Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Vision, Low: Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Color Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Toxoplasmosis, Ocular: Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.Night Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in dim illumination (scotopic intensities) or at nighttime. Scotopic vision is performed by RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS with high sensitivity to light and peak absorption wavelength at 507 nm near the blue end of the spectrum.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Albinism, Ocular: Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.Color Perception Tests: Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Visually Impaired Persons: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Amblyopia: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.Eye Infections, Parasitic: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Vision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Retinal DiseasesMyopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Conjunctival DiseasesSensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Eye Infections: Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.Sensory Aids: Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.ConjunctivitisOcular Hypotension: Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Convergence, Ocular: The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Onchocerciasis, Ocular: Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Mesopic Vision: The function of the eye that is used in the intermediate level of illumination (mesopic intensities) where both the RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and the RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS are active in processing light input simultaneously.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Eye ProteinsFluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Retinoscopy: An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Administration, Ophthalmic: Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.Nystagmus, Pathologic: Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids.Presbyopia: The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane: A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Scotoma: A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Chorioretinitis: Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Eyelid DiseasesEye Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Optometry: The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Keratitis, Herpetic: A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Coloboma: Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Glare: Relatively bright light, or the dazzling sensation of relatively bright light, which produces unpleasantness or discomfort, or which interferes with optimal VISION, OCULAR. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Scleritis: Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Timolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.Vision, Entoptic: Visual sensation derived from sensory stimulation by objects or shadows inside the eye itself, such as floating vitreous fibers, tissues, or blood.Trachoma: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Choroid Neoplasms: Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).Uveitis, Anterior: Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.ReadingEvoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Flicker Fusion: The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Blindness, Cortical: Total loss of vision in all or part of the visual field due to bilateral OCCIPITAL LOBE (i.e., VISUAL CORTEX) damage or dysfunction. Anton syndrome is characterized by the psychic denial of true, organic cortical blindness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p460)Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Conjunctival Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.Microphthalmos: Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.Burns, ChemicalPigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Anisometropia: A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Choroiditis: Inflammation of the choroid.Visual Field Tests: Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Corneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Optic Atrophy: Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Uvea: The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Keratitis, Dendritic: A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Iritis: Inflammation of the iris characterized by circumcorneal injection, aqueous flare, keratotic precipitates, and constricted and sluggish pupil along with discoloration of the iris.Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Nystagmus, Optokinetic: Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Optic Neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Night Blindness: Failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light, with good vision only on bright days. (Dorland, 27th ed)Orbital Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Esotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Vitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Panuveitis: Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved.Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Eye Diseases, Hereditary: Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.
The progressive ophthalmoplegia is often unnoticed till decreased ocular motility limits peripheral vision. Often someone else ... CPEO is a rare disease that may affect those of all ages, but typically manifests in the young adult years. CPEO is the most ... It may begin at any age and progresses over a period of 5-15 years. The first presenting symptom of ptosis is often unnoticed ... Patients will move their heads to adjust for the loss of peripheral vision caused by inability to abduct or adduct the eye. All ...
Ocular JXG manifests in up to 10% of people with JXG and may affect their vision. The presence of JXG in the eye can cause ... In 5% to 17% of people, the disorder is present at birth, but the median age of onset is two years. JXG is a benign idiopathic ... Ocular JXG is usually unilateral and presents with a tumor, a red eye with signs of uveitis, unilateral glaucoma, spontaneous ... Of patients with ocular JXG, 92% are younger than the age of two. Although cutaneous JXG usually disappear spontaneously, ...
Ocular toxocariasis typically occurs in 5 to 10-year-olds resulting in significant damage to the eye. Usually, only one eye is ... and vision loss. If woman is pregnant, or just before pregnancy, then a T. cati infection can have serious consequences for ... The two more severe forms of the disease are visceral toxocariasis and ocular toxocariasis. Visceral toxocariasis typically ... blurred or cloudy vision, usually only affecting one eye a very red and painful eye Toxocariasis List of parasites (human) ...
Rarer symptoms include brisk deep tendon reflexes, retinal hemorrhages, blurred vision, extension plantar reflexes, and ocular ... Everest Disaster, Jon Krakauer describes the effects of HACE upon Dale Kruse, a forty-four-year-old dentist and one of the ...
Two years after having the corneas implanted, six of the 10 patients had improved vision. Nine of the 10 experienced cell and ... Ocular Systems was the first organization to deliver prepared grafts for surgery in 2005.[20] DSEK/DSAEK uses only a small ... Patients may recover functional vision in days to weeks, as opposed to up to a year with full thickness transplants. However, ... Vision is typically restored in one to six months rather than one to two years. ...
Pedersen NC, Kim Y, Liu H, Galasiti Kankanamalage AC, Eckstrand C, Groutas WC, Bannasch M, Meadows JM, Chang KO. 2017 Efficacy ... Loss of vision is another possible outcome of the disease. Diagnosis of effusive FIP has become more straightforward in recent ... Typically a cat with dry FIP will show ocular or neurological signs. For example, the cat may develop difficulty in standing up ... Al Legendre, who described survival over 1 year in three cats diagnosed with FIP and treated with the medicine. In a subsequent ...
He has devoted the last eighteen years of his career to laser refractive care, focusing his medical practice exclusively on ... He later assumed the role of International Medical Director at LASIK Vision Corporation. There, he oversaw medical protocol in ... He has extensive clinical experience and has conducted over 60,000 laser ocular surgery procedures. ... Platinum Club status is awarded to organizations who have been Best Managed Companies for seven consecutive years or more. The ...
Molecular Vision. 8: 51-8. PMID 11951086. Scandella E, Men Y, Gillessen S, Förster R, Groettrup M (August 2002). "Prostaglandin ... Kyveris A, Maruscak E, Senchyna M (March 2002). "Optimization of RNA isolation from human ocular tissues and analysis of ... Cai Y, Ying F, Song E, Wang Y, Xu A, Vanhoutte PM, Tang EH (December 2015). "Mice lacking prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 ... Mori K, Tanaka I, Kotani M, Miyaoka F, Sando T, Muro S, Sasaki Y, Nakagawa O, Ogawa Y, Usui T, Ozaki S, Ichikawa A, Narumiya S ...
By this point, people with the condition either have only light perception or no vision at all. Molecular genetic testing is ... Doctors also look for progression of the disease from three months through 8-10 years of age. Some of these progressions ... In addition to the congenital ocular symptoms, some patients suffer from a progressive hearing loss starting mostly in their ... The most prominent symptoms of Norrie disease are ocular. The first visible finding is leukocoria, a grayish-yellow pupillary ...
Significant vision loss may occur. However, vascularization of the cornea is not present. The disease has been associated with ... Reis-Bücklers dystrophy causes a cloudiness in the corneas of both eyes, which may occur as early as 1 year of age, but usually ... The corneal erosions may prompt attacks of redness and swelling in the eye (ocular hyperemia), eye pain, and photophobia. ... Significant vision loss may occur. Reis-Bücklers dystrophy is diagnosed by clinical history physical examination of the eye. ...
"Vision Charity fund Sri Lankan Premature Baby Ocular Examination & Treatment Area at the Centre for Sight in Kandy". The Vision ... ICEE - Cambodia "New Year Honours 2012: full list of recipients". The Telegraph. 31 Dec 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2012. ... IRIS has partnered with other NGOs to provide funding for services, such as with The Vision Charity in Sri Lanka. IRIS has also ...
Sangwan, having undergone two years' of training at Foster's laboratory on ocular immunology, had started his Indian career ... "Cell-based Therapy for Ocular Reconstruction". Louis J. Fox Center for Vision Restoration. October 15, 2010. Archived from the ... P. Siva Reddy Researcher of the Year Award of the Andhra Pradesh Akademi of Sciences in 2002 and two of his papers won the Dr. ... Sangwan has done extensive work on limbal stem cells which is reported to have assisted in restoring vision to patients with ...
He was divorced from his wife seven years before his death from a sudden heart attack on 8 March 1948. In 1975, many years ... After several iridectomies, the patient had completely lost his vision. Behçet continued to follow up the patient for many ... Ophthalmologists had described the ocular symptoms as iritis, which might be the result of syphilis, tuberculosis or ... In the same year, Niyazi Gözcü and Frank reported two new cases with the same symptoms. The Belgian scientists Weekers and ...
Molecular Vision. 8: 51-8. PMID 11951086. Matsuoka Y, Furuyashiki T, Bito H, Ushikubi F, Tanaka Y, Kobayashi T, Muro S, Satoh N ... Kyveris A, Maruscak E, Senchyna M (March 2002). "Optimization of RNA isolation from human ocular tissues and analysis of ... Zhao X, Wu T, Chang CF, Wu H, Han X, Li Q, Gao Y, Li Q, Hou Z, Maruyama T, Zhang J, Wang J (May 2015). "Toxic role of ... Kurihara Y, Endo H, Kondo H (January 2001). "Induction of IL-6 via the EP3 subtype of prostaglandin E receptor in rat adjuvant- ...
Gunter K. von Noorden: Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility: Theory and management of strabismus, Chapter 26: Principles of ... Yagasaki, T.; Yokoyama, Y. O.; Maeda, M. (Jul 2011). "Influence of timing of initial surgery for infantile esotropia on the ... improving peripheral vision. Furthermore, the restoration of ocular alignment can bring about psychosocial and economic ... With approximately 1.2 million procedures each year, extraocular muscle surgery is the third most common eye surgery in the ...
... ocular metastatic disease, ocular hemangiomas, ocular hamartomas and many other ocular tumors. He has trained over 50 clinical ... Louis, where he remained for 16 years and rose through the ranks to the title of Paul A. Cibis Distinguished Professor of ... In 2005, Harbour received the prestigious Cogan Award from the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), ... Harbour founded the Ocular Oncology Service at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, where he was the Paul ...
Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano S (Oct 1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length- ... Tasheva ES, An K, Boyle DL, Conrad GW (2006). "Expression and localization of leucine-rich B7 protein in human ocular tissues ... ". Molecular Vision. 11: 452-60. PMID 16030496. LRRC23 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. LRRC23 human gene ... Ansari-Lari MA, Shen Y, Muzny DM, Lee W, Gibbs RA (Mar 1997). "Large-scale sequencing in human chromosome 12p13: experimental ...
Visual Pathways folded after several years after shipping only 24 devices. Until his death in 2017, Cornsweet was Professor of ... Crane, H.D.; Cornsweet, T.N. (1970). "Ocular focus stimulator". Journal of the Optical Society of America. 60: 577. doi:10.1364 ... From 2013 to 2015, he was Chief Scientist at Brien Holden Vision Diagnostics (formerly Quantum Catch), a company developing low ... Cornsweet, T.N.; Teller, D.Y. (1965). "Relation of increment thresholds to brightness and luminance". Journal of the Optical ...
Painless blurred vision sometimes begins after sixty years of life.. Corneal stromal dystrophies - Macular corneal dystrophy is ... Patient remains asymptomatic until epithelial erosions precipitate acute episodes of ocular hyperemia, pain, and photophobia. ... Corneal dystrophies affect vision in widely differing ways. Some cause severe visual impairment, while a few cause no vision ... Symmetrical reticular opacities form in the superficial central cornea of both eyes at about 4-5 years of age in Reis-Bücklers ...
Eye exam Infant vision Ophthalmoscope Orthoptics Refractive surgery#Children School vision screening Strabismus surgery Visual ... In the United States, pediatric ophthalmologists are physicians who have completed medical school, a 1-year internship, 3-year ... Pediatric ophthalmologists also have expertise in managing the various ocular diseases that affect children. Pediatric ... Amblyopia (aka lazy eye) occurs when the vision of one eye is significantly better than the other eye, and the brain begins to ...
Other adult patients complain of neck pain, after years of chronic head tilting (ocular torticollis). Congenital fourth nerve ... The characteristic head tilt is usually away from the affected side to reduce eye strain and prevent double vision (diplopia). ... Congenital fourth nerve palsy may also become evident following cataract surgery once binocular vision is restored after a long ... Old photographs may reveal the presence of a consistent head tilt (ocular torticollis) from an early age. Most patients with ...
The term "ocular myasthenia gravis" describes a subtype of MG where muscle weakness is confined to the eyes, i.e. extraocular ... It most commonly affects women under 40 and people from 50 to 70 years old of either sex, but it has been known to occur at any ... It can result in double vision, drooping eyelids, trouble talking, and trouble walking. Onset can be sudden. Those affected ... It is newly diagnosed in three to 30 per million people each year. Diagnosis is becoming more common due to increased awareness ...
Molecular Vision. 7: 89-94. PMID 11320352. Kawase C, Kawase K, Taniguchi T, Sugiyama K, Yamamoto T, Kitazawa Y, Alward WL, ... it has been shown to play a role in the regulation of embryonic and ocular development. Mutations in this gene cause various ... Han B, Qu Y, Jin Y, Yu Y, Deng N, Wawrowsky K, Zhang X, Li N, Bose S, Wang Q, Sakkiah S, Abrol R, Jensen TW, Berman BP, Tanaka ... "Optimal procedure for extracting RNA from human ocular tissues and expression profiling of the congenital glaucoma gene FOXC1 ...
RNA ratio in vitro and in a murine ocular melanoma model". Molecular Vision. 12: 511-7. PMID 16735992. Gao G, Li Y, Gee S, ... in developing and adult human ocular tissues". Molecular Vision. 7: 154-63. PMID 11438800. Funatsu H, Yamashita H, Nakamura S, ... "Low dose adjuvant angiostatin decreases hepatic micrometastasis in murine ocular melanoma model". Molecular Vision. 10: 987-95 ... Becker J, Semler O, Gilissen C, Li Y, Bolz HJ, Giunta C, Bergmann C, Rohrbach M, Koerber F, Zimmermann K, de Vries P, Wirth B, ...
... ocular disease, contact lenses, low vision, binocular vision, and pediatrics). In addition, Berkeley Optometry serves as the ... Third and fourth-year students also participate in off-campus community outreach programs through which they provide vision ... Students begin their training full-time in the first year with vision science and optometry courses. They are also enrolled in ... Students have their initial clinic supervision in direct patient care in the summer following their second year. Third-year ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at "Ebola virus ... Problems with vision may develop.[39] It is recommended that survivors of EVD wear condoms for at least twelve months after ... "Ocular problem in Ebola virus infection: A short review". Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology. 29 (3): 225-26. doi:10.1016/j.sjopt. ... Kuhn, Jens H. (2008). Filoviruses: A Compendium of 40 Years of Epidemiological, Clinical, and Laboratory Studies. Archives of ...
He graduated from UNSW in 2011 and spent 3 years working in an independent private practice with a strong focus on ocular ... The Learning for Vision 10 webinar program is always popular, offering up to date and topical presentations on ocular disease ... She is currently also a clinical demonstrator for second year undergraduate students at the School of Optometry and Vision ... About Learning for Vision. Learning for Vision continuing education material is produced by the Centre for Eye Health in Sydney ...
... for contact lens solution and follow up appointments up to a year from your first visit to ensure the proper fit and vision for ... Ocular health can be tested in a non-invasive way and is done to ensure that there are no physiological barriers to your ... We utilize special vision charts and equipment to test eye muscle co-ordination, vision and eye teaming. An objective check for ... COST: COVERED BY VALID OHIP CARD ONCE A YEAR FROM AGE 0 to 19 years. Children can be tested for an eye examination from the age ...
Hadley Saitowitz is a board-certified optometrist who provides contact lens fitting and low vision services. He practices full- ... He served several years as a senior examiner for the National Boards of Optometry. ... scope optometry, including the management and treatment of ocular disease. Dr. Saitowitz joined Delray Eye Associates, P.A. in ... He subsequently spent two years at the H.F. Verwoerd Hospital Ophthalmology Department in Pretoria, South Africa, under ...
Topics covered include: vision health, principles and practices of optometry, neuroanatomy, ocular diseases, ocular ... Ocular Anatomy, Ocular Physiology, etc.; and, participating in the fourth year In-House Internship and Externship. The OSU ... The fourth year requires clinical experiences and externships.. Program Length: 4 Years. Estimated Tuition Cost: $76,416 ( ... The 3+4 Admissions Program allows students to complete only 3 years of a baccalaureate and four years of the optometry college ...
Common Ocular Emergencies in Cincinnati, OH. Ritter-Hagee Doctors Of Optometry is your local Optometrist in Cincinnati serving ... Redness, vision changes, light sensitivity, and tearing can also occur with ocular shingles. Vision loss can be temporary or ... Approximately 200,000 Americans develop shingles in their eyes every year, according to the American Academy of Ophthalmology. ... Surgery to remove a small piece of the iris and unblock drainage channels will help protect your vision, although some vision ...
Autoimmune blistering disorder, Brunsting-Perry pemphigoid, Oral pemphigoid, Ocular pemphigoid, Genital pemphigoid, Direct ... Mucous membrane pemphigoid is predominantly a disease of the elderly with a peak incidence at around 70 years. However, ... May lead to impaired vision or blindness. Mouth. *Blisters form first on the gums near the teeth ...
Three generations of Motobas share a common vision.. Posted On August 1, 2017. Community News, Education, Health ... Robert and Naomi finished in 1986 and were fortunate enough to practice with Ben for one year before his passing in 1987. ... he gained experience rehabilitating the ocular manifestations of traumatic brain injuries. ... Kirks specialty area is concussion/neuro-rehabilitation and low vision. He got his clinical training at Wills Eye Hospital in ...
Vision Haus Optometry is your local optometrist in CHENEY serving all of your vision care needs. Call us today at 509.235.2010 ... Our glasses offer the best crisp clear vision and comfortable quality fashion frames, all with a one to two year warrantee. ... Borgholthaus and the eye care team at Vision Haus have been providing trusted comprehensive eye care for over 25 years. ... Welcome to Vision Haus Optometry in CHENEY. Dr. Scott E. Borgholthaus and the Vision Haus Optometry team strive to provide the ...
NRS 636.103 Fiscal year. The Board shall operate on the basis of a fiscal year commencing on July 1 and terminating on June 30. ... c) The examination of the human eye and its appendages, the measurement of the powers or range of human vision, the ... d) Prescribing, directing the use of or using any optical device in connection with ocular exercises, orthoptics or visual ... Effective until 2 years after the date of the repeal of 42 U.S.C. 666, the federal law requiring each state to establish ...
Vision Haus Optometry is your local optometrist in CHENEY serving all of your vision care needs. Call us today at 509.235.2010 ... Paying attention to changes in your eyes and vision can help y ... ... However, practicing good ocular hygiene habits helps ensure that your eyes receive a sufficient amount of oxygen, bolstering ... Vision Insurance reset January 1st?. If you havent used your benefits, you may lose them. Call us today to set up your End of ...
Vision Haus Optometry is your local optometrist in CHENEY serving all of your vision care needs. Call us today at 509.235.2010 ... Paying attention to changes in your eyes and vision can help y ... ... Vision Insurance reset January 1st?. If you havent used your benefits, you may lose them. Call us today to set up your End of ... Diabetes not only increases your risk of kidney and heart disease but can also affect your vision. Diabetic retinopathy, one of ...
Vision Haus Optometry is your local optometrist in CHENEY serving all of your vision care needs. Call us today at 509.235.2010 ... Call us today to set up your End of Year Eye Exam.. ... Ocular Rosacea. *Pinguecula and Pterygium (Surfers Eye). * ... Vision Insurance reset January 1st?. If you havent used your benefits, you may lose them. ... Diabetes not only increases your risk of kidney and heart disease but can also affect your vision. Diabetic retinopathy, one of ...
Family Vision Care Optometry INC. is your local Optometrist in Santa Clarita serving all of your needs. Call us today at (661) ... If you find yourself experiencing blurred or distorted vision that seems to get worse year after year, you may suffer from an ... When rosacea affects the eyes and/or eyelids, the condition is known as ocular rosacea. Ocular ... May is Healthy Vision Month Have you taken steps to protect your vision? May is Healthy Vision Month and it is the perfect time ...
Crystal View Optometry is your local optometrist in Elk Grove serving all of your vision care needs. Call us today at 916-681- ... Is Office Lighting Affecting Your Vision?. Do your eyes hurt, burn or itch after a day at work? Poor lighting may be to blame ... She has been an examiner with the National Board of Optometry for the past 6 years, and has been extensively trained to in all ... aspects of optometry, including ocular disease management.. After graduation, Dr. McKnight was proud to serve as officer in the ...
Family Vision Care Optometry INC. is your local Optometrist in Santa Clarita serving all of your needs. Call us today at (661) ... If you find yourself experiencing blurred or distorted vision that seems to get worse year after year, you may suffer from an ... Common Ocular Emergencies Do you know when you should visit the eye doctor if you have eye pain? ... ... May is Healthy Vision Month Have you taken steps to protect your vision? May is Healthy Vision Month and it is the perfect time ...
San Diego Optometry is your local optometrist in San Diego serving all of your vision care needs. Call us today at (858) 272- ... Paying attention to changes in your eyes and vision can help y ... ... but also to screen for Glaucoma and detect other ocular diseases which can strike at any age. Depending on your particular ... Vision Testing. Regular vision testing and evaluations ensure that you always have the clearest vision possible. Our San Diego ...
For over 30 years, the physicians at Andover Eye have provided the most trusted eye care in the Merrimack Valley. Our ... Our founder, Mark B. Abelson, MD, CM, FRCSC, has been deeply involved in ophthalmic clinical research for over 35 years. He is ... making key scientific discoveries in the fields of both ocular allergy and Dry Eye Syndrome. ...
Qazi Y, et al. Mediators of ocular angiogenesis. J. Genet. 2009;88(4):495-515. ... Early symptoms of wet AMD include blurry or wavy vision8. As the disease progresses, patients lose central vision so it becomes ... at year one (week 48)1,2. In both clinical trials, approximately 30% of patients gained at least 15 letters at year one1,2. In ... achieved vision gains that were non-inferior to aflibercept at year one with longer treatment intervals in a majority of ...
Patients will have vision tested, slit lamp exam, blood pressure and pulse checks at each visit. Patients will have a dilated ... Children 5 years old and younger. *require treatment for glaucoma or ocular hypertension ... Safety and Efficacy Study of BETAXON 0.5% and AZOPT 1.0% in Pediatric Patients With Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension. The safety ... Glaucoma Ocular Hypertension Drug: BETAXON (levobetaxolol HCl) Drug: AZOPT (brinzolamide) Phase 3 ...
The Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (JOPT) is a peer-reviewed journal published 10 times a year. It includes ... 2. Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. For research involving the use of animals, JOPT requires that the authors ... Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (JOPT) carries a manuscript processing charge* of $75 USD upon submission of ... 2. Letters to the Editor: Letters to the Editor provide substantive comment(s) on a publication in JOPT or an ocular ...
Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Ocular Motility Disorders Motor Neuro-ophthalmic Disorders ... The Effect of Vision Therapy/Orthoptic on Motor & Sensory Status of the 3 to 7 Years Old Strabismic Patients. The recruitment ... biocular vision,peripheral vision 3) increasing the perceptual skills making the brain to percept the colour and visual memory ... Vision therapy (VTO) is a group of non-surgical treatment helping patients in 3 subjects;1)increasing the the visual acuity 2) ...
Solicitation Year: N/A Solicitation Topic Code: N/A Solicitation Number: N/A ... WaveTec Vision Systems has developed combined wavefront-sensing and eye-tracking technology for unobtrusively and dynamically ... Automated algorithms process pupil images and make a final vision screening decision with no expert viewer required. Within ... DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The ultimate objective is to develop products for vision-screening/diagnosis of preschool ...
... ocular stillness, for over 200 years. In the late 1700s, more than 50 years after Jurins report of relentless eye trembling, ... Unchanging visions: the effects and limitations of ocular stillness Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Unchanging visions: the effects and limitations of ocular stillness. Susana Martinez-Conde, Stephen L. Macknik ... 1999 Dominant frequency content of ocular microtremor from normal subjects. Vision Res. 39, 1911-1915. (doi:10.1016/S0042-6989( ...
... the Central Australian Ocular Health Study. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Ocular Vision Medicine & Life Sciences ... Mortality increased as age of recruitment increased: 14.2% (40-49 years), 22.6% (50-59 years), 50.3% (60 years or older) (χ = ... Mortality increased as age of recruitment increased: 14.2% (40-49 years), 22.6% (50-59 years), 50.3% (60 years or older) (χ = ... Mortality increased as age of recruitment increased: 14.2% (40-49 years), 22.6% (50-59 years), 50.3% (60 years or older) (χ = ...
Preschool vision screening typically includes measurement of visual acuity (Table 3), ocular alignment, and stereoacuity.86 ... Vision in Preschoolers Study Group. Sensitivity of screening tests for detecting vision in preschoolers-targeted vision ... in 3-year-olds and 93% in 5-year-olds,65 and HOTV and Lea-symbols testability was ,95% at all ages between 3 and 5 years.66 ... What Are the Harms of Treatment for Children Aged 1 to 5 Years at Increased Risk for Vision Impairment or Vision Disorders?. ...
  • He got his clinical training at Wills Eye Hospital in Philadelphia, Eye Institute of Philadelphia, and the VA Medical Center of Providence, R.I. As these clinical training sites have significant populations of low-vision and neurological injury patients, he gained experience rehabilitating the ocular manifestations of traumatic brain injuries. (rafu.com)
  • Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, occurs when an individual cannot distinguish between certain colors like red and green or, less commonly, blue and yellow. (fvcoptometry.net)
  • You may have heard of macular degeneration, an age-related condition in which people suffer permanent vision loss due to damage in a part of the retina called macula. (fvcoptometry.net)
  • Kirk's specialty area is concussion/neuro-rehabilitation and low vision. (rafu.com)
  • Robert and Naomi finished in 1986 and were fortunate enough to practice with Ben for one year before his passing in 1987. (rafu.com)
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