, which infected an estimated 214,193 people, leading to 2,366 babies born with congenital Zika syndrome from 2015 to 2017.. An outbreak of yellow fever affected Minas Gerais in 2002 and 2003, with 63 people contracting the disease and 23 people killed. Other parts of Brazil have faced more recent outbreaks, including in 2008 and 2009, when 21 cases of the disease and 9 deaths occurred in Rio Grande do Sul and ...
New research on yellow fever could lead to improved vaccines and quick cures.. Yellow fever is a mosquito born disease that is found throughout South America and sub-Saharan Africa. While the disease is actually more deadly than malaria, it has never been as widely a threat.. In part this is because the first stages are not as severe as malarias and its usually the secondary effects that lead to mortality. These secondary effects can be quite prolonged. As a result its possible that many deaths in sub-Saharan Africa are actually from a yellow fever infection while being diagnosed as something else.. Mostly, however, its because persons who recover from the disease acquire virtually complete immunity. This is completely unlike malaria. Persons can succomb to malaria multiple times and likely achieve no immunity against a future infection.. The new research is one of the first in-depth studies that carefully looks at how the disease works. Its complicated and fascinating. Note that the ...
In Goiania, and medical authorities give as virtually certain that the cause of death of the farmer, occurred the night of Friday, is linked to contamination by yellow fever. The official confirmation, however, will come only with the disclosure of the first report, which should occur by the end of this week. All indications lead to the clinical diagnosis of the disease. The starting with the origin of John the Baptist. Morador of Aparecida de Goiania, he was working in the rural area of Uruaçu, considered a local government area of yellow fever endemic wild. There and in other 38 municipalities there were goianos record in 2007 of cases of animal diseases: death of monkeys by suspected yellow fever wild. In three of the 41 monkeys found dead, was identified the presence of the virus ...
How to Protect Against Yellow Fever. Yellow fever is an acute and potentially fatal disease, caused by a virus, which is usually transmitted through mosquitoes. In its early stages, yellow fever can be difficult to distinguish from other...
WHO has published Targeting yellow fever in the Sudan. Follow the link to a photo story. The introduction: Since late September 2012, an outbreak of yellow fever has affected people in the Darfur region of Sudan. Yellow fever is an...
Epidemic in Philadelphia, 1793. Yellow Fever - Timelines. Yellow fever breaks out in Philadelphia. U.S. Army Physicians Discovered the Cause of Yellow Fever
In this study, we used a systems vaccinology approach to identify temporal changes in immune response signatures to the yellow fever (YF)-17D vaccine, with the aim of comprehensively characterizing immune responses associated with protective immunity. We conducted a cohort study in which 21 healthy subjects in China were administered one dose of the YF-17D vaccine; PBMCs were collected at 0 h and then at 4 h and days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28, 84, and 168 postvaccination, and analyzed by transcriptional profiling and immunological assays. At 4 h postvaccination, genes associated with innate cell differentiation and cytokine pathways were dramatically downregulated, whereas receptor genes were upregulated, compared with their baseline levels at 0 h. Immune response pathways were primarily upregulated on days 5 and 7, accompanied by the upregulation of the transcriptional factors JUP, STAT1, and EIF2AK2. We also observed robust activation of innate immunity within 2 d postvaccination and a durable ...
Your travel agent should inform you if you need a certificate when you are booking your holiday or flight. You can double check if in doubt with your...
Yellow Fever epidemic contained after combined efforts from the Yellow Fever Partnership to vaccinate over 2.2 million people in the Ivorian capital.
Most investigations that examine diffusion of disease through urban areas give relatively scant attention to the micro-environment. Employing the many methods of macro-environmental analysis, most studies do not attempt to identify street-level or even residence-level temporal-spatial patterns of disease diffusion. As a result, the mechanisms that lead to diffusion on such small scales are left relatively undefined. There is no doubt that cumulatively these small-scale mechanisms contribute to the diffusion of disease over the urban environment. However, the level of contribution and the specific details of their dynamics remain unclear. This thesis investigated some of these unexplored areas by presenting a temporal-spatial analysis of the Memphis Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1878. The area (downtown Memphis), the time (August-December 1878), and the epidemic (yellow fever) are centered around a collection of books, maps, and reference materials that range from contemporary accounts of the epidemic to
Benjamin Rush, MD, of Philadelphia was the most famous American doctor in the 18thCentury. He was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and never lost interest in politics. He was a professor, author and social reformer. He was also known to be impatient, humorless and self-righteous. Despite these shortcomings, his renown was such that when he advocated a given treatment, others followed. Unfortunately the treatment he prescribed for infection was often harmful, and, in the opinion of many, caused a perpetuation of medical error that persisted for decades. When a yellow fever epidemic hit Philadelphia in 1793, Dr. Rush launched a fierce war against it. Philadelphia at that time was the national capital, a cultural center, and, if suburbs were included, the largest city in the USA. Its port was actively involved in international trade. Yellow fever had first arrived in the city in 1699 and had hit periodically ever since, but the epidemic of 1793 was the fiercest and most deadly ...
The death toll from a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia hits 100 on October 11, 1793. By the time it ended, 5,000 people were dead. Yellow fever, or
Then, three years ago, he teamed up with immunologist Rafi Ahmed and his colleagues at Emory University to determine how long T-cells induced by the yellow fever vaccine stick around in the blood. Surprisingly, he said, the same T-cells that were created to attack the yellow fever virus during the first few weeks after a live virus vaccination were still in the blood and reactive to the virus years later, revealing a remarkably long lifespan. He and the team estimated that the anti-yellow fever T-cells lasted at least 10 years and probably much longer, providing lasting protection from just one shot. Their long lifespan allows these cells to develop into a unique type of protective immune cell.. They (the T-cells) are a kind of adult stem cell, sitting silently in very small numbers for years or decades, but when they see viral antigen they go wild - divide like crazy, put out cytokines and do other things that help to neutralize the virus, he said. They are like seasoned old soldiers resting ...
Yellow fever is a serious viral infection transmitted by the female of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which is found in tropical regions of South and Central America and Africa. The virus which causes yellow fever is the flavivirus, which has nucleic acid and replicates in the cytoplasm of the host cells. This tropical disease breaks out after a 5-day incubation periods; the symptoms include jaundice, high fever, headache, chills, vomiting, and gastrointestinal bleeding. ...
We know today that yellow fever is a virus spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This mosquito has peculiar habits which we are continuing to learn about. Its most distinguishing feature from other mosquitoes is its preference for urban habitat. It breeds best in relatively clean standing water and outdoor cisterns were a prominent feature among many city houses in that day before indoor plumbing. It also feeds during the day, and so must have quite enjoyed the bustling scenes common at the quays of the major port cities of the 18th century. Finally, it has no trouble adapting to life inside a house or a ship. Thus in a day when window screens were unknown, it had ready access to relatively unprotected environments. ...
In the early Americas, nothing scared people more than when Yellow Jack came knocking at the door of their city. Yellow Jack, or as we know it better today Yellow Fever, has rightly been called the plague of the Americas. It has long been assumed that yellow fever came to the Americas with its vector,…
Aedes aegypti are the same mosquito species that transmit Zika, dengue and chikungunya, viruses that are all related to yellow fever. U.S. health officials are concerned that the deadly yellow fever outbreak in Brazil could hits parts of the United States, particularly the warmer states and the states near the Gulf Coast.
There are many causes for terror. One is the newly encountered Coronavirus. In the 1700s, one was the Yellow Fever. It forced the U.S. government to flee!
The discovery by the American Commission in 1900 that yellow fever is caused by a filtrable virus and that it is conveyed by the bite of the mosquito, Aëdes aegypti, largely determined the methods used to control this disease during the subsequent three decades. Yellow fever was known to persist in endemic form in a number of maritime centers in tropical America, but it was not known to exist outside of these foci in interepidemic periods. The successful eradication of the disease from Havana and Panama and later from other cities by rigid anti-aegypti control measures led naturally to the ...
"Countries with risk of yellow fever virus". cdc.gov. CDC. Retrieved 24 January 2016. "How To Enter Tanzania". countryreports. ... Proof of Yellow fever vaccination is required for all travellers travelling through or from the following countries: Angola, ... countries during transit as a possible health threat and requires travelers in such situations to possess Yellow Fever ...
Another vaccine, a live-attenuated recombinant chimeric virus vaccine developed using the Yellow fever virus known as ... Appaiahgari, M. B.; Vrati, S. (2010). "IMOJEV(®): a Yellow fever virus-based novel Japanese encephalitis vaccine". Expert ... As of 2015[update], 15 different vaccines are available: some are based on recombinant DNA techniques, others weakened virus, ... and others inactivated virus. The Japanese encephalitis vaccines first became available in the 1930s. It is on the World Health ...
Viruses The Saffron Scourge is another name for yellow fever. Hinduism and Buddhism associate saffron with the pious ... Jo Ann Carrigan (15 December 2015). The Saffron Scourge: A History of Yellow Fever in Louisiana, 1796-1905. University of ... Saffron is a shade of yellow or orange, the colour of the tip of the saffron crocus thread, from which the spice saffron is ... Originally a shade of yellow called basanti, the field of the modern Nishan Sahib is saffron. Turbans worn by Sikhs most often ...
Yellow fever virus maintenance in Trinidad and its dispersal throughout the Americas. Journal of Virology, 84, 9967-9977, 2010 ... Evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptor usage during antiretroviral therapy: a Bayesian approach, Journal ... Phylogenetic mapping of recombination hotspots in human immunodeficiency virus via spatially smoothed change-point processes. ... Spatial dynamics of human-origin H1 influenza A virus in North American swine. PLoS Pathogens, e1002077, 2011. Zhou H, Lange K ...
... had antibodies to the yellow fever virus. A form of the disease, termed "jungle yellow fever", was shown to be carried by Red ... In the Rio Grande Do Sul area of Brazil, one species, H. leucocelaenus, has been found carrying yellow fever virus. Several ... of a sick Red Howler monkey that was found to be suffering from yellow fever provided the first indication that yellow fever ... "Isolations of yellow fever virus from Haemagogus leucocelaenus in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil". Transactions of the Royal ...
Award "Genetic Polimorfism Profile of the Yellow Fever Virus from Perú" 1998. Carlos Carrillo-Parodi, Isabel Montoya, María ... "Serological Markers for Viral Hepatitis Virus B after vaccination among natives from Huanta-Perú, 1994-7" 1998 Concytec Org. ... Award "Gen Polymorphism Profile of the Dengue Virus Proteín among several Peruvian serotypes" . 1998. Isabel Montoya, Susan ...
The first human virus to be identified was the yellow fever virus. In 1881, Carlos Finlay (1833-1915), a Cuban physician, first ... Epstein-Barr virus is important in the history of viruses for being the first virus shown to cause cancer in humans. The second ... The virus was later shown to be a previously unrecognised herpes virus, which is now called Epstein-Barr virus. Surprisingly, ... The importance of tobacco mosaic virus in the history of viruses cannot be overstated. It was the first virus to be discovered ...
Leyssen P, De Clercq E, Neyts J (April 2006). "The anti-yellow fever virus activity of ribavirin is independent of error-prone ... Among the viral hemorrhagic fevers it is used for Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Hantavirus infection but ... yellow fever, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, and Kyasanur forest disease)" The aerosol form has been used in the past to treat ... including Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever, and Hantavirus infection, although data ...
... virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus Wesselsbron virus West Nile virus Yaounde virus Yellow fever virus Yokose virus Zika virus ... Zika virus (ZIKV) Yellow fever virus group Banzi virus (BANV) Bamaga virus (BGV) Bouboui virus (BOUV) Edge Hill virus (EHV) ... Uganda S virus (UGSV) Wesselsbron virus (WESSV) Yellow fever virus (YFV) Others Batu cave virus Bukulasa bat virus Nanay virus ... virus Aroa virus Bamaga virus Bagaza virus Banzi virus Bouboui virus Bukalasa bat virus Cacipacore virus Carey Island virus ...
Infectious diseases such as Ebola, Marburg virus disease and yellow fever can cause bleeding. Dioxaborolane chemistry enables ...
Pathogenic viruses cause diseases such as influenza, yellow fever and AIDS. The practice of hygiene was created to prevent ... The tulip breaking virus played a role in the tulip mania of the Dutch Golden Age. The famous Semper Augustus tulip, in ... Bacteria and viruses form the background. Beach scene with live bacteria in a Petri dish expressing different fluorescent ... Viruses cause plant diseases such as leaf mosaic. The oomycete Phytophthora infestans causes potato blight, contributing to the ...
Yellow fever viruses, Dengue fever viruses, and Zika viruses are of the Flavivirus genera and Chikungunya virus is of the ... Yellow fever: Yellow fever virus also transmitted by the bite of an infected Aedes or Haemagogus species of mosquitoes that ... competition in shaping the current and future distributions of the sylvatic cycles of dengue virus and yellow fever virus". ... competition in shaping the current and future distributions of the sylvatic cycles of dengue virus and yellow fever virus". ...
Lin C, Amberg SM, Chambers TJ, Rice CM (April 1993). "Cleavage at a novel site in the NS4A region by the yellow fever virus ... Flavivirin (EC 3.4.21.91, Yellow fever virus (flavivirus) protease, NS2B-3 proteinase) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the ... yellow fever, dengue fever). Chambers TJ, Hahn CS, Galler R, Rice CM (1990). "Flavivirus genome organization, expression, and ... Cahour A, Falgout B, Lai CJ (March 1992). "Cleavage of the dengue virus polyprotein at the NS3/NS4A and NS4B/NS5 junctions is ...
His field of research for several years was finding a live-virus vaccine against yellow fever. After World War II the ... Albert Sabin's early work with attenuated-live-virus polio vaccine was developed from attenuated polio virus that Sabin had ... This allegation has long been contested by claims that the HIV-1 virus was introduced to humans before his polio-vaccine trials ... Hilary Koprowski, Who Developed First Live-Virus Polio Vaccine, Dies at 96 - The New York Times, April 20, 2013. Plotkin, S.A ...
... type species Yellow fever virus, others include West Nile virus, Dengue virus, and Zika virus). Genus Hepacivirus (type species ... The family gets its name from the yellow fever virus, the type virus of the group; flavus is Latin for "yellow", and yellow ... classical swine fever virus, previously hog cholera virus)). Viruses in this genus infect nonhuman mammals. Unclassified Other ... GB virus B)) Genus Pegivirus (includes Pegivirus A (GB virus A), Pegivirus C (GB virus C), and Pegivirus B (GB virus D)) Genus ...
He believed that yellow fever was caused by spirochaete bacteria instead of a virus. He worked for much of the next ten years ... It turned out he had confused yellow fever with leptospirosis. The vaccine he developed against "yellow fever" was successfully ... it became increasingly evident that yellow fever was caused by a virus, not by the bacillus Leptospira icteroides, as Noguchi ... He boarded his ship to sail home, but on 12 May was put ashore at Accra and taken to a hospital with yellow fever. After ...
The genus includes human pathogens like Zika virus, West-Nile virus, Dengue virus, Yellow Fever virus and other. The 5' UTR of ... is a critical determinant of dengue virus and West Nile virus RNA synthesis". Virology. 379 (2): 314-323. doi:10.1016/j.virol. ... Flavivirus 5' UTR are untranslated regions in the genome of viruses in the genus Flavivirus. The Flavivirus positive-oriented, ... Filomatori, C. V. (2006-08-15). "A 5' RNA element promotes dengue virus RNA synthesis on a circular genome". Genes & ...
All candidates are checked for Tuberculosis, HIV and Hepatitis, Yellow fever, Polio and the Ebola virus disease (EVD). In order ... Because of these viruses and infections that spread among European immigrants before reaching Australia, upon arrival, a ... Reports by Mark Stainforth suggest that many forms of bacteria and viruses caused high levels of illness and on-board deaths ... During this period, influenza, typhoid, scarlet fever and whopping cough were all found on European ships arriving in Australia ...
The genus includes human pathogens like Zika virus, West-Nile virus, Dengue virus, Yellow Fever virus and other. The 3' UTR ... Usually, each virus harbors two xrRNAs, xrRNA1 and xrRNA2, in the beginning of the 3' UTR. The formation of these stem-loops, ... In plant-viruses, xrRNA elements have been observed as well, showing some similarities to flaviviral xrRNAs. However, plant- ... Romero, T. A.; Tumban, E.; Jun, J.; Lott, W. B.; Hanley, K. A. (2006-11-01). "Secondary structure of dengue virus type 4 3' ...
... the species that has been shown to carry the yellow fever virus (YFV) is Sabethes albiprivis. In 2008-2009 there was a yellow ... The transmission of yellow fever is through mosquito vectors. In South America the known mosquito vectors of yellow fever are ... Brown howlers are highly susceptible to the yellow fever virus and have a high mortality rate when infected. When mass amounts ... A group of researchers have created the Brown Howler Conservation Group to continue to study and monitor yellow fever in the ...
... which transmit the viruses that cause dengue fever, yellow fever, West Nile fever, chikungunya, eastern equine encephalitis, ... Some species of this genus transmit serious diseases, including dengue fever, yellow fever, the Zika virus, and chikungunya. In ... Infections with these viruses are typically accompanied by a fever, and in some cases, encephalitis, which can lead to death. A ... The yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) genome was sequenced by the Broad Institute and the Institute for Genomic Research. ...
While working in Accra, Gold Coast (modern-day Ghana), he was himself struck down by the yellow fever virus. His last words ... and he wanted to test the hypothesis that yellow fever was caused by spirochaete bacteria instead of a virus. ... National Diet Library: Noguchi bio and image BBC/H2g2: Yellow Fever blurb. " A Place for All Eternity In Their Adopted Land," ... In 1918, Noguchi traveled extensively in Central America and South America to do research for a vaccine for yellow fever. He ...
Viruses were confirmed as human pathogens in 1901, with the discovery of the yellow fever virus by Walter Reed. Immunology made ... Stram Y, Kuzntzova L (June 2006). "Inhibition of viruses by RNA interference". Virus Genes. 32 (3): 299-306. doi:10.1007/s11262 ... Killer T cells are a sub-group of T cells that kill cells that are infected with viruses (and other pathogens), or are ... It detects and responds to a wide variety of pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, as well as cancer cells and objects ...
Zika virus shares a genus with the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Since the 1950s, it has ... Yellow fever - is a viral disease of typically short duration. In most cases, symptoms include fever, chills, loss of appetite ... "Yellow fever Fact sheet N°100". World Health Organization. May 2013. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved ... Zika virus - (ZIKV) (pronounced /ˈziːkə/ or /ˈzɪkə/) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae. It is spread by daytime- ...
Norrby E (November 2007). "Yellow fever and Max Theiler: the only Nobel Prize for a virus vaccine". J. Exp. Med. 204 (12): 2779 ... The yellow fever vaccine has been in existence since the 1930s. There are other endemic diseases in the country which include ... In 1985, an incidence of yellow fever devastated a town in Nigeria, leading to the death of 1000 people. In a span of 5 years, ...
After passing the yellow fever virus through laboratory mice, Theiler found that the weakened virus conferred immunity on ... Yellow Fever (1951) The Arthropod-Borne Viruses of Vertebrates: An Account of The Rockefeller Foundation Virus Program, 1951- ... inducing yellow fever in rhesus macaques from India). In the course of this research, Theiler contracted yellow fever, but ... he started working on yellow fever. In 1926, they disproved Hideyo Noguchi's hypothesis that yellow fever was caused by the ...
"Human Schwann cells are susceptible to infection with Zika and yellow fever viruses, but not dengue virus". Scientific Reports ... and Zika Virus are all neuropathies involving Schwann cells. A number of experimental studies since 2001 have implanted Schwann ...
Yellow fever, chikungunya, Zika, Bouboui and Bunyamwera viruses have been isolated from members of the furcifer group. Ae. ... furcifer is involved in monkey-to-man and man-to-man transmission of yellow fever, is a potential vector of dengue virus ... Diallo, D; Sall, AA; Diagne, CT; Faye, O; Faye, O; Ba, Y; Hanley, KA; Buenemann, M; Weaver, SC; Diallo, M (2014). "Zika virus ... Jupp, PG; McIntosh, BM (1990). "Aedes furcifer and other mosquitoes as vectors of chikungunya virus at Mica, northeastern ...
Louis encephalitis virus and Ilhéus virus, and transmits yellow fever virus to humans. As listed by the Walter Reed ... Isolation of Ilhéus Virus from Sabethes chloropterus captured in Guatemala in 1956. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and ...
Mosquito Malaria Zika fever dengue virus chikungunya yellow fever "Countries scale up mosquito control efforts for Mosquito ... It raise awareness of diseases spread by mosquitoes, including dengue, chikungunya, Zika, yellow fever, and malaria. It aims to ...
Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Barley yellow dwarf virus MAV (BYDV-MAV), Barley yellow dwarf virus PAV (BYDV-PAV), sowie Barley yellow dwarf virus PAS (BYDV- ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
... typhoid fever, and yellow fever.[1] The Lassa virus is a member of the Arenaviridae family of viruses.[1] ... Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Lassa fever, also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus.[1] ... Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa. *^ Yun, N. E.; Walker, D. H. (2012). "Pathogenesis of Lassa Fever". Viruses. 4 (12): ...
Darfur yellow fever (2012). *Swansea measles (2013). *Western African Ebola (2013-2016) ... "Origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries.", Virol. J., 7 (52). ... He described the plague as "great" and of long duration, and mentioned fever, diarrhea, and pharyngitis as well as a skin ... "Origin of the Measles Virus: Divergence from Rinderpest Virus Between the 11th and 12th Centuries". Virology. 7: 52-55. doi ...
... is caused by yellow fever virus, a 40- to 50-nm-wide enveloped RNA virus, the type species and namesake of the ... "Genetic relationships and evolution of genotypes of yellow fever virus and other members of the yellow fever virus group within ... Yellow fever virus is mainly transmitted through the bite of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, but other mostly Aedes ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ...
Throughout recorded history, epidemics of human diseases, such as malaria, yellow fever, typhus, and bubonic plague, spread via ... 1999). "Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States". Science. ... Other examples are Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) and Centaurea diffusa (diffuse knapweed). These Eastern European ... yellow starthistle). Forage loss from invasive weeds on pastures amounts to nearly US$1 billion in the U.S. alone.[94] A ...
It is likely that the refugees and ships carried the yellow fever virus and mosquitoes. The virus is transmitted by mosquito ... "A Short History of Yellow Fever in the US". Benjamin Rush, yellow Fever and the Birth of Modern Medicine. Archived from the ... making yellow fever a national crisis. New York doctors finally admitted that they had had an outbreak of yellow fever in 1791 ... yellow fever epidemic, saw the pattern; he recognized that yellow fever had returned. Rush alerted his colleagues and the ...
a b The Philip S. Hench Walter Reed Yellow Fever On-line Collection [02954005]&query=james+carroll Online ... when little was known about the virus, Cuba compulsorily tested thousands of its citizens for HIV. Those who tested positive ... yellow fever was essentially eliminated due to the efforts of Clara Maass and surgeon Jesse William Lazear.[8][9] ... whose mosquito-based theory of yellow fever transmission was given its final proof under the direction of Walter Reed, James ...
Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR. *MMRV. *research: *Chikungunya. *Cytomegalovirus. *Dengue. *Ebola. *Epstein-Barr virus ... Anthrax is now known to be caused by a bacterium, and rabies is known to be caused by a virus. The microscopes of the time ... a virus, or a prion. At present, the science to understand this process is available but not the technology to perform it.[25] ... could reasonably be expected to show bacteria, but imaging of viruses had to wait until the development of electron microscopes ...
"Chapter 5 - dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)". 2010 Yellow Book. பார்த்த நாள் 2010-12-23. ... 4.0 4.1 Rodenhuis-Zybert IA, Wilschut J, Smit JM (August 2010). "Dengue virus life cycle: viral and host factors modulating ... 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Ranjit S, Kissoon N (July 2010). "Dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndromes". Pediatr. Crit. Care Med. ... "Dengue fever". UK Health Protection Agency. பார்த்த நாள் 27 June 2011.. *"DengueMap". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and ...
Mosquito Soldiers: Malaria, Yellow Fever, and the Course of the Civil War. (2010) ... Some viruses, like smallpox, have only human hosts and appeared to have never occurred on the North American continent before ... yellow fever, and malaria. Most sick people turn to local healers, and used folk remedies. Others relied upon the minister- ... Kenneth Link, "Potomac Fever: The Hazards of Camp Life," Vermont History, (1983) 51#2 pp 69-88 ...
Hay fever. Nasal polyp. Rhinorrhea. nasal septum Nasal septum deviation. Nasal septum perforation. Nasal septal hematoma. ... viruses in 23%, and both in 25%.[65] Environmental pollutants include both poor indoor and outdoor air quality.[63] Exposure to ... a change in the color of the sputum from clear to green or yellow, or an increase in cough in someone with COPD.[36] They may ...
Jean Laigret developed in 1932 the first vaccine for yellow fever;. *André Lwoff established in 1951 the existence of ... This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in ... yellow fever, and plague. Since 1908, eight Institut Pasteur scientists have been awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine and ... yellow fever, poliomyelitis, and hepatitis B. The discovery and use of sulfonamides in treating infections was another ...
Other causes of jaundice are pernicious anaemia and diseases affecting the liver such as typhoid, malaria, yellow fever and ... This is caused by a virus. The virus can spread and may lead to epidemics caused by: *overcrowding ... Jaundice (also called icterus) is when the skin and the whites of the eyes become a yellow color.[1] People with jaundice have ... The yellow colour of the skin and mucous membranes happens because of an increase in the bile pigment, bilirubin, in the blood. ...
Lu H, Ye MQ, Thung SN, Dash S, Gerber MA (December 2000). "Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA sequences in cholangiocarcinomas ... The most common physical indications of cholangiocarcinoma are abnormal liver function tests, jaundice (yellowing of the eyes ... fever (up to 20%), and changes in the color of stool or urine.[9][10] To some extent, the symptoms depend upon the location of ... and fever.[1] Light colored stool or dark urine may also occur.[4] Other biliary tract cancers include gallbladder cancer and ...
"Pepper Mild Mottle Virus, a Plant Virus Associated with Specific Immune Responses, Fever, Abdominal Pains, and Pruritus in ... been shown to transmit plant viral diseases in cereal crops and Polymyxa betae which transmits Beet necrotic yellow vein virus ... Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that ... The first virus to be discovered (see below) was Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This and other viruses cause an estimated US$60 ...
A cough and a fever indicate a higher likelihood of the flu in adults.[4] A number of the viruses that cause the common cold ... may vary in color from clear to yellow to green. This color does not indicate if an infection is caused by viruses or bacteria. ... Viruses[change , change source]. Coronaviruses are a group of viruses known for causing the common cold. They have a halo, or ... A rhinovirus is an RNA-containing virus of the family Picornaviridae. There are 99 known types of viruses in this family of ...
Suzuki E, Ichihara K, Johnson AM (January 2007). "Natural course of fever during influenza virus infection in children". Clin ... Seasonal risk areas for influenza: November-April (blue), April-November (red), and year-round (yellow). ... In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the ...
Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Dengue fever *DENV-1-4. *Yellow fever *YFV. *Zika fever *Zika virus ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... Chikungunya is an infection caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV).[3] Symptoms include fever and joint pains.[2] These ... Fever occurs with the onset of viremia, and the level of virus in the blood correlates with the intensity of symptoms in the ...
LU - yellow fever. *FA - Rift Valley fever. *NU - Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus ...
Talk:1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic. *Talk:1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic ... Pages in category "Low-importance virus articles". The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 1,493 ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Low-importance_virus_articles&oldid=388350164" ...
... and yellow fever vaccines in the 1930s and 1940s. These vaccines contained HBV-infected human serum as a stabilizing agent. HBV ... A new virus has been described in fish - White sucker hepatitis B virus.[3] This is the first hepadnavirus described from fish ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015.. *^ Hahn CM, Iwanowicz LR, Cornman RS, Conway CM, Winton JR, Blazer VS ( ... "Deciphering the Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis B Viruses by Means of a Family of Non-enveloped Fish Viruses". Cell Host & ...
Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR. *MMRV. *research: *Chikungunya. *COVID-19. *Cytomegalovirus. *Dengue. *Ebola ... A respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (RSV vaccine) is a vaccine which prevents infection by respiratory syncytial virus. No ... Mejias, Asuncion; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rosa; Peeples, Mark E.; Ramilo, Octavio (October 2019). "Respiratory Syncytial Virus ... "Respiratory syncytial virus vaccines". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 11 (3): 430-9. doi:10.1128/CMR.11.3.430. PMC 88889. PMID ...
Egg protein is present in influenza and yellow fever vaccines, because they are made using chicken eggs. Vaccines may also ... It gives immunity to an infectious disease caused by a particular germ (bacteria or virus). For example, the flu vaccine makes ... When a person gets a live vaccine, their immune system learns to recognize and fight off that virus or bacteria. Then, if the ... One common type of vaccine is a "live vaccine." This type of vaccine contains a small amount of a live virus or bacteria. ...
A95.) Yellow fever. *(A96.) Arenaviral haemorrhagic fever *(A96.0) Argentine hemorrhagic fever (Junín virus) ... A90-A99) Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrhagic fevers[संपादित करें]. *(A90.) Dengue fever (classical dengue) ... A77.) Spotted fever (tick-borne rickettsioses) *(A77.0) Spotted fever due to Rickettsia rickettsii *Rocky Mountain spotted ... B20-B24) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease[संपादित करें]. *(B20.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting ...
Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR. *MMRV. *research: *Chikungunya. *Cytomegalovirus. *Dengue. *Ebola. *Epstein-Barr virus ...
Fever is rare and should raise suspicion for secondary infection. Patients can be lethargic and might have sunken eyes, dry ... No one aboard a vessel flying a yellow flag would be allowed ashore for an extended period, typically 30 to 40 days.[96] ... "Oral rehydration salts, zinc supplement and rota virus vaccine in the management of childhood acute diarrhea". Journal of ... In the past, vessels flew a yellow quarantine flag if any crew members or passengers were suffering from cholera. ...
Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR. *MMRV. *research: *Chikungunya. *Cytomegalovirus. *Dengue. *Ebola. *Epstein-Barr virus ... The fifth reassortant virus expresses the attachment protein VP4, (type P1A), from the human rotavirus parent strain and the ... Rotavirus antigens for parenteral delivery, such as the P2-VP8 candidate, can be expressed as virus-like particles prepared in ... Both are taken orally and contain disabled live virus. ... and killed virus. These novel approaches are being pursued ...
2015-16 Zika virus epidemic Zika virus. Hundreds (as of 1 April 2016[update]) Africa 2016 2016 yellow fever outbreak in Angola ... dengue fever. 847 (as of 10 January 2013[update]) Darfur Sudan 2012 2012 yellow fever outbreak in Darfur, Sudan yellow fever [ ... Mali: Yellow fever epidemic in Kayes *^ Koh, B. K.; Ng, L. C.; Kita, Y.; Tang, C. S.; Ang, L. W.; Wong, K. Y.; James, L.; Goh, ... Yellow fever outbreak-Darfur Sudan and Chad". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 17 (7): e476-e478. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Yellow fever#. *combination: *MMR. *MMRV. *research: *Chikungunya. *Cytomegalovirus. *Dengue. *Ebola. *Epstein-Barr virus ...
"Phase 2a Immunogenicity Study of Hantaan/Puumala Virus DNA Vaccine for Prevention of Hemorrhagic Fever". ClinicalTrials.gov. ... This virus-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... The first hantavirus vaccine was developed in 1990 initially for use against Hantaan River virus which causes one of the most ... They include a recombinant vaccine and vaccines derived from HTNV and PUUV viruses. However, their prospects are unclear.[1] ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... African species circulate virus but rarely die. Some species of Marsupials circulate virus. Wild rodents generally resistant, ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: Yellow fever Abbreviation: YFV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. 3 ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... 8. STRODE, G.K. "Yellow fever". McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1951.. 9. BAKER, T.H. 1968. Bull. Hist. Med. 42:241-264.. 10. ... 7. CARTER, H.R. "Yellow fever: an epidemiological and historical study of its place of origin". Williams and Wilkins Co., ... "The development of vaccines against yellow fever". Stockholm, 1952. 174-182.. 4. MATHIS, E., et al. 1928. C.R. Acad. Sci. ( ...
The known and the unknown in yellow fever ecology and epidemiology. Ecol Dis 1982;1:103-10. 2.Aitken THG. Yellow fever: ... Since a yellow fever epizootic has not been established, a change in this recommendation for yellow fever vaccine in travelers ... sylvatic yellow fever. Field and laboratory investigations did not establish specific evidence of yellow fever in either of two ... International Notes Yellow Fever Virus Activity -- Trinidad and Tobago In December 1988, the Ministry of Health, Trinidad and ...
... In the United States, yellow fever (YF) ... Transfusion-related transmission of yellow fever vaccine virus is documented for the first time. ... Development of viremia and humoral and cellular parameters of immune activation after vaccination with yellow fever virus ... Yellow fever. In: CDC health information for international travel 2010. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services ...
Yellow fever virus definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... yellow fever virus in Medicine Expand. yellow fever virus n. An arbovirus of the genus Flavivirus that causes yellow fever and ...
Widely used for immunization of man against yellow fever. Widely used for immunization of man against yellow fever. ... Yellow fever virus ATCC ® VR-1268™ Designation: 17D [V-525-001-522] Application: ...
NAME: Yellow fever virus SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: YFV(1), YF(1,2,3), yellow fever(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10), and black vomit(1 ... Immunity develops 10 days after primary immunization and persists for more than 10 years(12). Only designated Yellow Fever ... Approximately 200,000 cases of yellow fever occur annually(4), 90 % of them in Africa(1,7). Up to 5,000 cases of YF in Africa ... Travelers should also take precautions against mosquito bites when in areas with yellow fever transmission. ...
Blood products with yellow fever vaccine in them are accidentally found. Learn the guidelines for donating blood and the errors ... Blood products with yellow fever vaccine in them are accidentally found. Learn the guidelines for donating blood and the errors ... Breast-feeding women should not receive yellow fever vaccine except in situations where exposure to yellow fever viruses cannot ... appear capable of transmitting the yellow fever vaccine virus.. This raises a question frequently asked about live virus ...
It is capable of transmitting viruses including dengue and yellow fever, but officials say those viruses arent currently ... chikungunya and yellow fever -- viruses that can cause painful symptoms including headaches and high fever, officials said. ... The yellow fever mosquito -- which was first found in California, including in the Central Valley, in 2013 -- is an aggressive ... Known as yellow fever mosquitoes, the insects were found Oct. 7 and 8 in Commerce and Pico Rivera, respectively, according to ...
... is capable of eliminating chikungunya virus and yellow fever virus.. "Human cells infected by chikungunya virus were treated ... Sofosbuvir rids organism of chikungunya and yellow fever viruses The medication is already used to treat hepatitis C and has ... Sofosbuvir rids organism of chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo ... An article on the groups research relating to yellow fever will be published shortly. ...
We will have to face more yellow fever (YF) cases in the upcoming years. Hence, improving disease management through the ... areas with low vaccination coverage but that are suitable for virus transmission, with an unprecedented risk of expansion to ... As revealed by the recent resurgence of yellow fever virus (YFV) activity in the tropical regions of Africa and South America, ... Keywords: yellow fever virus; flavivirus; vector-borne transmission; emergence yellow fever virus; flavivirus; vector-borne ...
Yellow fever is among one of the most lethal viral diseases for which approved antiviral therapies were yet to be discovered. ... yellow fever virus envelope protein homology modeling virtual screening antiviral compound Electronic Supplementary Material. ... The transmembrane domains of the prM and E Proteins of yellow fever virus are endoplasmic reticulum localization signals. J ... Docking studies towards exploring antiviral compounds against envelope protein of yellow fever virus. ...
Fever. Yellow Fever. Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral. Body Temperature Changes. Signs and Symptoms. Arbovirus Infections. Virus ... Yellow Fever Vaccine Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Yellow Fever Hemorrhagic Fever Viral Hemorrhagic ... Human Immune Responses to The Yellow Fever Virus Vaccine. This study is currently recruiting participants. See Contacts and ... History of previous yellow fever, West Nile, Dengue, St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis vaccination or infection ...
Russian experts to study Ebola virus, yellow fever in Guinea Russian epidemiologists will study the Ebola virus and yellow ... yellow fever, malaria, West Nile fever) on the basis of the center in Guinea, develop and test new tools to diagnose and ... Both Russian and Guinean specialists trained in Russia will be involved in studying the viruses. [Source: Itar Tass, Moscow, ... fever at the Russia-Guinea Research Center for Epidemiology and Prevention of Infectious Diseases established in Guineas ...
... to Yellow Fever Virus ( Tissue / cell preparation,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product ... Mouse Anti-Yellow Fever Virus Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 3576 from Abcam,Mouse monoclonal [3576] ... Mouse monoclonal [3576] to Yellow Fever Virus (Abpromise for all tested applications). Antigen: Tissue / cell preparation. ... Mouse Anti-Yellow Fever Virus Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 3576 from Abcam. ...
The deadly yellow fever virus has the potential to spread into cities around the world where it previously hasnt been seen, ... "CDC urges anyone traveling to a country where yellow fever is circulating to be vaccinated against yellow fever. Yellow fever ... places where yellow fever virus is established; areas that appear suitable for yellow fever virus transmission but where it has ... We studied the global conduits through which yellow fever virus can spread, and the potential for new yellow fever outbreaks to ...
Mutagenesis of the RGD motif in the yellow fever virus 17D envelope protein.. van der Most RG1, Corver J, Strauss JH. ... The envelope protein of yellow fever virus 17D (YFV-17D) contains a solvent-exposed RGD motif, which has led to the suggestion ... and viruses grown at this temperature were capable of infecting mammalian cells at 37 degrees C. These results strongly suggest ...
Yellow fever mosquitoes ‒ which can transmit dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever itself ‒ have been found in the Los Angeles ... Yellow fever mosquitoes ‒ which can transmit dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever itself ‒ have been found in the Los Angeles ... The virus is endemic in tropical areas of Africa and Latin America, and there are an estimated 200 000 cases of yellow fever, ... Now the viruses spread by the yellow fever mosquito could potentially arrive clear across the country from Florida. ...
Yellow fever (YF) is the prototypical hemorrhagic fever and results from infection with yellow fever virus (YFV), which is ... Detection of anti-yellow fever virus immunoglobulin M antibodies at 3-4 years following yellow fever vaccination. Am J Trop Med ... Yellow fever (YF) is a potentially fatal arboviral disease resulting from human infection with yellow fever virus (YFV), which ... Yellow Fever Expert C. . 2014. Yellow fever in Africa: estimating the burden of disease and impact of mass vaccination from ...
Yellow fever causes yellowing of the skin due to jaundice. There is no treatment for yellow fever and 5% of those infected die ... Yellow fever virus belongs to the Flavivirus family (subgroup arbovirus) and is an enveloped RNA virus. The virus shape is ... The yellow fever virus is transmitted to humans when an infected female mosquito bites a human. Symptoms include fever, ... Yellow fever virus is carried by mosquitoes and is common in Africa, Central and South America. In Africa, Aedes sp. is the ...
Yellow fever presents in most cases with fever, nausea, and pain and it generally subsides after several days although a more ... Caption: Structure of Yellow Fever Virus (PDB1NA4). Yellow fever presents in most cases with fever, nausea, and pain and it ... haemorrhagic fever, ill, illness, illustration, pathogen, pathogenic, pathogenic virus, sick, sickness, virus, yellow fever ...
... who is at risk of Yellow Fever, and how to prevent being infected. Yellow Fever is a virus spread by an infected Ades mosquito. ... What is Yellow Fever?. Yellow Fever is a virus, which is spread via the bite of an infected mosquito. The disease exisits in ... Urban Yellow Fever occurs in the cities and is spread from mosquito to human to mosquito. In the jungle form Yellow Fever is ... Who is at risk of Yellow Fever?. Any traveller to areas where Yellow Fever is endemic (that is: the infection is present in low ...
Yellow Fever Virus Interferes with Dengue-2 Replication and Might Prevent Reurbanization of Yellow Fever, São Paulo, Brazil, ... E. P. A. Costa and B. A. L. Fonseca, Dengue-2 Virus Almost Abolish Yellow Fever Virus Replication in C6/36 Cells, Atlanta, Ga, ... "Yellow fever virus exhibits slower evolutionary dynamics than dengue virus," Journal of Virology, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 765-772, ... E. P. Abrão and B. A. L. Fonseca, Viral Interference Among FlaviViruses: the Case of Dengue-2 and Yellow Fever Viruses, ...
6. The serum of monkeys that were inoculated with very minute doses of virus and died of yellow fever after a long incubation ... 2. A considerable variation in susceptibility was observed in these monkeys when a highly virulent strain of yellow fever virus ... was found to be a satisfactory diluent for the virus for titration purposes. 5. The development of yellow fever antibodies in ... The blood of a monkey that died of yellow fever and was kept after death for nine hours at a temperature varying between 78 and ...
Here we report for the first time the enhancement of virus virulence in mice using monocl … ... Antibody-mediated early death in vivo after infection with yellow fever virus J Gen Virol. 1986 Nov;67 ( Pt 11):2539-42. doi: ... prepared against yellow fever (YF) viruses. Our results show that the average survival time of mice was reduced by up to 33% (i ... A total of 12 YF viruses and 11 MAbs were examined and of these only three YF viruses (FNV, Asibi and B11) could be enhanced in ...
Figure 2: Number of Sri Lankans travelling to yellow fever endemic countries based on registries at Port Health Medical Offices ...
Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in ... Bryant J, Wang H, Cabezas C, Ramirez G, Watts D, Russell K, Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus in Peru. Emerg Infect ... de Souza RP, Foster PG, Sallum MA, Coimbra TL, Maeda AY, Silveira VR, Detection of a new yellow fever virus lineage within the ... Auguste AJ, Lemey P, Pybus OG, Suchard MA, Salas RA, Adesiyun AA, Yellow fever virus maintenance in Trinidad and its dispersal ...
Virus survived in eggs for longer than 4 months and was recovered from progeny of three immersions of first OVC eggs. Infected ... Transovarial transmission of virus was also demonstrated in first OVC progeny of Aedes mascarensis. ... Abstract Transovarial transmission of two strains of yellow fever virus was demonstrated in three colonized geographical ... Transovarial Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus in Stegomyia Mosquitoes * * Barry J. Beaty, Robert B. Tesh, Thomas H. G. Aitken ...
THE USE OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS MODIFIED BY IN VITRO CULTIVATION FOR HUMAN IMMUNIZATION. Max Theiler, Hugh H. Smith ... THE USE OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS MODIFIED BY IN VITRO CULTIVATION FOR HUMAN IMMUNIZATION ... with the tissue culture virus are rendered immune to a subsequent injection of a highly virulent yellow fever virus. This ... the eight vaccinated persons 2 to 4 weeks after inoculation with the tissue culture virus showed the presence of yellow fever ...
  • An arbovirus of the genus Flavivirus that causes yellow fever and is transmitted by mosquitoes. (dictionary.com)
  • Yellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototype species for the genus Flavivirus. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Amino acid compositions and amino-terminal sequences of the structural proteins of a flavivirus, European Tick-Borne encephalitis virus. (springer.com)
  • Sequence analysis of the viral core protein and the membrane-associated proteins V1 and NV2 of the flavivirus West Nile virus and of the genome sequence for these proteins. (springer.com)
  • YFV is the prototype virus of the family Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus ) and the virus for which the family was named ( flavus being Latin for yellow). (asm.org)
  • Over 100 species comprise the genus Flavivirus , which includes other notable human pathogens, such as dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. (asm.org)
  • Yellow fever virus belongs to the Flavivirus family (subgroup arbovirus) and is an enveloped RNA virus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The sequence of the entire RNA genome of the type flavivirus, yellow fever virus, has been obtained. (caltech.edu)
  • This genome organization implies that mature viral proteins are produced by posttranslational cleavage of a polyprotein precursor and has implications for flavivirus RNA replication and for the evolutionary relation of this virus family to other RNA viruses. (caltech.edu)
  • Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus, infecting ~200,000 people worldwide annually and causing about 30,000 deaths. (asm.org)
  • Flavivirus proteins are produced by co- and posttranslational proteolytic processing of a large polyprotein by both host- and virus-encoded proteinases. (asm.org)
  • Genetic relationships and evolution of genotypes of yellow fever virus and other members of the yellow fever virus group within the Flavivirus genus based on the 3' noncoding region. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Yellow fever is a potentially deadly virus in the flavivirus genus, just like Zika, Dengue and West Nile. (popsci.com)
  • Molecular assay reagents intended to identify yellow fever virus, a single-stranded RNA arbovirus of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, by detecting the ribonucleic acid (RNA) of the target virus. (medicalproductguide.com)
  • The first such vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a vaccine against the flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. (cdc.gov)
  • Yellow fever virus, a Flavivirus 100 105 106 115 closely related to Dengue, Japanese encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis viruses, and West Nile virus (WNV), 100 105 is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes that acquired the virus by biting infected humans or nonhuman primates (monkeys). (drugs.com)
  • Yellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototype member of the genus Flavivirus and family Flaviviridae. (fiocruz.br)
  • These changes are mainly grouped into functional non-structural domains of the virus, so it's very unlikely that they will affect the effectiveness of the vaccine," says Myrna Bonaldo, DSc, head of the IOC's Flavivirus Molecular Biology Laboratory and one of the coordinators of the study. (umn.edu)
  • Recent findings published in mBio suggest that Type III Interferon (IFN) signalling plays a critical role in preventing the viral neuroinvasion, which can occur after infection with the flavivirus Yellow Fever Virus (YFV). (id-hub.com)
  • Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an Aedes aegypti mosquito, which can also transmit viruses such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika. (eurekalert.org)
  • This workflow presented here, as described by Faria et al 1 for yellow fever virus (YFV), has been applied to other viruses including Ebola and Zika. (nanoporetech.com)
  • Total RNA was extracted from the mosquitoes for real-time PCR analysis for yellow fever, chikungunya, mayaro, Zika and dengue viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • In a previous study conducted in collaboration with Edison Durigon [a professor at ICB-USP] and his group, we identified the presence of dengue virus and Zika virus in the urine of infected patients, as well as in their semen in the case of Zika. (brightsurf.com)
  • In the case of Zika, previous studies conducted in collaboration by Durigon's and Zanotto's groups showed that the virus remained in patients' semen for months, with viral loads declining slowly. (brightsurf.com)
  • They also confirmed that Zika virus can be sexually transmitted. (brightsurf.com)
  • Arthropod-borne flaviviruses such as dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) are a cause of major health concerns worldwide ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition, differential testing was performed for other flaviviruses, namely dengue, Zika and West Nile viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nine (0.5%) samples were antibody positive for dengue virus, 15(0.9%) forWest Nile virus and 7 (0.4%) for Zika virus by PRNT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zika virus infection, associated microcephaly, and low yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazil: is there any causal link? (jidc.org)
  • Introduction: Since the end of 2014, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been rapidly spreading in Brazil. (jidc.org)
  • There is an urgent need for systematic studies to confirm the possible link between low yellow fever vaccination coverage, Zika virus infection and microcephaly. (jidc.org)
  • de Góes Cavalcanti L, Tauil P, Alencar C, Oliveira W, Teixeira M, Heukelbach J (2016) Zika virus infection, associated microcephaly, and low yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazil: is there any causal link? (jidc.org)
  • Concurrent amplification of Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever virus in a sylvatic focus of arboviruses in Southeastern Senegal, 2015. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chikungunya (CHIKV), yellow fever (YFV) and Zika ( ZIKV ) viruses circulate in sylvatic transmission cycles in southeastern Senegal , where they share common hosts and vectors. (bvsalud.org)
  • In tropical countries,acute febrile illnesses (AFIs) have a broad spectrum of possible aetiologies.In Brazil, Dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Zika virus (ZIKV),and Yellow fever virus (YFV) are currently the major arbovirus infections associatedwith AFIs. (fiocruz.br)
  • Re-visiting the evolution, dispersal and epidemiology of Zika virus in Asia. (tghn.org)
  • The Native Antigen Company first gained prominence in 2016, when it developed highly pure Zika virus NS1 protein during the 2015/2016 epidemic. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • YFV is transmitted to humans mainly by sylvatic mosquito vectors of the genera Haemagogus and Sabethes, but has also been known to be spread by the sinister Aedes aegypti mosquito which is responsible for the current Zika virus epidemic. (aaltobioreagents.com)
  • With our Zika, Chikungunya, Dengue Triplex and now our Yellow Fever solution we are truly building a comprehensive tropical product listing to meet this need. (aaltobioreagents.com)
  • Concern exists that Asian tigers like this one in my backyard may serve as vectors for Zika virus in the US. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • This week we turn our attention from chilly Maryland to Hawaii where a serious illness called Zika virus raised its ruthless head two weeks ago, and to yellow fever mosquitoes, tiny vampires that transmit the virus from person to person. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • For most people, Zika virus is not a serious health risk. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • The mother who gave birth to the child tested positive for exposure to the Zika virus and had recently traveled to Brazil where the incidence of microcephaly has increased dramatically during an outbreak of Zika that began in 2015. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • Scientists and physicians around the world are concerned with the possible link between exposure of pregnant women to the Zika virus during pregnancy and children born with microcephaly. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • Microcephaly is not the only disease linked to Zika virus. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • Scientists in French Polynesia suggest that the autoimmune disease of the nervous system called Guillain-Barré syndrome could also be associated with Zika virus. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • Zika belongs to a group of viruses called arboviruses owing to the fact that they are transmitted from one host to another by arthropods such as mosquitoes. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • Zika virus was first described in Africa in 1947 and is found in Africa, Asia, and Indonesia. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • Could the same scenario happen for the Zika virus? (bugoftheweek.com)
  • CDC recommends yellow fever vaccination for travelers greater than 9 months of age who leave urban areas (3). (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, yellow fever (YF) vaccination is recommended for travelers and active duty military members visiting endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Central/South America ( 1,2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Although the American Red Cross recommends not donating blood for at least two weeks after getting a yellow fever vaccination, it turns out that 89 US active duty trainees gave blood just four days after being inoculated with yellow fever vaccine. (mercola.com)
  • Over the last decade, most reported outbreaks occurred in, or eventually reached, areas with low vaccination coverage but that are suitable for virus transmission, with an unprecedented risk of expansion to densely populated territories in Africa, South America and Asia. (mdpi.com)
  • Researchers led by Dr. Kamran Khan of St. Michael's have mapped the worldwide pathways through which yellow fever virus could spread by analyzing global patterns of airline travellers, the environmental conditions needed to enable transmission of the virus within a city, and countries' requirements for travellers to provide proof of yellow fever vaccination upon entry. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some countries have set up policies requiring international travellers to provide proof of yellow fever vaccination upon entry. (eurekalert.org)
  • The revised global yellow fever risk map and recommendations for vaccination, 2010: consensus of the Informal WHO Working Group on Geographic Risk for Yellow Fever," The Lancet Infectious Diseases , vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 622-632, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • The WHO recommends as criteria for laboratory YF diagnosis the detection of YF-specific IgM or a 4-fold or greater rise in specific serum IgG levels in the absence of recent yellow fever vaccination and negative detection results for other flaviviruses. (asm.org)
  • A government advisory said, "failure to produce a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate at a Jamaican point of entry may lead to refusal of entry, or quarantined until the travelers' certificate is produced. (caribbeanlifenews.com)
  • Although a highly effective yellow fever vaccine has been available for more than seven decades, the low vaccination rate fails to prevent outbreaks in at-risk regions. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Large epidemics of YF occur when infected people introduce the virus into heavily populated areas with high mosquito density, where due to lack of vaccination, most people have little or no immunity [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results: There were seven significant high risk clusters of confirmed microcephaly cases, with four of them located in the Northeast where yellow fever vaccination rates were the lowest. (jidc.org)
  • Conclusion: We hypothesize that pregnant women in regions with high yellow fever vaccination coverage may pose their offspring to lower risk for development of microcephaly. (jidc.org)
  • Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever. (fiocruz.br)
  • The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil prompted widespread yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccination campaigns, imposing a responsibility to distinguish between vaccine- and wild-type YFV-associated disease. (tghn.org)
  • Late or Lack of Vaccination Linked to Importation of Yellow Fever from Angola to China. (cdc.gov)
  • 100 101 104 115 Risk depends on several factors, including vaccination status, use of personal protective measures against mosquito bites, travel locations, season, duration of exposure, occupational and recreational activities while traveling, and local rate of yellow fever virus transmission at the time of travel. (drugs.com)
  • 100 115 However, because serious adverse effects have been reported with yellow fever vaccine (see Cautions), base vaccination decisions on careful consideration of the individual's overall risk for travel-associated yellow fever, the high mortality rate reported for yellow fever, international regulations regarding yellow fever vaccination for countries on the travel itinerary, and all known precautions and contraindications for the vaccine. (drugs.com)
  • International health regulations (IHR) of the World Health Organization (WHO) allow countries to require proof of yellow fever vaccination documented on a validated ICVP as a condition of entry for travelers arriving from infected areas or from countries with infected areas, even if only in transit. (drugs.com)
  • 100 115 Some countries require evidence of yellow fever vaccination from all entering travelers, including those traveling directly from the US. (drugs.com)
  • 100 115 Travelers who have a specific contraindication to yellow fever vaccine and who cannot avoid travel to a country requiring vaccination should obtain a medical waiver before embarking on travel (see Medical Waivers under Cautions). (drugs.com)
  • Vaccinees should receive a completed yellow fever vaccine ICVP that is signed and validated with the official uniform stamp of the yellow fever vaccination center where the vaccine was given. (drugs.com)
  • Travel Health, Yellow Fever Disease & Vaccination. (blogspot.com)
  • TRAVELSAFE CLINICS - All about Travel Health, Yellow Fever disease & Vaccination. (blogspot.com)
  • We are NOT authorized by Govt of India for Yellow Fever Vaccination. (blogspot.com)
  • Yellow Fever Vaccination at Home across India A unique concept pioneered by TravelSafe Clinics, India Remember the time when you were sic. (blogspot.com)
  • List of Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres (APHO - Airport Health Organization, PHO - Port Health Orgnization) 1. (blogspot.com)
  • The Government of India has designated certain Government Hospitals and Agencies as Centers for Yellow Fever Vaccination. (blogspot.com)
  • I have gotten a few queries regarding Yellow Fever Vaccination Center in Bangalore. (blogspot.com)
  • Here are some details regarding getting Yellow Fever Vaccination done at Hyderabad. (blogspot.com)
  • Where can I get Yellow Fever Vaccination in Kolkata/ Calcutta/ West Bengal? (blogspot.com)
  • I have gotten many queries regarding Yellow Fever Vaccination Center in Kolkata/ Calcutta/ West Bengal? (blogspot.com)
  • New Yellow Fever Vaccination in Pune, Sassoon Hospital. (blogspot.com)
  • Information on Yellow Fever Vaccination at RML Hospital Delhi 1 Place of Vaccination - College of Nursing, Psychiatry Block, RML Hos. (blogspot.com)
  • Yellow fever vaccine is given only at designated vaccination centers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After getting the vaccine, you should be given a stamped and signed ''International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis'' (yellow card). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Discuss your itinerary with your doctor or nurse before you get your yellow fever vaccination. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Persons 9 months through 59 years of age traveling to or living in an area where risk of yellow fever is known to exist, or traveling to a country with an entry requirement for the vaccination. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should not donate blood for 14 days following the vaccination, because there is a risk of transmitting the vaccine virus through blood products during that period. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adults 60 years of age and older who cannot avoid travel to a yellow fever area should discuss vaccination with their doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you cannot get the vaccine for medical reasons, but require proof of yellow fever vaccination for travel, your doctor can give you a waiver letter if he considers the risk acceptably low. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You can double check if in doubt with your local yellow fever vaccination centre. (41.0.5)
  • Therefore, proof of yellow fever vaccination should not be required if traveling from one of these countries to another country with a vaccination entry requirement (unless that country requires proof of yellow fever vaccination from all arriving travelers). (41.0.5)
  • This raises a question frequently asked about live virus vaccines - if blood products contaminated with yellow fever vaccine can transmit vaccine strain virus infection, then couldn't the vaccines themselves also do so when they are injected? (mercola.com)
  • The infection causes flu-like illness, and occasionally develops into a potentially lethal complication called severe dengue (also known as Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever), according to the WHO. (rt.com)
  • Yellow fever (YF) is the prototypical hemorrhagic fever and results from infection with yellow fever virus (YFV), which is endemic to regions of Africa and South America. (asm.org)
  • Yellow fever (YF) is a potentially fatal arboviral disease resulting from human infection with yellow fever virus (YFV), which is endemic to regions of Africa and South America ( Fig. 1 ) ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Any traveller to areas where Yellow Fever is endemic (that is: the infection is present in low levels) is at risk. (travelhealth.co.uk)
  • 2. A considerable variation in susceptibility was observed in these monkeys when a highly virulent strain of yellow fever virus was injected in very high dilutions, and very small amounts of the virus were frequently found to immunize animals without producing any outward signs of infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • 3. In the majority of the animals inoculated with minute quantities of virus the infection was characterized by a rather long incubation period, followed usually be a sharp, short febrile attack and death. (ajtmh.org)
  • The yellow fever infection rate was 8.2% for Hg. (mdpi.com)
  • Formal confirmation of yellow fever virus (YFV) infection, however, requires immunohistochemical detection of YFV antigen, amplification of YFV genomic sequences from blood or solid tissues by PCR, or a test for viremia involving cultivation of YFV infectious particles. (asm.org)
  • This detection is a matter for serious concern, above all because it suggests that the transmissibility period for yellow fever virus may be longer than expected in the case of an acute infection [typically not more than ten days]," the researcher noted. (brightsurf.com)
  • We don't yet have enough samples to determine how long yellow fever virus can be detected in urine and semen, but our monitoring of the patient for 21 days after observing the first symptoms of the disease suggests the virus can be detected in these biological materials for almost a month after infection, if not longer," Zanotto said. (brightsurf.com)
  • The researchers believe tests designed to detect the presence of yellow fever virus, especially in the urine of patients with suspected infection, can facilitate and improve diagnosis of the disease. (brightsurf.com)
  • Clinical confirmation of incipient infection by yellow fever is currently based on detection of viral RNA in blood by serologic testing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), which measure blood levels of certain antibodies, such as immunoglobulin M (IgM), made by the immune system to combat invading microorganisms (antigens). (brightsurf.com)
  • These are the relatively severe cases, representing the tip of the iceberg as far as the problem of infection by yellow fever in Brazil is concerned since a large proportion of those infected is asymptomatic," Zanotto said. (brightsurf.com)
  • An improved understanding of the complex mechanisms regulating YFV-17D attenuation will provide insights into the key virus-host interactions that regulate host immune responses and infection outcomes as well as open novel avenues for the development of innovative vaccine strategies. (asm.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are targets for dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YF) replication and are the first cell population to interact with these viruses during a natural infection, which leads to an induction of protective immunity in humans. (scielo.br)
  • A Novel Benzodiazepine Compound Inhibits Yellow Fever Virus Infection by Specifically Targeting NS4B Protein. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Collections within villages were continued until 6 AM. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. (bvsalud.org)
  • Disease was improved when compound was administered beginning as late as 3 d post-virus infection. (usu.edu)
  • Yellow Fever 17DD vaccine virus infection causes detectable changes in chicken embryos. (fiocruz.br)
  • Kinetic study of Yellow Fever 17DD viral infection in Gallus gallus domesticus embryos. (fiocruz.br)
  • Human muscle satellite cells as targets of Chikungunya virus infection. (fiocruz.br)
  • Productive infection of human skeletal muscle cells by pandemic and seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses. (fiocruz.br)
  • The fever gets its name from the jaundice it can cause after a few days of infection. (popsci.com)
  • Limited evolution of the yellow fever virus 17d in a mouse infection model. (bvsalud.org)
  • Stamaril®), the dose dependence and evolutionary consequences of neurotropic yellow fever infection was assessed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Firstly, a propensity for limited evolution even upon infection with a (very) low inoculum suggests that fractional dosing as implemented in current YF-outbreak control may pose only a limited risk of reversion to pathogenic vaccine -derived virus variants. (bvsalud.org)
  • An excessive proliferation of membrane-bound organelles involving both vacuoles and endoplasmic reticula was the most striking feature of virus-infected cells late in infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The IOC/Fiocruz scientists don't know what affect these mutations have on virus transmission and infection. (umn.edu)
  • Approximately 1 in 10 patients with HBV infection becomes a carrier of the virus and may transmit it to others. (britannica.com)
  • However, mosquito surveillance using human landing collections (mosquitoes collected as they landed on humans) yielded two isolates of yellow fever virus from 29 pools of Haemagogus janthinomys collected in the forests between December 8 and January 19. (cdc.gov)
  • aegypti or mosquitoes in Tobago, and the monkeys and mosquitoes associated with sylvatic yellow fever are not found there. (cdc.gov)
  • Laboratory studies have shown that transovarial transmission of the virus in mosquitoes is possible (2), but in the western hemisphere, the virus has not been demonstrated in mosquitoes collected from sylvatic locations. (cdc.gov)
  • Known as yellow fever mosquitoes, the insects were found Oct. 7 and 8 in Commerce and Pico Rivera, respectively, according to the Greater Los Angeles County Vector Control District. (latimes.com)
  • While these debilitating viruses, so far, aren't locally transmitted in L.A. County, the mosquitoes that can transmit them are now here," Susanne Kluh, the district's director of scientific-technical services, said in a statement. (latimes.com)
  • Yellow fever mosquitoes ‒ which can transmit dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever itself ‒ have been found in the Los Angeles region, officials announced Wednesday. (rt.com)
  • These mosquitoes can spread the three deadly tropical viruses to humans through their bites. (rt.com)
  • "This newly reported case represents the first time that mosquitoes in the continental United States are thought to have spread the virus to a non-traveler," the CDC announced. (rt.com)
  • The flaviviruses are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses, and these are predominantly transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod vectors (arboviruses) such as mosquitoes and ticks ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Yellow fever virus is carried by mosquitoes and is common in Africa, Central and South America. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In the jungle form Yellow Fever is spread from mosquitoes to monkeys and also to humans. (travelhealth.co.uk)
  • Monitoring of dengue viruses in field-caught Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes by a type-specific polymerase chain reaction and cycle sequencing," American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene , vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 578-586, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • This work presents the results of survey efforts to detect the yellow fever virus in mosquitoes from two conservation areas in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. (mdpi.com)
  • janthinomys (13 mosquitoes), which is the main vector of sylvatic yellow fever in Brazil. (mdpi.com)
  • Yellow fever is an acute viral disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. (caribbeanlifenews.com)
  • The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes infected with the yellow fever virus (YFV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mosquitoes are known vectors of yellow fever virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All three viruses undergo periodic amplifications, during which they are detected in mosquitoes and sometimes in hosts. (bvsalud.org)
  • The virus is believed to move from place to place in epizootic waves involving monkeys and mosquitoes, rather than persistently circulating within particular locales. (cdc.gov)
  • Yellow fever virus (YFV) causing a deadly viral disease is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. (pasteur.fr)
  • Local mosquitoes then bite the infected traveler and transmits the virus to city-dwellers. (popsci.com)
  • This is the most dangerous form of transmission, as larger populations of people and mosquitoes in a city make the virus more difficult to control. (popsci.com)
  • Mosquitoes carrying the yellow fever and dengue diseases spotted around the state. (snapzu.com)
  • It is an arbovirus transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes in Africa and Americas, causing a disease with a large spectrum of symptoms, from mild disease to severe and deadly haemorrhagic fever in humans and New World non-human primates (NHP) (Vasconcelos & Monath 2016). (fiocruz.br)
  • TORONTO, April 27, 2018 - The deadly yellow fever virus has the potential to spread into cities around the world where it previously hasn't been seen, according to a new study led by St. Michael's Hospital. (eurekalert.org)
  • The state of Minas Gerais faced outbreaks of sylvatic yellow fever in 2017 and 2018, with 1002 confirmed cases and 340 deaths. (mdpi.com)
  • Approximately 200,000 cases of yellow fever occur annually(4), 90 % of them in Africa(1,7). (msdsonline.com)
  • As revealed by the recent resurgence of yellow fever virus (YFV) activity in the tropical regions of Africa and South America, YFV control measures need urgent rethinking. (mdpi.com)
  • The virus is endemic in tropical areas of Africa and Latin America, and there are an estimated 200 000 cases of yellow fever, causing 30 000 deaths, worldwide each year, with 90 percent occurring in Africa. (rt.com)
  • Yellow fever (YF) is a zoonotic flaviviral disease endemic and epidemic in tropical regions of South America and Africa. (asm.org)
  • This makes UVRI the only certified Yellow fever reference laboratory in Eastern Africa and the second in the African Region, the other being Institut Pasteur Dakar (IPD) in Senegal. (who.int)
  • The enigma of yellow fever in East Africa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease which threatens approximately one billion people living in tropical areas of Africa and Latin America. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Yellow fever (YF) is a viral hemorrhagic fever, endemic in the tropical forests of Africa and Central and South America. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the existence of highly effective vaccines for over 70 years, yellow fever remains a significant and re-emerging cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic and high-risk regions of South America and Africa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Therefore, the risk of reemergence of urban YFV epidemics in South America is major with a virus introduced either from a forest cycle or by a traveler returning from the YFV-endemic region of Africa. (pasteur.fr)
  • The virus most likely first appeared in Africa and taken into the Americas in the 17th century by slaves in the Columbian Exchange. (popsci.com)
  • Yellow fever had been prevalent in West Africa until the WHO launched the Yellow Fever Initiative in 2006. (popsci.com)
  • Isolates of yellow fever (YF) virus from Africa (Senegambia, Central African Republic, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso) and from South America (Panama, Ecuador, Trinidad) were examined by oligonucleotide fingerprinting of the 40S genome RNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Yellow fever is a haemorrhagic viral disease, transmitted by infected mosquitos in Africa and South America. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Inresearchers confirmed that yellow fever is transmitted by a species of mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is native to Africa and flourishes in tropical and subtropical climates. (billsimas.com)
  • It was in that it was discovered that the virus had come to Memphis from and infected ship that had ported in either the Caribbean or West Africa and had later entered the United States to New Orleans and then to Memphis. (billsimas.com)
  • Travelers to areas of sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America where yellow fever virus is endemic and intermittently epidemic are at high risk of disease caused by yellow fever virus. (drugs.com)
  • For US travelers, the US Public Health Service Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and CDC recommend primary immunization with yellow fever vaccine in adults, adolescents, and children ≥9 months of age who will be traveling to or living in yellow fever endemic or epidemic areas of Africa and South America. (drugs.com)
  • 104 This includes travelers who plan to spend prolonged periods in endemic areas or those traveling to highly endemic areas (e.g., rural West Africa during peak transmission season) or to areas with an ongoing outbreak of yellow fever. (drugs.com)
  • Since 2004, chikungunya fever has reached epidemic proportions, with considerable morbidity and suffering, the WHO said. (rt.com)
  • League of Nations, "Yellow fever," League of Nations Monthly Epidemic Report 7, 1928. (hindawi.com)
  • Epidemiology of dengue in Sri lanka before and after the emergence of epidemic dengue hemorrhagic fever," American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene , vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 765-773, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • Rift Valley fever epidemic in Saudi Arabia: epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The concurrent appearance of at least four variants during the 1995 epidemic and the genetic stability of separate virus lineages over time indicate that Peruvian YFV is locally maintained and circulates continuously in discrete foci of enzootic transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Yellow Fever Epidemic of The Yellow Fever Epidemic of struck during the summer in PhiladelphiaPennsylvania, where the highest fatalities in the United States were recorded. (billsimas.com)
  • A nnie Cook was a Memphis Madam who stayed in the city during the Yellow Fever epidemic, turned her brothel into a hospital and took care of the sick. (billsimas.com)
  • The Yellow Fever Epidemic of Strikes Lake By Martha Waltman In the summer of a yellow fever epidemic swept across much of the United States, most notably the southeastern region, taking a tremendous toll in its paths. (billsimas.com)
  • One of the projects I did was a slide presentation and written report no PowerPoint back in those days on the Yellow Fever epidemic described in this book. (billsimas.com)
  • The Yellow Fever Epidemic of The Yellow Fever Epidemic of During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the United States, Caribbean, and South America experienced several major outbreaks of yellow fever, devastating local populations. (billsimas.com)
  • Sinceonly a single urban outbreak in Santa Cruz de la SierraBoliviahas occurred.The Memphis Yellow Fever Epidemic of Essay. (billsimas.com)
  • In the city of Memphis, Tennessee on the Mississippi River was struck by an epidemic of yellow fever, which so depopulated the area that the city lost its. (billsimas.com)
  • The Yellow Fever Epidemic of Strikes Lake. (billsimas.com)
  • The yellow fever mosquito, shown in a file photo, has been found in Commerce and Pico Rivera. (latimes.com)
  • A new aggressive daytime-biting mosquito capable of transmitting debilitating and possibly deadly viruses has been found in the Los Angeles region, officials announced Wednesday. (latimes.com)
  • The yellow fever mosquito -- which was first found in California, including in the Central Valley , in 2013 -- is an aggressive daytime biter that thrives in urban environments, preferring small, man-made containers to lay eggs. (latimes.com)
  • Now the viruses spread by the yellow fever mosquito could potentially arrive clear across the country from Florida. (rt.com)
  • The Aedes aegypti species, better known as the yellow fever mosquito, has black and white stripes and grows to about a quarter-inch in size. (rt.com)
  • The yellow fever virus is transmitted to humans when an infected female mosquito bites a human. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Yellow Fever is a virus, which is spread via the bite of an infected mosquito. (travelhealth.co.uk)
  • Urban Yellow Fever occurs in the cities and is spread from mosquito to human to mosquito. (travelhealth.co.uk)
  • In addition to surveying the mosquito fauna of these conservation units, this work demonstrates the importance of monitoring the circulation of viruses near large urban centers. (mdpi.com)
  • Jamaica is taking steps to prevent the importation of the yellow fever virus into the country where the disease does not occur but where the mosquito vector and human hosts are present. (caribbeanlifenews.com)
  • Seventy-five mosquito pools comprising 10 mosquito species contained at least one virus . (bvsalud.org)
  • No single mosquito pool contained more than one virus . (bvsalud.org)
  • The absence of urban yellow fever virus (YFV) in Bolivian cities has been attributed to the lack of competent urban mosquito vectors. (cdc.gov)
  • After an Aedes aegypti or Haemagogus mosquito bites an infected monkey or human and transmits yellow fever to a new host, the virus lurks in the body for three to six days before symptoms arise. (popsci.com)
  • Sylvatic transmission - A mosquito bites an infected monkey and transmits yellow fever to a human working or traveling through the jungle. (popsci.com)
  • The first of two agents on our list spread by the Aedes mosquito, the yellow fever virus wasn't been much of a concern in the latter half of the twentieth century. (popsci.com)
  • The disease is caused by the yellow fever virus and is spread by the bite of an infected female mosquito. (sciencesource.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the American tropics have been reinfested with Aedes aegypti, the mosquito known to carry arboviruses such as Yellow Fever. (biofronttech.com)
  • The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti , made famous by Walter Reed, has been in the United States for centuries. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • Mosquito experts say there is no reason to assume that the Asian tiger will not be able to vector the virus. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • While the yellow fever mosquito has been with us for many years, the Asian tiger is a newcomer having arrived in Texas in 1985 in a boatload of water-filled tires from Asia. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • The yellow fever mosquito is widely distributed in southern states, and the Asian tiger is found from Florida to New England in the eastern United States and as far west as California. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • The 'yellow' in the name refers to the jaundice that affects some patients, according to the World Health Organization. (rt.com)
  • Yellow fever causes yellowing of the skin due to jaundice. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The Name "Yellow Fever" Is Due To The Ensuing Jaundice That Affects Some Patients. (popsci.com)
  • Sometimes jaundice , a yellowing of the skin and eyes, will develop. (britannica.com)
  • abstract = "Here we describe a novel vaccine vector for expressing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens. (elsevier.com)
  • This report summarizes the subsequent investigation by the hospital and CDC to identify lapses in donor deferral and to determine whether transfusion-related transmission of YF vaccine virus occurred. (cdc.gov)
  • Three of the four surviving patients had evidence of serologic response to YF vaccine virus. (cdc.gov)
  • This report provides evidence that transfusion-related transmission of YF vaccine virus can occur and underscores the need for careful screening and deferral of recently vaccinated blood donors. (cdc.gov)
  • All blood product recipients were notified in writing of the potential exposure to YF vaccine virus, and serum samples from the recipients were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against YF virus (YFV). (cdc.gov)
  • Samples testing positive for YFV-specific IgM antibodies were evaluated using the plaque reduction neutralization test, with a 90% cutoff value for neutralizing antibody titers against YFV (the standard evaluation at CDC for determining serologic response to YF vaccine virus). (cdc.gov)
  • The investigation documents evidence for transmission of vaccine virus through infected blood products. (mercola.com)
  • Three of the five tested positive for serologic response to yellow fever vaccine virus, and the CDC concluded that various blood products, including irradiated platelets, appear capable of transmitting the yellow fever vaccine virus. (mercola.com)
  • Production of Yellow Fever 17DD vaccine virus in primary culture of chicken embryo fibroblasts: yields, thermo and genetic stability, attenuation and immunogenicity. (fiocruz.br)
  • We show that recombinant attenuated yellow fever vaccine virus 17D expressing simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 Gag sequences can be used as a vector to generate SIV-specific CD8 + T-cell responses in the rhesus macaque. (elsevier.com)
  • Laboratory personnel who might be exposed to yellow fever virus or vaccine virus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Comparison of the YF-Asibi-LP viruses before and after passage in HeLa cells, using a panel of envelope protein-reactive monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), showed that MAbs which specifically neutralize YF-Asibi-LP virus, and not YF 17D-204 vaccine virus, also neutralized YF-Asibi-LP HeLa p6. (qxmd.com)
  • Genetic relationships of flaviviruses and yellow fever virus genotypes. (cdc.gov)
  • Flaviviruses cause severe acute febrile and haemorrhagic infections, including dengue and yellow fever and the pathogenesis of these infections is caused by an exacerbated immune response. (scielo.br)
  • Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses that may cause severe acute infectious diseases, such as dengue fever and yellow fever (YF). (scielo.br)
  • However, the ingredients for flaviviruses to establish in the US are present, as evidenced by West Nile and other nonnative viruses that arrived from foreign shores and now maintain themselves in the United States. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • Other nonnative flaviviruses like West Nile virus have become established in the US. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • Additional testing for West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus IgM and IgG antibodies was performed using enzyme immunoassays to evaluate for possible cross-reactive flaviviral antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • Epitopes on the Dengue 1 virus envelope protein recognized by neutralizing IgM monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Seroprevalence of anti-dengue virus antibodies in children in Colombo district, Sri Lanka," Dengue Bulletin , vol. 30, pp. 68-71, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • 5. The development of yellow fever antibodies in the blood of experimentally infected animals was found to take place early during the course of disease. (ajtmh.org)
  • Here we report for the first time the enhancement of virus virulence in mice using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) prepared against yellow fever (YF) viruses. (nih.gov)
  • The sera taken from the eight vaccinated persons 2 to 4 weeks after inoculation with the tissue culture virus showed the presence of yellow fever antibodies. (rupress.org)
  • Our full range of Yellow Fever Virus antibodies can be used for applications including functional assay, immunofluorescence and ELISA . (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • The BioFront Technologies line of anti-Yellow Fever virus monoclonal antibodies have been demonstratrd to produce reliable and trusted results for researchers leading the fight against this global issue. (biofronttech.com)
  • BioFront Technologies offers anti-Yellow Fever Virus NS1 monoclonal antibodies with demonstrated to be effective for Western blot, IF, and ELISA assays. (biofronttech.com)
  • The answer is that viral transmission has already been documented to occur with live virus polio and varicella (chicken pox) vaccines. (mercola.com)
  • And the CDC acknowledges that the possibility exists with other live virus vaccines, including the MMR and flu. (mercola.com)
  • Yellow fever vaccines can provide immunity. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Development of a cellular test to verify the safety of live vaccines, such as the yellow fever vaccine, without the need to use animal testing. (pasteur.fr)
  • Scientists from the Institut Pasteur, the CNRS and Sanofi Pasteur have recently developed a novel alternative method to animal testing that can be used to verify the safety of vaccines such as the yellow fever vaccine. (pasteur.fr)
  • There is no specific treatment for YFV and, despite access to safe and effective YFV vaccines, the virus is still causing significant health problems in these countries. (aaltobioreagents.com)
  • Yellow fever vaccine may be given at the same time as most other vaccines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • however, mechanisms underlying the periodic occurrence of epizootic activity in Trinidad are not fully understood--in particular, it is unknown whether the virus is periodically reintroduced from enzootic areas of South America or is maintained in the forest between outbreaks (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • is the insect vectors that carry the virus, while in South America, Haemagogus sp. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The analysis showed that the virus belonged to a group of genotypes isolated in South America, including two isolated in 2017 in Espírito Santo State. (brightsurf.com)
  • The prevailing paradigm of yellow fever virus (YFV) ecology in South America is that of wandering epizootics. (cdc.gov)
  • The Aedes aegypti species, which has black and white stripes and grows to about a quarter-inch in size, can transmit dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever -- viruses that can cause painful symptoms including headaches and high fever, officials said. (latimes.com)
  • Tête de moustique femelle Aedes albopictus, vecteur du virus de la dengue et du chikungunya. (pasteur.fr)
  • Malaria control efforts in the 1950s successfully decimated the Aedes population, and with it the occurrence of yellow fever. (popsci.com)
  • YFV is a spherical, enveloped virus of 40 to 50 nm in diameter(1,5), and has a single-stranded, positive- sense RNA genome(1,4,5). (msdsonline.com)
  • Reported methods for the detection of the yellow fever viral genome are beset by limitations in sensitivity, specificity, strain detection spectra, and suitability to laboratories with simple infrastructure in areas of endemicity. (asm.org)
  • We describe the development of two different approaches affording sensitive and specific detection of the yellow fever genome: a real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and an isothermal protocol employing the same primer-probe set but based on helicase-dependent amplification technology (RT-tHDA). (asm.org)
  • They sequenced the genome of the virus isolated from the patient's urine. (brightsurf.com)
  • Unbiased PCR amplification of total RNA extracted directly from patient sera and next generation sequencing resulted in detection of yellow fever virus and generation of 98% of the virus genome sequence. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The oligonucleotide fingerprints of the genome RNA offered a useful tool for the understanding of YF virus variability. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • YFV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus with a genome of approximately 11 kb. (fiocruz.br)
  • A Google-translated version of the report says that scientists from the nation's public health research center, Oswaldo Cruz Institute /Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (IOC/Fiocruz) have sequenced the complete genome of the yellow fever virus from two howler monkeys from Espirito Santo state. (umn.edu)
  • Seven of the mutations are in the portion of the virus's genome linked to replication, and the other is in the assembly of the virus capsid, which stores genetic material. (umn.edu)
  • Background: A Src kinase-activating phosphatase (PTPRE) is targeted by a genome-derived yellow fever virus (YFV) short noncoding RNA (vsRNA) in vitro. (scilit.net)
  • All viruses save ZIKV were detected indoors and outdoors, mainly around dusk. (bvsalud.org)
  • Virus positive pools were detected over 2, 3 and 4 months for YFV, CHIKV and ZIKV , respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization , the research does not model a particular outbreak, but rather examines the potential spread for yellow fever virus to spread between the world's cities. (eurekalert.org)
  • Initial tests for Ebola viruses, Marburg virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus were negative. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Unfortunately, an YF outbreak may not be detected because the clinical manifestation overlaps with the symptoms of other hemorrhagic fever, viral hepatitis, malaria, and leptospirosis, and this leads to misdiagnosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Later comes internal bleeding (it's a hemorrhagic fever like Ebola and Marburg) followed by bloody vomit with the consistency of coffee grounds. (popsci.com)
  • The first cases (hemorrhagic fever suspected as being yellow fever) were reported in Eritrean visitors beginning on 5 December 2015 and confirmed by the Pasteur WHO reference laboratory in Dakar, Senegal in January. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chikungunya is a viral disease that causes fever and severe joint pain. (rt.com)
  • Dengue fever is the most important arthropod-borne emerging viral disease in tropical countries due to high morbidity and increased risk of mortality (Gubler 2002). (scielo.br)
  • Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration. (sciencesource.com)
  • AACC, San Diego, USA - July 28th, 2017 - Aalto Bio Reagents today announced the availability of its first-to-market recombinant Yellow Fever virus (YFV) protein (code CA 6325) for diagnostic test manufacturers, vaccine developers and researchers globally. (aaltobioreagents.com)
  • It is capable of transmitting viruses including dengue and yellow fever, but officials say those viruses aren't currently present in L.A. County. (latimes.com)
  • 100 104 WHO estimates that about 200,000 cases of yellow fever and 30,000 fatalities related to the disease occur annually worldwide. (drugs.com)
  • Other symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash, similar to dengue, which can cause misdiagnosis in areas where both viruses are common. (rt.com)
  • Symptoms include fever, headache and nausea (flu-like symptoms). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Yellow fever presents in most cases with fever, nausea, and pain and it generally subsides after several days although a more dangerous toxic phase can occur in some patients. (sciencephoto.com)
  • 2012). Both patients were residents of Rio de Janeiro and presented thefollowing symptoms after returning from Caxambu, Minas Gerais: fever, nausea,and abdominal discomfort. (fiocruz.br)
  • This is the story of yellow fever, a disease that shouldn't be a problem in 2016. (popsci.com)
  • In April 2016, a yellow fever outbreak was detected in Uganda. (cdc.gov)
  • On 20 January 2016, the health minister of Angola reported 23 cases of yellow fever with 7 deaths among Eritrean and Congolese citizens living in Angola in Viana municipality, a suburb of the capital of Luanda. (wikipedia.org)
  • A preliminary finding that the strain of the yellow fever virus was closely related to a strain identified in a 1971 outbreak in Angola was confirmed in August 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 22 March 2016, the WHO was notified of 21 deaths from yellow fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, some in a province that borders Angola. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like Ebola , yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease. (rt.com)
  • Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease responsible for up to 60,000 human deaths annually. (nanoporetech.com)
  • Using a metagenomic approach, we identified hepatitis A virus among cases of acute febrile illnesses that occurred in 2008-2012 in Brazil suspected as yellow fever. (fiocruz.br)
  • The signs and symptoms of acute viral hepatitis result from damage to the liver and are similar regardless of the hepatitis virus responsible. (britannica.com)
  • We demonstrate reliable detection by both assays of different strains of yellow fever virus with improved sensitivity and specificity. (asm.org)
  • This antibody is specific for the envelope protein of the wild (Asibi) and vaccine strains of yellow fever virus. (genetex.com)
  • Since this vaccine was associated with a higher incidence of encephalitisFNV was not recommended after Yellow fever broke out in Boston inPhiladelphia in and Norfolk, Virginia inbut the worst American outbreak of yellow fever occurred in the Mississippi River Valley in He also campaigned against yellow fever during the construction of the Panama Canal. (billsimas.com)
  • On 20 June, the health minister declared the outbreak of yellow fever in three provinces, including the capital of DR Congo, Kinshasa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yellow fever virus particles (virions), coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). (sciencephoto.com)
  • An Electron Micrograph Of Yellow Fever Virus Virions. (popsci.com)
  • Color enhanced Transmission Electron Micrograph (TEM) of yellow fever virus virions. (sciencesource.com)
  • Virus release appeared to occur by movement of nascent virions through the proliferated endoplasmic reticula followed by exocytic fusion of virus-containing vesicles with the plasmalemma. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 15 per cent of people who get yellow fever develop serious illness that can be fatal. (eurekalert.org)
  • Yellow fever vaccine is the best protection against yellow fever disease," says Dr. Martin Cetron, head of CDC's Division of Global Migration and Quarantine. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dengue virus is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropics and subtropics, mostly in urban and semi-urban areas, with as many as 400 million people infected yearly, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported. (rt.com)
  • The MinION TM was used in this investigation to characterise genetic diversity and monitor transmission of the virus in real-time, allowing more effective disease surveillance and outbreak control strategies to be implemented 1 . (nanoporetech.com)
  • The presence of yellow fever virus in urine and semen samples from a patient who survived the disease was detected almost a month after the patient was infected, according to a study conducted by researchers at the University of São Paulo's Biomedical Science Institute (ICB-USP) in Brazil in collaboration with colleagues at Butantan Institute, Emílio Ribas Infectology Institute, and Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo (PUC-SP). (brightsurf.com)
  • Yellow fever virus (YFV) continues to cause outbreaks of disease in endemic areas where vaccine is underutilized. (usu.edu)
  • When administered to YFV-infected hamsters 4 h prior to virus challenge at a dose as low as 80 mg/kg/d, 2′-C-MeC was effective in significantly improving survival and other disease parameters (weight change, serum ALT, and liver virus titers). (usu.edu)
  • In a message to Dr. Those who came down with yellow fever were quarantined in an effort to prevent the disease from spreading. (billsimas.com)
  • Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with yellow fever disease usually have to be hospitalized. (medlineplus.gov)
  • During the 1960s three different research groups reported that passage of wild-type yellow fever (YF) virus [strain Asibi (YF-Asibi)] in HeLa cells resulted in attenuation of the virus for monkeys so that the virus no longer caused viscerotropic disease. (qxmd.com)
  • The term viral hepatitis , however, usually is applied only to those cases of liver disease caused by the hepatitis viruses. (britannica.com)
  • Efforts have been directed toward full immunization coverage of persons who live or work in or near forests where virus activity is occurring. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunization of BALB/c mice with this chimeric virus induced a CD8 T-cell response specific for the DEN-2 virus prM and E proteins. (caltech.edu)
  • Mutagenesis of the RGD motif in the yellow fever virus 17D envelope protein. (nih.gov)
  • The envelope protein of yellow fever virus 17D (YFV-17D) contains a solvent-exposed RGD motif, which has led to the suggestion that integrins may function as cellular receptors for YFV-17D. (nih.gov)
  • We have constructed a chimeric yellow fever/dengue (YF/DEN) virus, which expresses the premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes from DEN type 2 (DEN-2) virus in a YF virus (YFV-17D) genetic background. (caltech.edu)
  • In this vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were exchanged for the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccine targets the virus envelope, or outer coating. (umn.edu)
  • However, two MAbs that recognize envelope protein epitopes did distinguish between HeLa- and non-HeLa-passaged YF-Asibi-LP virus. (qxmd.com)
  • These results suggest that antigenic changes in the viral envelope protein may determine the relative virulence or attenuation of YF virus. (qxmd.com)
  • Nearly complete backbone and sidechain resonance assignments have been obtained for the third domain, residues S288-K398, of the envelope protein from the Asibi strain of yellow fever virus using double- and triple-resonance spectroscopy. (utmb.edu)
  • Gorenstein, David G. / NMR assignments of the yellow fever virus envelope protein domain III . (utmb.edu)
  • Thus, sequencing Venezuelan YFV strains over a wide geographic area and temporal distribution might be valuable to test the hypothesis of local maintenance in Venezuela and to determine whether the virus moves regularly between Trinidad and Venezuela or between Venezuela and Brazil. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A study performed at the University of São Paulo's Biomedical Science Institute (ICB-USP) in Brazil shows that sofosbuvir, a drug used to treat chronic hepatitis C, is capable of eliminating chikungunya virus and yellow fever virus. (eurekalert.org)
  • Bold indicates viruses of medical importance in Brazil. (cdc.gov)
  • Brazil has experienced several arbovirus outbreaks in recent years, among which yellow fever stands out. (mdpi.com)
  • The current yellow fever (YF) outbreak in Brazil is the most severe recently reported in the country. (fiocruz.br)
  • However, since 2008, only YF viruses from lineage 1E have been detected in Brazil (de Souza et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • The yellow fever virus that has caused a large outbreak in Brazil has undergone substantial mutations, but these changes should not affect vaccine effectiveness, Brazilian investigators said, according to a story today in Brazil's O Globo newspaper. (umn.edu)
  • Remission : This stage is typified by an abatement of fever and other constitutional symptoms for a period of about 48 hours. (msdsonline.com)
  • There is no treatment for Yellow Fever, and so relief of symptoms is the primary course of action. (travelhealth.co.uk)
  • They detected a significant amount of viral RNA (genetic material) in the patient's urine and semen 15 and 25 days after the initial symptoms of yellow fever appeared. (brightsurf.com)
  • According to the current model, yellow fever virus transmissibility begins between 24 and 48 hours before the appearance of the first symptoms and lasts until between three and seven days thereafter. (brightsurf.com)
  • A small proportion of patients who contract the virus develop severe symptoms and approximately half of those die within 7 to 10 days [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Only about 20% of those infected will show symptoms, and for those that do fall ill symptoms are usually mild and include fever, rash, joint pain, red eyes, muscle pain, and headache. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • Symptoms usually appear from 40 days to 6 months after exposure to the hepatitis B virus (HBV). (britannica.com)
  • A total of 12 YF viruses and 11 MAbs were examined and of these only three YF viruses (FNV, Asibi and B11) could be enhanced in vivo by only two MAbs (427 and 126). (nih.gov)
  • A large plaque (LP) variant of YF-Asibi virus became attenuated for both monkeys and mice following six serial subcultures in HeLa cells (YF-Asibi-LP HeLa p6). (qxmd.com)
  • Thus, attenuation was probably due to a genetic change in the virus population rather than to selective enrichment of a pre-existing variant of YF-Asibi-LP virus. (qxmd.com)
  • One of these (MAb 117) which is YF wild-type-specific, recognized YF-Asibi-LP virus but not YF-Asibi-LP HeLa p6 virus, whereas the other (MAb411), which is YF vaccine-specific, recognized YF-Asibi-LP HeLa p6 virus but not YF-Asibi-LP virus. (qxmd.com)
  • Received 16 February 2000/Accepted 30 May 2000 We thank Charles M. Rice for providing the YFV-17D plasmids, Kenneth H. Eckels for providing the DEN-2 NGC virus, J. Robert Putnak for providing the reagents for neutralizing plaque assays, and Ching-Juh Lai and Margo Brinton for providing the prM- and E- and NS3-expressing vaccinia virus recombinants, respectively. (caltech.edu)
  • We studied the global conduits through which yellow fever virus can spread, and the potential for new yellow fever outbreaks to occur in the world's urban areas. (eurekalert.org)
  • Volunteers who are planning to travel to yellow fever endemic areas will be recruited into this study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • and non-endemic areas where there is no yellow fever virus and the environment appears unsuitable for it to spread. (eurekalert.org)
  • Surveillance of monkeys in forested areas is a component of the Ministry's ongoing surveillance of sylvatic yellow fever. (cdc.gov)
  • Field and laboratory investigations did not establish specific evidence of yellow fever in either of two dead monkeys, one decomposing and one freshly shot. (cdc.gov)
  • In Trinidad and Tobago, although intensified fever surveillance for human cases was implemented when reports of dying monkeys were confirmed, no human cases have been detected. (cdc.gov)
  • As of February 1, 1989, no yellow fever virus has been isolated from monkeys. (cdc.gov)
  • The serum taken at death from monkeys that died on the fourth, fifth, and sixth days after inoculation showed no protective properties, but the serum of animals that died on the seventh day or later protected fully against massive doses of virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • 6. The serum of monkeys that were inoculated with very minute doses of virus and died of yellow fever after a long incubation period, showed no protective properties. (ajtmh.org)
  • The response of rhesus monkeys to a subcutaneous inoculation with varying amounts of virus modified by prolonged cultivation in vitro has been studied. (rupress.org)
  • The immunity produced in monkeys, as measured by the antibody titer developed, has no relation to the amount of virus inoculated. (rupress.org)
  • Monkeys inoculated subcutaneously with the tissue culture virus are rendered immune to a subsequent injection of a highly virulent yellow fever virus. (rupress.org)
  • Arbovirus, short for arthropod-borne virus, refers to a type of virus transmitted by insects that feed on the blood of vertebrate hosts such as humans and monkeys. (brightsurf.com)
  • 1. It was possible to study in the ultracentrifuge by optical methods the behavior of yellow fever virus particles directly in the unaltered serum from infected monkeys. (rupress.org)
  • per cc. 1 cc. of a 10 -9 dilution, which, as has been shown, may constitute a minimal infective dose for monkeys, would contain approximately 10,000 virus particles. (rupress.org)
  • Monkeys are the primary source of yellow fever before it is passed along to humans. (popsci.com)
  • For dengue fever, a chimeric YF/dengue vaccine (ChimeriVax TM technology) is currently being tested in clinical trials (Guy et al. (scielo.br)
  • 74:5477-5485, 2000) that showed that a chimeric YF/DEN-2 virus is immunogenic and provides protective immunity in nonhuman primates. (caltech.edu)
  • We believe that their data complement our results and that the combined data emphasize the potential of chimeric YF/DEN viruses as vaccine candidates. (caltech.edu)
  • Urban transmission - A person who was previously infected with the yellow fever virus in a sylvatic or intermediate zone travels into a larger city. (popsci.com)
  • Yellow fever is among one of the most lethal viral diseases for which approved antiviral therapies were yet to be discovered. (springer.com)
  • Thus, the 10 lead molecules suggested in the present study would be of interest as promising starting point for designing antiviral compound against yellow fever. (springer.com)
  • Depletion of either CD4 or CD8 T cells, or both, strongly reduced the protective efficacy of the YF/DEN virus, stressing the key role of the antiviral T-cell response. (caltech.edu)
  • Although a highly effective vaccine is available, the number of yellow fever cases has increased over the past two decades, which highlights the pressing need for antiviral therapeutics. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The encouraging preclinical results thus warrant further development of BDAA or its derivatives as antiviral agents to treat yellow fever. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Thus far, there is no specific antiviral treatment for yellow fever. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We have thus reached a critical milestone toward the development of specific antiviral therapeutics for clinical management of yellow fever. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Broadly active antiviral compounds, such as 2′-C-MeC, represent potential for the development of compounds active against related viruses for the treatment of YFV. (usu.edu)
  • Selection and genetic analysis of drug resistant viruses revealed that substitution of proline at amino acid 219 (P219) of the nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) with serine, threonine or alanine confers YFV resistance to BDAA without apparent loss of replication fitness in cultured mammalian cells. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • On the assumption that the density of the virus particle is near that of protein, its volume is computed to be at least that of a spherical particle having a diameter of 12 mµ. (rupress.org)
  • For example, IP-10/CXCL-10 was found to be elevated in dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) (Fink et al. (scielo.br)
  • 104 ACIP also states revaccination (booster dose) may be given to travelers who received their last dose of yellow fever vaccine at least 10 years previously and who will be in higher-risk settings based on location, season, activities, and duration of travel. (drugs.com)
  • Anyone with a severe (life-threatening) allergy to any component of the vaccine, including eggs, chicken proteins, or gelatin, or who has had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of yellow fever vaccine should not get yellow fever vaccine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Yellow fever virus: genetic and phenotypic diversity and implications for detection, prevention and therapy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Rospotrebnadzor will study special aspects of the dissemination of dangerous natural focal infections (Ebola, Lassa, yellow fever, malaria, West Nile fever) on the basis of the center in Guinea, develop and test new tools to diagnose and prevent dangerous infectious diseases that pose a threat not only to Guinea but to the whole world as well," the statement said. (derechos.org)
  • Today [8 Apr 2013] the Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) reports the state's 1st human case of West Nile virus (WNV) for 2013. (blogspot.com)
  • The RT-qPCR assay is a powerful tool for reference or diagnostic laboratories with real-time PCR capability, while the isothermal RT-tHDA assay represents a useful alternative to earlier amplification techniques for the molecular diagnosis of yellow fever by field or point-of-care laboratories. (asm.org)
  • Rapid Molecular Assays for the Detection of Yellow Fever Virus in Low-Resource Settings. (biomatrica.com)
  • Quantified freeze-dried genomic standard for molecular detection of yellow fever virus, prepared from an inactivated cell culture supernatant of strain YFV-17D with quantified genomic titre. (european-virus-archive.com)
  • Molecular analyses determined the Uganda yellow fever outbreak was distinct from the concurrent yellow fever outbreak in Angola, improving our understanding of yellow fever epidemiology. (cdc.gov)
  • Since a yellow fever epizootic has not been established, a change in this recommendation for yellow fever vaccine in travelers to Trinidad is not indicated. (cdc.gov)
  • Infected travelers can bring these viruses to Los Angeles County. (latimes.com)
  • Last month, the Jamaica government issued a statement indicating that all travelers over the age of one year who arrived in Jamaica from countries where there is a risk of yellow fever transmission - including those passengers transiting those countries - would be required to produce a valid certificate to show they have been vaccinated. (caribbeanlifenews.com)
  • In years past cases of another virus, the Chikungunya virus, involved US travelers who contracted the virus in a foreign destination and returned home with it. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • The Tanzanian ministry of health mandates a transit time of more than 12 hours or a disembarkment from the immediate airport area from the above mentioned countries during transit as a possible health threat and requires travelers in such situations to possess Yellow Fever Certificates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yellow fever has been plaguing humans for centuries. (popsci.com)
  • Detection of the virus in urine could facilitate and speed up diagnosis of these asymptomatic patients, especially in places where deaths from yellow fever have been reported, the researchers noted. (brightsurf.com)
  • It can transmit canine heartworm and is the primary transmitter of the Barmah Forest and Ross River viruses in Oz. (rt.com)
  • Researchers led by Dr. Kamran Khan of St. Michael's have mapped the worldwide pathways through which yellow fever virus could spread by analyzing global patterns of airline travellers, the environmental. (eurekalert.org)
  • Yellow fever vaccine is available at a limited number of clinics in the U.S., and people with some medical conditions shouldn't be vaccinated, so travellers should plan ahead. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hepatitis A, caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), is the most common worldwide. (britannica.com)
  • Who is at risk of Yellow Fever? (travelhealth.co.uk)
  • Is There a Risk of Yellow Fever Virus Transmission in South Asian Countries with Hyperendemic Dengue? (hindawi.com)
  • Infants 6 through 8 months of age, pregnant women, and nursing mothers should avoid or postpone travel to an area where there is risk of yellow fever. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This map is an updated version of the 2010 map created by the Informal WHO Working Group on the Geographic Risk of Yellow Fever. (41.0.5)
  • 2 These countries are not holoendemic (only a portion of the country has risk of yellow fever transmission). (41.0.5)
  • Russian epidemiologists will study the Ebola virus and yellow fever at the Russia-Guinea Research Center for Epidemiology and Prevention of Infectious Diseases established in Guinea's Kindia region. (derechos.org)

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