Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Yeast, Dried: The dry cells of any suitable strain of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE or CANDIDA. It can be obtained as a by-product from the brewing of beer or by growing on media not suitable for beer production. Dried yeast serves as a source of protein and VITAMIN B COMPLEX.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Campanulaceae: A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class MagnoliopsidaChromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Genes, Suppressor: Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genes, Essential: Those genes found in an organism which are necessary for its viability and normal function.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.RNA, Transfer, Asn: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying asparagine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Saccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Methanobacteriales: An order of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are nonmotile, do not catabolize carbohydrates, proteinaceous material, or organic compounds other than formate or carbon monoxide, and are widely distributed in nature.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Cathepsin A: A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.12.1 and EC 3.4.21.13.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sequence Inversion: The deletion and reinsertion of a segment of a nucleic acid sequence in the same place, but flipped in an opposite orientation.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.RNA, Transfer, Cys: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying cysteine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Pactamycin: Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces pactum used as an antineoplastic agent. It is also used as a tool in biochemistry because it inhibits certain steps in protein synthesis.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Formiminoglutamic Acid: Measurement of this acid in the urine after oral administration of histidine provides the basis for the diagnostic test of folic acid deficiency and of megaloblastic anemia of pregnancy.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Isopoda: One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Toxaphene: A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Killer Factors, Yeast: Protein factors released from one species of YEAST that are selectively toxic to another species of yeast.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.3-Hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.6.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.RNA, Transfer, Glu: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Genome, Plastid: The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors: Factors that associate with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. Many of them are components of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIIDTrans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
  • Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling is a powerful technique which can be utilized to characterize functions of new genes by, for example, comparing their temporal response after perturbation in different genetic variants of the studied subject. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, although coordination of both gene expression and genetic linkage have been offered as genetic mechanisms for the frequently observed clustering of genes participating in fungal metabolic pathways, elucidation of the phenotype(s) favored by selection, resulting in cluster formation and maintenance, has not been forthcoming. (pnas.org)
  • Although both coordination of gene expression ( 5 , 6 , 11 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 16 ) and genetic linkage ( 7 , 17 ) have been offered as genetic mechanisms underlying these metabolic gene clusters, unlike the butterfly example above, the phenotype(s) that drives their formation and maintenance in fungi is not known. (pnas.org)
  • Further study found that many cereals are syntenic and thus plants such as rice or the grass Brachypodium could be used as a model to find genes or genetic markers of interest which could be used in wheat breeding and research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several yeast genetic databases are accessible online, which facilitates functional genome analyses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Delneri, D., Gardner, D. C. J. & Oliver, S. G. Analysis of the seven-member AAD gene set demonstrates that genetic redundancy in yeast may be more apparent than real. (nature.com)
  • Many microarray experiments have been designed to investigate the genetic mechanisms of cancer, and analytical approaches have been applied in order to classify different types of cancer or distinguish between cancerous and noncancerous tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present experiments we examined whether these yeasts can exchange DNA and thereby create novel combinations of genetic material. (asm.org)
  • The resulting order of sequence-tagged sites is consistent with other physical and genetic mapping data. (nature.com)
  • At the coarsest resolution are genetic linkage maps, which depict the relative chromosomal locations of DNA markers (genes and other identifiable DNA sequences) by their patterns of inheritance. (lsu.edu)
  • Genes that are connected in such a way form genetic interaction networks . (wikipedia.org)
  • From this model genetic interactions can be observed at multiple scales which will assist in the study of concepts such as gene conservation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paul Nurse also used the genetic approach in his cell cycle studies, but in a different kind of yeast. (nobelprize.org)
  • Certain diseases such as cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy are linked to genetic mutations that damage the important biological process of rearranging gene sequences in pre-messenger RNA, a procedure called RNA splicing. (redorbit.com)
  • Genetic manipulation of Snf1 and/or its targets has been a useful strategy for achieving various practical goals in yeast biotechnology, such as improved maltose utilization ( 12 ), galactose utilization and ethanol production ( 13 ), fatty acid production ( 14 , 15 ), and biomass yields ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Deletions can be a major driving force during genome reduction, whereby large portions--perhaps even the majority--of the genetic material of an organism are lost over time, with little gain of new genes. (asmscience.org)
  • 1. A transformed living cell selected from the group consisting of fungi, yeast and bacteria, and containing genetic material derived from recombinant DNA material and coding for bovine rennin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This new integrative approach, known as "Genetical Genomics (GG)" or "Integrative Genomics", treats the expression level of each gene present on a microarray as a quantitative trait and use genetic markers to identify genomic regions that regulate gene expression phenotypes. (springer.com)
  • The genome shows a considerable amount of apparent genetic redundancy, and one of the major problems to be tackled during the next stage of the yeast genome project is to elucidate the biological functions of all of these genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Explains the role of genes in health and disease, the basics of DNA and its molecular cousin RNA, and new directions in genetic research. (nih.gov)
  • HIS tall figure bent over a computer screen in his laboratory at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Dr. Gary Ruvkun rummages through a distant genetic data base for matches to a gene he believes is involved in diabetes. (nytimes.com)
  • But it seems to have the same genetic pathways -- systems of linked genes -- as those that go awry in human diabetes. (nytimes.com)
  • Genetic analyses in budding yeast have identified some of the genes involved in the spindle checkpoint pathway. (rupress.org)
  • Yeast-like fungi of the human instestinal tract. (atcc.org)
  • There are major differences in the septin-associated processes of cytokinesis and deposition of new growth in budding yeast vs. filamentous fungi. (genetics.org)
  • Tetrad analysis in plants and fungi finds large differences in gene conversion rates but no GC bias. (bath.ac.uk)
  • A monophyletic group of black yeast-like fungi containing opportunistic pathogens around Exophiala spinifera is analyzed using sequences of the small-subunit (SSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of ribosomal DNA. (asm.org)
  • Like the majority of uncharacterized genes from S. cerevisiae , YER067W codes for a short protein (≤20 kDa) that is present in duplicate in the yeast genome (shares 70% identity with the ORF YIL057C ), and its homologs are restricted to fungi and contain no characterized functional domains . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Haploid cells carrying a disrupted GPA2 gene are viable. (pnas.org)
  • C. glabrata is a haploid yeast that contains three mating-type like loci ( MTL ), although no sexual cycle has been described. (scielo.br)
  • Candida glabrata is a haploid budding yeast that has only one known niche, the mammalian host and has recently emerged as a common opportunistic pathogen. (scielo.br)
  • Localization and deletion analyses of the histone H3 and CENH3 genes revealed that nuclear localization of the N-terminal tail is essential and sufficient for triggering the cell death phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 holds promise for biochemical conversion, but gene deletion in PCC 7942 is time-consuming and may be lethal to cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to facilitate whole genome analysis each deletion is molecularly tagged with a unique 20-mer DNA sequence. (stanford.edu)
  • In contrast, genes required for acetyl-coenzyme A and lipid metabolism are upregulated in an ace2 deletion mutant grown predominantly as yeast cells but are downregulated in hyphae. (asm.org)
  • By evolving budding yeast after deleting an important component, we found that the perturbed module was repeatedly repaired by removing more components. (hfsp.org)
  • The module we investigated induces polarized cell growth in budding yeast. (hfsp.org)
  • In 2010, the most "complete" gene interactome produced to date was compiled from about 5.4 million two-gene comparisons to describe "the interaction profiles for ~75% of all genes in the budding yeast ", with ~170,000 gene interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Built-in Pol I elongation factors, such as Rpa34/Rpa49 in budding yeast and PAF53/CAST in humans, are instrumental to the extremely high rate of rRNA production per gene. (hindawi.com)
  • Observation of cryofixed cryosubstituted other sections analyzed by electron microscopy reveals that exponentially growing budding yeast cells contain up to 10 4 ribosomes per μ m 3 [ 1 ], which represents up to 10% of the cytoplasmic volume [ 2 ] (Figure 1(a) ). (hindawi.com)
  • Budding yeast cells and ribosome production. (hindawi.com)
  • Epigenetic silencing mechanisms in budding yeast and fruit fly: different paths, same destinations. (prolekare.cz)
  • Dynamic Properties of Cell-cycle and Life-cycle networks in Budding Yeast. (nhbs.com)
  • These assays are specifically designed to detect polymorphisms in 221 genes that code for various drug metabolism enzymes and drug transporters. (thermofisher.com)
  • Expression of glycolytic enzymes is reduced, while expression of respiratory genes (including those involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and ATP synthesis) is increased. (asm.org)
  • Synthesis of the large rRNA precursors (35-47S) can be achieved by up to 150 RNA polymerase I (Pol I) enzymes simultaneously transcribing each rRNA gene. (hindawi.com)
  • Analysis of transcribed ribosomal DNA (rDNA) after Miller spreading revealed that up to 150 Pol I enzymes simultaneously transcribe rRNA genes in mutant with only 25 rRNA genes [ 1 , 7 ] (Figures 1(c) and 1(d) ). (hindawi.com)
  • Seoighe, C. & Wolfe, K. H. Yeast genome evolution in the post-genome era. (nature.com)
  • My recent bench research has focused on using whole-genome DNA and RNA sequencing, ChIP-Seq, array-CGH, and other "omics" methods to broadly explore evolution in yeast, and particularly the genome structures and genome evolution of industrial yeasts (lager, ale, wine, ethanol, bread). (stanford.edu)
  • Our work reveals that MMR components are required for stable inheritance of gene silencing patterns and establishes a link between the MMR machinery and the control of epigenetic silencing. (prolekare.cz)
  • Experiments conducted on Aedes aegypti larvae demonstrated that the yeast larvicide effectively silences sema1a expression, generates severe neural defects, and induces high levels of larval mortality in laboratory, simulated-field, and semi-field experiments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Defects in any of these genes could be contributory causes of the disease, he believes, and if so, biologists trying to trace the pedigrees of diabetic genes have a whole new range of targets to consider. (nytimes.com)
  • RNA-seq data derived from lowland cultivar Alamo and upland cultivar Dacotah allowed us to identify SNPs in the histone H3 genes and compare their differential gene expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • The selected pathways were used to design panels of real-time PCR primers tailored for the top-ranked genes for differential gene expression analysis. (bio-rad.com)
  • This is largely due to the process of duplicate gene reduction, eventually affecting most pairs of duplicate genes created by the WGD , which distributes the surviving members of duplicate pairs between two homeologous chromosomal segments in an unpredictable way, fractionation [ 15 - 19 ], thus scrambling gene order and disrupting the phylogenetic signal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To extract maximum information from profiling experiments using such panels, methods to pre-process and process the gene expression data are needed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • further emphasizing the need for methods to identify functionally relevant genes for tumor biology and progression within SCNAs. (genetics.org)
  • Ancestral gene order reconstruction for flowering plants has lagged behind developments in yeasts, insects and higher animals, because of the recency of widespread plant genome sequencing, sequencers' embargoes on public data use, paralogies due to whole genome duplication ( WGD ) and fractionation of undeleted duplicates, extensive paralogy from other sources, and the computational cost of existing methods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Microarray meta-analysis using 13 microarray experiments combined with empirically defined filtering criteria identified a set of 226 genes differentially regulated by cytokinin, a subset of which has previously been validated by other methods. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These data sets have identified many genes regulated by cytokinin, and several have been validated by other methods ( Supplemental Table S1 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • We have developed methods for generating gene knockouts in Candida parapsilosis, and we are currently constructing a set of individual knockouts. (ucd.ie)
  • The selectable marker gene GEN3 was amplified with primers S1 and S2 providing the homology region for homologous recombination (black boxes). (biologists.org)
  • Alcoholic fermentation is exclusively carried out by yeasts and the process transforms sugar within the grape must into ethanol and CO 2 . (g3journal.org)
  • This invention provides a process for producing ethanol from a starchy material, wherein the starchy material is simultaneously subjected to saccharification and subsequent fermentation by use of a yeast host which has been transformed by an expressible recombinant vector comprising a glucoamylase gene derived from a fungus of the genus Rhizopus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The advanced Innova yeast allows producers to maximize inputs, achieve throughput, and production targets, without losing ethanol yield to common stressors such as high temperature. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Let's explore today - using the recent news from Novozymes about their pioneering advances in yeast - what exactly a breakthrough is, and does. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • The remaining two genes were found to be homologous to CENH3 . (frontiersin.org)
  • To date, S. pombe is the only unicellular eukaryote that has been found to contain a single HMG-CoA reductase gene. (harvard.edu)
  • Moreover, a large fraction (∼80%) of the predicted yeast proteome has been found to be expressed under normal laboratory growth conditions, with high-throughput tagging or MS-based proteomics ( 16 ⇓ - 18 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Novel splicing events were found in members of some gene families that are known to play a role in cytokinin signaling or metabolism. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here, addition of a pentameric repeat to a region found in-frame will cause the downstream region of the gene to be translated out-of-frame, resulting in a useless protein or premature translation termination. (asmscience.org)
  • These DNA primer pairs were designed by prioritizing the gene regions most commonly found in transcript variants. (bio-rad.com)
  • We further found that the identified genes were also required for proper silencing in telomeres. (prolekare.cz)
  • The single teleomorph genus in the order, Capronia , was found throughout the tree but appeared to have limited clinical relevance. (asm.org)
  • We further proposed a case of the PAC (polymerase A and C) and RRPE (rRNA processing element) motifs which co-regulate divergent/bidirectional pairs, and found that the shared TFs were not significantly relevant to co-expression of divergent promoters among adjacent genes. (ebscohost.com)