The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a misunderstanding as "South America" is not a medical term and cannot have a medical definition. It is a geographical term referring to the southern portion of the American continent, consisting of twelve independent countries and three territories of other nations.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A species of COLTIVIRUS transmitted by the tick DERMACENTOR andersonii and causing fever, chills, aching head and limbs, and often vomiting. It occurs in the northwestern United States, except the Pacific Coast.
A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding - "Africa" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, consisting of 54 countries with diverse cultures, peoples, languages, and landscapes. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those for you!
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The type species of EPHEMEROVIRUS causing disease in cattle. Transmission is by hematophagous arthropods and the virus has been isolated from both culicoides and mosquitoes.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.

Vectors of Chikungunya virus in Senegal: current data and transmission cycles. (1/339)

Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to human beings by Aedes genus mosquitoes. From 1972 to 1986 in Kedougou, Senegal, 178 Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from gallery forest mosquitoes, with most of them isolated from Ae. furcifer-taylori (129 strains), Ae. luteocephalus (27 strains), and Ae. dalzieli (12 strains). The characteristics of the sylvatic transmission cycle are a circulation periodicity with silent intervals that last approximately three years. Few epidemics of this disease have been reported in Senegal. The most recent one occurred in 1996 in Kaffrine where two Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from Ae. aegypti. The retrospective analysis of viral isolates from mosquitoes, wild vertebrates, and humans allowed to us to characterize Chikungunya virus transmission cycles in Senegal and to compare them with those of yellow fever virus.  (+info)

Yellow fever/Japanese encephalitis chimeric viruses: construction and biological properties. (2/339)

A system has been developed for generating chimeric yellow fever/Japanese encephalitis (YF/JE) viruses from cDNA templates encoding the structural proteins prM and E of JE virus within the backbone of a molecular clone of the YF17D strain. Chimeric viruses incorporating the proteins of two JE strains, SA14-14-2 (human vaccine strain) and JE Nakayama (JE-N [virulent mouse brain-passaged strain]), were studied in cell culture and laboratory mice. The JE envelope protein (E) retained antigenic and biological properties when expressed with its prM protein together with the YF capsid; however, viable chimeric viruses incorporating the entire JE structural region (C-prM-E) could not be obtained. YF/JE(prM-E) chimeric viruses grew efficiently in cells of vertebrate or mosquito origin compared to the parental viruses. The YF/JE SA14-14-2 virus was unable to kill young adult mice by intracerebral challenge, even at doses of 10(6) PFU. In contrast, the YF/JE-N virus was neurovirulent, but the phenotype resembled parental YF virus rather than JE-N. Ten predicted amino acid differences distinguish the JE E proteins of the two chimeric viruses, therefore implicating one or more residues as virus-specific determinants of mouse neurovirulence in this chimeric system. This study indicates the feasibility of expressing protective antigens of JE virus in the context of a live, attenuated flavivirus vaccine strain (YF17D) and also establishes a genetic system for investigating the molecular basis for neurovirulence determinants encoded within the JE E protein.  (+info)

Genetic interaction of flavivirus nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS4A as a determinant of replicase function. (3/339)

Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of yellow fever virus (YF) is a glycoprotein localized to extracytoplasmic compartments within infected cells. We have previously shown that NS1 can be supplied in trans and is required for viral RNA replication, a process thought to occur in membrane-bound cytoplasmic complexes. Here we report that the NS1 gene from a related virus, dengue virus (DEN), is unable to function in the process of YF RNA replication. This virus-specific incompatibility leads to a lack of initial minus-strand accumulation, suggesting that DEN NS1 is unable to productively interact with the YF replicase. Based on a YF deletion mutant that requires NS1 in trans, a genetic screen for suppressor mutants was used to select virus variants able to utilize DEN NS1. In three independent selections, a single mutation was mapped to the NS4A gene, which encodes a putative transmembrane replicase component. This mutation, as well as several additional mutations, was engineered into the NS1-deficient genome and confirmed a genetic interaction between NS1 and NS4A. These findings suggest a potential mechanism for integrating NS1 into the cytoplasmic process of RNA replication.  (+info)

Immunogenicity, genetic stability, and protective efficacy of a recombinant, chimeric yellow fever-Japanese encephalitis virus (ChimeriVax-JE) as a live, attenuated vaccine candidate against Japanese encephalitis. (4/339)

Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine virus, having a 60-year history of safe and effective use, is an ideal vector to deliver heterologous genes from other medically important flaviviruses. A chimeric YF/Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (ChimeriVax-JE virus) was constructed by insertion of the premembrane and envelope (prME) genes of an attenuated human vaccine strain (SA14-14-2) of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus between core and nonstructural (NS) genes of a YF 17D infectious clone. The virus grew to high titers in cell cultures and was not neurovirulent for 3- to 4-week-old mice at doses /=10(3) pfu of ChimeriVax-JE virus were solidly protected against intraperitoneal challenge with a virulent JE virus. Genetic stability of the chimera was assessed by sequential passages in cell cultures or in mouse brain. All attenuating residues and the avirulent phenotype were preserved after 18 passages in cell cultures or 6 passages in mouse brains.  (+info)

First case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902. (5/339)

The first case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902 was reported in March 1998. The yellow fever virus genome was detected in postmortem liver biopsies by seminested polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis showed that this strain was most closely related to strains from Brazil and Ecuador.  (+info)

Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of two 17D yellow fever vaccines. (6/339)

As part of the clinical validation process of a new working seed of a licensed yellow fever vaccine (new working seed PV26, Stamaril; Pasteur Merieux Connaught, Lyon, France), the immunogenicity and safety of two batches of this vaccine (PM-YF) were compared with those of another commercially available vaccine (Arilvax; Evans Medical-Wellcome, Liverpool, United Kingdom) in 211 healthy adults. While the geometric mean titer values at days 10-14 and day 28 after vaccination were higher in the PM-YF group, the vaccines provided equivalent seroprotection (titers > or = 1/10) one month after a single vaccine dose (100% PM-YF versus 99% W-YF; P = 0.001, by one-sided equivalence test). Both vaccines were safe. There were no serious local or systemic reactions reported, nor any clinically significant hepatic function abnormalities associated with the use of either vaccine. These two 17D yellow fever vaccines from different European vaccine manufacturers were highly immunogenic and safe, and provided equivalent seroprotection.  (+info)

Molecular and biological changes associated with HeLa cell attenuation of wild-type yellow fever virus. (7/339)

Six passages of the mosquito-borne flavivirus yellow fever (YF) wild-type strain Asibi in HeLa cells attenuated the virus for monkeys and newborn mice and resulted in loss of mosquito competence. Attenuation after the passage in HeLa cells was not unique to YF virus strain Asibi as demonstrated by the HeLa passage attenuation of wild-type YF virus strain French viscerotropic virus and YF vaccine virus 17D-204 for newborn mice. In contrast, wild-type strain Dakar 1279 and the French neurotropic vaccine virus remained virulent for newborn mice after six passages in HeLa cells. Thus not all strains of YF virus can be attenuated by passage in HeLa cells. Attenuation of YF virus strains Asibi and French viscerotropic virus was accompanied by alterations in the antigenic and biological properties of the viruses, including changes to envelope protein epitopes. Attenuation for newborn mice was coincidental with the acquisition by the HeLa-passaged viruses of the vaccine-specific envelope protein epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody H5. This suggests that this conformational change may play a role in the attenuation process. Wild-type Dakar 1279, which remained virulent for newborn mice after passage in HeLa cells, retained its wild-type antigenic character. The genome of Asibi HeLa p6 virus differed from wild-type Asibi virus by 29 nucleotides that encoded 10 amino acid substitutions: 5 in the envelope protein, 1 in NS2A, 3 in NS4B, and 1 in NS5. The substitution at NS4B-95 is seen in three different attenuation processes of wild-type YF virus, leading us to speculate that it is involved in the attenuation of virulence of wild-type strain Asibi.  (+info)

Mutagenesis of the signal sequence of yellow fever virus prM protein: enhancement of signalase cleavage In vitro is lethal for virus production. (8/339)

Proteolytic processing at the C-prM junction in the flavivirus polyprotein involves coordinated cleavages at the cytoplasmic and luminal sides of an internal signal sequence. We have introduced at the COOH terminus of the yellow fever virus (YFV) prM signal sequence amino acid substitutions (VPQAQA mutation) which uncoupled efficient signal peptidase cleavage of the prM protein from its dependence on prior cleavage in the cytoplasm of the C protein mediated by the viral NS2B-3 protease. Infectivity assays with full-length YFV RNA transcripts showed that the VPQAQA mutation, which enhanced signal peptidase cleavage in vitro, was lethal for infectious virus production. Revertants or second-site mutants were recovered from cells transfected with VPQAQA RNA. Analysis of these viruses revealed that single amino acid substitutions in different domains of the prM signal sequence could restore viability. These variants had growth properties in vertebrate cells which differed only slightly from those of the parent virus, despite efficient signal peptidase cleavage of prM in cell-free expression assays. However, the neurovirulence in mice of the VPQAQA variants was significantly attenuated. This study demonstrates that substitutions in the prM signal sequence which disrupt coordinated cleavages at the C-prM junction can impinge on the biological properties of the mutant viruses. Factors other than the rate of production of prM are vitally controlled by regulated cleavages at this site.  (+info)

Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, most commonly Aedes and Haemagogus species. The virus is named for the jaundice that can occur in some patients, giving their skin and eyes a yellowish color.

Yellow fever is endemic in tropical regions of Africa and South America, with outbreaks occurring when large numbers of people are infected. After an incubation period of 3 to 6 days, symptoms typically begin with fever, chills, headache, back pain, and muscle aches. In more severe cases, the infection can progress to cause bleeding, organ failure, and death.

Prevention measures include vaccination, mosquito control, and personal protective measures such as wearing long sleeves and using insect repellent in areas where yellow fever is endemic or outbreaks are occurring.

Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease that's transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The "yellow" in the name refers to the jaundice that can occur in some patients, resulting from liver damage caused by the virus. The disease is endemic in tropical regions of Africa and Central and South America.

The yellow fever virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It's closely related to other mosquito-borne viruses like dengue and Zika. The virus has three distinct geographical variants (West African, East African, and South American), each with different epidemiological patterns and clinical features.

The incubation period for yellow fever is typically 3 to 6 days after infection. The initial symptoms include fever, chills, headache, back pain, myalgia, and fatigue. Most patients recover after this initial phase, but around 15% of those infected enter a more severe phase characterized by high fever, jaundice, abdominal pain, vomiting, bleeding, and often rapid death within 7 to 10 days.

There is no specific treatment for yellow fever, and management is focused on supportive care, including fluid replacement, blood transfusions, and addressing any complications that arise. Prevention relies on vaccination and mosquito control measures. The yellow fever vaccine is safe and highly effective, providing immunity in 95% of those who receive it. A single dose offers lifelong protection in most individuals. Mosquito control efforts, such as reducing breeding sites and using insecticide-treated materials, can help prevent the spread of the virus in affected areas.

The Yellow Fever Vaccine is a vaccine that protects against the yellow fever virus, which is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The vaccine contains live, weakened yellow fever virus, and it works by stimulating the immune system to produce an immune response that provides protection against the disease.

The yellow fever vaccine is recommended for people who are traveling to areas where yellow fever is common, including parts of Africa and South America. It is also required for entry into some countries in these regions. The vaccine is generally safe and effective, but it can cause mild side effects such as headache, muscle pain, and fever in some people. Serious side effects are rare, but may include allergic reactions or infection with the weakened virus used in the vaccine.

It's important to note that yellow fever vaccine may not be recommended for certain individuals, including infants younger than 6 months, pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems, and those with a history of severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine or any component of the vaccine. It is always best to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccination.

Flavivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Flaviviridae. They are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that are primarily transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks. Many flaviviruses cause significant disease in humans, including dengue fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and Zika fever. The name "flavivirus" is derived from the Latin word for "yellow," referring to the yellow fever virus, which was one of the first members of this genus to be discovered.

African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Asfarviridae family. It is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF), a highly contagious and deadly disease in domestic pigs and wild boars. The virus can be transmitted through direct contact with infected animals, contaminated feed, or fomites (inanimate objects).

ASFV infects cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage and replicates in the cytoplasm of these cells. The virus causes a range of clinical signs, including fever, loss of appetite, hemorrhages, and death in severe cases. There is no effective vaccine or treatment available for ASF, and control measures rely on early detection, quarantine, and culling of infected animals to prevent the spread of the disease.

It's important to note that African swine fever virus is not a threat to human health, but it can have significant economic impacts on the pig industry due to high mortality rates in affected herds and trade restrictions imposed by countries to prevent the spread of the disease.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus, a type of virus that is transmitted through the bite of infected arthropods such as mosquitoes and ticks. It belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus. The virus was first identified in 1930 during an investigation into a large epidemic of cattle deaths near Lake Naivasha in the Rift Valley of Kenya.

RVFV primarily affects animals, particularly sheep, goats, and cattle, causing severe illness and death in newborn animals and abortions in pregnant females. The virus can also infect humans, usually through contact with infected animal tissues or fluids, or through the bite of an infected mosquito. In humans, RVFV typically causes a self-limiting febrile illness, but in some cases, it can lead to more severe complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and retinitis (inflammation of the retina), which can result in permanent vision loss.

RVFV is endemic to parts of Africa, particularly in the Rift Valley region, but it has also been found in other parts of the continent, as well as in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The virus can be transmitted through the movement of infected animals or contaminated animal products, as well as through the spread of infected mosquitoes by wind or travel.

Prevention measures for RVFV include vaccination of livestock, use of personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling animals or their tissues, and avoidance of mosquito bites in areas where the virus is known to be present. There is currently no approved vaccine for humans, but several candidates are in development. Treatment for RVFV infection typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

"Alouatta" is a genus of species that are commonly known as howler monkeys. They are native to the forests of Central and South America. These monkeys are recognized for their loud howls, which can be heard miles away in the forest. The howls are used to communicate with other members of their group and establish territory. Howler monkeys have a strong grip and spend most of their time in the trees. They are primarily herbivores, eating mostly leaves, fruits, and buds.

"Aedes" is a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit various diseases, including Zika virus, dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. They are distinguished by their black and white striped legs and thorax. Aedes aegypti is the most common species associated with disease transmission, although other species such as Aedes albopictus can also transmit diseases. It's important to note that only female mosquitoes bite and feed on blood, while males feed solely on nectar and plant juices.

Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. It is the causative agent of Classical Swine Fever (CSF), also known as hog cholera, which is a highly contagious and severe disease in pigs. The virus is primarily transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their body fluids, but it can also be spread through contaminated feed, water, and fomites.

CSFV infects pigs of all ages, causing a range of clinical signs that may include fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, weakness, diarrhea, vomiting, and respiratory distress. In severe cases, the virus can cause hemorrhages in various organs, leading to high mortality rates. CSF is a significant disease of economic importance in the swine industry, as it can result in substantial production losses and trade restrictions.

Prevention and control measures for CSF include vaccination, biosecurity practices, and stamping-out policies. Vaccines against CSF are available but may not provide complete protection or prevent the virus from shedding, making it essential to maintain strict biosecurity measures in pig farms. In some countries, stamping-out policies involve the rapid detection and elimination of infected herds to prevent the spread of the disease.

Flavivirus infections refer to a group of diseases caused by various viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family, specifically within the genus Flavivirus. These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes and ticks.

Some well-known flavivirus infections include:

1. Dengue Fever: A mosquito-borne viral infection that is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It can cause a wide range of symptoms, from mild flu-like illness to severe complications like dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome.
2. Yellow Fever: A viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by the Aedes and Haemagogus mosquitoes, primarily in Africa and South America. It can cause severe illness, including jaundice, bleeding, organ failure, and death.
3. Japanese Encephalitis: A mosquito-borne viral infection that is endemic to Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. While most infections are asymptomatic or mild, a small percentage of cases can lead to severe neurological complications, such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord).
4. Zika Virus Infection: A mosquito-borne viral disease that has spread to many regions of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas. Most Zika virus infections are mild or asymptomatic; however, infection during pregnancy can cause severe birth defects, such as microcephaly (abnormally small head size) and other neurological abnormalities in the developing fetus.
5. West Nile Virus Infection: A mosquito-borne viral disease that is endemic to North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Most infections are mild or asymptomatic; however, a small percentage of cases can lead to severe neurological complications, such as encephalitis, meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis (sudden weakness in the arms and legs).

Prevention measures for these diseases typically involve avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, staying indoors during peak mosquito hours, and removing standing water from around homes and businesses. Additionally, vaccines are available for some of these diseases, such as Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever, and should be considered for individuals traveling to areas where these diseases are common.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a viral disease transmitted to humans through tick bites or contact with infected animal blood or tissues during and after slaughter. The virus belongs to the Nairovirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family. The disease was first identified in Crimea in 1944 and later in the Congo in 1956, hence the name Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.

The CCHF virus causes severe illness with a case fatality rate of up to 40% in hospitalized patients. The symptoms include sudden onset of fever, muscle pain, headache, dizziness, neck pain and stiffness, back pain, sore eyes, and sensitivity to light. After a few days, patients may develop nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bleeding from the mouth, nose, gums, and private parts.

There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for CCHF, but early supportive care with oral or intravenous fluids, analgesics, and antipyretics can significantly reduce mortality. Ribavirin has been used in the treatment of severe cases, but its efficacy is not fully proven. Preventive measures include avoiding tick bites, using protective clothing and gloves while handling animals or their tissues, and practicing good hygiene and food safety.

Fever, also known as pyrexia or febrile response, is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation in core body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) due to a dysregulation of the body's thermoregulatory system. It is often a response to an infection, inflammation, or other underlying medical conditions, and it serves as a part of the immune system's effort to combat the invading pathogens or to repair damaged tissues.

Fevers can be classified based on their magnitude:

* Low-grade fever: 37.5-38°C (99.5-100.4°F)
* Moderate fever: 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F)
* High-grade or severe fever: above 39°C (102.2°F)

It is important to note that a single elevated temperature reading does not necessarily indicate the presence of a fever, as body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day and can be influenced by various factors such as physical activity, environmental conditions, and the menstrual cycle in females. The diagnosis of fever typically requires the confirmation of an elevated core body temperature on at least two occasions or a consistently high temperature over a period of time.

While fevers are generally considered beneficial in fighting off infections and promoting recovery, extremely high temperatures or prolonged febrile states may necessitate medical intervention to prevent potential complications such as dehydration, seizures, or damage to vital organs.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonotic disease that primarily affects animals, but can also have serious consequences for humans. It is caused by the Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus.

The disease is transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes or through contact with the blood, milk, or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, and camels. In humans, RVF can cause a range of symptoms, from mild fever and headache to severe complications such as retinitis, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal in some cases.

RVF is endemic in parts of Africa, particularly in the Rift Valley region, and has also been reported in the Arabian Peninsula. It poses a significant public health and economic threat to affected regions due to its potential to cause large-scale outbreaks with high mortality rates in both animals and humans. Prevention and control measures include vaccination of animals, vector control, and avoidance of mosquito bites.

Dengue virus (DENV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

The DENV genome contains approximately 11,000 nucleotides and encodes three structural proteins (capsid, pre-membrane/membrane, and envelope) and seven non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5). There are four distinct serotypes of DENV (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), each of which can cause dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease.

Infection with one serotype provides lifelong immunity against that particular serotype but only temporary and partial protection against the other three serotypes. Subsequent infections with different serotypes can increase the risk of developing severe dengue, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and original antigenic sin phenomena.

DENV is a significant public health concern in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, with an estimated 390 million annual infections and approximately 100-400 million clinical cases. Preventive measures include vector control strategies to reduce mosquito populations and the development of effective vaccines against all four serotypes.

Viral nonstructural proteins (NS) are viral proteins that are not part of the virion structure. They play various roles in the viral life cycle, such as replication of the viral genome, transcription, translation regulation, and modulation of the host cell environment to favor virus replication. These proteins are often produced in large quantities during infection and can manipulate or disrupt various cellular pathways to benefit the virus. They may also be involved in evasion of the host's immune response. The specific functions of viral nonstructural proteins vary depending on the type of virus.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the southern portion of the Americas, which is a continent in the Western Hemisphere. South America is generally defined as including the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela, as well as the overseas departments and territories of French Guiana (France), and the Falkland Islands (UK).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Classical Swine Fever (CSF), also known as Hog Cholera, is a highly contagious and often fatal viral disease in pigs that is caused by a Pestivirus. The virus can be spread through direct contact with infected pigs or their bodily fluids, as well as through contaminated feed, water, and objects.

Clinical signs of CSF include fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, reddening of the skin, vomiting, diarrhea, abortion in pregnant sows, and neurological symptoms such as tremors and weakness. The disease can cause significant economic losses in the swine industry due to high mortality rates, reduced growth rates, and trade restrictions.

Prevention and control measures include vaccination, biosecurity measures, quarantine, and stamping out infected herds. CSF is not considered a public health threat as it does not infect humans. However, it can have significant impacts on the swine industry and food security in affected regions.

'Culicidae' is the biological family that includes all species of mosquitoes. It consists of three subfamilies: Anophelinae, Culicinae, and Toxorhynchitinae. Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that are known for their ability to transmit various diseases to humans and other animals, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The medical importance of Culicidae comes from the fact that only female mosquitoes require blood meals to lay eggs, and during this process, they can transmit pathogens between hosts.

African Swine Fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease that affects both domestic and wild pigs. It is caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), which belongs to the Asfarviridae family. The disease is not zoonotic, meaning it does not infect or cause disease in humans.

Clinical signs of ASF can vary depending on the strain of the virus and the age and overall health status of the infected pig. However, common symptoms include high fever, loss of appetite, weakness, skin redness or blueness, diarrhea, vomiting, coughing, difficulty breathing, and abortion in pregnant sows. In severe cases, ASF can cause sudden death within a few days after infection.

ASF is transmitted through direct contact with infected pigs or their body fluids, as well as through contaminated feed, water, and fomites (inanimate objects). The virus can also be spread by soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros, which can transmit the virus to wild suids such as warthogs and bushpigs.

There is no effective treatment or vaccine available for ASF, and control measures rely on early detection, quarantine, and culling of infected animals. Prevention measures include strict biosecurity protocols, restriction of pig movements, and proper disposal of carcasses and waste.

ASF is endemic in many African countries and has spread to other parts of the world, including Europe, Asia, and South America. It poses a significant threat to the global pork industry due to its high mortality rate and lack of effective control measures.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Insect vectors are insects that transmit disease-causing pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, parasites) from one host to another. They do this while feeding on the host's blood or tissues. The insects themselves are not infected by the pathogen but act as mechanical carriers that pass it on during their bite. Examples of diseases spread by insect vectors include malaria (transmitted by mosquitoes), Lyme disease (transmitted by ticks), and plague (transmitted by fleas). Proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and reducing standing water where mosquitoes breed, can help reduce the risk of contracting these diseases.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

Arbovirus infections are a group of diseases caused by viruses that are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. "Arbo" is short for "arthropod-borne."

There are over 150 different Arboviruses, but only a few cause significant illness in humans. Some of the most common Arbovirus infections include:

* Dengue fever
* Chikungunya fever
* Yellow fever
* Zika virus infection
* Japanese encephalitis
* West Nile fever
* Tick-borne encephalitis

The symptoms of Arbovirus infections can vary widely, depending on the specific virus and the individual infected. Some people may experience only mild illness or no symptoms at all, while others may develop severe, life-threatening complications.

Common symptoms of Arbovirus infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In more severe cases, Arbovirus infections can cause neurological problems such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).

There is no specific treatment for most Arbovirus infections. Treatment is generally supportive, with fluids and medications to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as dehydration or neurological problems.

Prevention of Arbovirus infections involves avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes and ticks. Vaccines are available to prevent some Arbovirus infections, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is primarily transmitted by the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus species of mosquitoes. It is caused by one of four closely related dengue viruses (DENV 1, DENV 2, DENV 3, or DENV 4). The infection can cause a wide range of symptoms, ranging from mild fever and headache to severe flu-like illness, which is often characterized by the sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, and skin rash. In some cases, dengue can progress to more severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Dengue is prevalent in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world, particularly in urban and semi-urban areas with poor sanitation and inadequate mosquito control. There is no specific treatment for dengue, and prevention efforts focus on reducing mosquito populations and avoiding mosquito bites. Vaccines are available in some countries to prevent dengue infection, but they are not widely used due to limitations in their effectiveness and safety.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Crimean hemorrhagic fever (CHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the virus named Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). It is a severe and often fatal illness. The disease is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, muscle pain, severe headache, soreness in the eyes, fatigue, and dizziness. After two to four days, there may be evidence of hemorrhage (bleeding) from the mouth, gums, nose, or other sites. The virus is primarily transmitted to people from ticks that feed on domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. It can also be transmitted through contact with infected animal blood or tissues during and after slaughtering. Human-to-human transmission can occur resulting from close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected persons. Healthcare workers are at risk if they are not wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. There is no specific treatment for CHF yet, but early supportive care and symptomatic treatment improve survival rates.

West Nile Virus (WNV) is an Flavivirus, which is a type of virus that is spread by mosquitoes. It was first discovered in the West Nile district of Uganda in 1937 and has since been found in many countries throughout the world. WNV can cause a mild to severe illness known as West Nile fever.

Most people who become infected with WNV do not develop any symptoms, but some may experience fever, headache, body aches, joint pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or a rash. In rare cases, the virus can cause serious neurological illnesses such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord). These severe forms of the disease can be fatal, especially in older adults and people with weakened immune systems.

WNV is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, but it can also be spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, or from mother to baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. There is no specific treatment for WNV, and most people recover on their own with rest and supportive care. However, hospitalization may be necessary in severe cases. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity hours.

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

Viral encephalitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the brain caused by a viral infection. The infection can be caused by various types of viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, enteroviruses, arboviruses (transmitted through insect bites), or HIV.

The symptoms of viral encephalitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, and altered level of consciousness. In severe cases, it can lead to brain damage, coma, or even death. The diagnosis is usually made based on clinical presentation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scan. Treatment typically involves antiviral medications, supportive care, and management of complications.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Viral structural proteins are the protein components that make up the viral particle or capsid, providing structure and stability to the virus. These proteins are encoded by the viral genome and are involved in the assembly of new virus particles during the replication cycle. They can be classified into different types based on their location and function, such as capsid proteins, matrix proteins, and envelope proteins. Capsid proteins form the protein shell that encapsulates the viral genome, while matrix proteins are located between the capsid and the envelope, and envelope proteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer membrane that surrounds some viruses.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

Colorado tick fever (CTF) is a viral disease transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni). The causative agent of Colorado tick fever is a Coltivirus, named Colorado tick fever virus (CTFV). The disease is most commonly found in the western United States and Canada, particularly in mountainous regions between 4,000 to 10,000 feet elevation.

The symptoms of Colorado tick fever typically appear within 3-5 days after a tick bite and may include:

* Sudden onset of fever
* Chills
* Severe headache
* Muscle pain
* Fatigue
* Rash (occurs in about 10% to 50% of cases)
* Conjunctival infection (redness and swelling of the membrane lining the eyelids)
* Sensitivity to light

In some cases, more severe complications such as neurological symptoms or hemorrhagic manifestations may occur. However, these are rare.

There is no specific treatment for Colorado tick fever other than supportive care, which includes rest, hydration, and medication to relieve symptoms like fever and pain. Most people with CTF recover completely within a few weeks. Prevention measures include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and checking for ticks after spending time outdoors in tick-infested areas.

**Hemorrhagic fevers, viral** are a group of severe, potentially fatal illnesses caused by viruses that affect the body's ability to regulate its blood vessels and clotting abilities. These viruses belong to several different families including *Filoviridae* (e.g., Ebola, Marburg), *Arenaviridae* (e.g., Lassa, Machupo), *Bunyaviridae* (e.g., Hantavirus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and *Flaviviridae* (e.g., Dengue, Yellow Fever).

The initial symptoms are non-specific and include sudden onset of fever, fatigue, muscle aches, joint pains, headache, and vomiting. As the disease progresses, it may lead to capillary leakage, internal and external bleeding, and multi-organ failure resulting in shock and death in severe cases.

The transmission of these viruses can occur through various means depending on the specific virus. For example, some are transmitted via contact with infected animals or their urine/feces (e.g., Hantavirus), others through insect vectors like ticks (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever) or mosquitoes (Dengue, Yellow Fever), and yet others through direct contact with infected body fluids (Ebola, Marburg).

There are no specific treatments for most viral hemorrhagic fevers. However, some experimental antiviral drugs have shown promise in treating certain types of the disease. Supportive care, such as maintaining blood pressure, replacing lost fluids and electrolytes, and managing pain, is critical to improving outcomes. Prevention measures include avoiding areas where the viruses are common, using personal protective equipment when caring for infected individuals or handling potentially contaminated materials, and controlling insect vectors.

Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), World Health Organization (WHO).

Sindbis virus is an alphavirus that belongs to the Togaviridae family. It's named after the location where it was first isolated, in Sindbis, Egypt, in 1952. This virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes and can infect a wide range of animals, including birds and humans. In humans, Sindbis virus infection often causes a mild flu-like illness characterized by fever, rash, and joint pain. However, some people may develop more severe symptoms, such as neurological disorders, although this is relatively rare. There is no specific treatment for Sindbis virus infection, and management typically involves supportive care to alleviate symptoms.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

RNA helicases are a class of enzymes that are capable of unwinding RNA secondary structures using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes involving RNA, such as transcription, splicing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, and RNA degradation. RNA helicases can be divided into several superfamilies based on their sequence and structural similarities, with the two largest being superfamily 1 (SF1) and superfamily 2 (SF2). These enzymes typically contain conserved motifs that are involved in ATP binding and hydrolysis, as well as RNA binding. By unwinding RNA structures, RNA helicases facilitate the access of other proteins to their target RNAs, thereby enabling the coordinated regulation of RNA metabolism.

"Western Africa" is a geographical region that consists of several countries located in the western part of the African continent. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 16 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo.

The region is characterized by a diverse range of cultures, languages, and ethnic groups, as well as a variety of landscapes, including coastal areas, savannas, and deserts. Western Africa has a rich history, with many ancient kingdoms and empires having existed in the region, such as the Ghana Empire, Mali Empire, and Songhai Empire.

In medical contexts, "Western Africa" may be used to describe the epidemiology, distribution, or characteristics of various health conditions or diseases that are prevalent in this geographical region. For example, certain infectious diseases such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, and Ebola virus disease are more common in Western Africa than in other parts of the world. Therefore, medical researchers and practitioners may use the term "Western Africa" to refer to the specific health challenges and needs of the populations living in this region.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. It is characterized by acute or chronic flu-like symptoms, pneumonia, and hepatitis. The bacteria are primarily transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated dust or aerosols from infected animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. Q fever can also be transmitted through consumption of unpasteurized milk or direct contact with infected animals. It is often asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic in animals but can cause severe disease in humans.

The acute form of Q fever typically presents with sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, fatigue, muscle pain, and cough. Some patients may also develop pneumonia or hepatitis. The chronic form of the disease is less common but more serious, often affecting people with compromised immune systems. Chronic Q fever can lead to endocarditis, an infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Diagnosis of Q fever typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, serological testing, and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays. Treatment usually involves antibiotics such as doxycycline or fluoroquinolones for several weeks to months, depending on the severity and duration of the illness. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected animals, wearing protective clothing and masks when handling animal products, and pasteurizing milk before consumption.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are primarily transmitted to humans and animals through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. The term "arbovirus" is short for "arthropod-borne virus."

Arboviruses can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the individual host's immune response. Some common symptoms associated with arboviral infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In severe cases, arboviral infections can lead to serious complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), or hemorrhagic fever (bleeding disorders).

There are hundreds of different arboviruses, and they are found in many parts of the world. Some of the most well-known arboviral diseases include dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika virus infection, West Nile virus infection, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis.

Prevention of arboviral infections typically involves avoiding mosquito bites and other arthropod vectors through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito feeding times. Public health efforts also focus on reducing vector populations through environmental management and the use of larvicides. Vaccines are available for some arboviral diseases, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Vaccinia virus is a large, complex DNA virus that belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is the virus used in the production of the smallpox vaccine. The vaccinia virus is not identical to the variola virus, which causes smallpox, but it is closely related and provides cross-protection against smallpox infection.

The vaccinia virus has a unique replication cycle that occurs entirely in the cytoplasm of infected cells, rather than in the nucleus like many other DNA viruses. This allows the virus to evade host cell defenses and efficiently produce new virions. The virus causes the formation of pocks or lesions on the skin, which contain large numbers of virus particles that can be transmitted to others through close contact.

Vaccinia virus has also been used as a vector for the delivery of genes encoding therapeutic proteins, vaccines against other infectious diseases, and cancer therapies. However, the use of vaccinia virus as a vector is limited by its potential to cause adverse reactions in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or certain skin conditions.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Africa" actually refers to a continent, not a medical condition or concept. Africa is the second-largest continent in the world, consisting of 54 countries and a wide range of diverse ethnic groups, cultures, languages, and landscapes. It is home to a vast array of wildlife, including many species that are not found anywhere else in the world. If you have any questions about Africa's geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Iridoviridae is a family of double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including insects, fish, amphibians, and reptiles. The name "iridovirus" comes from the Greek word "iris," meaning rainbow, due to the characteristic iridescent coloration of infected insects' cuticles.

Iridoviruses are large, icosahedral virions with a diameter of approximately 120-300 nanometers. They have a complex internal structure, including a lipid membrane and several protein layers. The genome of iridoviruses is a circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that ranges in size from about 100 to 200 kilobases.

Iridoviruses can cause a variety of diseases in their hosts, including hemorrhagic septicemia, hepatopancreatic necrosis, and developmental abnormalities. Infection typically occurs through ingestion or injection of viral particles, and the virus replicates in the host's nuclei.

There are several genera within the family Iridoviridae, including Ranavirus, Lymphocystivirus, Megalocyivirus, and Iridovirus. Each genus has a specific host range and causes distinct clinical symptoms. For example, ranaviruses infect amphibians, reptiles, and fish, while lymphocystiviruses primarily infect teleost fish.

Iridoviruses are of interest to medical researchers because they have potential as biological control agents for pests and vectors of human diseases, such as mosquitoes and ticks. However, their use as biocontrol agents is still being studied, and there are concerns about the potential ecological impacts of releasing iridoviruses into the environment.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests are a type of serological assay used in medical laboratories to detect and measure the amount of antibodies present in a patient's serum. These tests are commonly used to diagnose viral infections, such as influenza or HIV, by identifying the presence of antibodies that bind to specific viral antigens and prevent hemagglutination (the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells).

In an HI test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of the viral antigen, which has been treated to attach to red blood cells. If the patient's serum contains antibodies that bind to the viral antigen, they will prevent the antigen from attaching to the red blood cells and inhibit hemagglutination. The degree of hemagglutination inhibition can be measured and used to estimate the amount of antibody present in the patient's serum.

HI tests are relatively simple and inexpensive to perform, but they have some limitations. For example, they may not detect early-stage infections before the body has had a chance to produce antibodies, and they may not be able to distinguish between different strains of the same virus. Nonetheless, HI tests remain an important tool for diagnosing viral infections and monitoring immune responses to vaccination or infection.

Haplorhini is a term used in the field of primatology and physical anthropology to refer to a parvorder of simian primates, which includes humans, apes (both great and small), and Old World monkeys. The name "Haplorhini" comes from the Greek words "haploos," meaning single or simple, and "rhinos," meaning nose.

The defining characteristic of Haplorhini is the presence of a simple, dry nose, as opposed to the wet, fleshy noses found in other primates, such as New World monkeys and strepsirrhines (which include lemurs and lorises). The nostrils of haplorhines are located close together at the tip of the snout, and they lack the rhinarium or "wet nose" that is present in other primates.

Haplorhini is further divided into two infraorders: Simiiformes (which includes apes and Old World monkeys) and Tarsioidea (which includes tarsiers). These groups are distinguished by various anatomical and behavioral differences, such as the presence or absence of a tail, the structure of the hand and foot, and the degree of sociality.

Overall, Haplorhini is a group of primates that share a number of distinctive features related to their sensory systems, locomotion, and social behavior. Understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of this group is an important area of research in anthropology, biology, and psychology.

Viremia is a medical term that refers to the presence of viruses in the bloodstream. It occurs when a virus successfully infects a host and replicates within the body's cells, releasing new viral particles into the blood. This condition can lead to various clinical manifestations depending on the specific virus involved and the immune response of the infected individual. Some viral infections result in asymptomatic viremia, while others can cause severe illness or even life-threatening conditions. The detection of viremia is crucial for diagnosing certain viral infections and monitoring disease progression or treatment effectiveness.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

Viral core proteins are the structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or protein shell, enclosing and protecting the viral genome. These proteins play a crucial role in the assembly of the virion, assist in the infection process by helping to deliver the viral genome into the host cell, and may also have functions in regulating viral replication. The specific composition and structure of viral core proteins vary among different types of viruses.

Bovine Ephemeral Fever Virus (BEFV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family *Rhabdoviridae*, genus *Ephemerovirus*. It is the causative agent of Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF), also known as Three-Day Sickness or Stampy Disease, which is a non-contagious, arthropod-borne viral disease that affects cattle.

The virus is transmitted to susceptible animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes, culicoides midges, and possibly other hematophagous (bloodsucking) insects. The disease is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, depression, loss of appetite, muscle stiffness, and lameness. In severe cases, it can cause abortion in pregnant cows, milk drop in lactating cows, and even death in young animals.

BEFV has a wide geographic distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and Australia. The disease is of economic importance in areas where it is endemic, causing significant losses in the dairy and beef industries due to reduced milk production, decreased weight gain, and increased mortality rates.

There are no specific treatments for BEF, but supportive care such as fluid therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs, and pain relief can help alleviate symptoms and reduce complications. Vaccination is an effective control measure to prevent the disease in endemic areas, and it is usually administered to cattle during the vector season to induce immunity.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Virus assembly, also known as virion assembly, is the final stage in the virus life cycle where individual viral components come together to form a complete viral particle or virion. This process typically involves the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins around the viral genome (DNA or RNA) and, in enveloped viruses, the acquisition of a lipid bilayer membrane containing viral glycoproteins. The specific mechanisms and regulation of virus assembly vary among different viral families, but it is often directed by interactions between viral structural proteins and genomic nucleic acid.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "replicon" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. It is a term that is used in the field of molecular biology, where it refers to a segment of DNA that contains an origin of replication. The origin of replication is the site on the DNA molecule where the process of DNA replication is initiated. This concept is important in the fields of genetics and virology, but it is not a term that is commonly used in clinical medicine.

If you have any questions related to the medical field, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Typhoid fever is an acute illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. It is characterized by sustained fever, headache, constipation or diarrhea, rose-colored rash (in some cases), abdominal pain, and weakness. The bacteria are spread through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with an infected person's feces. If left untreated, typhoid fever can lead to severe complications and even be fatal. It is diagnosed through blood, stool, or urine tests and treated with antibiotics. Vaccination is available for prevention.

"Mesocricetus" is a genus of rodents, more commonly known as hamsters. It includes several species of hamsters that are native to various parts of Europe and Asia. The best-known member of this genus is the Syrian hamster, also known as the golden hamster or Mesocricetus auratus, which is a popular pet due to its small size and relatively easy care. These hamsters are burrowing animals and are typically solitary in the wild.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is a type of flavivirus that is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, a mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex species mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus.

JEV is endemic in many parts of Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, India, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is estimated to cause around 68,000 clinical cases and 13,000-20,000 deaths each year. The virus is maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts, primarily pigs and wading birds.

Most JEV infections are asymptomatic or result in mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. However, in some cases, the infection can progress to severe encephalitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the brain, leading to neurological symptoms such as seizures, tremors, paralysis, and coma. The case fatality rate for Japanese encephalitis is estimated to be 20-30%, and around half of those who survive have significant long-term neurological sequelae.

Prevention of JEV infection includes the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding outdoor activities during peak mosquito feeding times. Vaccination is also an effective means of preventing Japanese encephalitis, and vaccines are available for travelers to endemic areas as well as for residents of those areas.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

"Yellow Fever: Southeast Asia's next great outbreak? , GovInsider". 4 July 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016. "Yellow fever virus in ... Officials in Asia were concerned about the threat of yellow fever. In June 2016, the genetic sequence of a virus from a yellow ... "A yellow fever epidemic has broken out in the Congo". Business Insider. Retrieved 22 June 2016. "Yellow fever situation report ... The case was the first imported yellow fever case in China in history. Yellow fever has never appeared in Asia even though the ...
... is caused by Yellow fever virus (YFV), an enveloped RNA virus 40-50 nm in width, the type species and namesake of ... In 1927, yellow fever virus was the first human virus to be isolated. Yellow fever begins after an incubation period of three ... "Genetic relationships and evolution of genotypes of yellow fever virus and other members of the yellow fever virus group within ... "Yellow Fever: Practice Essentials, Background, Etiology". Medscape. "Yellow fever fact sheet". WHO-Yellow fever. Archived from ...
"Countries with risk of yellow fever virus". cdc.gov. CDC. Retrieved 24 January 2016. "How To Enter Tanzania". countryreports. ... Proof of Yellow fever vaccination is required for all travellers travelling through or from the following countries: Angola, ... countries during transit as a possible health threat and requires travelers in such situations to possess Yellow Fever ...
The vaccine is made from weakened yellow fever virus. Some countries require a yellow fever vaccination certificate before ... Yellow fever vaccine is a vaccine that protects against yellow fever. Yellow fever is a viral infection that occurs in Africa ... Demand for the yellow fever vaccine has continued to increase due to the growing number of countries implementing yellow fever ... Since yellow fever vaccination began in the 1930s, only 12 known cases of yellow fever post-vaccination have been identified, ...
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... virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus Wesselsbron virus West Nile virus Yaounde virus Yellow fever virus Yokose virus Zika virus ... Zika virus (ZIKV) Yellow fever virus group Banzi virus (BANV) Bamaga virus (BGV) Bouboui virus (BOUV) Edge Hill virus (EHV) ... Uganda S virus (UGSV) Wesselsbron virus (WESSV) Yellow fever virus (YFV) Others Batu cave virus Bukulasa bat virus Nanay virus ... Apoi virus Aroa virus Bagaza virus Banzi virus Bouboui virus Bukalasa bat virus Cacipacore virus Carey Island virus Cowbone ...
aegypti is the classical vector of yellow fever and dengue fever viruses and a proven vector of other viruses. Ae. albopictus ... is also an important vector of dengue fever virus. Other recognised vectors of yellow fever virus include Ae. africanus and Ae ... yellow fever mosquito, Aedes africanus (Theobald, 1901) yellow fever mosquito Aedes agrihanensis Bohart, 1957 Aedes albopictus ... Various arbo viruses have been isolated from other species of the subgenus. Species of subgenus Stegomyia have distributions in ...
Yellow fever virus, and Zika virus) Genus Hepacivirus (includes Hepacivirus C (hepatitis C virus) and Hepacivirus B (GB virus B ... The family gets its name from the yellow fever virus; flavus is Latin for "yellow", and yellow fever in turn was named because ... bovine viral diarrhea virus 1) and Pestivirus C (classical swine fever virus, previously hog cholera virus)). Viruses in this ... Guaico Culex virus, Jingmen tick virus and Mogiana tick virus. These viruses have a segmented genome of 4 or 5 pieces. Two of ...
Another vaccine, a live-attenuated recombinant chimeric virus vaccine developed using the Yellow fever virus known as ... Appaiahgari MB, Vrati S (December 2010). "IMOJEV(®): a Yellow fever virus-based novel Japanese encephalitis vaccine". Expert ... As of 2015[update], 15 different vaccines are available: some are based on recombinant DNA techniques, others weakened virus, ... and others inactivated virus. The Japanese encephalitis vaccines first became available in the 1930s. It is on the World Health ...
... the virus is very similar to the Yellow Fever Virus. Since Entebbe Bat Virus is in the Genus Flavivirus, the structure is ... Viruses that are associated with Entebbe Bat Virus are Sokolul Virus and Yokose Virus. Both of those viruses are categorized ... Entebbe bat virus is an infectious disease caused by a Flavivirus that is closely related to yellow fever. Little is known ... 2015). Entebbe bat virus is a (+) single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome virus. It is an enveloped virus with icosahedral ...
2020-07-30). "Phase 1 Trial of a Therapeutic Anti-Yellow Fever Virus Human Antibody". New England Journal of Medicine. 383 (5 ... The next program was in yellow fever. A yellow fever antibody named TY014 was developed in 2019, an Investigational New Drug ( ... Paules, Catharine (April 13, 2017). "Yellow Fever - Once Again on the Radar Screen in the Americas". New England Journal of ... Sasisekharan's lab was the first to produce antibodies for the treatments of influenza A virus and Zika virus infections. The ...
... had antibodies to the yellow fever virus. A form of the disease, termed "jungle yellow fever", was shown to be carried by Red ... In the Rio Grande Do Sul area of Brazil, one species, H. leucocelaenus, has been found carrying yellow fever virus. Several ... of a sick Red Howler monkey that was found to be suffering from yellow fever provided the first indication that yellow fever ... "Isolations of yellow fever virus from Haemagogus leucocelaenus in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil". Transactions of the Royal ...
Award "Genetic Polimorfism Profile of the Yellow Fever Virus from Perú" 1998. Carlos Carrillo-Parodi, Isabel Montoya, María ... "Serological Markers for Viral Hepatitis Virus B after vaccination among natives from Huanta-Perú, 1994-7" 1998 Concytec Org. ... Award "Gen Polymorphism Profile of the Dengue Virus Proteín among several Peruvian serotypes" . 1998. Isabel Montoya, Susan ...
The first human virus to be identified was the yellow fever virus. In 1881, Carlos Finlay (1833-1915), a Cuban physician, first ... Epstein-Barr virus is important in the history of viruses for being the first virus shown to cause cancer in humans. The second ... The virus was later shown to be a previously unrecognised herpes virus, which is now called Epstein-Barr virus. Surprisingly, ... The importance of tobacco mosaic virus in the history of viruses cannot be overstated. It was the first virus to be discovered ...
"History of the discovery of the mode of transmission of yellow fever virus". Journal of Vector Ecology. 42 (2): 208-222. doi: ... The Yellow Fever Commission was a research team of the United States Army which researched treatment for yellow fever. The ... The 1934 Yellow Jack theatrical production told the story of Walter Reed in the Yellow Fever Commission. The theatre production ... Gamgee, John (1879). "Yellow Fever, A Nautical Disease; Its Origin and Prevention". Internet Archive. New York, New York: ...
Pathogenic viruses cause diseases such as influenza, yellow fever and AIDS. The practice of hygiene was created to prevent ... The tulip breaking virus played a role in the tulip mania of the Dutch Golden Age. The famous Semper Augustus tulip, in ... Bacteria and viruses form the background. Beach scene with live bacteria in a Petri dish expressing different fluorescent ... Viruses cause plant diseases such as leaf mosaic. The oomycete Phytophthora infestans causes potato blight, contributing to the ...
Viruses The Saffron Scourge is another name for yellow fever. Saffron, spice of the saffron crocus History of saffron RAL 1017 ... Jo Ann Carrigan (15 December 2015). The Saffron Scourge: A History of Yellow Fever in Louisiana, 1796-1905. University of ... Saffron is a shade of yellow or orange, the colour of the tip of the saffron crocus thread, from which the spice saffron is ... Originally a shade of yellow called basanti, the field of the modern Nishan Sahib is saffron. Turbans worn by Sikhs most often ...
It is likely that the refugees and ships carried the yellow fever virus and mosquitoes. Mosquito bites transmit the virus. ... making yellow fever a national crisis. New York doctors finally admitted that they had had an outbreak of yellow fever in 1791 ... made yellow fever a national crisis. As Thomas A. Apel has written "Yellow fever constituted the most pressing national problem ... "A Short History of Yellow Fever in the US". Benjamin Rush, yellow Fever and the Birth of Modern Medicine. Archived from the ...
Leyssen P, De Clercq E, Neyts J (April 2006). "The anti-yellow fever virus activity of ribavirin is independent of error-prone ... Among the viral hemorrhagic fevers it is used for Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Hantavirus infection but ... yellow fever, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, and Kyasanur forest disease)" The aerosol form has been used in the past to treat ... including Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever, and Hantavirus infection, although data ...
Infectious diseases such as Ebola, Marburg virus disease and yellow fever can cause bleeding.[citation needed] Dioxaborolane ...
The evolutionary origins of yellow fever most likely came from Africa. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the virus originated ... "yellow fever" appears on p. 186. On p. 188, Mitchell mentions "… the distemper was what is generally called the yellow fever in ... yellow fever. The yellow fever epidemic of 1793 struck during the summer in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where the highest ... A Molecular Perspective on the Introduction of Yellow Fever Virus into the Americas". PLOS Pathog. 3 (5): e75. doi:10.1371/ ...
Yellow fever viruses, Dengue fever viruses, and Zika viruses are of the Flavivirus genera and Chikungunya virus is of the ... Yellow fever: Yellow fever virus also transmitted by the bite of an infected Aedes or Haemagogus species of mosquitoes that ... competition in shaping the current and future distributions of the sylvatic cycles of dengue virus and yellow fever virus". ... competition in shaping the current and future distributions of the sylvatic cycles of dengue virus and yellow fever virus". ...
Lin C, Amberg SM, Chambers TJ, Rice CM (April 1993). "Cleavage at a novel site in the NS4A region by the yellow fever virus ... Flavivirin (EC 3.4.21.91, Yellow fever virus (flavivirus) protease, NS2B-3 proteinase) is an enzyme. Chambers TJ, Hahn CS, ... Flavivirin at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 3.4.21, Yellow fever). ... Cahour A, Falgout B, Lai CJ (March 1992). "Cleavage of the dengue virus polyprotein at the NS3/NS4A and NS4B/NS5 junctions is ...
His field of research for several years was finding a live-virus vaccine against yellow fever. After World War II the ... Albert Sabin's early work with attenuated-live-virus polio vaccine was developed from attenuated polio virus that Sabin had ... Koprowski developed his polio vaccine by attenuating the virus in brain cells of a cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus, a New World ... Hilary Koprowski, Who Developed First Live-Virus Polio Vaccine, Dies at 96 - The New York Times, April 20, 2013. Plotkin, S.A ...
... like the yellow fever virus and the dengue fever virus (both flaviviruses), and the chikungunya virus (a togavirus). Though the ... Zika virus shares a genus with the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Since the 1950s, it has ... yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Like other flaviviruses, Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral ... "Human Schwann cells are susceptible to infection with Zika and yellow fever viruses, but not dengue virus". Scientific Reports ...
He believed that yellow fever was caused by spirochaete bacteria instead of a virus. He worked for much of the next ten years ... It turned out he had confused yellow fever with leptospirosis. The vaccine he developed against "yellow fever" was successfully ... it became increasingly evident that yellow fever was caused by a virus, not by the bacillus Leptospira icteroides, as Noguchi ... He boarded his ship to sail home, but on 12 May was put ashore at Accra and taken to a hospital with yellow fever. After ...
... estimating the incidence of yellow fever virus infection from the number of severe cases". Transactions of the Royal Society of ... The CFR for yellow fever is about 5-6% (but 40-50% in severe cases). Legionnaires' disease has a CFR of about 15%.: 665 Left ... "Yellow fever". Fact sheets. World Health Organization. 7 May 2019. Johansson, Michael A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F.C.; Staples, J. ... "Estimating case fatality risk of severe Yellow Fever cases: systematic literature review and meta-analysis". BMC Infectious ...
Zika virus shares a genus with the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Since the 1950s, it has ... Yellow fever - is a viral disease of typically short duration. In most cases, symptoms include fever, chills, loss of appetite ... "Yellow fever Fact sheet N°100". World Health Organization. May 2013. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved ... Zika virus - (ZIKV) (pronounced /ˈziːkə/ or /ˈzɪkə/) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae. It is spread by daytime- ...
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to the dengue and yellow fever viruses. While mosquitoes are the ... "Human Schwann cells are susceptible to infection with Zika and yellow fever viruses, but not dengue virus". Scientific Reports ... Zika fever, also known as Zika virus disease or simply Zika, is an infectious disease caused by the Zika virus. Most cases have ... "Zika Virus". CDC. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2019. "Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment of Zika Virus". Zika Virus Home. ...
The genus includes human pathogens like Zika virus, West-Nile virus, Dengue virus, Yellow Fever virus and other. The 5' UTR of ... is a critical determinant of dengue virus and West Nile virus RNA synthesis". Virology. 379 (2): 314-323. doi:10.1016/j.virol. ... Flavivirus 5' UTR are untranslated regions in the genome of viruses in the genus Flavivirus. The Flavivirus positive-oriented, ... Filomatori, C. V. (2006-08-15). "A 5' RNA element promotes dengue virus RNA synthesis on a circular genome". Genes & ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... African species circulate virus but rarely die. Some species of Marsupials circulate virus. Wild rodents generally resistant, ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: Yellow fever Abbreviation: YFV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. 3 ...
Information on Yellow Fever. Provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... 2In 2017, CDC expanded yellow fever vaccination recommendations for travelers to Brazil due to large outbreaks of yellow fever ... "a risk of yellow fever transmission is present," as defined by WHO, are countries or areas where "yellow fever has been ... 3Yellow fever (YF) vaccination is generally not recommended in areas where there is low potential for YF virus exposure. ...
Tested in Yellow Fever virus. Cited in 3 reference(s). ... Rabbit Polyclonal Yellow Fever virus NS5 protein antibody ( ... Yellow Fever virus Immunogen Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the N-terminus region of Yellow Fever Virus NS5 ... Yellow Fever Virus Non-structural protein 5 , Yellow Fever Virus NS5 , YFV Non-structural protein 5 , YFV NS5 ... There are currently no reviews for Yellow Fever virus NS5 protein antibody (GTX134141). Be the first to share your experience ...
Yellow Fever Vaccine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. ... Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. Yellow fever vaccine is given only at designated vaccination centers. After ... People with yellow fever disease usually have to be hospitalized. Yellow fever can cause: *fever and flu-like symptoms ...
Yellow fever is one of many causes of viral hemorrhagic fever. It is a member of the flavivirus family (group B arbovirus). ... In tropical rainforests, yellow fever virus is endemic among lower primates. Infected monkeys pass the virus to canopy-dwelling ... From 1793-1822, yellow fever was one of the most dreaded diseases in US port cities. Yellow fever outbreaks in the United ... Urban yellow fever and intermediate yellow fever, which occurs primarily in the humid savannas of Africa, affect individuals of ...
Phylogeny of Yellow Fever Virus, Uganda, 2016 Cite CITE. Title : Phylogeny of Yellow Fever Virus, Uganda, 2016 Personal Author( ... 2018). Phylogeny of Yellow Fever Virus, Uganda, 2016. 24(8). Hughes, Holly R. et al. "Phylogeny of Yellow Fever Virus, Uganda, ... Wild-Type Yellow Fever Virus RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Child. 25(8). Marinho, Paula E.S. et al. "Wild-Type Yellow Fever ... "Wild-Type Yellow Fever Virus RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Child" vol. 25, no. 8, 2019. Export RIS Citation Information.. ...
"Yellow Fever: Southeast Asias next great outbreak? , GovInsider". 4 July 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016. "Yellow fever virus in ... Officials in Asia were concerned about the threat of yellow fever. In June 2016, the genetic sequence of a virus from a yellow ... "A yellow fever epidemic has broken out in the Congo". Business Insider. Retrieved 22 June 2016. "Yellow fever situation report ... The case was the first imported yellow fever case in China in history. Yellow fever has never appeared in Asia even though the ...
Yellow fever is one of many causes of viral hemorrhagic fever. It is a member of the flavivirus family (group B arbovirus). ... In tropical rainforests, yellow fever virus is endemic among lower primates. Infected monkeys pass the virus to canopy-dwelling ... From 1793-1822, yellow fever was one of the most dreaded diseases in US port cities. Yellow fever outbreaks in the United ... Urban yellow fever and intermediate yellow fever, which occurs primarily in the humid savannas of Africa, affect individuals of ...
Sindbis virus is suppressed in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti by ATG-6/Beclin-1 mediated activation of autophagy. ... Sindbis virus is suppressed in the yellow fever mosquito ,i,Aedes aegypti,/i, by ATG-6/Bec ... autophagy in the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), infected with a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV) expressing an ... We find that modulation of autophagy using this recombinant SINV negatively regulated production of infectious viruses. The ...
The Yellow Fever sub-national risk analysis findings dissemination workshop, and consultative and advocacy meeting was held in ... The yellow fever virus itself cannot be eradicated, but we can stop the epidemics using Yellow Fever vaccine.. All Member ... The large Ethiopian population has very low yellow fever immunity and yet the yellow fever virus is endemic in the country. The ... and the updated Ending Yellow Fever Elimination (EYE) Strategy and the global, regional and national yellow fever ...
... chikungunya and yellow fever. Only 20% of people with Zika virus infection show symptoms, which include mild fever, skin rash ... Zika virus disease is caused by a RNA flavivirus transmitted to humans by the Aedes mosquito, the same type of mosquito that ... chikungunya and yellow fever virus, 1959-2015. Some of these countries that are at risk for Zika virus infection are also ... chikungunya and yellow fever. Only 20% of people with Zika virus infection show symptoms, which include mild fever, skin rash ...
Categories: Yellow fever virus Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Zika virus is maintained in two distinct cycles similar to yellow fever virus. In Africa there is jungle cycle where Zika virus ... yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses. Zika virus is transmitted to humans primarily by Aedes species ... is Zika virus serology can be positive due to antibodies against related flaviviruses such as dengue and yellow fever viruses. ... And I have a lot of people traveling overseas from our agency in Washington, D.C. If women have been immunized for yellow fever ...
Yellow fever is widespread in Niger. Yellow fever is a potentially fatal virus spread by mosquitoes. Its preventable by ... Yellow fever vaccination. Youll need a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate to enter Niger. Some airlines may ask to see ... Yellow fever and malaria are common. Ensure your accommodation is insect-proof. Use insect repellent. Get vaccinated against ... You must show your yellow fever vaccination certificate to enter the country. ...
Live virus Subcutaneous Yellow fever Live virus Subcutaneous ... Congenital yellow fever virus infection after immunization in ... Pregnant women who must travel to areas where the risk for yellow fever is high should receive yellow fever vaccine. In these ... Simultaneous administration of hepatitis B and yellow fever vaccinations. Bull WHO 1986;19:307-11. *CDC. Yellow fever vaccine: ... Oral polio virus, yellow fever, and oral typhoid (Ty21a) vaccines are exceptions to these recommendations. These vaccines may ...
Observations on the Possible Usefulness of the Complement-Fixation Test in the Early Diagnosis of Yellow Fever published on ... These animals were inoculated with the classic Asibi strain of yellow fever virus or with the O.C., A.C.-Bol., or Volcanes ... In 10 of 37 animals a post-mortem diagnosis of yellow fever virus infection could not be made by histologic examination of the ... By the usual methods, a diagnosis of yellow fever in man early during the course of the illness is impossible, since these are ...
Author Summary Zika virus (ZIKV) isolates are genetically diverse, but belong to two recognized lineages, termed ... Yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)), nAbs are a critical ... 4. McCrae AW, Kirya BG (1982) Yellow fever and Zika virus epizootics and enzootics in Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 76: 552- ... Hahn CS, Dalrymple JM, Strauss JH, Rice CM (1987) Comparison of the virulent Asibi strain of yellow fever virus with the 17D ...
A single Lassa fever virus particle, stained to show surface spikes - theyre yellow - that help the virus infect its host ... How Worried Should We Be About Lassa Fever?. Listen · 2:20 2:20 ... How Worried Should We Be About Lassa Fever?. by Richard Harris ...
Crystal structure of yellow fever virus NS3 helicase. 1z3i. Structure of the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling domain of ... Kokobera Virus Helicase: Mutant Met47Thr. 2v8o. Structure of the Murray Valley encephalitis virus RNA helicase to 1. 9A ... Solution Structure of an Engineered Arginine-rich Subdomain 2 of the Hepatitis C Virus NS3 RNA Helicase. ... Solution structure of an engineered arginine-rich subdomain 2 of the hepatitis C virus NS3 RNA helicase. ...
A new report sheds light on the nationwide rates of West Nile virus and other arboviral infections in 2021. ... yellow fever, and Zika virus disease cases, because these infections were acquired primarily through travel during 2021. Forty- ... by virus type and selected patient characteristics - United States, 2021* Characteristic. Virus type, no. of cases (%). ... Neuroinvasive disease cases, by virus type, no. (incidence)*. West Nile. La Crosse. Jamestown Canyon. Powassan. St. Louis ...
TikoMed drug inhibits infection of human cells by dengue, zika and yellow fever viruses. ...
... women shouldnt travel to an area north of downtown Miami because they may be bitten by mosquitoes carrying the Zika virus. ... Anywhere that has the Aedes aegypti mosquito - better known as the yellow fever mosquito as it carries that virus, along with ... People also report fever, muscle aches and red eyes. Some patients report they felt really tired and sore, while others dont ... Men who have been infected need to remember the virus can stay in their semen for weeks or even months. People have also been ...
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The scientists were attempting to isolate yellow fever virus and were studying mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, long known to ... such as West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus, both of which are closely related to Zika virus. ... Vaccine against Zika virus tested successfully in mice * Un larvicida natural y de bajo costo contra el dengue, el zika y la ... Since then, the virus has been found in other species of the same genus, such as A. africanus, Lopes recalled. ...
  • 10 (1) : 1609-1625 NS5-independent Ablation of STAT2 by Zika virus to antagonize interferon signalling. (genetex.com)
  • The Zika virus surface is similar to that of dengue and related viruses at the near-atomic level, researchers found, but with a notable difference. (nih.gov)
  • The structure provides clues to understanding how Zika virus enters human cells and suggests ways to design drugs or vaccines to combat the virus. (nih.gov)
  • A representation of the surface of the Zika virus, with protruding envelope glycoproteins shown in red. (nih.gov)
  • Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947. (nih.gov)
  • Like its relatives, Zika virus is mainly transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. (nih.gov)
  • Most people infected with Zika virus don't get sick. (nih.gov)
  • Zika virus circulated relatively unnoticed in areas of Africa and Southeast Asia until 2007, when it caused an outbreak in a new region, Yap Island in Micronesia. (nih.gov)
  • The current outbreak provides mounting evidence that Zika virus can also cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly in babies born to mothers infected with the virus during pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • To learn more about Zika virus, a team led by Drs. Richard Kuhn and Michael Rossmann at Purdue University examined the structure of a mature Zika virus particle at near-atomic resolution. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers found that the Zika virus structure is similar to that of other known flaviviruses, except for one region of the envelope glycoprotein. (nih.gov)
  • If the site on the envelope glycoprotein functions in Zika as it does in related viruses, the detailed structure might help scientists design ways to block viral attachment and entry to human cells. (nih.gov)
  • The structure of the virus provides a map that shows potential regions of the virus that could be targeted by a therapeutic treatment, used to create an effective vaccine or to improve our ability to diagnose and distinguish Zika infection from that of other related viruses," Kuhn says. (nih.gov)
  • The 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of Zika virus. (nih.gov)
  • Zika virus disease is caused by a RNA flavivirus transmitted to humans by the Aedes mosquito, the same type of mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. (who.int)
  • Only 20% of people with Zika virus infection show symptoms, which include mild fever, skin rash and conjunctivitis. (who.int)
  • A preceding viral infection was reported in 88% of these cases and retrospective analysis demonstrated that all 42 cases had serological tests suggesting prior dengue and Zika virus infections. (who.int)
  • Of these 42 confirmed cases, 26 had reported symptoms consistent with Zika virus infection. (who.int)
  • Prior to 2007, Zika virus infection had not been documented outside Asia or Africa. (who.int)
  • As of April 2016, over 60 countries in the Americas, the Pacific Islands, South-east Asia and Africa have reported local transmission of Zika virus disease. (who.int)
  • The current Zika virus outbreaks, and associated microcephaly and neurological disorders, have caused increasing alarm in countries across the world. (who.int)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, and the European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention,Stockholm, and other national public health agencies have also issued travel warnings, which include recommendations that pregnant women consider postponing travel to any area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. (who.int)
  • On 1 February 2016, WHO announced that the recent cluster of neurological disorders and neonatal malformations reported in the Americas region constitute a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) and called for a global response to the spread of Zika virus disease. (who.int)
  • As of May 2016, no countries of the Region have reported importation of Zika virus disease or autochthonous transmission. (who.int)
  • Some of these countries that are at risk for Zika virus infection are also either experiencing, or recovering from, complex emergencies, have fragile health systems, weak disease surveillance systems, poor response capacities, and a suboptimal level of public health preparedness. (who.int)
  • Zika virus infection further compounds the challenges as the majority of infected people do not display any symptoms and the population has no immunity to this new virus. (who.int)
  • Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause serious tropical diseases such as malaria, dengue, Zika, West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis. (news-medical.net)
  • can spread yellow fever and chikungunya viruses, as well as Zika, which broke out in Miami last year. (businessinsider.com)
  • Some Brazilian regions experiencing outbreaks of Zika virus infection have reported an apparent increase in congenital microcephaly. (bmj.com)
  • Zika virus is spreading rapidly in the Americas. (bmj.com)
  • 3 4 5 6 Clinicians worldwide need to be aware of Zika virus infection owing to international travel and the presence of another potentially competent mosquito vector ( Aedes albopictus ) in North America and southern Europe. (bmj.com)
  • 2 The association of these conditions with Zika virus infection is currently unproved and is under investigation. (bmj.com)
  • 7 If Zika virus infection is confirmed to cause congenital microcephaly, this could lead to a large international burden of infant neurological morbidity. (bmj.com)
  • Zika virus infection should be considered in people presenting with compatible symptoms who have recently returned from countries where outbreaks of the infection are occurring. (bmj.com)
  • This review provides up to date information at the time of publication on Zika virus, its evolving epidemiology, how to recognise its clinical presentation, possible complications, and how to confirm the diagnosis. (bmj.com)
  • In north east Brazil, Zika virus detected in brain tissue of two neonates with microcephaly who died within 20 hours of birth, and in the placental tissue of two early miscarriages. (bmj.com)
  • Zika virus detected by PCR in fetal brain tissue of terminated pregnancy of microcephalic fetus in Slovenia. (bmj.com)
  • Of 42 people with confirmed GBS in French Polynesia, 37 (88%) reported an illness consistent with Zika virus infection. (bmj.com)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) isolates are genetically diverse, but belong to two recognized lineages, termed "African" and "Asian. (plos.org)
  • Cases of babies born with unusually small heads continue to rise in Brazil where researchers say they have found new evidence linking the increase to the Zika virus. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • So far, health authorities have only confirmed six cases of microcephaly where the infant was infected with the mosquito-born Zika virus. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The Fiocruz biomedical center in Curitiba announced it had found Zika in the placenta of a woman who had a miscarriage, proving the virus can reach the foetus. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which is also known to carry the dengue, yellow fever and Chikungunya viruses. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Last week, U.S. health authorities confirmed the birth of a baby with microcephaly in Hawaii to a mother who had been infected with the Zika virus while visiting Brazil last year. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Zika virus is spread to people via mosquito bites. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The most common symptoms of Zika virus disease are fever, rash, joint pain and conjunctivtis. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The Ministry of Health in Brazil is concerned about a possible association between the Zika virus and increased numbers of babies born with microcephaly. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • 181B potentially associated with Zika virus (ZIKV) has highlighted the urgent need to identify individuals infected with ZIKV. (who.int)
  • Process intensification of EB66 ® cell cultivations leads to high-yield yellow fever and Zika virus production. (mpg.de)
  • Propagation of Brazilian Zika virus strains in static and suspension cultures using Vero and BHK cells. (mpg.de)
  • A yellow fever-Zika chimeric virus vaccine candidate protects against Zika infection and congenital malformations in mice. (mpg.de)
  • the report excludes chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, and Zika virus disease cases, because these infections were acquired primarily through travel during 2021. (medscape.com)
  • They're not intentionally plotting against us, but their bites spread deadly infectious diseases such as malaria, Zika virus, yellow fever and Dengue fever. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne fl avivirus fi rst studies in the absence of epidemics ( 6 - 8 ). (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • in all cases infection appeared relatively mild, self- sus monkey during a yellow fever study in the Zika forest limiting, and nonlethal ( 6 , 8 - 10 ). (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • 2. Fifth meeting of the Emergency Committee under the Interna- tional Health Regulations (2005) regarding microcephaly, other neurological disorders and Zika virus. (who.int)
  • Zika virus outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States 9. (who.int)
  • Preparedness for Zika virus testing in the World Health Organi- zation Western Pacific Region. (who.int)
  • Sindbis virus is suppressed in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti by ATG-6/Beclin-1 mediated activation of autophagy. (bvsalud.org)
  • To address this gap, we use a genetic approach to activate macroautophagy / autophagy in the yellow fever mosquito ( Aedes aegypti ), infected with a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV) expressing an autophagy activator. (bvsalud.org)
  • A flu-like disease caused by any one of four closely related types of dengue viruses carried primarily by female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, usually found in the tropics and subtropics. (ijpr.org)
  • Two of the worst offenders for spreading disease are the yellow fever mosquito ( Aedes aegypti ) and the Asian tiger mosquito ( Aedes albopictus ), which typically live in tropical and subtropical regions where it stays warm and humid. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • On 20 January 2016, the health minister of Angola reported 23 cases of yellow fever with 7 deaths among Eritrean and Congolese citizens living in Angola in Viana municipality, a suburb of the capital of Luanda. (wikipedia.org)
  • A preliminary finding that the strain of the yellow fever virus was closely related to a strain identified in a 1971 outbreak in Angola was confirmed in August 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 22 March 2016, the WHO was notified of 21 deaths from yellow fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, some in a province that borders Angola. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk of yellow fever virus importation into the United States from Brazil, outbreak years 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Southeast Brazil has experienced two large yellow fever (YF) outbreaks since 2016. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Ending Yellow fever Elimination (EYE) Strategy was developed in 2017 by a coalition of partners (Gavi, UNICEF and WHO) following the major outbreak of yellow fever in Angola in 2016. (who.int)
  • Yellow fever - China, Disease Outbreak News, 22 April 2016. (who.int)
  • Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne disease that is endemic to tropical South America and Sub-Saharan Africa (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Since that time, the virus has spread to other countries and territories in Central and South America as well as the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (nih.gov)
  • It adds that yellow fever countries where this virus is common include certain parts of Africa and South America. (solvhealth.com)
  • According to the NLM, the yellow fever virus is found mainly in certain parts of Africa and South America. (solvhealth.com)
  • Avoiding trips to yellow fever countries in Africa and South America can also reduce your risk of getting yellow fever, reports the NLM. (solvhealth.com)
  • The virus is carried by certain animals that live in tropical areas of South America and Africa. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 2 In 2017, CDC expanded yellow fever vaccination recommendations for travelers to Brazil due to large outbreaks of yellow fever in multiple states within that country. (cdc.gov)
  • 3 Yellow fever (YF) vaccination is generally not recommended in areas where there is low potential for YF virus exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • However, vaccination might be considered for a small subset of travelers to these areas who are at increased risk for exposure to YF virus because of prolonged travel, heavy exposure to mosquitoes, or inability to avoid mosquito bites. (cdc.gov)
  • Consideration for vaccination of any traveler must take into account the traveler's risk of being infected with YF virus, country entry requirements, and individual risk factors for serious vaccine-associated adverse events (such as age or immune status). (cdc.gov)
  • Yellow fever vaccine is given only at designated vaccination centers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After getting the vaccine, you should be given a stamped and signed ''International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis'' (yellow card). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Discuss your itinerary with your doctor or nurse before you get your yellow fever vaccination. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Persons 9 months through 59 years of age traveling to or living in an area where risk of yellow fever is known to exist, or traveling to a country with an entry requirement for the vaccination. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should not donate blood for 14 days following the vaccination, because there is a risk of transmitting the vaccine virus through blood products during that period. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adults 60 years of age and older who cannot avoid travel to a yellow fever area should discuss vaccination with their doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you cannot get the vaccine for medical reasons, but require proof of yellow fever vaccination for travel, your doctor can give you a waiver letter if he considers the risk acceptably low. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Niedrig M, Lademann M, Emmerich P, Lafrenz M. Assessment of IgG antibodies against yellow fever virus after vaccination with 17D by different assays: neutralization test, haemagglutination inhibition test, immunofluorescence assay and ELISA. (scielo.br)
  • showed that 10 years after receiving yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccination around 25% of vaccines had no neutralisation antibodies, suggesting that a booster is necessary to maintain protective levels of neutralising antibodies. (scielo.br)
  • Yellow fever vaccination is one of the main methods of primary prevention. (bvsalud.org)
  • The currently available yellow fever vaccine confers near lifelong immunity in 95% of patients. (medscape.com)
  • The large Ethiopian population has very low yellow fever immunity and yet the yellow fever virus is endemic in the country. (who.int)
  • Because development of a ZIKV vaccine is a top research priority and because the genetic and antigenic variability of many RNA viruses limits the effectiveness of vaccines, assessing whether immunity elicited against one ZIKV strain is sufficient to confer broad protection against all ZIKV strains is critical. (plos.org)
  • The genetic and antigenic variability of many RNA viruses limits the effectiveness of vaccines, and the degree to which immunity against one ZIKV strain could provide protection against another is unknown. (plos.org)
  • Immunity and immune response, pathology and pathologic changes: progress and challenges in the immunopathology of yellow fever. (medscape.com)
  • Cleri DJ, Ricketti AJ, Porwancher RB, Ramos-Bonner LS, Vernaleo JR. Viral hemorrhagic fevers: current status of endemic disease and strategies for control. (medscape.com)
  • It's a type of virus called a flavivirus. (nih.gov)
  • The Flavivirus genus is composed of more than 70 arthropod-transmitted viruses, of which 30 are known to cause human disease. (medscape.com)
  • Z ported human infections indicated that clinical characteris- ika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus in the tics of infection with ZIKV included fever, headache, mal- family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus . (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • By the usual methods, a diagnosis of yellow fever in man early during the course of the illness is impossible, since these are based on the isolation and identification of the specific virus or on the demonstration that specific antibodies appear as a result of the infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • Laboratory testing with a rapid conducted at that time showed that 6.1% of the residents assay suggested that a dengue virus (DENV) was the caus- in nearby regions of Uganda had specifi c antibodies to ative agent. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • Since VHF share symptoms with many other diseases, positive identification of the disease relies on laboratory evidence of the viruses in the bloodstream, such as detection of antigens and antibodies or isolation of the virus from the body. (who.int)
  • Sera from suspected cases of yellow fever as well as contacts of yellow fever confirmed cases and imported dengue fever cases were tested for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antiyellow fever virus and anti-dengue virus (for IgM antibodies to yellow fever and dengue viruses) and by a specific real time RT-PCR (Bio-Rad) for yellow fever virus and dengue virus viral RNA detection. (bvsalud.org)
  • The NLM recommends contacting your doctor immediately if you have traveled to a region where yellow fever is common and you or a family member has developed fever, headache , muscle aches , vomiting , or jaundice. (solvhealth.com)
  • Jaundice in Adults Jaundice is a yellow color to your skin and the whites of your eyes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Jaundice is caused by a buildup of a substance called bilirubin Bilirubin is a yellow substance your body makes when it breaks. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Humans can't infect each other - but they can infect mosquitoes, which pass the virus on both to their female offspring and to human bite victims. (ijpr.org)
  • Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks, and in the continental United States, West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease. (medscape.com)
  • There are 14 distinct viruses associated with haemorrhagic fever in humans. (who.int)
  • the only exception is the four dengue viruses, which may circulate continually among humans. (who.int)
  • Yellow fever and malaria are common. (smartraveller.gov.au)
  • This saliva secretion allows pathogens carried by the mosquito, like the parasite that causes malaria or the viruses that cause yellow or Dengue fever, to infect the human. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Doctors suspect yellow fever if you have symptoms and have been in an area where there are cases of yellow fever. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Of the 511 sera from suspected cases of yellow fever tested, 21 (4.1%) were confirmed positive for yellow fever virus antibody, while 33 (7.6%) of the 432 sera tested were positive for dengue virus antibody. (bvsalud.org)
  • The majority of the confirmed cases of yellow fever (85%) and dengue 3 fever (93%)were adults, and resided in the city of Abidjan and its regions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Yellow fever vaccine may be given at the same time as most other vaccines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Yellow fever vaccines and international travelers. (medscape.com)
  • Although yellow fever vaccines are largely considered to be safe adverse events which are sometimes life threatening can occur. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is an updated version of the 2010 map created by the Informal WHO Working Group on the Geographic Risk of Yellow Fever. (cdc.gov)
  • 4 Countries/areas where "a risk of yellow fever transmission is present," as defined by WHO, are countries or areas where "yellow fever has been reported currently or in the past, plus vectors and animal reservoirs currently exist. (cdc.gov)
  • 5 These countries are not holoendemic (only a portion of the country has risk of yellow fever transmission). (cdc.gov)
  • Infants 6 through 8 months of age, pregnant women, and nursing mothers should avoid or postpone travel to an area where there is risk of yellow fever. (medlineplus.gov)
  • On 20 June, the health minister declared the outbreak of yellow fever in three provinces, including the capital of DR Congo, Kinshasa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its presentation can range from asymptomatic illness to acute-onset viral hepatitis and hemorrhagic fever. (medscape.com)
  • Yellow fever is one of many causes of viral hemorrhagic fever . (medscape.com)
  • The first cases (hemorrhagic fever suspected as being yellow fever) were reported in Eritrean visitors beginning on 5 December 2015 and confirmed by the Pasteur WHO reference laboratory in Dakar, Senegal in January. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some develop dengue hemorrhagic fever after the initial fever declines - a more severe form of the illness that can cause organ damage, severe bleeding, dehydration and even death. (ijpr.org)
  • Microcephaly is a neurological disorder in which infants are born with smaller craniums and brains, and is believed to be caused by the mosquito-borne virus first seen in Africa in 1947. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • While the illness is generally mild, some experts in Brazil have suggested a possible link between the virus in pregnant women and subsequent birth defects. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • After an incubation period of 3-6 days, most individuals with yellow fever have a mild, self-limiting illness consisting of fever, headache, myalgia, and malaise. (medscape.com)
  • Some of these viruses cause relatively mild illnesses, while others can cause severe, life-threatening disease. (who.int)
  • Infecting mosquitoes with certain strains of Wolbachia bacteria can sabotage the spread of such viruses, though biologists are still exploring how. (businessinsider.com)
  • or Volcanes jungle strains of the virus, and their sera were tested for the presence of complement-fixing antigen on one or more occasions after inoculation of the virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • These viruses are all spread by mosquitoes, are severely debilitating and cause hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • Davis (2) as early as 1931, however, showed that the complement-fixing antigen appears with regularity in the blood of monkeys succumbing to infection with yellow fever virus, and Hughes (11) in 1933 made a similar observation with regard to the precipitinogen. (ajtmh.org)
  • The arboviruses National Reference Center at the Institut Pasteur in French Guiana confirmed a case of infection with yellow fever virus in the guyanese. (pasteur.fr)
  • Other flaviviruses include dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses. (nih.gov)
  • West Nile virus-linked symptomatic infection is more likely in people bearing the rs333 gene variant, while symptomatic dengue is more common among those with the TNF-α-308G/A SNP. (news-medical.net)
  • In Canada and the United States, we often hear about the threat of West Nile virus, which is carried by local mosquito species and can lead to serious health complications like coma and paralysis in a minority of cases. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • If the coldest temperatures in February are warmer than usual, more people become infected with West Nile virus during the summer months. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • Forty-nine states and the District of Columbia reported 3,035 cases of domestic arboviral disease, including those caused by West Nile (2,911), La Crosse (40), Jamestown Canyon (32), Powassan (24), St. Louis encephalitis (17), unspecified California serogroup (six), and eastern equine encephalitis (five) viruses. (medscape.com)
  • Within the continental United States, West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired disease caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). (medscape.com)
  • Among the 42 West Nile virus disease cases with AFP, 12 (29%) also had encephalitis or meningitis. (medscape.com)
  • The lack of correlation between the virus content and the antigen content of a serum indicates that complement-fixing antigenicity must be referred not to the virus per se but to some substance resulting from the reaction provoked in the host's tissues by the virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • A specific febrile response following inoculation of virus indicates only that the reaction to the parasite is of sufficient magnitude to evoke the appearance of the antigen. (ajtmh.org)
  • In 10 of 37 animals a post-mortem diagnosis of yellow fever virus infection could not be made by histologic examination of the liver, although it was made during life by examination of the serum for complement-fixing antigen. (ajtmh.org)
  • In the recent past India successfully detected emerging viral infection related threats due to Nipah virus outbreak, Ebola Virus Disease, Yellow Fever etc. (who.int)
  • Getting the yellow fever vaccine can reduce your risk of getting this viral infection. (solvhealth.com)
  • Yellow fever is a viral infection you can contract if you are bitten by a mosquito infected with this virus. (solvhealth.com)
  • Covers serve as an effective viral barrier for protection against microbial migration, including viruses, bacteria and bloodborne pathogens. (civco.com)
  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. (who.int)
  • AMR occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change over time and no longer respond to medicines making infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death. (who.int)
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a travel advisory last week warning pregnant women to avoid 14 countries and territories in the Caribbean and Latin America affected by the virus. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The outbreak was classified as an urban cycle of yellow fever transmission, which can spread rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2.2 Transmission of haemorrhagic fever viruses. (who.int)
  • The surge of cases since the virus was first detected last year in Brazil led the ministry to link it to the fetal deformations and warn pregnant women to use insect repellent to avoid mosquito bites. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • This analysis quantifies the risk of YF virus (YFV) infected travelers arriving in the United States via air travel from Brazil, including both incoming Brazilian travelers and returning US travelers. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We find that modulation of autophagy using this recombinant SINV negatively regulated production of infectious viruses . (bvsalud.org)
  • In 15%-25% of individuals with yellow fever, symptoms recur during the period of intoxication and can progress to fatal illness. (medscape.com)
  • The A aegypti mosquito is a known transmitter of dengue fever and yellow fever. (medscape.com)
  • A aegypti is sometimes referred to as the yellow fever mosquito. (medscape.com)
  • While taking note that this facility will enhance the rapid sharing of viruses and other pathogens between laboratories and partners globally at this critical juncture, we would like to reiterate that the legal framework of WHO Bio-Hub must incorporate principles of the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benfit sharing and also use the experience gained from WHO PIP framework in this regard. (who.int)
  • The findings from the risk analysis were presented during the workshop conveying the relative risks of regions in Ethiopia, and the updated Ending Yellow Fever Elimination (EYE) Strategy and the global, regional and national yellow fever epidemiological situation. (who.int)
  • Training materials included the World Health Organization district guidelines for yellow fever surveillance. (bvsalud.org)
  • The EYE strategy offers a continuum from prevention to outbreak, which have helped to prevent and respond to yellow fever emergencies in the last six years. (who.int)
  • Prevention and control of yellow fever in Africa. (scielo.br)
  • Your doctor can use this information to determine whether you should be vaccinated as a yellow fever prevention method. (solvhealth.com)
  • How can I prevent yellow fever? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A vaccine is available to prevent yellow fever and should be taken 3 to 4 weeks before you go. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. (bvsalud.org)
  • Physical findings include pulse-fever dissociation (Faget sign), conjunctival injection, and facial flushing. (medscape.com)
  • Physical examination findings for yellow fever include fever, relative bradycardia for the degree of fever (Faget sign), conjunctival injection, and skin flushing. (medscape.com)
  • More serious illness develops in 15% of cases and presents with the abrupt onset of general malaise, fever, chills, headache, lower back pain, nausea, and dizziness. (medscape.com)
  • Valley fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Ebola haemorrhagic fever. (who.int)
  • Non-transfected (-) and transfected (+) 293T whole cell extracts (30 μg) were separated by 10% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with Yellow Fever Virus NS5 protein antibody (GTX134141) diluted at 1:5000. (genetex.com)
  • 182 : 104907 Development of antibody-based assays for high throughput discovery and mechanistic study of antiviral agents against yellow fever virus. (genetex.com)
  • There are currently no reviews for Yellow Fever virus NS5 protein antibody (GTX134141) . (genetex.com)
  • This is followed by a period of remission, when the virus is cleared and when many infected individuals fully recover. (medscape.com)
  • Yellow fever has three stages: the infection stage, the remission stage, and the intoxication stage, reports the NLM. (solvhealth.com)
  • Stage 2 of yellow fever is the remission phase. (solvhealth.com)
  • Both authors suggested that the occurrence of the antigens they were dealing with might afford a means for arriving at a positive diagnosis of yellow fever in the acute phase of the disease. (ajtmh.org)
  • Stage 1 of yellow fever is the acute infection phase or the acute phase. (solvhealth.com)
  • Yellow fever remains a potential threat to public health. (scielo.br)
  • Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with yellow fever disease usually have to be hospitalized. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dengue Fever 101: How Serious Is This Disease? (ijpr.org)
  • while hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a waterborne disease that is transmitted through the fecal-oral route. (bvsalud.org)
  • Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are among the important public health emergencies of international concern as defined by the International Health Regulations (2005). (who.int)
  • African species circulate virus but rarely die. (cdc.gov)
  • Some species of Marsupials circulate virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Y surveillance targeting this species remains an efficient ellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototype species for strategy for monitoring enzootic YFV activity. (cdc.gov)

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