Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Breast Neoplasms, Male: Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Breast Cyst: A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Milk, HumanMammaplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Fibroadenoma: An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Nipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Breast Implantation: Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.BRCA2 Protein: A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms: Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms: Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Estrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Epirubicin: An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Adenofibroma: A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)United StatesColorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Neoplastic Cells, Circulating: Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.Neoplasms, Basal Cell: Neoplasms composed of cells from the deepest layer of the epidermis. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the stratum basale.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
"Entrez Gene: RGM domain family". Samad TA, Rebbapragada A, Bell E, Zhang Y, Sidis Y, Jeong SJ, Campagna JA, Perusini S, ... Li J, Ye L, Sanders AJ, Jiang WG (March 2012). "Repulsive guidance molecule B (RGMB) plays negative roles in breast cancer by ... The perturbed expression was associated with disease progression and poor prognosis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat ...
Kang Y (Jan 2009). "MTDH activation by 8q22 genomic gain promotes chemoresistance and metastasis of poor-prognosis breast ... Wang S, Shu JZ, Cai Y, Bao Z, Liang QM (2012). "Establishment and characterization of MTDH knockdown by artificial MicroRNA ... Elevated expression of the metastasis gene metadherin (MTDH), which is overexpressed in more than 40% of breast cancers, is ... Brown DM, Ruoslahti E (Apr 2004). "Metadherin, a cell surface protein in breast tumors that mediates lung metastasis". Cancer ...
"Elevated expression of USP22 in correlation with poor prognosis in patients with invasive breast cancer". Journal of Cancer ... Ling SB, Sun DG, Tang B, Guo C, Zhang Y, Liang R, Wang LM (December 2012). "Knock-down of USP22 by small interfering RNA ... Zhang Y, Yao L, Zhang X, Ji H, Wang L, Sun S, Pang D (August 2011). " ... "Aberrant expression of USP22 is associated with liver metastasis and poor prognosis of colorectal cancer". Journal of Surgical ...
Kentucky then played in the Outback Bowl, Kentucky's first New Year's Day bowl in 47 years. Despite jumping out to a 14-3 lead ... His wife, June, is a breast cancer survivor and is active with the Susan G. Komen Foundation. Mumme has two daughters and a son ... Mumme was diagnosed with prostate cancer in early 2009; the cancer was reportedly caught early and his prognosis is good. ... Kentucky had gone 9-24 (.273) through the prior three years. In Mumme's first year the team improved to a 5-6 record. The ...
"Identification of a gene signature in cell cycle pathway for breast cancer prognosis using gene expression profiling data". BMC ... Hoshida Y, Villanueva A, Sangiovanni A, Sole M, Hur C, Andersson KL, Chung RT, Gould J, Kojima K, Gupta S, Taylor B, Crenshaw A ... 2008 Aug;9(5):349-60.PMID 19517027 Liu J, Campen A, Huang S, Peng SB, Ye X, Palakal M, Dunker AK, Xia Y, Li S (Sep 2008). " ... The applications of these prognostic signatures include prognostic assays for breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, ...
2009). Neuropilin-2 expression in breast cancer: correlation with lymph node metastasis, poor prognosis, and regulation of ... doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00081.2004 Chuong, C.J. and Fung, Y.C. (1986). On residual stress in arteries. Journal of Biomechanics 108 ... doi:10.1242/dev.02883 Castier, Y. et al. (March, 2009). Role of NF-κB in flow-induced vascular remodelling. Antioxidants & ... ISBN 978-92-4-156437-3 Castier, Y. et al. (August, 2005). p47phox-dependent NADPH oxidase regulates flow-induced vascular ...
They generally have a good prognosis. In one larger study, the 5-year and 10-year survival were over 90% and 80% respectively. ... Its appearance is very similar to adenomyoepithelioma of the breast, which may be the same tumour at a different anatomical ... Seifert, G. (Sep 1998). "Are adenomyoepithelioma of the breast and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands ...
Y. -X.; Shao, J. -Y. (2008). "MicroRNA miR-21 overexpression in human breast cancer is associated with advanced clinical stage ... lymph node metastasis and patient poor prognosis". RNA. 14 (11): 2348-2360. doi:10.1261/rna.1034808. PMC 2578865 . PMID ... Guo, S. T.; Jiang, C. C.; Wang, G. P.; Li, Y. P.; Wang, C. Y.; Guo, X. Y.; Yang, R. H.; Feng, Y.; Wang, F. H.; Tseng, H. -Y.; ... Li, D.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, C.; Chen, X.; Qi, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Zou, C.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S.; Wang, X.; Zhao, D.; Sun, Q.; Zeng, Z.; ...
Y. -X.; Shao, J. -Y. (2008). "MicroRNA miR-21 overexpression in human breast cancer is associated with advanced clinical stage ... lymph node metastasis and patient poor prognosis". RNA. 14 (11): 2348-2360. doi:10.1261/rna.1034808. PMC 2578865 . PMID ... Wang, X. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Liu, F.; Li, Y.; Li, N.; Li, G. Y.; Shen, S. R. (2010). "Differential miRNA expression and their target ... Duan, J.; Huang, H.; Lv, X.; Wang, H.; Tang, Z.; Sun, H.; Li, Q.; Ai, J.; Tan, R.; Liu, Y.; Chen, M.; Duan, W.; Wei, Y.; Zhou, ...
Therefore, ferroportin is a pivotal protein in breast biology and a strong and independent predictor of prognosis in breast ... Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano S (October 1997). "Construction and characterization of a full ... "Ferroportin and iron regulation in breast cancer progression and prognosis". Science Translational Medicine. 2 (43): 43ra56. ... Transfection of breast cancer cells with ferroportin significantly reduces their growth after orthotopic implantation in the ...
Brain metastases have a poor prognosis for cure, but modern treatments are allowing patients to live months and sometimes years ... The most common sites of primary cancer which metastasize to the brain are lung, breast, colon, kidney, and skin cancer. Brain ... However, some cancers such as lymphomas, small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC) and breast cancer may be highly chemosensitive and ... The prognosis for brain metastases is variable. It depends on the type of primary cancer, the age of the patient, the absence ...
Woodfield GW, Horan AD, Chen Y, Weigel RJ (2007). "TFAP2C controls hormone response in breast cancer cells through multiple ... 2003). "Elevated expression levels of NCOA3, TOP1, and TFAP2C in breast tumors as predictors of poor prognosis". Cancer. 98 (1 ... It also represses CD44 expression, which is a cell marker for some breast and prostate cancers. Mutations of this transcription ... Woodfield GW, Hitchler MJ, Chen Y, et al. (2009). "Interaction of TFAP2C with the estrogen receptor-alpha promoter is ...
McCune K, Bhat-Nakshatri P, Thorat MA, Nephew KP, Badve S, Nakshatri H (Jan 2010). "Prognosis of hormone-dependent breast ... Muroya K, Hasegawa T, Ito Y, Nagai T, Isotani H, Iwata Y, Yamamoto K, Fujimoto S, Seishu S, Fukushima Y, Hasegawa Y, Ogata T ( ... "Expression of FOXA1 and GATA-3 in breast cancer: the prognostic significance in hormone receptor-negative tumours". Breast ... Ki67 status and vascular peritumoral invasion are strongly prognostic in luminal breast cancer". Breast Cancer Research. 11 (2 ...
5-year survival rate. Breast implant-associated ALCL has an excellent prognosis when the lymphoma is confined to the fluid or ... Systemic ALK+ ALCL 5-year survival: 70-80%. Systemic ALK- ALCL 5-year survival: 15-45%. Primary Cutaneous ALCL: Prognosis is ... A rare subtype of ALCL has been identified in a few women who have silicone breast implants (protheses) as a result of breast ... A 2008 study found an increased risk of ALCL of the breast in women with silicone breast implants (protheses), although the ...
Sunn felt a lump in her breast which turned out to be breast cancer. When she was diagnosed in 1983, her prognosis was for one ... In August 1996 she was inducted into the Surfing Walk of Fame as that year's Woman of the Year; the Walk is in Huntington Beach ... Over the next 14 years, her cancer went into remission three times, and she underwent a mastectomy and a bone marrow transplant ... She helped pilot a program for breast cancer awareness at the Wai'anae Cancer Research Center that involved educating local ...
Fujiwara Y, Ochiya T (June 2015). "The expression and clinical significance of ribophorin II (RPN2) in human breast cancer". ... "RPN2 Gene Confers Osteosarcoma Cell Malignant Phenotypes and Determines Clinical Prognosis". Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids. ... Fujita Y, Yagishita S, Takeshita F, Yamamoto Y, Kuwano K, Ochiya T (February 2015). "Prognostic and therapeutic impact of RPN2- ... Kurashige J, Watanabe M, Iwatsuki M, Kinoshita K, Saito S, Nagai Y, Ishimoto T, Baba Y, Mimori K, Baba H (October 2012). "RPN2 ...
... in breast tumors: a new potential biomarker for prognosis of breast carcinoma". Thromb Haemost. 91 (1): 180-186. doi:10.1267/ ... Vasilopoulos Y, Cork MJ, Murphy R, et al. (2004). "Genetic association between an AACC insertion in the 3'UTR of the stratum ... Dong Y, Kaushal A, Brattsand M, et al. (2004). "Differential splicing of KLK5 and KLK7 in epithelial ovarian cancer produces ... Lundwall A, Band V, Blaber M, Clements JA, Courty Y, Diamandis EP, Fritz H, Lilja H, Malm J, Maltais LJ, Olsson AY, Petraki C, ...
Medical treatment of gynecomastia is most effective when done within the first two years after the start of male breast ... PrognosisEdit. Gynecomastia is not physically harmful, but in some cases it may be an indicator of other more serious ... Other causes of male breast enlargement such as mastitis,[14][36] breast cancer, pseudogynecomastia, lipoma, sebaceous cyst, ... Koshy, JC; Goldberg, JS; Wolfswinkel, EM; Ge, Y; Heller, L (January 2011). "Breast cancer incidence in adolescent males ...
In general women with this cancer have a very good prognosis, with mortality in 10 years of only 5%. Therefore, it is rare for ... B is an immunohistochemical proliferation marker which can predict for breast cancer death in low-risk node negative breast ... Zhou XY, Wang X, Hu B, Guan J, Iliakis G, Wang Y (March 2002). "An ATM-independent S-phase checkpoint response involves CHK1 ... Nigam N, Prasad S, George J, Shukla Y (April 2009). "Lupeol induces p53 and cyclin-B-mediated G2/M arrest and targets apoptosis ...
"E1AF expression levels are not associated with prognosis in human breast cancer". Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 79 (1 ... Zhu X, Jiang J, Shen H, Wang H, Zong H, Li Z, Yang Y, Niu Z, Liu W, Chen X, Hu Y, Gu J (Apr 2005). "Elevated beta1,4- ... Suzuki Y, Yamashita R, Shirota M, Sakakibara Y, Chiba J, Mizushima-Sugano J, Nakai K, Sugano S (Sep 2004). "Sequence comparison ... Nosho K, Yoshida M, Yamamoto H, Taniguchi H, Adachi Y, Mikami M, Hinoda Y, Imai K (May 2005). "Association of Ets-related ...
Younger women with an age of less than 40 years or women over 80 years tend to have a poorer prognosis than post-menopausal ... Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)". NCI ... Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.[8] Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change ... Böhm I (2011). "Breast cancer in lupus". Breast. 20 (3): 288-90. doi:10.1016/j.breast.2010.12.005. PMID 21237645.. ...
... in therapy have improved the prognosis considerably and at least one third of women will survive the diagnosis by 10 years or ... Kusama, M; Koyanagi, Y; Sekine, M; Serizawa, H; Ebihara, Y; Hirota, T; Nakamura, Y; Matsunaga, T (1994). "A case of ... Inflammatory Breast Cancer Association. References[edit]. *^ "Inflammatory Breast Cancer: Questions and Answers". National ... Inflammatory breast cancer[1] is one of the most aggressive types of breast cancer that can occur in women of any age (and, ...
23-year-old Kristin Hallenga's health crusade to warn women about risks of breast cancer, Retrieved - June 8 2015 Change ... she has survived her original prognosis by living with terminal cancer for over five years. I was diagnosed in 2009, and I was ... Hallenga was diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 23. Her doctor originally dismissed a tumor on Hallenga's breast as " ... I was told three times that I was too young to get breast cancer. I decided that my story needs to be told and we need to get ...
Dykxhoorn DM, Wu Y, Xie H, et al. (2009). Blagosklonny MV, ed. "miR-200 enhances mouse breast cancer cell colonization to form ... MiR-200a regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related gene expression and determines prognosis in colorectal cancer ... Li Y, VandenBoom TG, Kong D, Wang Z, Ali S, Philip PA, Sarkar FH (2009). "Up-regulation of miR-200 and let-7 by natural agents ... Kong D, Li Y, Wang Z, Banerjee S, Ahmad A, Kim HR, Sarkar FH (2009). "miR-200 regulates PDGF-D-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal ...
Yang XR, Xu Y, Yu B, et al. (2009). "CD24 is a novel predictor for poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma after surgery". ... 2009). "Tumor-endothelial interaction links the CD44(+)/CD24(-) phenotype with poor prognosis in early-stage breast cancer". ... 2008). "The CD44+/CD24- phenotype is enriched in basal-like breast tumors". Breast Cancer Res. 10 (3): R53. doi:10.1186/bcr2108 ... Liu Y, Chen GY, Zheng P (2009). "CD24-Siglec G/10 discriminates danger- from pathogen-associated molecular patterns". Trends ...
Prognosis. 10 year shorter life expectancy[10]. Frequency. 392 million (2015)[11]. ... "Physical activity and risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke events: ... Cho Y, Nadeau-Fredette AC, Burke M, Faruque L, Lloyd A, Ahmad N, Liu Y, Tiv S, Wiebe N, Strippoli GF (July 2016). "Comparison ... Pan A, Wang Y, Talaei M, Hu FB, Wu T (December 2015). "Relation of active, passive, and quitting smoking with incident type 2 ...
What are fibrocystic breasts? Ada doctors explain its signs, symptoms (lumpy, painful breasts), diagnosis, causes, and ... What is the prognosis for fibrocystic breasts?. Breast pain caused by fibrocystic mastopathy usually persists chronically for ... Good to know: The diagnostic value of a mammography can be limited, especially for women under 40 years of age, as the breast ... Change in breast size Local hardening which is palpable. If you think that you might have fibrocystic breasts, you can try ...
Mammography-Detected Breast Cancer In 40-49 Year-Olds Has Better Prognosis. by editor ... Over the 18-year period, the number of breast cancers diagnosed at Stage 0 increased by 66 percent, while the number of Stage ... The data analysis revealed a significant increase in the percentage of mammography-detected breast cancer over the 18-year ... breast cancers detected by mammography have a better prognosis. The study appears in the March issue of Radiology. ...
Long-term prognosis of young breast cancer patients (,= 40 years) who did not receive adjuvant systemic treatment. Publication ... Long-term prognosis of young breast cancer patients (<= 40 years) who did not receive adjuvant systemic treatment. BMJ Open, 7( ... Our aim is to reduce overtreatment of women diagnosed with breast cancer aged ≤40 years.. Methods and analysis All young, ... breast tumours, epidemiology, histopathology Persistent URL. dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017842, hdl.handle.net/1765/105836 ...
The prognosis of patients with local recurrence more than five years after breast conservation therapy for invasive breast ... The prognosis of patients with local recurrence more than five years after breast conservation therapy for invasive breast ... Breast carcinoma, Breast conservation, Diagnosis, Local recurrence, Prognosis Persistent URL. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2005.10 ... Aims: The increasing use of breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and the rising incidence and improved prognosis of early breast are ...
Prognosis and adjuvant treatment effects in very young women (below 35 years) with operable breast cancer. ... Cancello, Giuseppe (2009) Prognosis and adjuvant treatment effects in very young women (below 35 years) with operable breast ... Conclusions: Very young patients with triple negative, luminal B, or HER2 positive breast cancer have a worse prognosis when ... Background: There is limited knowledge about prognosis of selected breast cancer subtypes among very young women Patients and ...
Better Prognosis For 40-49 Year-Olds Breast Cancer Patients Diagnosed Using Mammography. *Life Style ... Home Life Style Better Prognosis For 40-49 Year-Olds Breast Cancer Patients Diagnosed Using Mammography ... Better Prognosis For 40-49 Year-Olds Breast Cancer Patients Diagnosed Using Mammography. ... mammography-detected breast cancers between 40 and 49 years have a better prognosis and longer survival rates. ...
30 years appear to have a poorer prognosis compared with that for their older counterparts.,/p, ... p,Women who are diagnosed with breast carcinoma at an age , or = ... Female patients with breast carcinoma age 30 years and younger ... Conclusions: Women who are diagnosed with breast carcinoma at an age , or = 30 years appear to have a poorer prognosis compared ... Methods: One hundred eighty-five women age , or = 30 years in whom a diagnosis of invasive breast carcinoma was made between ...
Its not very common in younger women, but in this case a 17-year-old girl had to fight ovarian cancer. Krislyn Brown is here ... Mitt Romney treated for prostate cancer over the summer; prognosis is good. ... Breast cancer genetics revealed: 72 new mutations discovered in global study. * News ... Ovarian Cancer 17-Year-Olds Story of Survival. Posted 12:00 pm, September 13, 2012, by Nancy B. Allen, Updated at 11:10AM, ...
The aim was to describe the clinicopathological features and prognosis of 30-year-old or younger patients with breast cancer. ... We reviewed the records of 1,406 consecutive patients aged ≤50 years with first diagnosis of invasive breast cancer referred to ... A total of 105 patients were aged ≤30 years (group I) and 1,301 were aged 31-50 years (group II). Compared with patients of ... 30 years have a greater chance of having an endocrine-unresponsive tumor and a significantly poor prognosis. ...
Overall Prognosis. The unadjusted 7-year RSR was significantly lower in county A than in several of the other counties (Table 1 ... Cumulative 7-year survival ratio (RSR) of female breast cancer patients ages 40 to 69 years diagnosed between 1992 and 2002 ( ... women younger than 40 years old or older than 69 years old who are not recommended for the breast cancer screening program or ... ages 40 to 69 years diagnosed with primary breast cancer between 1992 and 2002 were followed up until 2003. The 7-year relative ...
Yang Y, Li Y, Wang K, Wang Y, Yin W, Li L. P38/NF-kappaB/snail pathway is involved in caffeic acid-induced inhibition of cancer ... and invasion of breast cancer cells and that low IDH1 expression correlates with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer ... Zhao S, Lin Y, Xu W, Jiang W, Zha Z, Wang P, Yu W, Li Z, Gong L, Peng Y, et al. Glioma-derived mutations in IDH1 dominantly ... IDH1lowsnailhigh molecular signature is an independent marker for poor prognosis in breast cancer. Using the IHC data, we ...
... in peripheral blood could be a prognostic factor in breast cancer. We examined PLS3 expression in breast cancer cell lines with ... Robust PLS3 expression was observed in different breast cancer cell lines (Hs578t, MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, and MDA-MB-231) as well ... Furthermore, PLS3 may be an excellent biomarker for identifying groups at risk of recurrence or with a poor prognosis. ... We investigated PLS3 expression in the peripheral blood of 594 patients with breast cancer to evaluate the clinical ...
During the two years following diagnosis, younger patients with BRCA-mutation positive, TNBC may have greater survival than non ... More in Breast Cancer. FDA: Number of U.S. Women With Breast Implant-Caused ... Textured breast implants linked to cases of ... BRCA Mutation Improves Prognosis for 2-year Survival in Younger-onset TNBC. Share this content: *facebook ... During the median follow-up of 8.2 years, 651 (96%) of 678 deaths were attributed to breast cancer. Further multivariable ...
2001) Preoperative chemotherapy in patients with operable breast cancer: Nine-year results from National Surgical Adjuvant ... of all breast cancers (1). Compared with other breast cancer subtypes, TNBC is characterized by a worse prognosis and increased ... CD73 promotes anthracycline resistance and poor prognosis in triple negative breast cancer. Sherene Loi, Sandra Pommey, ... TNBC remains a challenging disease with the poorest prognosis of all of the breast cancer subtypes. Importantly, there are ...
Early detection and life style changes help in controlling breast cancer. ... Breast cancer is a cancer that affects the breasts or mammary glands. ... 16% of women between the age of 40-60 years have breast-related problems. Of these 40% complain of breast lumps ... What is the Prognosis for Breast Cancer?. Breast cancer prognosis in a patient is determined by several factors such as staging ...
Olivia Newton-Johns diagnosis of a breast cancer recurrence after 25 years is shocking, given how rare a relapse is after that ... Like the singer, I reached my five-year cancer anniversary, then my 10-year, and most recently the 15-year anniversary of that ... Treatment plans and prognosis. According to numerous news sources, Newton-John has decided to treat her recurrence with ... stretching over 25 years) of a breast cancer recurrence happening more than 20 years after the initial diagnosis. ...
Manuel-y-Keenoy B. . Influence of body weight on the prognosis of breast cancer survivors; nutritional approach after diagnosis ... Postdiagnosis supplement use and breast cancer prognosis in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project. Breast Cancer Res Treat ... Adjuvant diet to improve hormonal and metabolic factors affecting breast cancer prognosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006; 1089:110-8. ... Lifetime cigarette smoking and breast cancer prognosis in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project. J Natl Cancer Inst 2014;106: ...
Breast cancer patients with high levels of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 have a 77.1 percent five-year survival ... A: The prognosis for patients with liver cancer is generally poor, with an overall five-year survival rate of 15 percent for ... Breast cancer patients with high levels of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 have a 77.1 percent five-year survival ... improve the prognosis of HER2-positive breast cancer patients and lead to lengthy remissions that can last for over 15 years. ...
The stage of the cancer thus at the beginning of therapy determines the outlook of a breast cancer patient. ... Prognosis of outlook of any cancer depends on several factors. Notable among these is how early the cancer is detected and ... If breast cancer comes back, it is usually within the first 2 years. Breast cancer can come back 10 or 20 years after initially ... Over years, with the development of medicines and surgical procedures for breast cancer treatment the outlook for breast cancer ...
In addition, whereas microvessel density in breast tumors correlated with poor clinical outcome in breast cancer (29), a high ... evidence accumulated over the past 25 years indicates that blood vessels with HEV characteristics develop in nonlymphoid ... and B-Lymphocyte Infiltration and Favorable Prognosis in Breast Cancer. Ludovic Martinet, Ignacio Garrido, Thomas Filleron, ... explain the prognosis value of HEVs in breast cancer. In addition, recruitment of naive and central memory T cells through the ...
Because the WHEL cohort consists of early-stage breast cancer survivors who were enrolled on average 2 years after diagnosis, ... Soy Food Consumption and Breast Cancer Prognosis. Bette J. Caan, Loki Natarajan, Barbara Parker, Ellen B. Gold, Cynthia Thomson ... Soy Food Consumption and Breast Cancer Prognosis. Bette J. Caan, Loki Natarajan, Barbara Parker, Ellen B. Gold, Cynthia Thomson ... Soy Food Consumption and Breast Cancer Prognosis. Bette J. Caan, Loki Natarajan, Barbara Parker, Ellen B. Gold, Cynthia Thomson ...
Small breast cancers confer a better prognosis than large ones. However, survival in the context of a screening programme is ... Twenty five year.... *Twenty five year follow-up for breast cancer incidence and mortality of the Canadian National Breast ... Breast cancer occurrence. The 89 835 women were followed for incident breast cancers for up to 25 years from the date of ... Breast cancer survival. Overall, 1005 women died from breast cancer during the 25 year follow-up period (1.1%) including 351 of ...
L. Sun, Y. Zhu, Q. Qian, and L. Tang, "Body mass index and prognosis of breast cancer: an analysis by menstruation status when ... The association between breast cancer prognosis and obesity is not as strong as with obesity and risk of breast cancer. In this ... J. K. Park, H. A. Park, J. J. Park, and Y. G. Cho, "Obesity and screening compliance for breast and cervical cancer in Korean ... Gunnarsdóttir et al., "Effect of obesity on prognosis after early-stage breast cancer," Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, ...
... to your cells that suggest a less-favorable prognosis. Roberts was treated for breast cancer five years ago; the treatment ... Tallman was unable to comment directly on Robertss case or her prognosis. But he says, "It is true that if you develop MDS ... Hes 26 years old but still sees a pediatrician: Why some young adults dont move on ... Tallman believes the condition, which affects an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 people per year in the United States, is more ...
... recommended that women who have no breast cancer symptoms should do a breast cancer screening and a mammogram every two years. ... Prognosis for Stage 4 Colon Cancer. May 28, 2019. Receiving a diagnosis for stage IV colon cancer can be devastating but it ... ACP Says Women Should Have Breast Screening Every 2 Years. May 22, 2019 ... They gave this recommendation based on some evidence gathered and it is directed to women between 50 and 74 years who may be ...
  • Our goal was to assess the differences between mammography and non-mammography detected breast cancer, to determine whether earlier detection confers a treatment and morbidity advantage because the disease is found at an earlier stage," Dr. Malmgren said. (redorbit.com)
  • The data analysis revealed a significant increase in the percentage of mammography-detected breast cancer over the 18-year period: from 28 percent in 1990 to 58 percent in 2008. (redorbit.com)
  • Over the same period, patient- and physician-detected breast cancer declined from 73 percent of all cases in 1990 to 42 percent in 2008. (redorbit.com)
  • Introduction Currently used tools for breast cancer prognostication and prediction may not adequately reflect a young patient's prognosis or likely treatment benefit because they were not adequately validated in young patients. (eur.nl)
  • Our purpose in this analysis was to examine whether intake of these marine fatty acids (EPA and DHA) were associated with prognosis in a cohort of women who had been diagnosed and treated for early stage breast cancer (n = 3,081). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Now, the new study , published in the journal CANCER , the peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, shows how MBC is treated and the researchers have identified factors tied to patient prognosis. (news-medical.net)
  • At my most recent oncology appointment, I asked my doctor if, since I'd passed 15 years, I could stop worrying. (healthcentral.com)
  • She wasn't involved in the new study, which was led by Anne Marie McCarthy, a breast oncology research fellow at Massachusetts General Cancer Hospital in Boston. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Dr. Steven Hancock is a Professor of Radiation Oncology at Stanford University Medical Center who has practiced at Stanford for over 30 years. (stanford.edu)