The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The coordination of services in one area of a facility to improve efficiency.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
A family of gram-positive, aerobic actinomycetes found in soil and animal tissue. Some species are the cause of infection in man and animals.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A family of soil bacteria. It also includes some parasitic forms.
The sum total of nursing activities which includes assessment (identifying needs), intervention (ministering to needs), and evaluation (validating the effectiveness of the help given).
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for humans and animals.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A family of bacteria including numerous parasitic and pathogenic forms.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Controlled vocabulary of clinical terms produced by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO).
Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA characterized by the presence of well defined peridia and cleistothecial asci. Notable anamorphs (mitosporic forms) of Eurotiales include PENICILLIUM and ASPERGILLUS.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.
Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
A family of blood flukes of the class Trematoda which is found in animals and man. It Includes the genera Heterobilharzia, Schistosomatium, Schistosoma, Ornithobilharzia, Bilharziella, Trichobilharzia, Pseudobilharzia, and Austrobilharzia.
A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
Agents useful in the treatment or prevention of COCCIDIOSIS in man or animals.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The small ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) and the other (P site) for the peptidyl tRNA carrying the elongating peptide chain.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.
Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.
Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.
Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An order of extremely halophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They occur ubiquitously in nature where the salt concentration is high, and are chemoorganotrophic, using amino acids or carbohydrates as a carbon source.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE. The common name of white mustard sometimes refers to other plants (MUSTARD PLANT).
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A mitosporic fungal genus including one species which forms a toxin in moldy hay that may cause a serious illness in horses.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Keto-pyrans.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.
The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES in the RHIZARIA group. They are small endoparasites of marine invertebrates. Spores are structurally complex but without polar filaments or tubes.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
In evolutionary theory, overlapping geographic distribution of diverging species. In sympatric GENETIC SPECIATION, genetic diversion occurs without geographic separation.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
Institutional systems consisting of more than one health facility which have cooperative administrative arrangements through merger, affiliation, shared services, or other collective ventures.
Cyclohexane ring substituted by one or more ketones in any position.
Generating, planning, organizing, and administering medical and nursing care and services for patients.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.
A genus of root and butt rot fungi in the family Tricholomataceae that produce rhizomorphs and are facultatively parasitic. Many species are pathogenic to trees causing Armillaria root disease.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A mitosporic fungal genus and an anamorphic form of Arthroderma. Various species attack the skin, nails, and hair.
Organisms that live in water.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Infections with bacteria of the genus FUSOBACTERIUM.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain bis-sesquiterpene and iridoid glucosides.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.
A mitosporic fungal genus occasionally causing human diseases such as pulmonary infections, mycotic keratitis, endocarditis, and opportunistic infections. Its teleomorph is BYSSOCHLAMYS.
An order of fungi comprising mostly insect pathogens, though some infect mammals including humans. Strict host specificity make these fungi a focus of many biological control studies.
A genus of gram-negative, curved and spiral-shaped bacteria found in stagnant, freshwater environments. These organisms are motile by bipolar tufts of flagella having a long wavelength and about one helical turn. Some species of Spirillum cause a form of RAT-BITE FEVER.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring in soil and water. Its organisms are generally nonpathogenic, but some species do cause infections of mammals, including humans.
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Tihelka, E.; Li, Y.-D.; Huang, D.-Y.; Cai, C.-Y. (2021). "Are wounded-tree beetles living fossils? A new nosodendrid genus from ... Taxonomy. 1 (2): 60-68. doi:10.3390/taxonomy1020007. Kim, J.; Lim, H.; Jung, S. (2021). "A first member of bamboo-feeding ... Hakim, M.; Azar, D.; Fu, Y.-Z.; Cai, C.-Y.; Huang, D.-Y. (2021). "A new cormopsocid from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Psocodea ... Kim, D.-Y.; Lee, M.; Nam, G.-S.; Park, T.-Y. S. (2021). "The first orthopteran fossils from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) Jinju ...
1999). "Virus taxonomy--1999. The universal system of virus taxonomy, updated to include the new proposals ratified by the ... Rothnie, HM.; Chapdelaine, Y.; Hohn, T. (1994). "Pararetroviruses and retroviruses: a comparative review of viral structure and ... Love, AJ.; Geri, C.; Laird, J.; Carr, C.; Yun, BW.; Loake, GJ.; Tada, Y.; Sadanandom, A.; Milner, JJ. (2012). "Cauliflower ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses during 1998". Arch Virol. 144 (2): 421-9. doi:10.1007/s007050050515. PMID ...
taxonomy. "Taxonomy browser (Citrus reshni)". nih.gov. "Cleopatra mandarin" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-02- ... One of the down sides to using the rootstock is it grows slow in the early years. In the right conditions it can induce high ... Soler Aznar, Juan (2006). Citrus: varieties and cultivation techniques / Cítricos: variedades y técnicas de cultivo (in Spanish ...
Male river dolphins typically mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years. Calves are ... Taxonomy and evolution[edit]. Classification[edit]. Main article: List of cetaceans. Four families of river dolphins (Iniidae, ... first took to the sea approximately 49 million years ago and became fully aquatic by 5-10 million years later. It is unknown ... meaning male river dolphins typically mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years. ...
"Taxonomy Browser". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. U.S.: National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine ... The disease kills many of the infected following replication that year. When examined posthumously, the tumors on these frogs ...
N. neglecta only spawns once a year. Females usually have their first spawn between the ages of 6 and 8 years old. "ITIS ... "Taxonomy Browser". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. ...
Xenophora Taxonomy. 15: 29-38. Watson R. B. (1886). Report on the Scaphopoda and Gasteropoda collected by HMS Challenger during ... Report on the Scaphopoda and Gasteropoda collected by HMS Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Reports of the scientific ... the years 1873-1876. In: Reports of the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. "Challenger", Zoology. 15 (part 42): 1-756, ...
Invertebrate Taxonomy. 1 (2): 147-154. doi:10.1071/IT9870147. Yang, D.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, M.; Zhang, L. (2006). World Catalog of ...
"Taxonomy - Respirovirus". UniProt. "Respirovirus". ViralZone. Saga K, Kaneda Y (2015). "Oncolytic Sendai virus-based ... Komatsu T, Tanaka Y, Kitagawa Y, Koide N, Naiki Y, Morita N, et al. (October 2018). "Sendai Virus V Protein Inhibits the ... Okano S, Yonemitsu Y, Shirabe K, Kakeji Y, Maehara Y, Harada M, et al. (February 2011). "Provision of continuous maturation ... Kawaguchi Y, Miyamoto Y, Inoue T, Kaneda Y (May 2009). "Efficient eradication of hormone-resistant human prostate cancers by ...
21-44 Terryn Y. (2018). A new species of Hastula from Negros, Philippines. Xenophora Taxonomy. 22: 19-21 Linnaeus, C. (1758). ... Terryn Y. (2007). Terebridae: A Collectors Guide. Conchbooks & NaturalArt. 59pp + plates Liu, J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). ... I., Modica M.V., Terryn Y., Cruaud C., Bouchet P. & Holford M. (2012) Macroevolution of venom apparatus innovations in auger ... vi + 156, 4 pls Fedosov, A. E.; Malcolm, G.; Terryn, Y.; Gorson, J.; Modica, M. V.; Holford, M.; Puillandre, N. (2020). ...
"Taxonomy Browser". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Paek, J; Shin, Y; Kim, JS; Kim, H; Kook, JK; Paek, WK; Chang, YH (December 2017). " ...
Datong Y, Shunqing L, Ohler A, Swan S (2004). "Odorrana grahami". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T58607A11808625 ... "Odorrana grahami". Taxonomy browser. U.S. Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2021-04-04. Holley D (1988-04-18). "Graham Finds ... ISBN 7-5349-1835-9. Che Q, Zhou Y, Yang H, Li J, Xu X, Lai R (April 2008). "A novel antimicrobial peptide from amphibian skin ...
Xenophora Taxonomy. 29: 12 Fedosov, A. E.; Malcolm, G.; Terryn, Y.; Gorson, J.; Modica, M. V.; Holford, M.; Puillandre, N. ( ...
Zhu, Y.; Yang, D.; Grootaert, P. (2006). "A new species of Paramedetera, with a key to species from China (Diptera: ... Paramedetera, a new genus in the Medeterinae". Invertebrate Taxonomy. 11 (2): 309-319. doi:10.1071/IT96001. Grootaert, P. (2006 ...
Boyer, F. (2018). "Révision des gastéropodes marginelliformes dans le récifal supérieur des Maldives". Xenophora Taxonomy. 21: ... Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania for the Year. 1915: 75-99, pls 1-8. doi:10.5962/bhl.part.12849. ...
Terryn Y. (2018). A new species of Hastula from Negros, Philippines. Xenophora Taxonomy. 22: 19-21 Deshayes G.P. (1859). A ... 27: 270-321 Liu, J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. China Science Press. 1267 pp. ... 27: 270-321 edosov, A. E.; Malcolm, G.; Terryn, Y.; Gorson, J.; Modica, M. V.; Holford, M.; Puillandre, N. (2020). Phylogenetic ...
It was originally projected that it would take about 3-5 years for the L. irrorata population density to recover from the oil ... "Littoraria irrorata". NCBI taxonomy. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 29 September 2017. ... However, snail populations still have not made a full recovery nine years after the oil spill. It is now projected that it ... November 2020). "Recovery of the salt marsh periwinkle (Littoraria irrorata) 9 years after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: ...
Groves also wrote Primate Taxonomy published by the Smithsonian Institution Press in 2001, and Ungulate Taxonomy, co-authored ... ISBN 0-7316-5794-2. Groves, C. (1996). "From Ussher to Slusher; from Archbish to Gish; or, not in a million years..." ... Groves, C. (2001). Primate Taxonomy. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-872-X. Cameron, D. W.; Groves ... mammalian taxonomy, skeletal analysis, biological anthropology, ethnobiology, cryptozoology, and biogeography. He conducted ...
"Theileriidae". NCBI taxonomy. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 14 January 2019. Jeremy Y ...
Sun Z, Harris HM, McCann A, Guo C, Argimón S, Zhang W, Yang X, Jeffery IB, Cooney JC, Kagawa TF, Liu W, Song Y, Salvetti E, ... Taxonomy below). Lactobacillus species constitute a significant component of the human and animal microbiota at a number of ... In recent years, other members of the genus Lactobacillus (formerly known as the Leuconostoc branch of Lactobacillus) have been ... Makarova K, Slesarev A, Wolf Y, Sorokin A, Mirkin B, Koonin E, et al. (October 2006). "Comparative genomics of the lactic acid ...
Females sexually mature by two to three years while for males it is four to five years. The chromosome number of various ... Groves, C.; Grubb, P. (2011). Ungulate Taxonomy. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Agust, J.; Antón, M. (2005). Mammoths, ... PMID 8812311.[dead link] Haile-Selassie, Y.; Vrba, E.B.; Bibi, F. (2009). "Bovidae". In Haile-Selassie, Y.; WoldeGabriel, G. ( ... Tragelaphini has diverged from their closet sister taxon for the last 15 to 18 million years. It was once thought that spiral- ...
Elgueta, M.; Daccordi, M.; Zoia, S. (2017). "Lista de las especies de Spilopyrinae y Eumolpinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) de ... Invertebrate Taxonomy. 14 (6): 837-862. doi:10.1071/IT00042. Jolivet, Pierre; Verma, Krishna K. (2008). "Eumolpinae - a widely ...
"Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Wu, J. X.; Wang, Q; Liu, H; Qian, Y. J.; Xie, Y; Zhou, X. P. (2013). " ...
"Algaebase Taxonomy Browser". Algaebase. National University of Ireland. Retrieved 2015-05-11. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ... link) Russell, A. G.; Watanabe, Y; Charette, JM; Gray, MW (2005). "Unusual features of fibrillarin cDNA and gene structure in ...
"Pentacrinites fossilis - Taxonomy". NHM Website. Hunter, A.W.; Oji, T.; Okazaki, Y. (2011). "The occurrence of the ...
Schwarz EM, Hu Y, Antoshechkin I, Miller MM, Sternberg PW, Aroian RV (Apr 2015). "The genome and transcriptome of the zoonotic ... Taxonomy at UniProt A. ceylanicum genome at WormBase A. ceylanicum genome at ParaSite Nemtode.net The Genome Institute The ... Yushida Y (1971). "Comparative studies on Ancylostoma braziliense and Ancylostoma ceylanicum. I. The adult stage". The Journal ... Yoshida Y (October 1967). "Morphology, Life-History, Pathogenicity and Treatment of Ancylostoma ceylanicum and A. braziliense ...
"Taxonomy browser (Scotophilus bat coronavirus 512)". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2013-09-16. Wooa, Patrick C. Y.; Laua, Susanna ... Woo, P. C. Y.; Lau, S. K. P.; Lam, C. S. F.; Lau, C. C. Y.; Tsang, A. K. L.; Lau, J. H. N.; Bai, R.; Teng, J. L. L.; Tsang, C. ... Lau, SK; Woo, PC; Li, KS; Huang, Y; Wang, M; Lam, CS; Xu, H; Guo, R; Chan, KH; Zheng, BJ; Yuen, KY (Oct 2007). "Complete genome ... C. C.; Wang, M.; Zheng, B.-J.; Chan, K.-H.; Yuen, K.-Y. (2012-01-25). "Discovery of Seven Novel Mammalian and Avian ...
However, their life cycle can range from two years to four years. "Meimuna kuroiwae". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. NCBI. Retrieved 13 ... Their median life cycle from egg to natural adult death is around two years. ...
Minoru Murai; Patricia R. Y. Backwell & Michael D. Jennions (2009). "The cost of reliable signaling: experimental evidence for ... Taxonomy". Journal of Crustacean Biology. 39 (6). "WoRMS taxon details, Austruca mjoebergi (Rathbun, 1924)". World Register of ...
Taxonomy and Phylogeny. pp. 17-55 Dimitri, M (1987). Enciclopedia Argentina de Agricultura y Jardinería. Tomo I. Descripción de ... Buenos Aires: Editorial ACME S.A.C.I. see Enciclopedia Argentina de Agricultura y Jardinería McGary, Mary Jane (2001). Bulbs of ... Hexandria monogynia has come to be treated as either liliaceous or amaryllidaceaous (see Taxonomy of Liliaceae) over time. From ... De Jussieu established the hierarchical system of taxonomy (phylogeny), placing Amaryllis and 15 related genera within a ...
Virus Taxonomy-Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Archives of Virology Supplement. 10. Vienna ... 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Kuhn JH, Becker S, Ebihara H, Geisbert TW, Johnson KM, Kawaoka Y, Lipkin WI, Negredo AI, Netesov S. V., ... Virus Taxonomy-Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Academic Press. pp. 539-48 ... Virus Taxonomy-Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp ...
International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Virus Taxonomy *↑ Insbesondere sind von Gattungen ohne jede Zuordnung nur ... Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY) ... H. Ogata, K. Toyoda, Y. Tomaru, N. Nakayama, Y. Shirai, J. M. Claverie, K. Nagasaki: Remarkable sequence similarity between the ... C. M. Fauquet, M. A. Mayo et al.: Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. London, San Diego, 2012 ...
Gonzalez-Acosta, B.; Bashan, Y.; Hernandez-Saavedra, N. Y.; Ascencio, F.; De la Cruz-Agüero, G. "Seasonal seawater temperature ... Taxonomy of a food web[edit]. A simplified food web illustrating a three trophic food chain (producers-herbivores-carnivores) ... Michio, K.; Kato, S.; Sakato, Y. (2010). "Food webs are built up with nested subwebs". Ecology. 91: 3123-3130. doi:10.1890/09- ... Banasek-Richter, C.; Bersier, L. L.; Cattin, M.; Baltensperger, R.; Gabriel, J.; Merz, Y.; et al. "Complexity in quantitative ...
For subsequent years, the survival rate for the adult birds was 69%, implying that for those birds that survive the first year ... Taxonomy and systematicsEdit. The magpie was described and illustrated by Swiss naturalist Conrad Gessner in his Historiae ... Some magpies breed after their first year, while others remain in the non-breeding flocks and first breed in their second year. ... the average total lifespan was 3.7 years.[38] The maximum age recorded for a magpie is 21 years and 8 months for a bird from ...
1979) [1957]. Anatomy of the Dicotyledons: Leaves, stem and wood in relation to taxonomy, with notes on economic uses. 2 vols ( ... Couder, Y.; Pauchard, L.; Allain, C.; Adda-Bedia, M.; Douady, S. (1 July 2002). "The leaf venation as formed in a tensorial ... Near the ground these Eucalyptus saplings have juvenile dorsiventral foliage from the previous year, but this season their ... Veins successively branching into equally sized veins from a common point, forming a Y junction, fanning out. Amongst temperate ...
Kuhn JH, Becker S, Ebihara H, Geisbert TW, Johnson KM, Kawaoka Y, et al. (December 2010). "Proposal for a revised taxonomy of ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at "Ebola virus ... Virus Taxonomy - Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, U.S.: Elsevier/Academic Press ... Virus Taxonomy - Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, U.S.: Elsevier/Academic Press ...
Huang, Y.; Li, Y.; Burt, D.W.; Chen, H.; Zhang, Y.; Qian, Wubin; Kim, Heebal; Gan, Shangquan; Zhao, Yiqiang; Li, Jianwen; Yi, ... Taxonomy and evolutionary historyEdit. An American black duck (top left) and a male mallard (bottom right) in eclipse plumage ... Yamashina, Y. (1948). "Notes on the Marianas mallard". Pacific Science. 2: 121-124.. ... Kraus, R.H.S.; van Hooft, P.; Megens, H.-J.; Tsvey, A.; Fokin, S.Y.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T. (2013). "Global ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y von Richter, W. (1974). "Connochaetes gnou". Mammalian Species. The American ... Taxonomy and evolutionEdit. The scientific name of the black wildebeest is Connochaetes gnou. The animal is placed in the genus ... Females first come into estrus and breed as yearlings or as 2-year-olds.[2] They breed only once in a year.[14] ... Over the years, the South African authorities have issued stamps displaying the animal and the South African Mint has struck a ...
History of taxonomy[edit]. "Cirripedia" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur (1904): The crab at the centre is nursing ... on the order of 510 to 500 million years ago),[26] although they do not become common as skeletal remains in the fossil record ... showing naturalists that detailed study was needed to reevaluate their taxonomy.[23] ... until the Neogene (last 20 million years).[2] In part, their poor skeletal preservation is due to their restriction to high- ...
The oldest specimen of P. boisei was found in Omo, Ethiopia, and dates to 2.3 million years ago, classified as (L. 74a-21), ... The partial skull is designated as KGA10-525 and is dated to 1.4 million years ago. It is the biggest skull specimen ever found ... Wood, Bernard; Constantino, Paul (2007). "Paranthropus boisei: Fifty years of evidence and analysis". American Journal of ... Bernard Wood of the University of Liverpool, England, posits that tools discovered in Ethiopia and dated to 2.5 million years ...
Yekutieli, Y.; Sagiv-Zohar, R.; Aharonov, R.; Engel, Y.; Hochner, B.; Flash, T. (2005). "Dynamic model of the octopus arm. I. ... Taxonomy. The scientific name Octopoda was first coined and given as the order of octopuses in 1818 by English biologist ... Cephalopods have existed for 500 million years and octopus ancestors were in the Carboniferous seas 300 million years ago. The ... The giant Pacific octopus, one of the two largest species of octopus, may live for as much as five years. Octopus lifespan is ...
There is a single brood produced per year. The clutch size is usually two, but occasionally one or three eggs[18] are laid ... Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Canberra: CSIRO Publishing. p. 119. ISBN 978 ... The adults continue to protect the young for up to eleven months, or for nearly two years if they do not breed again in the ... The start of the breeding season is largely determined by rainfall rather than the time of year; thus the season is February to ...
... approximately 235 to 221 million years ago. Over the years, the Ischigualasto Formation produced other fossils ultimately ... Sereno, P.C. (1998). "A rational for phylogenetic definitions, with application to the higher-level taxonomy of Dinosauria". ... For many years, the classification of Herrerasaurus was unclear because it was known from very fragmentary remains. It was ... The same year, Walker published a differing opinion that Herrerasaurus instead was allied with Plateosauridae, although it ...
Maturation occurs by autumn of the 2nd year, at which time seeds are shed. In summary, the 1-year and the 2-year cycles differ ... Taxonomy and naming[edit]. Conifer is a Latin word, a compound of conus (cone) and ferre (to bear), meaning "the one that bears ... One year reproductive cycle:The genera includes Abies, Picea, Cedrus, Pseudotsuga, Tsuga, Keteleeria (Pinaceae) and Cupressus, ... Fertilization takes place by early summer of the 4th year and seeds mature in the cones by autumn of the 4th year.[15] ...
The fossil eutherian species believed to be the oldest known is Juramaia sinensis, which lived about 160 million years ago.[3] ... Mammal taxonomy. *Oxfordian first appearances. *Extant Late Jurassic first appearances. *Taxa described in 1872 ... The oldest-known eutherian species is Juramaia sinensis, dated at 161 million years ago from the early Late Jurassic (Oxfordian ...
doi:10.1007/s10592-013-0547-y.. *^ Kopaliani, N.; Shakarashvili, M.; Gurielidze, Z.; Qurkhuli, T.; Tarkhnishvili, D. (2014). " ... This has caused a problem for Canid taxonomy, as hybrids are not normally thought of as species, though the convention is to ... Several years ago I saw confined in the Zoological Gardens of London a female hybrid from an English dog and jackal, which even ... Analysis on the haplotype of some coyotes from Texas also detected the presence of male wolf introgression such as Y ...
The average number of offspring is about 2. It has been indicated that breeding occurs early during the year. Breeding appears ...
Wood, B., Richmond, B. G.: "Human evolution : taxonomy and paleobiology", 2000 [6]. • Wood, B., Lonergan, N. :The hominin ... Year in Review; Human evolution, Australopithecus [17]. • BBC [18]. • Human Evolution [19]. • Bramblett, C. A., 2004 [20]. • ... Campbell B. Quantitative taxonomy and human evolution. Classification and human evolution. New York, 1963. ... http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2011/09/15/les-neandertaliens-mangeaient-des-fruits-de-mer-il-y-a-150-000-ans_1572941_ ...
Taxonomy[edit]. Carl Linnaeus in 1753 regarded the Brassicaceae as a natural group, naming them "Klass" Tetradynamia. Alfred ... The Cleomaceae and Brassicaceae diverged approximately 41 million years ago.[6] All three families have consistently been ... 1: Leaves, Stem, and Wood in relation to Taxonomy, with notes on economic Uses. Oxford At The Clarendon Press. pp. 79-87.. ... a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy. The genus name comes from the Classical Latin word brassica, ...
The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family ... Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. ... Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. ...
The man was told not to go to sea for twenty years, but during the nineteenth year he went fishing and a whale came and killed ... Taxonomy and evolution. See also: List of whale species and List of extinct cetaceans ... Males typically mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years. Calves are typically ... dependency until one to two years, and maturity around seven to ten years, all varying between the species.[70] This mode of ...
Iwabe, N.; Hara, Y.; Kumazawa, Y.; Shibamoto, K.; Saito, Y.; Miyata, T.; Katoh, K. (2004-12-29). "Sister group relationship of ... TaxonomyEdit. See also: List of reptiles and List of snakes. Classification to order level of the reptiles, after Benton, 2014. ... Deaths from snakebites are uncommon in many parts of the world, but are still counted in tens of thousands per year in India.[ ... Lee, M.S.Y. (2013). "Turtle origins: Insights from phylogenetic retrofitting and molecular scaffolds". Journal of Evolutionary ...
doi:10.1007/s10653-006-9048-y.. *^ Lowenstam, Heitz A (1954). "Environmental relations of modification compositions of certain ... Historically, mineralogy was heavily concerned with taxonomy of the rock-forming minerals. In 1959, the International ... and about 100 are discovered each year.[14] The Manual of Mineralogy places minerals in the following classes: native elements ...
In recent years, free will belief in individuals has been analysed with respect to traits in social behaviour. In general the ... A simplified taxonomy of philosophical positions regarding free will and theological determinism.[28] ... Robert C Bishop (2010). "§28.2: Compatibilism and incompatibilism". In Raymond Y. Chiao; Marvin L. Cohen; Anthony J. Leggett; ... or the y-component of an electron's spin), is in fact limited by deterministic laws, hence not free at all. , and Sukumar, CV ( ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "Yellow fever Fact sheet N°100". World Health Organization. May 2013. ... For many years, copepods of the genus Mesocyclops have been used in Vietnam for preventing dengue fever. It eradicated the ... Gessner, I. (2016). Yellow Fever Years: An Epidemiology of Nineteenth-Century American Literature and Culture. Frankfurt/Main: ... Staples JE, Monath TP (Aug 27, 2008). "Yellow fever: 100 years of discovery". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical ...
There are many reports of spores remaining viable over 10,000 years, and revival of spores millions of years old has been ... Hiragi Y, Iijima K, and Kadota H (1967). "Hexagonal single crystal pattern from the spore coat of Bacillus subtilis". Nature. ... There is one report of viable spores of Bacillus marismortui in salt crystals approximately 250 million years old.[4][5] When ... The bee fossilized in amber was dated to being about 25 million years old. The spores germinated when the amber was cracked ...
The first occurrence of C4 photosynthesis dates from the early Miocene, about 24 million years ago, but in some groups, this ... Betoideae and notes on the taxonomy of Beta. - Willdenowia 36, p.9-19. ... evolution of C4-photosynthesis and taxonomy. - Taxon 60(1), p. 51-78 ... pathway evolved much later, about 6 (or less) million years ago.[5] ...
Resetar, A and HK Voris (1997). Herpetology at the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago: the First Hundred Years. Lawrence ... and serves taxonomy and systematics research.[44] Many of Field Museum's collections rank among the top ten collections in the ... Sue is 12.3 m (40 feet) long,[41] stands 3.66 m (12 feet) high at the hips[42] and is 67 million years old. The fossil was ... Bates; S J Hackett; RM Zink, JM (1993). Tecnicas y materiales para la preservación de tejidos congelados. Washington, DC: in ...
Categories are a form of taxonomy.. *Taxonomies that use words in a language (unlike the Dewey system) cannot reliably be ... Historical events of any year (including battles etc. etc.) should go in Categoria:1852 or whatever year it is. I'm enjoying ... I had seven years Latin in the school but learned only the "exeuntes" type. This is obviously due to the humanistic tradition ... Regarding the explain to, I hve to admit that after five years living in England, I still cannot understand properly how ...
Shubin, N. (2008). Your Inner Fish: A Journey Into the 3.5-Billion-Year History of the Human Body. New York: Pantheon Books. ... For this school of taxonomy, dinosaurs and birds are not groups in contrast to each other, but rather birds are a sub-type of ... Newer taxonomy is frequently based on cladistics instead, giving a variable number of major "branches" (clades) of the tetrapod ... One of them, the Choristodera, became extinct 20 million years ago for unknown reasons. The surviving six are: *Lissamphibia: ...
190 years of Sargassum taxonomy, facing the advent of DNA phylogenies.(Report) by The Botanical Review; Biological sciences ... N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... Lapazeanum E. Y. Dawson ex J. N. Norris, S. sect. Sinicola E. Y. Dawson ex J. N. Norris and S. Herporhizum E. Y. Dawson ex J. N ... APA style: 190 years of Sargassum taxonomy, facing the advent of DNA phylogenies.. (n.d.) >The Free Library. (2014). Retrieved ...
released its taxonomy of cleantech. Since then, many people and organizations adopted it. But its now time to revise it. ... A lot happens in two years, so its time to refresh our taxonomy. ... Two years later: Revisiting the taxonomy of cleantech. ... The Kachan cleantech taxonomy has emerged as one of the leading definitions of cleantech (cited in places like here, here, here ... Ones available two years ago were lacking, out of date or not comprehensive enough. So we took the time to develop our own, ...
3 year old with EoE and taxonomy unavailable yeast. home › The Candida Forum › Candida Questions › 3 year old with EoE and ... It said it was a +4 for taxonomy unavailable. Does this mean he does not have Candida, but rather some sort of other yeast or ... So my main question is, will we be treating this "taxonomy unavailable" strain the same as all the protocols I find for candida ...
Systematic Botany publishes on botanical topics such as taxonomy, speciation, morphometrics, molecular phylogeny, conservation ... Wesley M. Knapp and Robert F. C. Naczi "Taxonomy, Morphology, and Geographic Distribution of Juncus Longii (Juncaceae)," ... Wesley M. Knapp, Robert F. C. Naczi "Taxonomy, Morphology, and Geographic Distribution of Juncus Longii (Juncaceae)," ...
Our genitalic measurements were based on those of V. Nabokov who revised North American Lycaeides taxonomy in the 1940s. ... We examined male genitalic morphology in Lycaeides populations spanning much of North America to evaluate the current taxonomy ... Implications for Taxonomy and Historical Biogeography," Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101(1), 172-180, (1 ... Implications for Taxonomy and Historical Biogeography," Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 101(1), 172-180, (1 ...
At this dangerous moment in history, our actions will determine our very survival. As artists, we use our pens, our pencils, our brushes, and our ideas to cast a light on darkness and combat the forces that are driving us towards a precipice. Curated by Andrea Arroyo, Steve Brodner, and Peter Kuper, OppArt features artistic dispatches from the front lines of resistance-check back each day as a diverse set of artists take aim and draw. To get the best of OppArt delivered to your inbox every Wednesday, click here to sign up for our OppArt Weekly newsletter.
Guía para la Elaboración de un Programa de Creación y Desarrollo de Competencias de Reguladores de Reactores Nucleares. ... Nuclear Accident Knowledge Taxonomy. IAEA Nuclear Energy Series NG-T-6.8. STI/PUB/1730 ¦ 978-92-0-101416-0 ... IAEA scientific and technical publications can be searched by multiple parameters: year of publication, topic and type. Use the ...
Taxonomy. Meningococcal (groups A, C, Y and W-135) oligosaccharide diphtheria CRM197 conjugate vaccine. ... Meningococcal (groups A, C, Y and W-135) oligosaccharide diphtheria CRM197 conjugate vaccine (3.3-33.3 mcg/0.5mL) + ... Meningococcal (groups A, C, Y and W-135) oligosaccharide diphtheria CRM197 conjugate vaccine (25 mcg/0.5mL) + Meningococcal ... Meningococcal (groups A, C, Y and W-135) oligosaccharide diphtheria CRM197 conjugate vaccine. Accession Number. DB10061. Type. ...
Taxonomy. , Domain = Bacteria , Phylum = Proteobacteria , Class = Gammaproteobacteria , Order = Enterobacteriales , Family = ... Y. enterocolitica is unable to chelate iron. Despite not being able to produce siderophores-- Y. enterocolitica can utilize ... The enterotoxin produced by Y. enterocolitica is similar to that of Escherichia coli . Nevertheless, the enterotoxin only plays ... A vast majority of Y. enterocolitica infections will clear up on their own with good nutrition and hydration [1]. Severe or ...
Taxonomy. , Domain = Bacteria , Phylum = Proteobacteria , Class = Gammaproteobacteria , Order = Enterobacteriales , Family = ... Y. enterocolitica is unable to chelate iron. Despite not being able to produce siderophores-- Y. enterocolitica can utilize ... The enterotoxin produced by Y. enterocolitica is similar to E. coli . Nevertheless, the enterotoxin only plays a minor role in ... Y. enterocolitica. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource. Revision as of 13:36, 21 July 2014 by Caitlyn.E. ...
Taxonomy*Taxonomy. *Taxonomy Browser. *Taxonomy Common Tree. *All Taxonomy Resources.... *Training & Tutorials*NCBI Education ... Y-box transcription factor. Y-box-binding protein 1. enhancer factor I subunit A. ... Ybx1 Y box protein 1 [Mus musculus] Ybx1 Y box protein 1 [Mus musculus]. Gene ID:22608 ... Y box protein 1provided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:99146 See related. Ensembl:ENSMUSG00000028639 Vega:OTTMUSG00000009259 ...
Taxonomy*Taxonomy. *Taxonomy Browser. *Taxonomy Common Tree. *All Taxonomy Resources.... *Training & Tutorials*NCBI Education ... Cdyl chromodomain protein, Y chromosome-like [Mus musculus] Cdyl chromodomain protein, Y chromosome-like [Mus musculus]. Gene ... chromodomain Y-like protein. Names. CDY-like. crotonyl-CoA hydratase. putative histone acetyltransferase Cdyl. NP_001116858.1. ... chromodomain protein, Y chromosome-likeprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:1339956 See related. Ensembl:ENSMUSG00000059288 ...
Taxonomyi. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy,/a> ... sp,Q756V1,FKBP3_ASHGO FK506-binding protein 3 OS=Ashbya gossypii (strain ATCC 10895 / CBS 109.51 / FGSC 9923 / NRRL Y-1056) OX= ... Ashbya gossypii (strain ATCC 10895 / CBS 109.51 / FGSC 9923 / NRRL Y-1056) (Yeast) (Eremothecium gossypii). ... p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy,/a> section shows ...
Taxonomyi. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy,/a> ... Ashbya gossypii (strain ATCC 10895 / CBS 109.51 / FGSC 9923 / NRRL Y-1056) (Yeast) (Eremothecium gossypii)Imported. Automatic ... p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy,/a> section shows ... p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy,/a> section is ...
Current AMP Funding Commitments (total: 5 years*). Disease area. Total NIH funding ($M). Total Industry funding ($M). Total non ... In the last five years, researchers have identified more than 1,000 new biological changes that hold promise as biomarkers and ... a large number of candidates to identify the best biological targets for drug development could shave months or even years off ...
... classification after ten years: essentialism and nominalism in the new taxonomy. Odontol. Clín.-Cient. (Online) [online]. 2010 ... The purpose of this review is to present a discussion concerning the first 10 years of the new classification, pointing their ... Keywords : Classification of Periodontal Diseases; Essentialism; Nominalism; Taxonomy; Etiopathogenic of periodontal diseases. ... what has result in permanent alteration of his taxonomy. The proposals of classification were always based in a nominalist and/ ...
Its that time of year again. Holiday cards are coming. Maybe there will be a few less this year? Postage is up, snail mail is ...
1999). "Virus taxonomy--1999. The universal system of virus taxonomy, updated to include the new proposals ratified by the ... Rothnie, HM.; Chapdelaine, Y.; Hohn, T. (1994). "Pararetroviruses and retroviruses: a comparative review of viral structure and ... Love, AJ.; Geri, C.; Laird, J.; Carr, C.; Yun, BW.; Loake, GJ.; Tada, Y.; Sadanandom, A.; Milner, JJ. (2012). "Cauliflower ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses during 1998". Arch Virol. 144 (2): 421-9. doi:10.1007/s007050050515. PMID ...
The most widely accepted taxonomy groups takes the genus Homo as originating between two and three million years ago, divided ... 0.6 million years ago. The transition from H. heidelbergensis to H. neanderthalensis between 300 and 243 thousand years ago is ... Human taxonomy on one hand involves the placement of humans within the Taxonomy of the hominids (great apes), and on the other ... H. erectus may have appeared some 2 million years ago. Fossils dated to as much as 1.8 million years ago have been found both ...
Together, they count as one species, which is already included in the species total for that year. The same applies that year ... Despite general agreement on phylogeny, the taxonomy is still under debate. At the genus level, the taxonomy has been ... Genus-level taxonomy was largely stabilized by Schwarz in 1931, but a number of later changes have become accepted: The ring- ... In that same year, Anthony and Coupin classified the aye-aye under infraorder Chiromyiformes, a sister group to the other ...
Graham, S.W.; Zgurski, J.M.; McPherson, M.A.; Cherniawsky, D.M.; Saarela, J.M.; Horne, E.S.C.; Smith, S.Y.; Wong, W.A.; OBrien ... The development of a phylogenetic approach to taxonomy, starting with Charles Besseys The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering ... The taxonomy of Liliaceae has had a complex history since the first description of this flowering plant family in the mid- ... Chase, M. W.; Fay, M. F.; Devey, D. S.; Maurin, O; Rønsted, N; Davies, T. J; Pillon, Y; Petersen, G; Seberg, O; Tamura, M. N.; ...
Read more about A Grim Year for Imprisoned Technologists: 2017 In Review ... Read more about A Grim Year for Imprisoned Technologists: 2017 In Review ... Read more about A Grim Year for Imprisoned Technologists: 2017 In Review ... Read more about A Grim Year for Imprisoned Technologists: 2017 In Review ...
In recent years, the countrys military government has instead created a digital dystopia, pushing once-thriving political and ... But after the 24-year-old Lebanese tourist posted a video in which she complained of sexual harassment-calling Egypt a lowly, ... Egypt Sentences Tourist to Eight Years Jail for Complaining about Vacation Online. *English ... Read more about Egypt Sentences Tourist to Eight Years Jail for Complaining about Vacation Online ...
In: Denzin N, Lincoln Y eds. Handbook of qualitative research. London: Sage, 2005. ... Objective To develop a one week widening access summer school for 16 year old pupils from non-traditional backgrounds who are ... We have previously reported a preliminary scoping phase on the views of 15 year old non-traditional pupils towards medicine and ... "We were treated like adults"-development of a pre-medicine summer school for 16 year olds from deprived socioeconomic ...
The Skin Cream That Celebrities Swear by Was Created by a Nurse Nearly 90 Years Ago. by Robert Klara ... Complete Taxonomy of College Sports Mascots. 1,100 schools on one incredible poster. By Tim Nudd ... Weve been in love with taxonomies ever since the agency-name infographic a few months ago. Heres one thats truly stunning to ...
Taxonomy (1). Technology (40). Textile and Fashion (2). Textiles & Fashions (21). Textiles and Costume (8). The Devil Wears ... In the traditional Chinese calendar, each year bears an animal zodiac symbol. People born in a specific year are thought to ... Celebrating Chinese New Year: Dogs in Ancient China Posted: February 15, 2018 - 17:38 , by Diana Lu ... To celebrate the Year of the Dog, a special exhibition presents a selection of exquisite objects from the ROMs Chinese ...
Robert Costas Notebook: What a Year December 27, 2017 Ever since I became moderator in April, its been a rollercoaster ...
Camels live around 17 years. Classification/ Taxonomy. Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) and the domestic Bactrian camel ( ... For many years, the wild Bactrian was thought to be a subspecies of the domestic Bactrian. However, in recent years, DNA ... Humans have used camels as a means of transport for thousands of years. They can carry about 375 to 600 lbs. (170 to 270 ... Camels become fully mature when they are 7 years old. ...
This year, we did the hard work for you and listed four attainable New Years resolutions we know you can achieve this year. ... A new year is a wonderful opportunity to start fresh and set new personal goals. ...
Irene impact researched three years later Posted on December 16, 2014. Five Environmental Studies students at Middlebury ...
  • The purpose of this review is to present a discussion concerning the first 10 years of the new classification, pointing their conflicting points. (bvsalud.org)
  • We based our sector taxonomy on the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS), a recognised and widely accepted classification system developed by MSCI and Standard & Poor's (S&P). Each company is assigned a sector and subsector according to its primary business activity. (thelawyer.com)
  • To ensure our sector taxonomy reflects the involvement of non-corporate organisations and entities we added two classifications that the GICS as a classification system does not cover. (thelawyer.com)
  • The ultimate goal of taxonomy is to construct a classification that is of operative and predictive use for any discipline in microbiology and that is also essentially stable. (pnas.org)
  • Over the years that followed, the construction of the classification system was based on the fact that DDH could reveal coherent genomic groups (genospecies) of strains generally sharing DDH values with greater than 70% similarity ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Numerical taxonomy: the principles and practice of numerical classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • February 16th, 2018 marks the beginning of the Year of the Dog, the eleventh animal in the Chinese zodiac. (rom.on.ca)
  • Wesley M. Knapp and Robert F. C. Naczi "Taxonomy, Morphology, and Geographic Distribution of Juncus Longii (Juncaceae)," Systematic Botany 33(4), 685-694, (1 October 2008). (bioone.org)
  • We examined male genitalic morphology in Lycaeides populations spanning much of North America to evaluate the current taxonomy and to address questions about the patterns of morphological variation at suture zones and potential evolutionary processes responsible for the patterns. (bioone.org)
  • It's been legal to possess and grow small amounts of weed since shortly after votes passed Prop 64 in November 2016, but as of New Year's Day, we see the unleashing of what is expected to be a $7 billion a year state cannabis industry . (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • Sneath reviewed the state of numerical taxonomy in 1995 and wrote some autobiographical notes in 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • To raise global awareness about plant health and mobilize support to the plant health sector, the IPPC with its contracting parties led by Finland is working towards proclaiming the year 2020 as the International Year of Plant Health (IYPH 2020). (ippc.int)
  • Later this year, the United Nations General Assembly will vote on a resolution to proclaim 2020 as the International Year of Plant Health (IYPH). (ippc.int)
  • DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) has been used for nearly 50 years as the gold standard for prokaryotic species circumscriptions at the genomic level. (pnas.org)
  • Nevertheless, the use of DDH has mainly driven the construction of the current prokaryotic taxonomy, as it has become the gold standard for genomically circumscribing species. (pnas.org)
  • This parameter has had a similar impact in prokaryotic taxonomy as the interbreeding premise that is the basis for the biological species concept for animal and plant taxonomies ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The most widely accepted taxonomy groups takes the genus Homo as originating between two and three million years ago, divided into at least two species, archaic Homo erectus and modern Homo sapiens , with about a dozen further suggestions for species without universal recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bloom's Taxonomy is a widely-accepted representation of how cognitive learning can vary, and it descries cognitive learning objectives in order from the simplest to the most complex. (hubpages.com)
  • In November 1973, my colleagues A. C. Y. Chang, H. W. Boyer, R. B. Helling, and I reported in PNAS that individual genes can be cloned and isolated by enzymatically cleaving DNA molecules into fragments, linking the fragments to an autonomously replicating plasmid, and introducing the resulting recombinant DNA molecules into bacteria. (pnas.org)
  • Sneath and Sokal wrote Principles of Numerical Taxonomy, revised in 1973 as Numerical Taxonomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human taxonomy on one hand involves the placement of humans within the Taxonomy of the hominids (great apes), and on the other the division of archaic and modern humans into species and, if applicable, subspecies . (wikipedia.org)
  • For many years, the wild Bactrian was thought to be a subspecies of the domestic Bactrian. (livescience.com)
  • Search the vast number of projects we've been involved in over the years. (cancervic.org.au)
  • Whether you're a high school student cramming for a psychology test, an education student studying for the PLT Praxis, or a classroom teacher, this page gives you the tools you need to understand each level of Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains, action verbs and tasks associated with each level, and modern revisions to the hierarchy. (hubpages.com)
  • Sargassum C. Agardh, described 190 years ago (C. Agardh, 1820), represents today the most species rich genus of the marine macrophytes (estimated from Guiry & Guiry, 2010) and the morphologically most complex phaeophyceaen genera. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, in recent years, DNA analysis confirmed that C. ferus was a separate species, according to the San Diego Zoo. (livescience.com)
  • Pups are weaned at seven to 24 months of age and are sexually mature around 2 to 8 years of age, depending on the species. (livescience.com)
  • We present here an analysis of the utility of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the hypervariable D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene for the identification of yeast species submitted to the United Kingdom Mycology Reference Laboratory over a 2-year period. (asm.org)
  • The concept of species was conceived first by Aristotle ≈2,400 years ago, and since then taxonomists of all disciplines have been trying to find those premises that would help to circumscribe the biological units observed in nature. (pnas.org)
  • This pattern has been reversed in recent years and some of the researchers working with this species include Timothy O'Brien, Margaret Kinnaird, and Barry Rosenbaum. (wisc.edu)
  • Objective To develop a one week widening access summer school for 16 year old pupils from non-traditional backgrounds who are considering applying to medical school, and to identify its short term impact and key success factors. (bmj.com)
  • Offered every year in fall term. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Offered 2013 and alternate years thereafter in winter term. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Offered every year in winter term. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Summer term offered every year. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Offered in 2013 and alternating years thereafter in fall term. (umanitoba.ca)
  • In the late 1980's ( 5 ), taxonomists already believed that the reference standard for determining taxonomy would be full genome sequences. (pnas.org)
  • Overview of speciation and hybridization within the genus Homo over the last two million years (vertical axis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomedical Science offers the possibility of doing a one-year placement away from the University between Stages 2 and 3. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Your placement year is taken between your second and final years. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Fifty years after the Cuban missile crisis brought the world to the brink of a nuclear holocaust, the threats posed by the bomb have changed, but still hang over us all. (armscontrol.org)
  • Fifty years of business computing: LEO to linux. (springer.com)
  • Although Sargassum's taxonomy has been the focus of increased attention since 1985 (Abbott, 2004), it is still in need of systematic re-examination (Mattio et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Maximum longevity of the sooty mangabey is 18 years (Harvey & Clutton-Brock 1985). (wisc.edu)
  • Though these populations have been geographically separated for almost 150 years, they exhibit the same morphological , ecological, and behavioral patterns (Rosenbaum et al. (wisc.edu)
  • The realization that designing products in families can and does have significant technological and economic advantages over traditional single product design has motivated increasing interest in recent years in formal design tools and methodologies for product family design. (springer.com)
  • In your first and second years, you develop your skills as a bioscientist, covering areas including biological chemistry, genetics, molecular and cellular biology, human physiology and disease, and metabolism. (kent.ac.uk)
  • In your first year, your modules give you an insight into various biological and chemical disciplines, including biochemistry, cell and molecular biology, microbiology and physiology. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Your second year builds on this knowledge and covers areas such as gene regulation, cell biology and metabolism. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Taxonomy is in constant evolution and tributary of technology progress. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The advents of electronic microscopy, as well as biochemical and molecular analyses have been factors responsible for the evolution of our view of taxonomy. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Taxonomy is the discipline describing, naming and classifying living organisms, it is essential to the inventory and understanding ofbiodiversity. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • For over 80 years, Carolina has been providing the highest-quality living organisms and cultures available. (carolina.com)
  • Over the last 24 hours, Fed Chair Janet Yellen came out with a relatively hawkish outlook on monetary policy, stating that she still expects a rate hike "later this year," that US economic prospects "generally appear solid," and that the FOMC does not expect recent global financial developments to significantly affect policy. (futuresmag.com)
  • Increased Expression of Y-Box-Binding Protein-1 in Hind-Limb Muscles During Regeneration from Ischemic Injury in Mice. (nih.gov)
  • Inflammatory cell infiltration and resolution of kidney inflammation is orchestrated by the cold-shock protein Y-box binding protein-1. (nih.gov)
  • Activated Protein C Ameliorates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Restricting Y-Box Binding Protein-1 Ubiquitination. (nih.gov)
  • Alternative forms of Y-box binding protein 1 and YB-1 mRNA. (nih.gov)
  • So my main question is, will we be treating this "taxonomy unavailable" strain the same as all the protocols I find for candida? (thecandidadiet.com)
  • We also offer between 20 and 30 paid Summer Studentships each year. (kent.ac.uk)
  • This paper focuses on User-Generated Content (UGC) in product customization by proposing two taxonomies of user-generated signs and meanings integrated into customizable products and shared on social media. (francoangeli.it)
  • The authors develop the two taxonomies combining visual semiotics with an inspection of customized t-shirts and validate the taxonomies applying visual content analysis on customized trolley- and pc-bags. (francoangeli.it)
  • In the last five years, researchers have identified more than 1,000 new biological changes that hold promise as biomarkers and drug targets, offering a potential revolution in diagnostics and therapeutics. (nih.gov)
  • For the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) to fulfill our mission to "advance science and sustain technological creativity by making R&D findings available and useful to Department of Energy researchers and the public," it's important to have an information technology (IT) infrastructure up to the task of performing 40 million human transactions per year, which requires 24/7/365 availability. (osti.gov)
  • Therefore, there exists many taxonomies that have been proposed by researchers with different backgrounds in order to address the needs of their specific systems in the most effective way. (sintef.no)
  • You can also study or work abroad as part of your degree with our Biomedical Science with a Year Abroad programme or you have the option to take this programme as a three-year degree, without the year in industry. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Alternatively, you can study or work abroad as part of your degree on our Biochemistry with a Year Abroad degree. (kent.ac.uk)
  • You can also take our three-year Biochemistry degree, without a year abroad or a sandwich year. (kent.ac.uk)
  • What is the Importance of Studying Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain? (hubpages.com)
  • What's it like to study Biomedical Science with a Sandwich Year? (kent.ac.uk)
  • Find out more about what it's like to study Biomedical Science with a Sandwich Year from the people who know. (kent.ac.uk)
  • It's been five years since the era of legal marijuana sales began in Colorado, and that's been enough time to begin to be able to see what sorts of impact the freeing of the weed has had on the Rocky Mountain State. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • Ones available two years ago were lacking, out of date or not comprehensive enough. (kachan.com)
  • Our research funding of around £4.5 million a year means that you are taught the most up-to-date science and this allows us to offer some exciting and relevant final-year projects. (kent.ac.uk)
  • The year or date of publication is provided, as determined by the nomenclatural rules (true date of publication). (wikipedia.org)
  • Reorganization of data center technologies - Data center efficiency improvement has been low-hanging fruit for many companies since our last taxonomy. (kachan.com)
  • IAEA scientific and technical publications can be searched by multiple parameters: year of publication, topic and type. (iaea.org)
  • Our litigation type taxonomy was constructed through researching and aligning the practice areas of firms and chambers active in the litigation field. (thelawyer.com)
  • Judith Ambrosini has lived under the influence of Type 1 diabetes for over 50 years. (diabetesnet.com)
  • Glomerular and tubular damage resulting from type 2 diabetes occurs over several years, and it is possible that the excretions of glomerular and tubular proteins antedate the development of macroalbuminuria and perhaps even the development of microalbuminuria. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • People born in a specific year are thought to have attributes of that year's animal. (rom.on.ca)
  • This year, we did the hard work for you and listed four attainable New Year's resolutions we know you can achieve this year. (parkinson.org)
  • The temperature is fairly constant throughout the year, ranging from 21.7° C (71° F) to 34.4° C (94° F) at the coolest and hottest points in the year, respectively (O'Brien & Kinnaird 1997). (wisc.edu)
  • The United States can and should reduce its arsenal to 1,000 deployed strategic warheads or fewer-a level than is still more than enough to deter any current or potential adversary and is only 300 warheads fewer than the United States was prepared to agree to during the New START negotiations four years ago. (armscontrol.org)
  • If necessary, the presidents could achieve similar results--and more rapidly--through parallel, reciprocal reductions of strategic warheads--to well below 1,000 within the next five years, which could be verified under New START. (armscontrol.org)
  • Infections from Yersinia enterocolitica are common year-round, but have an optimum infection period in fall and winter. (kenyon.edu)
  • Yeah, I know, it sounds kinda trite but this has been the first Christmas I've spent with my family in about four years. (sjgames.com)
  • So we took the time to develop our own, influenced by others as we described here two years ago , when we first crowdsourced and validated our work with the cleantech community. (kachan.com)
  • The Bimaadiziwin Ka'nikonhriyo Indigenous & Allies community represents an effort to develop more intentional programming for first-year students," says Vanessa McCourt (Artsci'02), Aboriginal Advisor with Four Directions. (queensu.ca)
  • There are resources to help you develop taxonomy-based lessons and assessments. (hubpages.com)
  • This could end up putting a billion dollars a year in the state and local treasuries. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • While the state produces massive amounts of marijuana -- an estimated 13.5 million pounds each year -- up to 80% of that is destined for the black market, either for export to prohibitionist states or sold informally in-state. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • Forty-six years after the atrocious Biafra War, low-intensity conflicts by state and non-state actors are raging across the country. (pambazuka.org)
  • Held once every three years, it is the largest global gathering of water officials, including heads of state, in the world. (internationalrivers.org)
  • Total marijuana sales in the state were more than $683 million in 2014-the year legal sales began-and have since more than doubled to more than $1.4 billion last year. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • T o start the year off right, here's some information about one of our favorite peculiar organizations: the Annals of Improbable Research (AIR). (sjgames.com)
  • You can apply to work in our research labs during the summer holiday and gain hands-on research experience before your final year of study. (kent.ac.uk)
  • In your final year, alongside your compulsory modules, you conduct a research project. (kent.ac.uk)
  • The authors also outline future research directions concerning the relationships between the proposed taxonomies and the evaluations of customized products. (francoangeli.it)
  • AUSTRALIA'S central bank is the first in a big, rich economy to raise interest rates since July last year. (economist.com)
  • Although the country saw one quarter of economic contraction late last year, it has avoided a technical recession (generally considered to be two successive quarters of contraction). (economist.com)
  • Last year in South Korea, President Barack Obama declared that "[t]he massive nuclear arsenal we inherited from the Cold War is poorly suited for today's threats, including nuclear terrorism. (armscontrol.org)
  • A generation of leaders who won their spurs during Algeria's 1954-62 independence war against France remains in power, having defeated a violent challenge by armed Islamists in the 1990s and, at least for now, seen off the rebellious spirit that toppled Arab autocrats in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya last year. (pambazuka.org)
  • If India has only one fully indigenous carmaker that competes with the world's giants, China has perhaps as many as five that see themselves as potential rivals to the foreign brands which last year took more than 70% of the Chinese passenger-car market. (economist.com)
  • We have previously reported a preliminary scoping phase on the views of 15 year old non-traditional pupils towards medicine and medical school. (bmj.com)
  • It's been two years since Kachan & Co. first published its definition of what industries and categories constitute cleantech . (kachan.com)
  • A clean technology taxonomy, a list of nested categories, is important. (kachan.com)
  • ICT stays a "layer" within all eight categories of cleantech - Information and communication technologies (ICT) today play an even greater role in cleantech than they did two years ago. (kachan.com)
  • Tax revenues have increased every year since legalization and those dollars help fund public school projects, as well as human services, public affairs, agriculture, labor and employment, judicial affairs, health care policy, transportation and regulatory affairs. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • The two genera are estimated to have diverged over an extended time of hybridization spanning roughly 10 to 6 million years ago, with possible admixture as late as 4 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lot happens in two years, so it's time to refresh our taxonomy. (kachan.com)
  • Two years later, it's now time to revisit and improve our work. (kachan.com)
  • Hence, in this paper, first a taxonomy of different types of product families is presented which consists of seven types of product families, categorized based on number of products and time of product introduction. (springer.com)
  • The Delaware Office of Highway Safety is focusing on pedestrian safety this holiday season through the "It's the Most Dangerous Time of the Year" campaign. (ghsa.org)
  • When the government-backed Maruti appeared on the scene, it applied for a licence to make 150,000 cars a year, which at the time seemed a huge number. (economist.com)