A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A widely used industrial solvent.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Salts and esters of hippuric acid.
Influenza-like febrile viral disease caused by several members of the BUNYAVIRIDAE family and transmitted mostly by the bloodsucking sandfly Phlebotomus papatasii.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Water that is intended to be ingested.
Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase of spontaneous respiration.
Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (1/370)

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.  (+info)

Effect of gemfibrozil in vitro on fat-mobilizing lipolysis in human adipose tissue. (2/370)

Fat-mobilizing lipolysis was studied in rat and human adipose tissue during incubation in vitro by following the release of glycerol into the incubation medium. Gemfibrozil as well as clofibrate consistently and readily inhibited basal as well as noradrenaline-stimulated fat-mobilizing lipolysis in rat fat. With human adipose tissue no effect was observed with gemfibrozil and clofibrate on basal lipolysis. This may be due to the comparatively low rate of the nonstimulated fat-mobilizing lipolysis in human tissue incubated in vitro. When lipolysis was stimulated with noradrenaline as well as isoprenaline, however, both gemfibrozil and clofibrate significantly reduced the fat-mobilizing lipolysis. This inhibition of lipolysis was however not observed in all studies. When lipolysis had been stimulated with theophylline, no inhibition of lipolysis was obtained with either compound. The possibility that reduced fat-mobilizing lipolysis in adipose tissue may cause a lowering of plasma triglycerides by reducing the flow of FFA to the liver is discussed in some detail. It is also suggested that inhibition of lipolysis may be accompanied by increased activity of lipoprotein lipase as well as an increase in the FIAT process. However, the pharmacological implication of the above-mentioned findings, particularly for gemfibrozil, must await further studies, as fairly large doses, around 1 mg/ml of incubation medium, were needed to obtain inhibition of fat-mobilizing lipolysis.  (+info)

Gemfibrozil in a group of diabetics. (3/370)

A group of 14 diabetic patients was treated with gemfibrozil during a variable length of time ranging from nine to 23 weeks in order to establish if a lowering effect on the cholesterol and triglyceride levels could be achieved, as it had been in the case of another group of non-diabetic patients. The present results showed that: (1) The drug is remarkably well tolerated. (2) With doses ranging between 400 and 800 mg per day the magnitude of the effect of the drug was less than that observed in our previous trial with non-diabetic subjects. The effect upon triglycerides seemed to be reduced more than that upon cholesterol when compared with results in higher-dose studies. (3) In this group of diabetic patients (3 insulin dependent, 11 maturity-onset type) control of the diabetic condition was never impaired and appeared in some cases to be slightly improved by gemfibrozil. (4) There was no evidence of undesirable interaction with any of the anti-diabetic drugs used.  (+info)

The evaluation of lipoprotein changes during gemfibrozil treatment. (4/370)

During treatment with gemfibrozil, 1200 mg daily, total serum triglyceride levels were reduced in 7 of the 11 patients, owing chiefly to a fall in VLDL triglyceride levels. Total serum cholesterol responded variably, falling in a majority of patients with hypercholesterolaemia. High density lipoprotein cholesterol rose during treatment in patients who had either hypertriglyceridaemia or hypercholesterolaemia.  (+info)

Adenosylcobalamin-mediated methyl transfer by toluate cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0. (5/370)

We identified and characterized a methyl transfer activity of the toluate cis-dihydrodiol (4-methyl-3,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol-1-carboxylic acid) dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0 towards toluene cis-dihydrodiol (3-methyl-4,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol). When the purified enzyme from the recombinant Escherichia coli containing the xylL gene was incubated with toluene cis-dihydrodiol in the presence of NAD+, the end products differed depending on the presence of adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12). The enzyme yielded catechol in the presence of adenosylcobalamin, while it gave 3-methylcatechol in the absence of the cofactor. Adenosylcobalamin was transformed to methylcobalamin as a result of the enzyme reaction, which indicates that the methyl group of the substrate was transferred to adenosylcobalamin. Other derivatives of the cobalamin such as aquo (hydroxy)- and cyanocobalamin did not mediate the methyl transfer reaction. The dehydrogenation and methyl transfer reactions were assumed to occur concomitantly, and the methyl transfer reaction seemed to depend on the dehydrogenation. To our knowledge, the enzyme is the first dehydrogenase that shows a methyl transfer activity as well.  (+info)

Activation and inactivation of Pseudomonas stutzeri methylbenzene catabolism pathways mediated by a transposable element. (6/370)

The arrangement of the genes involved in o-xylene, m-xylene, and p-xylene catabolism was investigated in three Pseudomonas stutzeri strains: the wild-type strain OX1, which is able to grow on o-xylene but not on the meta and para isomers; the mutant M1, which grows on m-xylene and p-xylene but is unable to utilize the ortho isomer; and the revertant R1, which can utilize all the three isomers of xylene. A 3-kb insertion sequence (IS) termed ISPs1, which inactivates the m-xylene and p-xylene catabolic pathway in P. stutzeri OX1 and the o-xylene catabolic genes in P. stutzeri M1, was detected. No IS was detected in the corresponding catabolic regions of the P. stutzeri R1 genome. ISPs1 is present in several copies in the genomes of the three strains. It is flanked by 24-bp imperfect inverted repeats, causes the direct duplication of 8 bp in the target DNA, and seems to be related to the ISL3 family.  (+info)

Estimation of the dermal absorption of m-xylene vapor in humans using breath sampling and physiologically based pharmacokinetic analysis. (7/370)

A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model, containing a skin compartment, was derived and used to simulate experimentally determined exposure to m-xylene, using human volunteers exposed under controlled conditions. Biological monitoring was conducted by sampling, in exhaled alveolar air and blood, m-xylene and urinary methyl hippuric acid concentrations. The dermal absorption of m-xylene vapor was successfully and conveniently studied using a breath sampling technique, and the contribution to m-xylene body burden from the dermal route of exposure was estimated to be 1.8%. The model was used to investigate the protection afforded by an air-fed, half-face mask. By iteratively changing the dermal exposure concentration, it was possible to predict the ambient concentration that was required to deliver the observed urinary excretion of methylhippuric acid, during and following inhalation exposure to 50 ppm m-xylene vapor. This latter extrapolation demonstrates how physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling can be applied in a practical and occupationally relevant way, and permitted a further step not possible with biological monitoring alone. The ability of the model to extrapolate an ambient exposure concentration was dependent upon human metabolism data, thereby demonstrating the mechanistic toxicological basis of model output. The methyl hydroxylation of m-xylene is catalyzed by the hepatic mixed function oxidase enzyme, cytochrome P450 2E1 and is active in the occupationally relevant, (<100 ppm) exposure range of m-xylene. The use of a scaled-up in vitro maximum rate of metabolism (Vmaxc) in the model also demonstrates the increasingly valuable potential utility of biokinetic data determined using alternative, non-animal methods in human chemical-risk assessment.  (+info)

Guest exchange in an encapsulation complex: a supramolecular substitution reaction. (8/370)

Encapsulation complexes are reversibly formed assemblies in which small molecule guests are completely surrounded by large molecule hosts. The assemblies are held together by weak intermolecular forces and are dynamic: they form and dissipate on time scales ranging from milliseconds to days-long enough for many interactions, even reactions, to take place within them. Little information is available on the exchange process, how guests get in and out of these complexes. Here we report that these events can be slow enough for conventional kinetic studies, and reactive intermediates can be detected. Guest exchange has much in common with familiar chemical substitution reactions, but differs in some respects: no covalent bonds are made or broken, the substrate is an assembly rather than a single molecule, and at least four molecules are involved in multiple rate-determining steps.  (+info)

摘要:派瑞林、派拉伦 ( Parylene) 是一种保护性高分子材料,是 20 世纪 60 年代中期美国联合碳化物公司开发的一种分子级敷型涂层材料,是独特的聚对二甲苯 ( poly-P-xylylene) 聚合物系列的通用名称,也是军事标准中唯一一种固态涂料。在此小编为大家介绍了一下Parylene真空气相沉积工艺及应用。 关键词:Parylene,真空气相沉积工艺,应用 前言       派瑞林、派拉伦 ( Parylene) 是一种保护性高分子材料,是 20 世纪 60 年代中期美国联合碳化物公司开发的一种分子级敷型涂层材料,是独特的聚对二甲苯 ( poly-P-xylylene) 聚合物系列的通用名称,也是军事标准中唯一一种固态涂料。Parylene使用真空气相沉积工艺形成保护膜,这种薄膜具有厚度均匀、致密无针孔、透明无应力等特点,有优异的电绝缘性和防护性。1   Parylene 的分类Parylene
Mixed xylene (CAS 1330-20-7) comprises individual xylene isomers (m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene) and ethylbenzene. Data for these substances have been considered in this summary. Exposure levels of the xylene isomers associated with neurological effects in animals are well defined. Acute exposures to concentrations inducing behavioural changes included a 6 hour inhalation exposure to the individual xylene isomers at a concentration of 3000 ppm (Korsak, 1990). Rotarod performance was tested in male rats before and immediately after exposure. The results indicated that the toxic effects of exposure to o- and m-xylene were more pronounced than those of p-xylene at the single exposure level evaluated (Korsak et al, 1994). Sensory deficits resulting from exposure to p-xylene were observed in a key study of the acute neurotoxic effects (Dyer, 1988). A significant depression in amplitude of flash-evoked potential peak N3 was observed following an oral dose of 250 mg/kg or more of p-xylene and following ...
Entry into water may be direct or via atmospheric deposition, runoff and leaching.. Recorded levels in the marine environment. Xylenes have been regularly reported in the oceans, estuaries, precipitation, rivers, groundwaters, potable sources and drinking water, as well as aquatic sediments and biota (Hedgecott 1990, Crookes et al. 1993). High usage and release, high mobility in the atmosphere, and natural sources all contribute to widespread occurrence in waters. Post-1988 data for UK waters were summarised in Hedgecott and Lewis (1997). Most of the data are for estuarine and coastal waters, with xylenes apparently detected in relation to industrial releases of xylenes and releases during oil extraction and transport. None of the published values exceed the concentration of 30 mg l-1 of total xylenes which has been proposed as the annual average EQS value. Fate and behaviour in the marine environment Hedgecott and Lewis (1997) reviewed the fate and behaviour of xylenes.. Atmospheric xylenes are ...
Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and lessons learned that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted lessons learned which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues (necking) for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C. ...
Environmental and biological monitoring were conducted to investigate exposure to xylene (1330207) in technologists in a histology laboratory. Xylene exposure was determined by breathing zone environmental sampling. An estimate of xylene uptake by inhalation was then made by multiplying breathing rate by environmental concentration, length of exposure, and a retention factor. M-methylhippuric-acid
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The properties of p-xylene and m-xylene adsorbed in NaY and KY faujasites have been studied by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. Biased particle insertions and deletions were implemented to allow the computation of equilibrium adsorption isotherms of such complex systems. This work is based on a new adsorbatezeolite potential function named TrAZ potential (transferable adsorbatezeolite potential). Adsorption isotherms and isosteric heats of adsorption of pure components have been calculated at 423 K and compared to the available experimental data. Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of coadsorption have also been performed. Three binary mixtures corresponding to different gas-phase compositions have been studied. The p-xylene/m-xylene selectivities predicted from the simulation are in good agreement with experiments: the NaY zeolite preferentially adsorbs the m-xylene isomer, whereas the KY faujasite is selective for p-xylene. From a detailed analysis of the xylene adsorption sites, we ...
2,6-dimethylphenol (2,6-DMP) is a product of phenol methylation, especially important for the plastics industry. The process of phenol methylation in the gas phase is strongly exothermic. In order to ensure good temperature equalization in the catalyst bed, the process was carried out using a catalyst in the form of a fluidized bed - in particular, the commercial iron-chromium catalyst TZC-3/1. Synthesis of 2,6-dimethylphenol from phenol and methanol in fluidized bed of iron-chromium catalyst was carried out and the fluidization of the catalyst was examined. Stable state of fluidized bed of iron-chromium catalyst was achieved. The measured velocities allowed to determine the minimum flow of reactants, ensuring introduction of the catalyst bed in the reactor into the state of fluidization. Due to a high content of o-cresol in products of 2,6-dimethylphenol synthesis, circulation in the technological node was proposed. A series of syntheses with variable amount of o-cresol in the feedstock allowed to
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Lookup HS Codes for Paraguay v 27.07.30 - Xylene (xylenes). Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Paraguay.
Clear-Advantage is a specific fraction of petrochemical derivatives that creates a safer xylene substitute for processing, staining and coverslipping.
Determination by Modeling of the Interactions during the Adsorption Equilibrium of N-Propanol and Ortho Xylene on Activated Carbon Surface Abstract.
Pseudomonas putida Idaho utilizes toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and 3-ethyltoluene as growth substrates when these hydrocarbons are provided in a two-phase system at 5 to 50% (vol/vol). Growth also occurs on Luria-Bertani medium in the presence of a wide range of organic solvents. The ability of the organism to grow in the presence of organic solvents is correlated with the logarithm of the octanol-water partition coefficient, with dimethyl-phthalate (log P(OCT) = 2.3) being the most polar solvent tolerated. During growth with p-xylene (20% [vol/vol]), there was an initial lag period accompanied by cell death, which was followed by a period of exponential growth. The stationary phase of growth was characterized by a dramatic decrease in cell viability, although cell dry weight and turbidity measurements slowly increased. Electron micrographs revealed that during growth in the presence of p-xylene, the outer cell membrane becomes convoluted and membrane fragments are shed ...
No fertility studies are reported for the aromatic sulphonic acids. These substances are very corrosive as was demonstrated in skin and eye irritation studies, in the acute oral studies, and in the single repeated dose oral study. For animal welfare, long-term exposures to corrosive substances are not recommended. There are however studies for the chemically related hydrotrope substances that looked at reproductive organs and development of offspring. Hydrotropes are the salt form of the sulphonic acids and therefore are used as read-across for this endpoint. The 90-day oral rat and oral mouse studies and the 2-year chronic dermal rat and mouse studies with the closely related compound sodium xylene sulfonate (CAS No. 1300-72-7) included examination of sex organs of both sexes. No treatment related effects on reproductive organs were reported at doses roughly equivalent to those in the developmental toxicity study. The 1994 study with calcium xylene sulphonate (CAS No. 28088-63-3) did not follow ...
Measuring BTX aromatics (Benzene, Toluene & Xylene) is essential, as considered the most toxic components of gasoline & needs to be removed from water
Article Characteristics of benzene, toluene and xylene gas removal by a biofilter using scoria. The biodegradation experiments of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX) by bacillus culture were carried out. In batch biodegradation experiments of binary mi...
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XYLENE (CAS 1330-20-7) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on xylene market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North
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The upper operon of the TOL plasmid pWW0 of Pseudomonas putida encodes a set of enzymes which transform toluene and xylenes to benzoate and toluates. The genetic organization of the operon was characterized by cloning of the upper operon genes into an expression vector and identification of their products in Escherichia coli maxicells. This analysis showed that the upper operon contains at least five genes in the order of xylC-xylM-xylA-xylB-xylN. Between the promoter of the operon and xylC, there is a 1.7-kilobase-long space of DNA in which no gene function was identified. In contrast, most of the DNA between xylC and xylN consists of coding sequences. The xylC gene encodes the 57-kilodalton benzaldehyde dehydrogenase. The xylM and xylA genes encode 35- and 40-kilodalton polypeptides, respectively, which were shown by genetic complementation tests to be subunits of xylene oxygenase. The structural gene for benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, xylB, encodes a 40-kilodalton polypeptide. The last gene of ...
Thin parylene C membranes having smooth front sides and ultrathin regions (e.g., 0.01 μm to 5 μm thick) interspersed with thicker regions are disclosed. The back sides of the membranes can be rough compared with the smooth front sides. The membranes can be used in vitro to grow monolayers of cells in a laboratory or in vivo as surgically implantable growth layers, such as to replace the Bruchs membrane in the eye. The application further provides an implantable cage-like apparatus for culturing cells comprising the parylene membrane.
Methods of making parylene AF4 using novel that result in reduced cost. Low dilution technology may used to provide parylene AF4 in substantially improved yields. The relative amount of transition metal catalyst can be decreased. The amount of undesired byproduct is also reduced.
Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene, also known as BTEX, are released into environmental media by petroleum product exploratory and exploitative activities and are harmful to humans and animals. Testing the effects of these chemicals on a significantly large scale requires an inexpensive, rapidly developing model organism such as Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, the toxicological profile of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, and o-xylene in D. melanogaster was evaluated. Adult animals were monitored for acute toxicity effects. Similarly, first instar larvae reared separately on the same compounds were monitored for the ability to develop into adult flies (eclosion). Further, the impact of fixed concentrations of benzene and xylene on apoptosis and mitosis were investigated in adult progenitor tissues found in third instar larvae. Toluene is the most toxic to adult flies with an LC50 of 0.166 mM, while a significant and dose-dependent decrease in fly eclosion was observed
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Matheson-Kitagawa precision detector tubes are formulated with high purity chemical reagents which absorb and react with the gas or vapor being measured. The reaction causes a colorimetric stain which varies in length to the concentration of the gas or vapor being measured. The length of stain is normally read directly off a scale printed on each tube. Four types of Matheson-Kitagawa tubes provide the needed flexibility for different gases and sampling conditions.. Dont order more than you will use in the near future. Gas detection tubes have a finite shelf life. MATHESON guarantees the detector tubes you receive will have at least three months of remaining shelf life.. ...
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Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) at oil transfer stations are high and the primary pollutants of concern from a health perspective include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) BTEX. This exploratory study investigated personal exposure to BTEX through environmental air samples collected from 50 workers (tanker loading workers, tank-gauging workers, drivers, firefighters, and office workers) at a major oil distribution company in Iran. Airborne BTEX exposures were evaluated over 8-hour periods during work-shift by using personal passive samplers. Measured mean values for workers at four sites were, respectively, 2437, 992, 584, and 2788 mu g/m(3) for benzene; 4415, 2830, 1289, and 9407 mu g/m(3) for toluene; 781, 522, 187, and 533 mu g/m(3) for ethylbenzene; and 1134, 678, 322, and 525 mu g/m(3) for xylene. Exposure across job type was similarly stratified across all personal exposures to BTEX measured in air samples with maximum concentrations found for tanker loading ...
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Background: Today, advances in different areas of science and technology along with their application in industries have led to an increase in dangerous pollutants which can resist biodegradation. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are regarded as important factors of air pollution in closed environments. Xylene is one of these compounds which ...
Gafrarium divaricatum were exposed to xylene (4.25 and 8.50 mg l(-1)), benzene (4.35 and 8.70 mg l(-1)) and gear oil-WSF (1 and 2%) for 30 days. Chronic exposure of clams to the pollutants resulted in loss of bubbling epithelium, reduction in cytoplasm volume and density, fusion of cell membranes and nuclei forming darkly stained area at basal part of the cells. Disintegration of basement membrane due to damaged epithelial cells, disruption of inner lining of tubule, formation of necrotic spaces, separation of epithelial cells from basement membrane, increase in internal luminar area, complete necrosis of epithelial cells as well as occurrence of cell debris in between the tissue were also observed in the clams due to chronic exposure of the toxicants.
The NSW Environment Protection Authority (EPA) has issued a $15,000 fine to Parchem Construction Supplies Pty Ltd after a chemical spill at the companys premises in Wyong.. EPA Hunter Region Manager, Adam Gilligan, said the EPA attended the incident with Fire and Rescue crews on 13 October 2015.. Fire and Rescue New South Wales Hazmat (FRNSW Hazmat) and the EPA attended the premises. The site was evacuated whilst Hazmat undertook a clean-up recovery operation.. The spill occurred when a flammable wash solvent mix containing acetone and xylene was being moved by forklift as part of a decanting process. The mixing pot containing the chemicals was not secured adequately to the forklift, and 700 litres of the mix was spilt.. Acetone is a volatile organic solvent, which is toxic in high doses. When exposed to the air, it quickly evaporates and remains highly flammable, while short-term inhalation to mix can result in irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, said Mr. Gilligan.. The spill ...
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The persistence of neurobehavioral effects in female rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) for 6 hours per day on days 7-20 of prenatal development was studied. The dose level was selected so as not to induce maternal toxicity or decreased viability of offspring. Investigations of learning and memory abilities were performed using a Morris water maze. This task requires rats to spatially navigate, using distal extramaze cues to locate a small platform under the surface of the water in a large pool. At the age of 16 weeks, the exposed offspring showed impairments when the platform was relocated in the pool. Impaired performances after platform relocation were also observed in exposed offspring at 28 and 55 weeks of age, although the difference was not statistically significant at 55 weeks. These data could indicate that the effect was partly reversible, although over a long time period. However, another explanation could be that the animals became ...
Physico-chemical data are available for m, p and o xylene. Data on physical properties were obtained from a number of secondary sources. The data in these secondary sources are based on a critical evaluation of peer-reviewed data and the selected values are considered to be reliable and representative of the property under investigation. Information on the review process was documented in the introduction of the source. The use of Klimisch codes (Klimisch et al. 1997) was extended to these secondary sources and a reliability code of (2) valid with restrictions was assigned when using the authoritative secondary source. For the key values, the mean values of selected physico-chemical properties were used. The data show that m-xylene and o-xylene are liquids and although p-xylene is considered to be a solid, it has a low melting point. Therefore the flammability classification for the isomers has been determined following the criteria for flammable liquids. The flash point and boiling point of ...
In contrast to other conformal coatings that are brushed, dipped, or sprayed onto a substrate, parylene is applied via a vapor-deposition process in a vacuum chamber. During this vapor deposition polymerization process, raw dimer in powder form is subjected to high heat and, in turn, transforms into a gaseous monomer without an intermediate liquid stage. This gas is then deposited one molecule at a time onto the desired substrate in the coating chamber at ambient temperatures. Finally, the cold trap phase cools temperatures down to a range of -90° to -120°C in order to remove residual parylene.. This unique vapor-deposition method allows parylene to adequately penetrate and coat extremely small stent features. In addition, this process enables the uniform and consistent coating of the complex geometries that characterize the life-saving devices. Deposited in a 0.5-micron-layer thickness, parylene is also pinhole free and can fully coat inside crevices and contours as small as 0.001 mm. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estimation of glycated hemoglobin by 2,6-dimethylphenol. T2 - Sulphuric acid conventional method. AU - Mallya, H. M.. AU - Pattabiraman, T. N.. PY - 2001/12/1. Y1 - 2001/12/1. N2 - Glycated hemoglobin levels in hemolysate of normal and diabetic patients were determined by the 2,6-dimethylphenol:57.5% sulphuric acid conventional method and the values were 0.39±0.025 and 0.69±0.21 moles of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)/mole of globin, respectively. The mean increase in glycated hemoglobin values in diabetics (1.8 fold) was highly significant (p,0.001). A good correlation (r=0.95) was found between the glycated hemoglobin values obtained by this method and the phenohsulphuric acid method. The values obtained by former method were about 1.2-1.4 times the values by the phenohsulphuric acid method. This study indicates that conventional 2,6- dimethylphenol:57.5% sulphuric acid method is more sensitive for the estimation of glycated hemoglobin than any other method based on the same ...
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In this experiment, I recrystallized garden sulfur (90% pure) to make pure sulfur crystals that gleam in the light and are a light yellow color. First, I acquired a solvent for sulfur. Since sulfur dissolves well in toluene, xylene, and carbon disulfide, I picked the most common option--xylene. My xylene came from paint thinner (it listed xylene as an component). To separate the xylene from the methanol and acetone also in the paint thinner, I mixed equal volumes of water and paint thinner and vigorously shook. This should be done outside, as the vapors are unhealthy. I poured the mixture into a graduated cylinder and let it settle for 15 minutes. The xylene, which is insoluble in water, floated at the top, while the acetone and methanol remained in the water layer. I syringed off the xylene and ended up with ~45mL from three 50mL batches of paint thinner ...
Xylene has been generally used as a clearing and deparaffinizing agent in histology. Because of the potential toxic and flammable nature of xylene, its substitutes have been introduced into some laboratories. In this study, we introduced a novel, non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO), which was generated through a mixture of 86% of white oil No.2 and 14% of N-heptane. SBO had a high boiling point (188°C) and flash point (144°C) coupled with a scentless and decreased volatility. To compare the effectiveness of SBO and xylene in histology, a wide range of tissue samples from rats and human beings were processed in parallel in SBO and xylene, subjected to various staining procedures. Similar to the xylene-processed paraffin blocks, the SBO-processed counterparts were easy to section without any evidence of cell shrinkage. Assessment of the SBO-treated sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin revealed a good maintenance of cell morphology and structure, and a clear definition of the cytoplasm and the ...
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151677-97-3 - Acetaldehyde, polymer with 2,5-dimethylphenol, formaldehyde, 3-methylphenol and 4-methylphenol - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Fixed thin film, gas/vapor phase bioreactors were assessed relative to their potential for the bioprocessing of methane, trichloroethylene (TCE), and p-xylene. Methanotrophic bacteria were used to process the methane and TCE while a xylene resistant strain of Pseudomonas putida was used to process the p-xylene. Comparisons between the gas phase bioreactors and conventional shaken cultures and sparged liquid bioreactors showed that the gas phase bioreactors offer advantages over the other two systems for the degradation of methane in air. Rates of methane removal with the gas phase bioreactors were 2.1 and 1.6 fold greater than those exhibited by the shaken cultures and sparged liquid bioreactors, respectively. The gas phase bioreactors were shown to have application for the removal of TCE vapors from air with a removal rate of approximately 9 μg TCE d-1 bioreactor-1. Xylene vapors were also scrubbed from air using gas phase bioreactors. At a feed rate of 140 μg of xylene min-1, approximately ...
This study assessed effects of exposure to p-xylene, a ubiquitous air pollutant, on mice infected with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), a mouse model for a common human virus. Mice were exposed to filtered air, 600 or 1,200 ppm p-xylene 6 h/d for 4 d and infected with a sublethal dose of MCMV after the first exposure. No deaths occurred among uninfected, p-xylene-exposed mice or infected, air-exposed mice; 34% and 0% mortality occurred respectively in infected mice exposed to 1,200 and 600 ppm p-xylene. Virus titers in the liver and splenic natural killer cell activity were unaffected by exposure to 1,200 ppm p-xylene. MCMV significantly suppressed and p-xylene significantly increased total P-450 levels in the liver, but there was no significant interaction between the two Isozymes 1A1, 2B1/B2, and 2E1 were decreased to a similar degree, suggesting that the virus does not target specific isozymes. Enhanced mortality was not due to immune suppression. While p-xylene potentiated liver damage was ...
Background|br /|The genetic network of the TOL plasmid pWW0 of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida mt-2 for catabolism of m-xylene is an archetypal model for environmental biodegradation of aromatic pollutants. Although nearly every metabolic and transcriptional component of this regulatory system is known to an extraordinary molecular detail, the complexity of its architecture is still perplexing. To gain an insight into the inner layout of this network a logic model of the TOL system was implemented, simulated and experimentally validated. This analysis made sense of the specific regulatory topology out on the basis of an unprecedented network motif around which the entire genetic circuit for m-xylene catabolism gravitates.|br /|Results|br /|The most salient feature of the whole TOL regulatory network is the control exerted by two distinct but still intertwined regulators (XylR and XylS) on expression of two separated catabolic operons (upper and lower) for catabolism of m-xylene. Following model
CAS 121-75-5 1330-20-7 UPC01641C ORTHO MALATHION 50 PLUS INSECT SPRAY malathion, o,o-dimethyl dithiophosphate of diethylxylene, dimethylbenzene, xylol (iarc - group 3) *95-1*aromatic petroleum derivative solventinert ients msds toxicity property
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TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 2 Solvents and Polycarbonate Discs Pattern Color Color Change Upon Solvent After IPA Description Conc., % Treatment Contact Durability Behavior 1,2- 100% NA NA NA Dissolves surface Dichlorethane but forms circular trace 2-Octanone, 98% 100% Whitish blue Clear Durable Spreads out Acetone/p- xylene 20%/80% White/Blue Clear Durable Solution Spreads out on tensile bone Benzyl Alcohol, 100% Powdery blue Almost wipes Scratchable Not a uniform anhydrous 99.8% clear shape, spreads out Benzyl Alcohol/p- 10%/90% Whitish blue Light blue Durable NA/Applied on xylene leur part only Calcium 1%/99% Bright white Clear Rubs off Circular but Stearate/p-xylene spreads out. Cracks form as solution dries Chlorobenzene 100% Light blue Somewhat clear Durable Circular, some pores visible Chloroform 100% NA NA NA Evaporates but reappears/smears when acetone is applied Cumene, 98% 100% White/blue Clear Scratchable circular Cumene, 98%/p- 5%/95% White Clear Durable circular xylene Cyclohexanone 100% ...
The heterogeneous oxidation of some substituted phenols has been studied by means of electron spin resonance. Strong signals, observed during the oxidation of the phenols with a free para-position, are due to secondary radicals derived from C4-O linked dimeric and polymeric phenols (A) are not to substituted 4, 4-di-pheno-semiquinones (B). Special attention has been given to the oxidation of 2, 6-dimethylphenol which yields a radical with non-equivalent methyl groups. The e. s. r. spectra of the secondary radicals from some 4-substituted 2, 6-dimethylphenol are identical to each other and to that from 2, 6-dimethylphenol itself. This indicates that in these radicals the para-substituent had been displaced by an aryloxy group. The ease of this displacement can be determined by use of the flow technique. ...
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TY - GEN. T1 - A comprehensive biological and chemical model for in situ biodegradation of BTEX. T2 - 220th ACS National Meeting. AU - Maurer, Max. AU - Rittmann, Bruce. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - A comprehensive biological and chemical model was presented for the in situ biodegradation of BTEX (constitutes the greatest mass of compounds that partition from fuels into groundwater), focusing on the underlying chemical and biological processes that affect measurable chemical properties of a groundwater in which biodegradation of BTEX may be taking place. Under aerobic conditions, the biodegradability was high for all compounds. Under anaerobic conditions the electron acceptors nitrate, iron, manganese, and sulfate could be used for the degradation of most of the BTEX compounds. Under fermentative methanogenic conditions, all BTEX compounds seemed to be degradable. Abiotic chemical reactions had the potential to alter the chemical speciation of a groundwater significantly.. AB - A comprehensive ...
Ethylbenzene and para-xylene (p-xylene), but not the chemically closely related organic solvents ortho-xylene (o-xylene) and meta-xylene (m-xylene), are known to cause ototoxicity and irreversible hearing loss, though the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, effects of ethylbenzene and of p-, o-, and m-xylene on human heteromeric α9α10 nicotinic ... read more acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes were investigated using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. ACh dose-dependently evoked an α9α10 nAChR-mediated ion current with an EC50 of 137 μM. When ACh is applied at a low concentration (10 μM), the nAChR-mediated ion current is inhibited by a low concentration (10 μM) of ethylbenzene and p-xylene, but not by the same concentration of the non-ototoxic solvents. At a high solvent concentration (300 μM), all solvents cause inhibition of the ion currents evoked by 10 μM ACh. Ion currents evoked by a near maximum-effective concentration ACh (1 ...
Corresponding author: [email protected], [email protected] ABSTRACT. Caralluma edulis (Edgew.) Benth. ex Hk.f. (Asclepiadaceae) is traditionally used for the management of rheumatism. The current study aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of Caralluma edulis, to explain its medicinal use in inflammatory ailments. Caralluma edulis crude extract (Ce.Cr) was investigated in acute (carrageenan and xylene mediated) and chronic (formalin evoked) models of inflammation in mice. Ce.Cr which shows the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, terpenes and tannins caused dose-dependent (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg) reduction of the carrageenan, xylene and formalin-induced inflammation (P , 0.05, P , 0.001 vs. saline group). At the lower dose of 30 mg/kg it was effective in inhibiting the xylene mediated ear edema. No mortality observed with Ce.Cr upto 5 g/kg. This study reveals that Caralluma edulis possess therapeutic ability to reduce inflammation, hence ...
The spatiotemporal variability of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Tehran, Iran, is not well understood. Here we present the design, methods, and results of the Tehran Study of Exposure Prediction for Environmental Health Research (Tehran SEPEHR) on ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), and total BTEX. To date, this is…
Carbon nanotube networks are an emerging conductive nanomaterial with applications including thin film transistors, interconnects, and sensors. In this letter, we demonstrate the fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks on a flexible polymer substrate and then provide encapsulation utilizing a thin parylene-C layer. The encapsulated SWNT network was subjected to tensile tests while its electrical resistance was monitored. Tests showed a linear-elastic response up to a strain value of 2.8% and nearly linear change in electrical resistance in the 0%â€2% strain range. The networks’ electrical resistance was monitored during load-unload tests of up to 100 cycles and was hysteresis-free ...
The Indian paint industry has been witnessing a gradual shift in the preferences of people from the traditional whitewash to high quality paints like emulsions and enamel paints, which is providing the basic stability for growth of Indian paint industry. Besides, it is creating a strong competitive market, where players are utilizing different strategies to tap the growing demand in the market for a larger share. Moreover, rise in disposable income of the average middle class coupled with increasing investment on education; urbanization; development of the rural market; and various launches of many innovative products, like friendly, odor free, and dust & water resistant paints, are major drivers that are propelling the growth of the paint market in India.. As per our report India Paint Industry Outlook 2022, provides study of Indian paints industry by value and volume, which is expected to grow at a CAGR of around 12% during 2018-19 to 2021-22 in value terms. The reports provide an in-depth ...
2011. López-Ruiz Heraclio,* Cortés-Hernández Mayra, Rojas- Lima Susana, Höpfl Herbert. Synthesis of nitrogen-, oxygen- and sulphur-containing tripodal ligands with a trimethylbenzene core. Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society, 55(3), 168-175. (2011). ...
Note: In all staining procedures for fecal and gastrointestinal tract specimens, the term Xylene will be used in the generic sense. Xylene substitutes are recommended for the safety of all personnel performing these procedures. 1. Prepare slide for staining. 2. Remove the slide from Schaudinns Fixative (30 minutes fixation time), and place it in 70% ethanol for 5 minutes. 3. Place the slide in 70% ethanol plus iodine for 1 minute for fresh specimens or 5 to 10 minutes for PVA air-dried smears. 4. Place the slide in 70% ethanol for 5 minutes.* 5. Place the slide in a second container of 70% ethanol for 3 minutes.* 6. Place the slide in trichrome stain for 10 minutes (staining times may vary on the thickness of the fecal material and/or the number of slides stained at one time). 7. Place the slide in 90% ethanol plus acetic acid for 1 to 3 seconds. Immediately drain the rack, and proceed to the next step. Do not allow slides to remain in this solution. 8. Dip the slide several times in 100% ...
cc: Subject: Re: Eosin bleeding out Hello, Long time since I posted. Please if anyone out there in HistoLand can tell me what causes and how can I get rid of Eosin counterstain bleeding out of frozen tissue sections after they are coverslipped and are drying. Once in awhile this is a problem. I have not changed any solutions or technique or mounting media. I use the following protocol: 1. Rapid Fixx-10 to 15 secs 2. Tap water rinse x2 3. Gill 3 Hemotoxylin 35-60 seconds depending on age of stain 4. Tap water rinse at the sink until water is clear 5. Lithium Carbonate Bluing-5 to 7 dips 6. 200 proof Ethanol-10 dips 7. 1% Alcoholic Eosin-2 quick dips 8. 200 proof Ethanol-4 containers-10 dips each 9. 200 proof Ethanol-1 container-1 minute 10.Xylene Substitute-Histosolve for 30 secs to a minute or longer. Coverslip with Histosolve and a Xylene Substitute mounting media-Histomount I get all my reagents except Ethanol from Shandon and have been very happy with staining quality. Any ideas! Thanks in ...
For implantable devices, Parylene C (hereafter referred to as Parylene) has shown promising properties such as flexibility, biocompatibility, biostability, and good barrier properties. Parylene-based flexible interconnection cable (FIC) was previously developed to connect a flexible penetrating microelectrode array (FPMA) with a recording system. However, Parylene-based FIC was difficult to handle and prone to damage during the implantation surgery because of its low mechanical strength. To improve the mechanical properties of the FIC, we suggest a mechanically enhanced flexible interconnection cable (enhanced FIC) obtained using a combination of Parylene and polyimide. To investigate the long-term stability of the enhanced FIC, Parylene-only FIC, and enhanced FIC were tested and their mechanical properties were compared under an accelerated aging condition. During the course of six months of soaking, the maximum strength of the enhanced FIC remained twice as high as that of the Parylene-only ...
-Xylene; Nonane; 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene; Decane; 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene; Undecane; Durene; Naphthalene; 2-Methylnaphthalene solution; 1-Methylnaphthalene
Complete article is available online.. PDF version is available online.. Purpose: To determine the precision and cost-effectiveness of the pHydrion(TM) ammonia test relative to the Draeger(TM) volumetric pump/ammonia detector tube method in measuring ammonia concentrations in swine barns.. Methods: Ammonia concentrations in farrowing, nursery, finisher, and gestating barns were monitored for 8 weeks using both the pHydrion(TM) test strips and the Draeger(TM) unit. The ammonia measurements were compared using bivariate correlation analysis. Average ammonia concentrations in each barn type were compared using an ANOVA. The precision and cost-effectiveness of each assay were demonstrated by plotting the width of the confidence interval by the number of dollars available for ammonia detection, as well as by the number of tests performed.. Results: The mean ammonia concentrations differed by room type (P ,.05) and increased in the following order: nursery, farrowing, gestating, and finishing rooms. ...
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Environmental and Occupational Diseases could be grouped as follows: 1. Diseases caused by chemical agents. 1.1 Disease caused by benzene or its toxic homologues. 1.2 Disease caused by toluene or its toxic homologues. 1.3 Disease caused by styrene or its toxic homologues. 1.4 Disease caused by xylene or its toxic homologues. 1.5 Disease caused by cadmium or its toxic compound. 1.6 Disease caused by chromium or its toxic compound. 1.7 Disease caused by manganese or its toxic compound. 1.8 Disease caused by arsenic or its toxic compound. 1.9 Disease caused by mercury or its toxic compound. 1.10 Disease caused by mercury or its toxic compound. 1.11 Diesease caused by chlorine. 1.12 Disease caused by ammonia. 1.13 Disease caused sulphur dioxide or sulphuric acid. 1.14 Disease caused by carbon monoxide. 1.15 Disease caused by hydrogensulphide. 1.16 Disease caused by pesticides. 2. Diseases caused by physical agents. 2.1 Hearing impairment caused by noise. 2.2 Disease caused by heat radiation. 3. ...
0230]In a 2-L autoclave were charged 381 g of toluene and 136 g of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane. After the gas phase was substituted with nitrogen, the mixture was heated while stirring at an internal temperature of 60° C. Thereto was added a mixed solution of 100 g of vinylcyclohexeneoxide(1,2-epoxy-4-vinylcyclohexane), 100 g of toluene and 0.0262 g of a solution of a platinum vinylsiloxane complex in xylene (containing 3 wt % by platinum) dropwise over 60 min. After completing the dropwise addition, the internal temperature was elevated to 70° C., and the reaction was allowed for 60 min. The reaction rate of the vinyl group was then determined with 1H-NMR to be no less than 95%. The internal temperature was elevated to 105° C., and a mixture of 44.5 g of triallyl isocyanurate, 44.5 g of toluene and 0.0174 g of a solution of platinum vinylsiloxane complex in xylene (containing 3 wt % by platinum) was added dropwise over 40 min. After completing the dropwise addition, the internal ...
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MIME-version: 1.0 X-Mailer: Unknown (No Version) Content-type: multipart/alternative; boundary=Boundary_(ID_5HQm6aniGbkbsRDFTPmCng) --Boundary_(ID_5HQm6aniGbkbsRDFTPmCng) Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT Hello all. I could really use some help. Today, the pathologist called to say that she is seeing an artifact on the tissue. It looks like clusters of fine PCP organisms, only that they are not. Like someone took a very fine tip black marker and made circles around the cells. She said it is not on every slide. The slides she had me check were prostate needle bxs and an antrum bx. The only change in our routine has been that we are demonstrating a recycling system for alcohol and Xylene. I have not used the recycled product on the tissue processor or the H&E autostainer, but I have placed the recycled Xylene in our glass Coverslipper. I appreciate any and all comments. Thank you. Ryan Allan Memorial --Boundary_(ID_5HQm6aniGbkbsRDFTPmCng) Content-type: ...
The consequences of acute xylene publicity to the enkephalinergic neuromodulatory technique were studied in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats have been injected ip with 0 or 1.6 mL/kg xylene every day for three consecutive times. 3 hr following the last dose, they ended up killed and also the brains were being eradicated. The brains ended up dissected in the parietal cortex. caudate putamen, medial preoptic regions of the hypothalamus, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, and central amygdaloid nuclei (CA). The assorted Mind components were being analyzed for improvements of their met-enkephalin content by an immunostaining procedure ...
Massons Trichrome Green Protocol 1. De-paraffin slides in xylene (1) ------------------ 2 minutes (re-use) 2. De-paraffin slides in xylene (2)------------------- 2 minutes (re-use) 3. Clear slides in 100% alcohol----------------------- 2 minutes 4. Clear slides in 100% alcohol----------------------- 2 minutes 5. Hydrate slides in 95% alcohol---------------------- 2 minutes 6. Hydrate slides in running water-------------------- 5 minutes…
This is a great stain if you have the controls to run. Safety equipment: Work under a hood with lab coat, gloves, and glasses. De-paraffin slides in xylene (1) ---------------------- 2 minutes (re-use) De-paraffin slides in xylene (2)----------------------- 2 minutes (re-use) Clear slides in 100% alcohol-------------------------- 2 minutes Clear slides in 100% alcohol-------------------------- 2 minutes…
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To further explore the composition and distribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components from the photo-oxidation of light aromatic precursors (toluene, m-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-TMB)) and idling gasoline exhaust, a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometer (VUV-PIMS) was employed. Peaks of the molecular ions of the SOA components with minimum molecular fragmentation were clearly observed from the mass spectra of SOA, through the application of soft ionization methods in VUV-PIMS. The experiments comparing the exhaust-SOA and light aromatic mixture-SOA showed that the observed distributions of almost all the predominant cluster ions in the exhaust-SOA were similar to that of the mixture-SOA. Based on the characterization experiments of SOA formed from individual light aromatic precursors, the SOA components with molecular weights of 98 and 110 amu observed in the exhaust-SOA resulted from the photo-oxidation of toluene and m-xylene; the components with a ...
... (brand name Parkinsan) is an antiparkinson agent marketed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.[2][3][1] While its exact mechanism of action is not well characterized,[2] it is believed to be an NMDA receptor antagonist,[4][5] but also promoting the synthesis of dopamine.[6] Because it provides additional benefits relative to existing treatments, it probably does not precisely mimic the mechanism of an existing known treatment.[6][7] ...
... (CHF-3381, V-3381) is a drug which was formerly being investigated as an anticonvulsant and neuroprotective and is now under development for the treatment of neuropathic pain and chronic cough in Europe by Vernalis and Chiesi.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] It acts as a competitive, reversible, and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor,[5][6][9] and as a low affinity, non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist.[1][2][10] A pilot study of indantadol for chronic cough was initiated in October 2009 and in April 2010 it failed to achieve significant efficacy in neuropathic pain in phase IIb clinical trials.[7][8][11][12] ...
In 2001, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, BfR) objected to the addition of isolated theanine to beverages.[39][40] The institute stated the amount of theanine consumed by regular drinkers of tea or coffee is virtually impossible to determine. While it was estimated the quantity of green tea consumed by the average Japanese tea drinker per day contains about 20 mg of the substance, there are no studies measuring the amount of theanine being extracted by typical preparation methods, or the percentage lost by discarding the first infusion. Therefore, with the Japanese being exposed to possibly much less than 20 mg per day, and Europeans presumably even less, it was the opinion of the BfR that pharmacological reactions to drinks typically containing 50 mg of theanine per 500 milliliters could not be excluded-reactions such as impairment of psychomotor skills and amplification of the sedating effects of alcohol and hypnotics.[41] In 2006, a study ...
... is generally considered a non-polar solvent. Owing to the good polarizability of the chlorine atoms, it is a superior solvent for organic compounds that do not dissolve well in hydrocarbons such as hexane. It is an excellent solvent for many organic materials and also one of the least toxic of the chlorinated hydrocarbons. Prior to the Montreal Protocol, it was widely used for cleaning metal parts and circuit boards, as a photoresist solvent in the electronics industry, as an aerosol propellant, as a cutting fluid additive, and as a solvent for inks, paints, adhesives, and other coatings. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane is also used as an insecticidal fumigant. It was also the standard cleaner for photographic film (movie/slide/negatives, etc.). Other commonly available solvents damage emulsion, and thus are not suitable for this application. The standard replacement, Forane 141 is much less effective, and tends to leave a residue. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane was used as a thinner in ...
Transcrocetinate sodium can be prepared by reacting saffron with sodium hydroxide and extracting the salt of the trans crocetin isomer from the solution.[10] John L. Gainer and colleagues have investigated the effects of transcrocetinate sodium in animal models.[10][11] They discovered that the drug could reverse the potentially fatal decrease in blood pressure produced by the loss of large volumes of blood in severe hemorrhage, and thereby improve survival.[11] Early investigations of transcrocetinate sodium suggested that it had potential applications in battlefield medicine, specifically in treatment of the many combat casualties with hemorrhagic shock.[8][11] Additional studies, carried out in animal models and in clinical trials in humans, indicated that transcrocetinate sodium might prove beneficial in the treatment of a variety of conditions associated with hypoxia and ischemia (a lack of oxygen reaching the tissues, usually due to a disruption in the circulatory system), including ...
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel found in neurons. The NMDA receptor is one of three types of ionotropic glutamate receptors, the other two being AMPA and kainate receptors. Depending on its subunit composition, its ligands are glutamate and glycine (or D-serine). However, the binding of the ligands is typically not sufficient to open the channel as it may be blocked by Mg2+ ions which are only removed when the neuron is sufficiently depolarized. Thus, the channel acts as a "coincidence detector" and only once both of these conditions are met, the channel opens and it allows positively charged ions (cations) to flow through the cell membrane.[2] The NMDA receptor is thought to be very important for controlling synaptic plasticity and mediating learning and memory functions.[3] The NMDA receptor is ionotropic, meaning it is a protein which allows the passage of ions through the cell membrane.[4] The NMDA receptor ...
... producing algal blooms are associated with the phenomenon of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Domoic acid can bioaccumulate in marine organisms such as shellfish, anchovies, and sardines that feed on the phytoplankton known to produce this toxin. It can accumulate in high concentrations in the tissues of these plankton feeders when the toxic phytoplankton are high in concentration in the surrounding waters. Domoic acid is a neurotoxin that inhibits neurochemical processes, causing short-term memory loss, brain damage, and, in severe cases, death in humans. In marine mammals, domoic acid typically causes seizures and tremors. Studies have shown that there are no symptomatic effects in humans at levels of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight. In the 1987 domoic acid poisoning on Prince Edward Island concentrations ranging from 0.31-1.28 mg/kg of muscle tissue were noted in people that became ill (three of whom died). Dangerous levels of domoic acid have been calculated based on cases such as the ...
Solutions of C60 can be oxygenated to the epoxide C60O. Ozonation of C60 in 1,2-xylene at 257K gives an intermediate ozonide C ...
Each AMPAR has four sites to which an agonist (such as glutamate) can bind, one for each subunit.[5] The binding site is believed to be formed by the N-terminal tail and the extracellular loop between transmembrane domains three and four.[16] When an agonist binds, these two loops move towards each other, opening the pore. The channel opens when two sites are occupied,[17] and increases its current as more binding sites are occupied.[18] Once open, the channel may undergo rapid desensitization, stopping the current. The mechanism of desensitization is believed to be due to a small change in angle of one of the parts of the binding site, closing the pore.[19] AMPARs open and close quickly (1ms), and are thus responsible for most of the fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system.[17] The AMPAR's permeability to calcium and other cations, such as sodium and potassium, is governed by the GluA2 subunit. If an AMPAR lacks a GluA2 subunit, then it will be permeable to sodium, ...
Intravenous and oral formulations of acetylcysteine are available for the treatment of paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose.[13] When paracetamol is taken in large quantities, a minor metabolite called N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) accumulates within the body. It is normally conjugated by glutathione, but when taken in excess, the body's glutathione reserves are not sufficient to deactivate the toxic NAPQI. This metabolite is then free to react with key hepatic enzymes, thereby damaging liver cells. This may lead to severe liver damage and even death by acute liver failure. In the treatment of acetaminophen overdose, acetylcysteine acts to maintain or replenish depleted glutathione reserves in the liver and enhance non-toxic metabolism of acetaminophen.[14] These actions serve to protect liver cells from NAPQI toxicity. It is most effective in preventing or lessening hepatic injury when administered within 8-10 hours after overdose.[14] Research suggests that the rate of liver toxicity ...
William T. G. Morton participated in a public demonstration of ether anesthesia on October 16, 1846 at the Ether Dome in Boston, Massachusetts. However, Crawford Williamson Long, M.D., is now known to have demonstrated its use privately as a general anesthetic in surgery to officials in Georgia, as early as March 30, 1842, and Long publicly demonstrated ether's use as a surgical anesthetic on six occasions before the Boston demonstration.[14][15][16] British doctors were aware of the anesthetic properties of ether as early as 1840 where it was widely prescribed in conjunction with opium.[17] Diethyl ether largely supplanted the use of chloroform as a general anesthetic due to ether's more favorable therapeutic index, that is, a greater difference between an effective dose and a potentially toxic dose.[18] Diethyl ether depresses the myocardium and increases tracheobronchial secretions.[19] Diethyl ether could also be mixed with other anesthetic agents such as chloroform to make C.E. mixture, or ...
... (symbol Gly or G;[5] /ˈɡlaɪsiːn/)[6] is an amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain. It is the simplest amino acid (since carbamic acid is unstable), with the chemical formula NH2‐CH2‐COOH. Glycine is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. It is encoded by all the codons starting with GG (GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG). Glycine is integral to the formation of alpha-helices in secondary protein structure due to its compact form. For the same reason, it is the most abundant amino acid in collagen triple-helices. Glycine is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter - interference with its release within the spinal cord (such as during a Clostridium tetani infection) can cause spastic paralysis due to uninhibited muscle contraction. Glycine is a colorless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid. It is the only achiral proteinogenic amino acid. It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its minimal side chain of only one hydrogen atom. The acyl radical is glycyl. ...
... s are a small family of helical peptides that are derived from the venom of predatory marine snails of the genus Conus. Conantokins act as potent and specific antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).[1] They are the only naturally-derived peptides to do so.[2] The subtypes of conantokins exhibit a surprising variability of selectivity across the NMDAR subunits, and are therefore uniquely useful in developing subunit-specific pharmacological probes.[3][4][5] Chemically, conantokins are unique in that they possess a number (generally 4 or 5) of gamma-carboxyglutamyl (Gla) residues, generated by the post-translational modification of glutamyl (Glu) residues. These Gla residues induce a conformational change from a 3 10 helix to an alpha helix on binding to Calcium.[6] In the broader scheme of genetic conotoxin classification, Conanotokins are also known as "Conotoxin Superfamily B."[7] The word "conantokin" is derived from the Filipino word antokin, meaning sleepy.[8] ...
In coordination chemistry, it serves as a tridentate ligand forming complexes such as Co(dien)(NO2)3.[5] Like some related amines, it is used in oil industry for the extraction of acid gas. Like ethylenediamine, DETA can also be used to sensitize nitromethane, making a liquid explosive compound similar to PLX. This compound is cap sensitive with an explosive velocity of around 6200 m/s and is discussed in patent #3,713,915. Mixed with unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine it was used as Hydyne, a propellent for liquid-fuel rockets. DETA has been evaluated for use in the Countermine System under development by the U.S. Office of Naval Research, where it would be used to ignite and consume the explosive fill of land mines in beach and surf zones.[6] ...
... (ACC) is a disubstituted cyclic α-amino acid in which a three-membered cyclopropane ring is fused to the Cα atom of the amino acid. ACC plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene.[2][3] It is synthesized by the enzyme ACC synthase ( EC from methionine and converted to ethylene by ACC oxidase (EC[4] ACC is also an exogenous partial agonist of the mammalian NMDA receptor.[5] ...
... is extracted from Huperzia serrata.[2] It is a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor[6][7][8][9] and NMDA receptor antagonist[10] that crosses the blood-brain barrier.[11] Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. The structure of the complex of huperzine A with acetylcholinesterase has been determined by X-ray crystallography (PDB code: 1VOT; see the 3D structure).[12] For some years, huperzine A has been investigated as a possible treatment for diseases characterized by neurodegeneration, particularly Alzheimer's disease.[2][13] A 2013 meta-analysis found that huperzine A may be efficacious in improving cognitive function, global clinical status, and activities of daily living for individuals with Alzheimer's disease. However, due to the poor size and quality of the clinical trials reviewed, huperzine A should not be recommended as a treatment for ...
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system.[21] At chemical synapses, glutamate is stored in vesicles. Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the presynaptic cell. Glutamate acts on ionotropic and metabotropic (G-protein coupled) receptors.[21] In the opposing postsynaptic cell, glutamate receptors, such as the NMDA receptor or the AMPA receptor, bind glutamate and are activated. Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, glutamate is involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory in the brain.[22] The form of plasticity known as long-term potentiation takes place at glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus, neocortex, and other parts of the brain. Glutamate works not only as a point-to-point transmitter, but also through spill-over synaptic crosstalk between synapses in which summation of glutamate released from a neighboring synapse creates extrasynaptic signaling/volume transmission.[23] In addition, glutamate plays ...
... has been used since the 1970s in Australia as an emergency analgesic for short-term use, mostly by the Australian and New Zealand Defence Forces,[13] the Australian ambulance services,[10][35][36] and since 2018 by some Emergency medical services in Germany.[57] All of the currently used volatile anesthetic agents are organofluorine compounds. Aside from the synthesis of Freon (Thomas Midgley, Jr. and Charles F. Kettering, 1928)[58] and the discovery of Teflon (Roy J. Plunkett, 1938),[59] the field of organofluorine chemistry had not attracted a great deal of attention up to 1940 because of the extreme reactivity of elemental fluorine, which had to be produced in situ for use in chemical reactions. The development of organofluorine chemistry was a spin-off from the Manhattan Project, during which elemental fluorine was produced on an industrial scale for the first time. The need for fluorine arose from the need to separate the isotope 235U from 238U because the former, present in ...
NAAG is catabolized via NAAG peptidase activity. Two enzymes with NAAG peptidase activity have been cloned, glutamate carboxypeptidase II and glutamate carboxypeptidase III. These enzymes mediate the hydrolysis of NAAG to NAA and glutamate. Their inhibition can produce therapeutic benefits. Two main types of inhibitors of this enzyme are known: compounds related to 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) and urea-based analogs of NAAG, including ZJ43, ZJ17, and ZJ11. In rat models, ZJ43 and 2-PMPA reduce perception of inflammatory and neuropathic pain when administered systemically, intracerebrally, or locally, suggesting that NAAG modulates neurotrasmission in pain circuits via mGlu3 receptors. The inhibition of NAAG hydrolysis increases the concentration of NAAG in the synaptic space analogous to the effects of SSRIs in increasing the concentration of serotonin. This elevated NAAG gives greater activation of presynaptic mGluR3 receptors, which decrease release of transmitter (glutamate) ...
2OH. Its molecule can be described as that of ethanol, with the three hydrogen atoms at position 2 (the methyl group) replaced by chlorine atoms. It is a clear flammable liquid at room temperature, colorless when pure but often with a light yellow color.[1][2] The pharmacological effects of this compound in humans are similar to those of its prodrug chloral hydrate, and of chlorobutanol. Historically, it has been used as a sedative hypnotic.[3] The hypnotic drug triclofos (2,2,2-trichloroethyl phosphate) is metabolized in vivo to 2,2,2-trichloroethanol. Chronic exposure may result in kidney and liver damage.[4] 2,2,2-Trichloroethanol can be added to SDS-PAGE gels in order to enable fluorescent detection of proteins without a staining step, for immunoblotting or other analysis methods.[5] ...
... is an ultra-short-acting barbiturate and has been used commonly in the induction phase of general anesthesia. Its use has been largely replaced with that of propofol, but retains popularity as an induction agent for rapid sequence intubation and in obstetrics.[citation needed] Following intravenous injection, the drug rapidly reaches the brain and causes unconsciousness within 30-45 seconds. At one minute, the drug attains a peak concentration of about 60% of the total dose in the brain. Thereafter, the drug distributes to the rest of the body, and in about 5-10 minutes the concentration is low enough in the brain that consciousness returns.[citation needed]. A normal dose of sodium thiopental (usually 4-6 mg/kg) given to a pregnant woman for operative delivery (caesarian section) rapidly makes her unconscious, but the baby in her uterus remains conscious. However, larger or repeated doses can depress the baby.[6]. Sodium thiopental is not used to maintain anesthesia in ...
The usual dose of 350 mg is unlikely to engender prominent side effects other than somnolence, and mild to significant euphoria or dysphoria, but the euphoria is generally short-lived due to the fast metabolism of carisoprodol into meprobamate and other metabolites; the euphoria derived is, according to new research, most likely due to carisoprodol's inherent, potent anxiolytic effects that are far stronger than those produced by its primary metabolite, meprobamate, which is often misblamed for the drug-seeking associated with carisoprodol, as carisoprodol itself is responsible for the significantly more intense CNS effects than meprobamate alone. Carisoprodol has a unique mechanism of action, qualitatively different from that of meprobamate (Miltown). The medication is well-tolerated and without adverse effects in the majority of patients for whom it is indicated. In some patients, however, and/or early in therapy, carisoprodol can have the full spectrum of sedative side effects and can impair ...
... is an arylcyclohexylamine dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic and stimulant effects. It is around the same potency as phencyclidine, although slightly less potent than its ethyl homologue eticyclidine,[1] and has reportedly been sold as a designer drug in Germany and other European countries since the late 1990s.[2][3] Several other related derivatives have also been encountered, with the n-propyl group of PCPr replaced by a 2-methoxyethyl, 2-ethoxyethyl or 3-methoxypropyl group to form PCMEA, PCEEA and PCMPA respectively.[4][5][6] ...
Benzene, C6H6, is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon, and it was the first one named as such. The nature of its bonding was first recognized by August Kekulé in the 19th century. Each carbon atom in the hexagonal cycle has four electrons to share. One goes to the hydrogen atom, and one to each of the two neighbouring carbons. This leaves one electron to share with one of the two neighbouring carbon atoms, thus creating a double bond with one carbon and leaving a single bond with the other, which is why the benzene molecule is drawn with alternating single and double bonds around the hexagon. The structure is alternatively illustrated as a circle around the inside of the ring to show six electrons floating around in delocalized molecular orbitals the size of the ring itself. This depiction represents the equivalent nature of the six carbon-carbon bonds all of bond order 1.5; the equivalency is explained by resonance forms. The electrons are visualized as floating above and below the ring with the ...
p-Xylene. 40.798. -. -. -. Ethylbenzene. 40.938. -. -. -. 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene. 40.984. -. -. -. n-Propylbenzene. 41.193. -. ...
Toluene and Xylene. In: Olson KR, ed. Poisoning & Drug Overdose. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine ...
mixed xylenes - any of three dimethylbenzene isomers, could be a solvent but more often precursor chemicals *ortho-xylene - ... p-Xylene. Propylene Intermediates. 2-Ethylhexanol (2-EH). Acetic acid. Acrylonitrile (AN). Ammonia. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate ... Manufacturers use xylenes to produce plastics and synthetic fibers.. *Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and ... para-xylene - both methyl groups can be oxidized to form terephthalic acid *dimethyl terephthalate - can be copolymerized to ...
Xylene 500μg/l. Comparison of parametric values[edit]. The following table provides a comparison of a selection of parameters ...
"Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes (BTEX)". cdc.gov. Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. May 2004. ...
Para - xylene Production. From the website of GTC Technology, Houston, Texas. The Future of Benzene and Para-Xylene after ... and the three xylene isomers, all of which are aromatic hydrocarbons. The xylene isomers are distinguished by the designations ... Likewise, the para-xylene consumption showed unprecedented growth in 2010, growing by 2,800,000 tons, a full ten percent growth ... The BTX Chain: Benzene, Toluene, Xylene. Chapter 4 of the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) report ...
The presence of methylhippuric acid can be used as a biomarker to determine exposure to xylene. o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene ... 98% of p-xylene production, and half of all xylenes produced is consumed in this manner. o-Xylene is an important precursor to ... Commercial or laboratory-grade xylene produced usually contains about 40-65% of m-xylene and up to 20% each of o-xylene, p- ... The mixture is referred to as both xylene and, more precisely, xylenes. Xylenes are an important petrochemical produced by ...
It is a constitutional isomer of m-xylene and p-xylene, the mixture being called xylene or xylenes. o-Xylene is a colorless ... m-Xylene is isomerized to o-xylene. Net production was approximately 500,000 tons in the year 2000. o-Xylene is largely used in ... o-Xylene (ortho-xylene) is an aromatic hydrocarbon with the formula C6H4(CH3)2. with two methyl substituents bonded to adjacent ... Most o-xylene is produced by cracking petroleum, which affords a distribution of aromatic compounds, including xylene isomers. ...
Exposure to xylene occurs in the workplace and when you use paint, gasoline, paint thinners and other products that contain it ... What is xylene?. There are three forms of xylene in which the methyl groups vary on the benzene ring: meta-xylene, ortho-xylene ... How can xylene affect children?. The effects of xylene have not been studied in children, but it is likely that they would be ... What happens to xylene when it enters the environment?. *Xylene evaporates quickly from the soil and surface water into the air ...
Toxicological Profile for Xylene. CAS#: 1330-20-7. Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological profile ... Toxicological profile for Xylenes. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
Exposure to xylene can irritate the eyes, nose, skin, and throat. Xylene can also cause headaches, dizziness, confusion, loss ... Workers may be harmed from exposure to xylene. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. ... Xylene (C8H10) is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. ... Useful search terms for xylene include "meta-xylene," "m-xylene," "o-xylene," "p-xylene," and "xylidine." ...
xylene (zī´lēn) or dimethylbenzene (dī´mĕthəlbĕn´zēn), C6H4(CH3)2, colorless, oily, liquid aromatic hydrocarbon [1], used ... Ortho-xylene (o-xylene) has methyl groups on two adjacent carbons in the benzene ring structure, while in meta-xylene (m-xylene ... Xylene Environmental Encyclopedia COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group Inc.. Xylene. The term "xylene" refers to any of three benzene ... Ortho-xylene is 1,2-dimethylbenzene; it melts at -25°C and boils at 144°C. Meta-xylene is 1,3-dimethylbenzene; it melts at -48° ...
Xylenes (total). Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Xylenes (total) results for Creston ... Xylenes (total). Creston Public Water. Xylenes are solvents used in industrial and consumer products, such as cleaning agents ... The legal limit for xylenes, established in 1991, was based on a toxicity study in laboratory animals conducted in the 1980s. ... The EWG Health Guideline of 1,800 ppb for xylenes was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard ...
Xylenes (total). Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Xylenes (total) results for Warminster ... Xylenes (total). Warminster Municipal Authority. Xylenes are solvents used in industrial and consumer products, such as ... The health guideline of 1,800 ppb for xylenes was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as ...
Other names: Benzene, 1,4-dimethyl-; p-Dimethylbenzene; p-Xylol; 1,4-Dimethylbenzene; 1,4-Xylene; p-Methyltoluene; para-Xylene ... Chromar; Scintillar; 4-Methyltoluene; NSC 72419; UN 1307; 1,4-dimethyl-benzene ( p-xylene) ...
... p-xylene, p-xylol, para-xylene PubChem CID: 7809 ChEBI: CHEBI:27417 IUPAC Name: 1,4-xylene SMILES: CC1=CC=C(C=C1)C ... p-xylene, p-xylol, para-xylene PubChem CID: 7809 ChEBI: CHEBI:27417 IUPAC Name: 1,4-xylene SMILES: CC1=CC=C(C=C1)C ... p-xylene, p-xylol, para-xylene PubChem CID: 7809 ChEBI: CHEBI:27417 IUPAC Name: 1,4-xylene SMILES: CC1=CC=C(C=C1)C ... p-xylene, p-xylol, para-xylene PubChem CID: 7809 ChEBI: CHEBI:27417 IUPAC Name: 1,4-xylene SMILES: CC1=CC=C(C=C1)C ...
Toluene and xylene poisoning can occur when someone swallows these substances, breathes in their fumes, ... Toluene and xylene are strong compounds that are used in many household and industrial products. ... Toluene and xylene are strong compounds that are used in many household and industrial products. Toluene and xylene poisoning ... Below are symptoms of toluene and xylene poisoning in different parts of the body. ...
... meta-Xylene, m-Xylol Colorless liquid with an aromatic odor. ...
The nuclear-chlorinated o-xylenes can be used individually or as mixtures. ... the nuclear-chlorinated o-xylenes being hydrogenated in the gas phase at a noble-metal-containing catalyst at a temperature in ... Method of hydrodechlorinating nuclear-chlorinated o-xylenes and recovering o-xylene, forming hydrogen chloride, ... In the preparation of nuclear-monochlorinated o-xylenes by chlorinating o-xylene, with increasing conversion rate of o-xylene, ...
any of three oily, colorless, water-insoluble, flammable, toxic, isomeric liquids, CH, of the benzene series, obtained mostly from coal tar: used chiefly in the manufacture of dyes. ...
Xylene (technical grade or mixed xylenes) was tested for carcinogenicity in one strain of mice and in two strains of rats by ... XYLENES. (Group 3). For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation. VOL.: 71 (1999) (p. 1189). CAS No.: 1330-20-7. Chem. ... and the activities of certain conjugation enzymes are increased upon inhalation exposure to meta-xylene. Although xylenes have ... Xylenes are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3). ...
Xylenes. CASRN 1330-20-7 , DTXSID2021446. *Toxicological Review (PDF) (113 pp, 498 K) ... Adequate human data on the carcinogenicity of xylenes are not available, and the available animal data are inconclusive as to ... the ability of xylenes to cause a carcinogenic response. Evaluations of the genotoxic effects of xylenes have consistently ... data are inadequate for an assessment of the carcinogenic potential of xylenes. ...
Exposure to xylene is very dangerous, and can cause... ... Xylene is an isomer found in solvents, paint thinner, and ... Xylene, also called xylol, dimethyl benzene, Violet 3, and methyl toluene, is an isomer that can be found in three forms. It is ... Xylene is a highly-flammable, colorless liquid. Typically, it smells sweet, with a scent that is similar to balsam. It is ... If xylene is released into the environment, it will evaporate rather rapidly from the surface water and soil into the air. ...
Looking for SPECTRUM Xylenes, Reagent, ACS-4L, PK4 (6NNG9)? Graingers got your back. Price:$540.75. Easy ordering & convenient ... Xylenes, Technical is a hydrocarbon that is aromatic and is a mixture of isomers. Used as a solvent that is colorless and has a ... Shipping Restrictions UN1307, Xylenes, 3, PG III * Special Information Mixture Of Ortho-, Meta- And Para-Isomers And May ...
The boiling point of m-xylene is reported as 139.1˚C, for o-xylene as 144.5˚C, for p-xylene it is 138.4˚C and for ethylbenzene ... The data are supported by results from the Merck Handbook (ONeil 2006), with m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene and ethylbenzene ... The boiling point of the xylene isomers and ethylbenzene range from 136.2-144.5˚C at 1013 hPa. ...
The 28 day NOEC (nominal concentration) is therefore 16 mg/L for m-xylene and 16.2 mg/L for o-xylene and p-xylene. ... TNO (2004) used p-xylene as the test substance, Volskay and Grady (1988) tested both o- and p-xylene. Each of the tests used a ... 175 mg/L for o-xylene and ,198 mg/L for p-xylene and therefore the EC50 are above the limit of solubility. ... The lowest results is a 28 day NOEC of 16 mg/L for xylene isomers and a 24 hour IC50 of 96 mg/L for ethylbenzene. ...
The flash point and boiling point of m-xylene are 27°C and 139°C, of p-xylene are 27°C and 138°C, of o-xylene are 32°C and 145° ... Data are provided on m, p and o xylene and ethylbenzene which are the components of the streams and the data have been read ... Ethylbenzene and the xylene isomers are structurally similar substances, consisting of a benzene ring with one and two methyl ... Data on the physical properties of the xylene isomers and ethylbenzene were obtained from a number of secondary sources. The ...
The multi-constituent substances covered by this registration comprise individual xylene isomers (m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene ... Xylene is of low toxicity via the oral route. The LD50 values for xylene isomers (including mixed xylene) range from 3523 to ... Although xylene (including mixed xylene and xylene isomers ) is classified as Xn, R20 Harmful by inhalation under Annex I of ... Considering xylene isomers, an LC50 of 27,124 mg/m3 has been derived for p-xylene from what is considered to be the key study ( ...
Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces in Potsdam have developed a green and sustainable approach for selective p-xylene ... Mendoza Mesa, J. A.; Brandi, F.; Shekova, I.; Antonietti, M.; Al-Naji, M.: p-Xylene from 2,5-dimethylfuran and acrylic acid ... J. A. M. Mesa, F. Brandi, I. Shekova, M. Antonietti and M. Al-Naji, "p-Xylene from 2,5-dimethylfuran and acrylic acid using ... J. A. M. Mesa, F. Brandi, I. Shekova, M. Antonietti and M. Al-Naji, "p-Xylene from 2,5-dimethylfuran and acrylic acid using ...
DOTInformation : Transport Hazard Class: 3; Packing Group: III; Proper Shipping Name: XYLENES ...
... Sk. Fakruddin,1 Ch. ... Srinivasu, B. R. Venkateswara Rao, and K. Narendra, "Excess Transport Properties of Binary Mixtures of Quinoline with Xylenes ...
Low-value mixed butanes are processed to obtain a high yield of high-purity para-xylene. Processing steps may comprise ... In conjunction with the above xylene yields, the concentration of para-xylene in xylenes as represented by the para-xylene ... Xylenes. B/T/EB. C1-C7. C4 += C4. Xylenes/. P-xylene/ ... Xylenes. B/T/EB. C1-C7. C4 += C4. Xylenes/. P-xylene/ ... Xylenes. B/T/EB. C1-C7. C4 += C4. Xylenes/. P-xylene/ ... Xylene isomers, with the usual priority being para-xylene, are ...
This topic contains 5 study abstracts on Xylene indicating it may contribute to Prenatal Chemical Exposures, and Aromatic ... Prenatal xylene exposure has an adverse effect on postnatal development and behavior in rats.May 01, 1995. ... Prenatal xylene exposure has an adverse effect on postnatal development in rats.Jan 01, 1985. ... Hydrocarbons such as xylene, hexadecane and heptane may be absorbed topically.May 01, 2003. ...
"Ежемесячное издание Argus Toluene and Xylenes Outlook содержит прогнозы цен на ближайшие 24 месяца, анализ спроса, предложения ... ARGUS Toluene and Xylenes Outlook Ежемесячное издание Argus Toluene and Xylenes Outlook содержит прогнозы цен на ближайшие 24 ...
  • Commercial or laboratory-grade xylene produced usually contains about 40-65% of m-xylene and up to 20% each of o-xylene, p-xylene and ethylbenzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solvent xylene often contains a small percentage of ethylbenzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The boiling point of the xylene isomers and ethylbenzene range from 136.2-144.5˚C at 1013 hPa. (europa.eu)
  • The boiling point of m-xylene is reported as 139.1˚C, for o-xylene as 144.5˚C, for p-xylene it is 138.4˚C and for ethylbenzene it is 136.2 °C. The mean boiling point is 139.6˚C and this value will be used for the risk assessment. (europa.eu)
  • The data are supported by results from the Merck Handbook (O'Neil 2006), with m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene and ethylbenzene having boiling points of 139.3°C, 144°C, 137 - 138°C and 136.25°C respectively. (europa.eu)
  • The lowest results is a 28 day NOEC of 16 mg/L for xylene isomers and a 24 hour IC50 of 96 mg/L for ethylbenzene. (europa.eu)
  • Data are provided on m, p and o xylene and ethylbenzene which are the components of the streams and the data have been read across to the streams in the category. (europa.eu)
  • The water solubility (Yalkowsky and He 2003) and the log partition coefficient (Hansch et al 1995) of ethylbenzene, m-, o- and p-xylene are 190.7 mg/L and 3.15, 146 mg/L and 3.2, 170.5 mg/L and 3.12 and 156 mg/L and 3.15, respectively. (europa.eu)
  • Data on the physical properties of the xylene isomers and ethylbenzene were obtained from a number of secondary sources. (europa.eu)
  • The flash point and boiling point of m-xylene are 27°C and 139°C, of p-xylene are 27°C and 138°C, of o-xylene are 32°C and 145°C and ethylbenzene are 18°C and 136°C respectively. (europa.eu)
  • Toluene and other monoaromatic compounds such benzene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) are commonly found in gasoline-contaminated sites (EPA 1995). (scielo.br)
  • There is provided a process for producing high-purity meta-xylene by converting a hydrocarbon feedstream comprising at least about 5 wt % ethylbenzene and at least about 20 wt % meta-xylene, over a single molecular sieve catalyst under ethylbenzene conversion conditions sufficient to provide a primary product stream depleted of more than 50% of the ethylbenzene present in the feedstream. (patentgenius.com)
  • 4. A process according to claim 1, further comprising separating para-xylene from a mixed C.sub.8 hydrocarbon feedstream comprising para-xylene, ortho-xylene, meta-xylene, and ethylbenzene, to provide the meta-xylene-rich feedstream. (patentgenius.com)
  • 6. A process according to claim 1, wherein the hydrocarbon feedstream comprises from about 5 wt % to about 20 wt % ethylbenzene, from about 20 wt % to about 80 wt % meta-xylene, from about 5 wt % to about 30 wt % ortho-xylene, and from about 0.5wt % to about 5 wt % para-xylene. (patentgenius.com)
  • A trace analytical method of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) in water has been developed by using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to cryo-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The chromatographic peak shape for BTEX was improved by using cryo-trap equipment. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The Times was reporting on a report by Representatives Henry A. Waxman of California, Edward J. Markey of Massachusetts and Diana DeGette of Colorado about natural gas retrieval by means of hydraulic fracturing (fracking), which contains the not-so-startling revelation that the fluid used for this process contains some unspecified amount of 'chemicals' - especially benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene, which are each either carcinogenic or toxic. (tomevslin.com)
  • Degradation of the BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylenes) group of organopollutants by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was studied. (eurekamag.com)
  • Using this system, we examined the effect of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) contamination on the response of an aquifer bacterial community by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and PCR detection of BTEX degradation genes. (asm.org)
  • Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylenes (BTEX) form one of the main groundwater contaminant groups. (asm.org)
  • 1.1 This test method covers the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, the xylenes, C 9 and heavier aromatics, and total aromatics in finished motor gasoline by gas chromatography. (astm.org)
  • For the C 8 aromatics, p -xylene and m -xylene co-elute while ethylbenzene and o -xylene are separated. (astm.org)
  • Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this application, with a mixture of isomers, it is often referred to as xylenes or xylol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xylene, also called xylol, dimethyl benzene , Violet 3, and methyl toluene , is an isomer that can be found in three forms. (wisegeek.com)
  • 1.1 Identification of the substancemixture: Commercial name: Ortho-Xylene Chemical name: Ortho-Xylene C8H10 Synonyms: O-Dimethyl benzene, O-methyl toluene, O-Xylol. (exportersindia.com)
  • Xylene (dimethylbenzene or xylol) is an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent commonly found in paints and laboratories. (ndtv.com)
  • Is Xylol the same as Xylene? (sunnysidecorp.com)
  • Yes, xylene is the chemical name for Xylol. (sunnysidecorp.com)
  • xylene (zī´lēn) or dimethylbenzene (dī´mĕthəlbĕn´zēn) , C 6 H 4 (CH 3 ) 2 , colorless, oily, liquid aromatic hydrocarbon , used extensively as a solvent, obtained from coal tar , wood tar, and sometimes from petroleum. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Xylene is used as a solvent and in the printing, rubber, and leather industries. (cdc.gov)
  • xylene ( C 6 H 4 (CH 3 ) 2 ) Organic chemical compound obtained from the distillates of coal tar and petroleum, and important as a solvent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The xylene mixture is a slightly greasy, colorless liquid commonly encountered as a solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xylene is used as a solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the formula (CH3)2C6H4 Solvent applications and industrial purposes Xylene is used as a solvent. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • Xylene is used in the laboratory to make baths with dry ice to cool reaction vessels,[15] and as a solvent to remove synthetic immersion oil from the microscope objective in light microscopy. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • Xylene is primarily used as a solvent (a liquid that can dissolve other substances), particularly in the printing, rubber and leather industries. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • We are engaged in providing a vast array of Xylene Solvent to our customers. (tradeindia.com)
  • 90%) are used in mixed xylene as a solvent and a constituent (BTX - benzene-toluene-xylene) of vehicle, aviation and other fuels. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • Xylene exposure in the general U.S. population occurs when the chemical is released through industrial emissions (e.g., petroleum refineries, chemical plants) and automobile exhaust, as well as through its use as a solvent, but this chemical is also available in a variety of consumer products, such as gasoline, paint, varnish, and shellac. (ecri.org)
  • Xylene Solvent / Cleaner / Thinner, High Purity. (bestmaterials.com)
  • Xylene will also remove certain adhesives, and is an excellent solvent for cleaning tools and equipment immediately after use. (sunnysidecorp.com)
  • Exposure to xylene as solvents (in paints or gasoline) can be reduced if the products are used with adequate ventilation and if they are stored in tightly closed containers out of the reach of small children. (cdc.gov)
  • In the petroleum industry, xylene is also a frequent component of paraffin solvents, used when the tubing becomes clogged with paraffin wax. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xylenes are solvents used in industrial and consumer products, such as cleaning agents and paint thinners. (ewg.org)
  • Exposure to xylenes may occur during their production and in the production of aviation gasoline and protective coatings, and during their use in petroleum products, e.g., solvents, and as intermediates in organic synthesis. (inchem.org)
  • There are plenty of other, far less dangerous thinners and solvents which do not include xylene- why is this on the market? (wisegeek.com)
  • It may seem odd, but solvents are chemical composites that are similar on â ¦ Always review material safety data sheets in areas that use xylene and other powerful chemicals. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • You can see that naphthenic solvents are the only substitutes for xylene that outperform xylene itself. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • We do not know if xylene harms the unborn child if the mother is exposed to low levels of xylene during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Measurement of blood levels of xylene is general population result from contact properties, are rapidly absorbed by all limited by the rapid metabolism of with consumer products containing routes of exposure, rapidly distributed xylene. (cdc.gov)
  • No data are available on levels of xylene and Disease Registry concentrations of xylene in blood or in soil. (cdc.gov)
  • While the levels of xylene that an average person is exposed to over the course of daily living will likely not be high enough to result in adverse health effects, there may be health hazards for people who work with xylene directly and more frequently, such as hospital laboratory workers. (ecri.org)
  • Extreme levels of xylene that killed some of the pregnant animals caused birth defects in the offspring of the survivors. (ndtv.com)
  • Exposure to xylene occurs in the workplace and when you use paint, gasoline, paint thinners and other products that contain it. (cdc.gov)
  • How can families reduce the risks of exposure to xylene? (cdc.gov)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to xylene. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to xylene. (cdc.gov)
  • People who work or live near industrial involves mixed function oxidases in the settings may receive a higher exposure to liver, resulting mainly in the formation of Typical concentrations of xylene in xylenes. (cdc.gov)
  • Applied Toxicology Branch industries using xylene as a raw material, reported in urban and rural drinking or employed in the petroleum industry, water wells or monitoring wells in the may be at higher risk of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary effects of xylene exposure with a somewhat sweet odor. (cdc.gov)
  • This limit may not fully protect against harm to the brain and nervous system due to xylene exposure. (ewg.org)
  • Xylene was mentioned as an exposure in four studies. (inchem.org)
  • In none of these studies was xylene the sole or predominant exposure. (inchem.org)
  • Cancers at most sites were not significantly associated with xylene exposure in any study. (inchem.org)
  • In view of the multiple exposure circumstances in most studies, the multiple inference context of these studies, and the weak consistency of the findings, these results are not strong enough to establish whether there is an association with xylene exposure. (inchem.org)
  • Xylenes are absorbed after inhalation and dermal exposure. (inchem.org)
  • In rats, hepatic cytochrome P450 content, particularly of CYP2B1, and the activities of certain conjugation enzymes are increased upon inhalation exposure to meta -xylene. (inchem.org)
  • Prenatal xylene exposure has an adverse effect on postnatal development and behavior in rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Prenatal xylene exposure has long-lasting neurobehavioral effects in rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • According to the Occupational and Health Safety Administration (OSHA), exposure to xylene and toluene can result in severe and chronic health conditions such as abdominal pain, nausea, bronchitis and bronchial pneumonia, among others. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Longer exposure to xylene yields greater risk. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • The use of impervious gloves and masks, along with respirators where appropriate, is recommended to avoid occupational health issues from xylene exposure. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • Groundwater inocula have been reported to completely degrade low concentrations of xylenes in 2 to 20 days (varying with pre-exposure) under aerobic conditions (when dissolved oxygen levels are not limiting). (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • Short-term exposure to xylene is known to cause difficulty breathing, impaired memory, and delayed response to visual stimulus, among other issues. (sightline.org)
  • Furthermore, chronic exposure of ortho-xylenes results in central nervous system effects, cardio-vascular and kidney effects. (sbwire.com)
  • However, acute inhalation or exposure to ortho-xylene in humans results in irritation of eyes and neurological effects. (sbwire.com)
  • Studies in pregnant animals have been inconclusive as exposure to very large amounts of xylene (not normally encountered) affected the developing fetuses. (ndtv.com)
  • Commonsense demands that pregnant and nursing women minimise their exposure to xylene, just as they should minimise their exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. (ndtv.com)
  • Reconstruction of Exposure to m -Xylene from Human Biomonitoring Data Using PBPK Modelling, Bayesian Inference, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation," Journal of Toxicology , vol. 2012, Article ID 760281, 18 pages, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Measurement by gas chromatography of urinary hippuric acid and methylhippuric acid as indices of toluene and xylene exposure. (bmj.com)
  • Xylenes are produced mainly as part of the BTX aromatics (benzene, toluene, and xylenes) extracted from the product of catalytic reforming known as reformate. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the one-pass conversion of syngas to value-added aromatics, especially para -xylene, is still a big challenge. (rsc.org)
  • Xylenes are mainly produced as a part of the BTX aromatics. (sbwire.com)
  • The removal of benzene toluene, ethyl benzene and p-Xylene (BTEX) from aqueous solution using granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated in the study. (academicjournals.org)
  • It is a constitutional isomer of m-xylene and p-xylene, the mixture being called xylene or xylenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects vary with animal and xylene isomer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xylenes are obtained from coal-tar distillation with the meta- isomer being predominate. (mfa.org)
  • Para-xylene, the most valuable xylene isomer, is converted into polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers, resins and films. (aiche.org)
  • Ortho-xylene is a commercial isomer of xylene. (sbwire.com)
  • meta -xylene, ortho -xylene, and para -xylene ( m -, o -, and p -xylene). (cdc.gov)
  • The ortho and para isomers are converted to meta -xylene by treatment with aluminum trichloride and hydrochloric acid at about 80°C. The xylenes are often used in the synthesis of other compounds, e.g., the xylidenes that are amino derivatives used in the synthesis of azo dyes and other compounds. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Meta-xylene is a main component of commercial-grade xylene. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • and splitting the secondary product stream by removing substantially all of the ortho-xylene present therein to provide a tertiary product stream comprising at least about 95 wt % meta-xylene. (patentgenius.com)
  • meta-xylene, and less than 5 wt. (patentgenius.com)
  • distilling the tertiary product stream to obtain a distillate having further increased meta-xylene content. (patentgenius.com)
  • 3. A process according to claim 2, wherein the distillate comprises at least 98 wt % meta-xylene. (patentgenius.com)
  • Atmospheric xylenes are subject primarily to photo-enhanced oxidation by reaction with hydroxyl radicals, and this (and other reaction processes) is enhanced by nitric oxides and solids. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • The research was concerned with obtaining kinetic data and product information for the oxidation chemistry of the isomeric xylenes and benzyl radicals at 753K. (bl.uk)
  • The major aromatic products from the oxidation of the xylenes were the isomeric tolualdehydes, toluene and a-xylylcne oxide (from a-xylene). (bl.uk)
  • The key features highlighted in this research are the similarity in the oxidation chemistry between the xylenes and toluene and the importance of the reactions of the benzyl radical in the oxidation of methyl-substituted benzenes. (bl.uk)
  • The catalytic performances of the compounds were evaluated towards the peroxidative oxidation of o -, p - and m -xylenes under microwave irradiation, leading to the formation of the corresponding methyl benzyl alcohol, tolualdehyde and toluic acid as the major products. (rsc.org)
  • Complex 3 exhibits the best catalytic activity towards the oxidation of p -xylene with a total yield of 37% (4-methylbenzyl alcohol + p -tolualdehyde + p -toluic acid). (rsc.org)
  • In this experiment, the transfer of electrons between two chemical species is involved, where phthalic acid was obtained from the oxidation-reduction reacts of xylene with potassium permanganate. (scribd.com)
  • strain T have demonstrated that anaerobic oxidation of both toluene and m -xylene is initiated by addition of the aromatic hydrocarbon to fumarate, forming benzylsuccinate and 3-methyl benzylsuccinate, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Initial reactions in the anaerobic oxidation of toluene and m-xylene by denitrifying bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Benzaldehyde and benzoate accumulated sequentially after toluene was added when cell suspensions were incubated at 5 degrees C. Strain T also grows anaerobically with m-xylene, and we demonstrated that degradation was initiated by oxidation of one methyl group. (asm.org)
  • Toluene- or m-xylene-grown strain T cells were induced to the same extent for oxidation of both hydrocarbons. (asm.org)
  • o-Xylene is largely used in the production of phthalic anhydride, which is a precursor to many materials, drugs, and other chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over 25 years of reporting on key chemicals markets, including Xylenes-Mixed xylenes, has brought global recognition of our methodology as being unbiased, authoritative and rigorous in preserving our editorial integrity. (icis.com)
  • 23][24][25], Xylene is also a skin irritant and strips the skin of its oils, making it more permeable to other chemicals. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • The major players in the ortho-xylene market are Creasyn Finechem (Tianjin) Co., Ltd., Doe & Ingalls of North Carolina Inc., DynaChem Inc, Minda Petrochemicals Ltd, Shell Chemicals, Sonoco Chemicals, U.S. Petrochemical Industries Ltd. and Puritan Products, Inc. among others. (sbwire.com)
  • Benzene, toluene and xylene, the most widely used aromatic hydrocarbons, are very useful chemicals, however they are also extremely hazardous. (moxietraining.com)
  • About the program "Benzene, Toluene & Xylene," teaches the basic hazard properties of these chemicals as well as safety techniques for handling and emergency response. (moxietraining.com)
  • Growing usage of xylene in paints and coatings, and industrial chemicals, along with growing usage of benzene in textiles and plastics, is expected to drive the market for benzene and xylene during the forecast period. (yahoo.com)
  • Chemically it is dimethyl benzene which exists in three isomeric forms: ortho-, meta-, and para-xylene. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Xylene exists in three isomeric forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xylene evaporates quickly from the soil and surface water into the air. (cdc.gov)
  • Xylene evaporates and burns easily. (cdc.gov)
  • Most xylene that is accidentally released evaporates into the air, although some is released into rivers or lakes. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • Valley Cottage, NY -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 07/18/2017 -- Xylenes are petrochemicals produced by catalytic reforming and coal carbonization in the manufacture of coke fuel. (sbwire.com)
  • 2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-p-xylene (CAS 703-87-7) Market Research Report 2017 contents were prepared and placed on the website in December, 2017. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that 2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-p-xylene (CAS 703-87-7) Market Research Report 2017 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Reformate accounts for over three fourths of mixed xylenes market. (sbwire.com)
  • Systems and processes for maximizing the production of benzene and para-xylene from heavy reformate are provided. (wipo.int)
  • Xylenes are produced by the methylation of toluene and benzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immediately rinse the eyes and skin if exposed to toluene or xylene. (ehow.co.uk)
  • In batch biodegradation experiments of binary mixtures, benzene degradation was inhibited by the presence of either toluene or xylene and toluene degradation was inhibited by the presence of either benzene or xylene. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The effects of xylene have not been studied in children, but it is likely that they would be similar to those seen in exposed adults. (cdc.gov)
  • 1). Precursor to benzene and xylene. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • Benzene and xylene segment dominated the market, and is expected to grow with the highest CAGR during the forecast period. (yahoo.com)
  • Benzene and xylene accounted for the major share of the market studied, with an approximate share of almost 50% of the global market. (yahoo.com)
  • There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of xylenes. (inchem.org)
  • Adequate human data on the carcinogenicity of xylenes are not available, and the available animal data are inconclusive as to the ability of xylenes to cause a carcinogenic response. (epa.gov)
  • the different xylene isomers have the two methyl functional groups attached at different locations. (europa.eu)
  • Xylene (C 6 H 4 (CH 3 ) 2 ) occurs in three isomers (o-, m- and p-) which vary in the site of attachment on the benzene ring of the two methyl groups. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • o-xylene (ortho-xylene) is an aromatic hydrocarbon, based on benzene with two methyl substituents bonded to adjacent carbon atoms in the aromatic ring. (exportersindia.com)
  • By the combined use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry the methyl esters of hippuric acid and m-methylhippuric acid were identified in the urine of a volunteer who had been exposed to toluene and m-xylene vapours. (bmj.com)
  • It is extracted by means of distillation from xylene stream in a plant designed for para-xylene production. (sbwire.com)
  • The transalkylation reactor may perform transalkylation of product from the C9 dealkylation reactor and xylene isomerization. (wipo.int)
  • Product name: Xylene CAS No.: 1330-20-7 MF:C8H10 EINECS No.: 215-535-7 Purity: 99% min MW:106.17 Appearance:Colorless liquid Storage:Preserve in well-closed, light-resistant and airtight containers. (lookchem.com)
  • Atmospheric xylene levels in the United States range from 1 to 30 parts per billion (ppb), and xylene levels measured indoors range from 1 to 10 ppb. (ecri.org)
  • Xylene (C 8 H 10 ) is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. (cdc.gov)
  • The nuclear-chlorinated o-xylenes can be used individually or as mixtures. (google.co.uk)
  • 5. The method as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the nuclear-chlorinated o-xylene is selected from the group consisting of nuclear monochlorinated o-xylene, nuclear polychlorinated o-xylene and mixtures thereof. (google.co.uk)
  • wherein said mixed nuclear chlorinated o-xylenes are selected from the group consisting of nuclear monochlorinated o-xylenes, nuclear polychlorinated o-xylenes and mixtures thereof and wherein the noble metal catalyst comprises a noble metal selected from the group consisting of palladium, platinum, and mixtures thereof. (google.co.uk)
  • A trace amount (0.01 % for kinetic study, 0.5% for product study) of each xylene was separately added to slowly reacting mixtures of H₂ + O₂ in aged boric-acid-coated Pyrex reaction vessels at 753K and 500 Torr total pressure. (bl.uk)
  • Biodegradation tests were carried out on all three xylene isomers following OECD 301F guidelines using a mixed inoculum of non-adapted sludge and soil micro-organisms. (europa.eu)
  • Xylene molecules are relatively simple and biodegradation is widespread in environmental media, although o-xylene appears to be slightly more recalcitrant than the other isomers. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • The biodegradation experiments of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX) by bacillus culture were carried out. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The structure of the extant transcriptional control network of the TOL plasmid pWW0 born by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 for biodegradation of m-xylene is far more complex than one would consider necessary from a mere engineering point of view. (wur.nl)
  • MDA is a category 1B carcinogen, while musk xylene is a vPvB substance, used as a fragrance in consumer products such as fabric conditioners and air fresheners. (ul.com)
  • Low-value mixed butanes are processed to obtain a high yield of high-purity para-xylene. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Processing steps may comprise fractionation to recover isobutane, dehydrogenation of the isobutane to isobutene, dimerization of the isobutene to obtain C 8 iso-olefins and isoparaffins, aromatization of the dimerized C 8 product, and recovery of high-purity para-xylene from the dimerized product by low-intensity crystallization. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • High Purity Xylene. (bestmaterials.com)
  • Studies of unborn animals indicate that high concentrations of xylene may cause increased numbers of deaths, and delayed growth and development. (cdc.gov)
  • Xylene in air can be smelled at concentrations as low as 0.08 to 3.7 ppm (parts of xylene per million parts of air) and can be tasted in water at 0.53 to 1.8 ppm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xylene occurs naturally in petroleum and An MRL of 0.6 ppm has been derived for xylene volatilizes into the atmosphere, at lower concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • The SOA yields were determined based on the particle mass concentrations measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and reacted m -xylene concentrations measured with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The SOA components were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatograph-electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometer (UPLC-ESI-HRMS). (atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net)
  • Skin absorption of toluene, styrene, and xylene by man. (bmj.com)
  • 198 mg/L for p-xylene and therefore the EC50 are above the limit of solubility. (europa.eu)
  • While it is unclear how xylene results in toxicity in the body, scientists think it could be because of high fat-solubility qualities. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • This bssA null mutant strain was unable to grow under denitrifying conditions on either toluene or m -xylene, while growth on benzoate was unaffected. (asm.org)
  • The characterization and catalytic performance evaluation revealed that the well-designed core-shell Zn/[email protected] zeolite, as a vital part of this Cr/Zn-Zn/[email protected] hybrid catalyst, substantially contributed to its extreme performance for the para -xylene one-pass precise synthesis from syngas. (rsc.org)
  • The concerted combination of two components in this hybrid catalyst can effectively depress the formation of unwanted by-products and facilitate the oriented synthesis of para -xylene from syngas with unprecedented efficiency at the same time. (rsc.org)
  • This hybrid catalyst exhibited enhanced activity on syngas conversion (CO conversion of 55.0%), good stability of catalyst lifetime and considerable selectivity of para -xylene (27.6% in the total products and 77.3% in xylene). (rsc.org)
  • TiO loaded with 0.5 at% Ag exhibited the highest response to xylene with low response/recovery time at the operating temperature of 375 °C. In addition, the sensitivity and selectivity of the TiO sensor were enhanced markedly with Ag loading. (americanelements.com)
  • Additionally, the 10 at% WO-NiO based sensor also showed superior xylene selectivity against other interfering gases in a wide temperature range (250-350 °C). Especially at the optimal 300 °C, the 50-ppm xylene sensitivity was 8.1 and 10.3 times higher than that of 50-ppm representative acetone (S/S = 8.1) and ethanol (S/S = 10.3) gases, respectively. (americanelements.com)
  • Xylenes are an important petrochemical produced by catalytic reforming and also by coal carbonisation in the manufacture of coke fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICIS provides pricing information, news and analysis for all major petrochemical and chemical markets, including Xylenes-Mixed xylenes. (icis.com)
  • Production of xylenes is primarily associated with the petrochemical and coal industries, with most being produced by the catalytic reforming of naphtha, a derivative of crude oil fractionation. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • Here's the latest in a string of petrochemical developments across the Northwest: the oil company Tesoro plans to spend $400 million upgrading its Anacortes refinery to add a xylene extraction facility that could pose serious environmental risks to the Salish Sea. (sightline.org)
  • Clear-Advantage is a specific fraction of petrochemical derivatives that creates a safer xylene substitute for processing, staining and coverslipping. (polysciences.com)
  • o-Xylene is an important precursor to phthalic anhydride. (wikipedia.org)
  • uses In chemical industry: Xylene Ortho -xylene is used mostly to produce phthalic anhydride, an important intermediate that leads principally to various coatings and plastics. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • The objective of this experiment is to oxidize phthalic acid from xylene using potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent. (scribd.com)
  • A. Preparation of Phthalic Acid In an appropriately sized round-bottomed flask, 1.5 g of potassium permanganate (KMnO4), about 0.50 g of xylene and 35 mL of water were mixed. (scribd.com)
  • Chemical industries produce xylene from petroleum. (cdc.gov)
  • Petroleum contains about one weight percent xylenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most o-xylene is produced by cracking petroleum, which affords a distribution of aromatic compounds, including xylene isomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results for xylene -NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrocarbons such as xylene, hexadecane and heptane may be absorbed topically. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In addition, recent work has suggested that m -xylene ( 16 ), m -cresol ( 24 ), p -cresol ( 25 ), and the aliphatic hydrocarbons n -hexane ( 28 ) and n -dodecane ( 18 ) are also activated anaerobically by a fumarate addition reaction. (asm.org)
  • The legal limit for xylenes, established in 1991, was based on a toxicity study in laboratory animals conducted in the 1980s. (ewg.org)
  • In the toxicity control vessels, containing the individual xylene isomers with the reference substance sodium benzoate, none of the xylene isomers exhibited inhibitory effects on the micro-organisms. (europa.eu)
  • In animal studies xylene isomers (including mixed xylene) exhibit low acute toxicity by oral and dermal routes with the reported LD50 values all exceeding 2000 mg/kg bw. (europa.eu)
  • With water the azeotrope consists of 60% xylenes and boils at 94.5 °C. As with many alkylbenzene compounds, xylenes form complexes with various halocarbons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toluene and xylene are strong compounds that are used in many household and industrial products. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vapors of volatile organic compounds such as benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) may cause health concerns. (mdpi.com)
  • Mixed xylene is considered harmful by inhalation. (europa.eu)
  • In humans critical effects of xylenes are irritation and CNS effects, with the overall NOAEC inhalation for the latter effect being 300 mg/m3. (europa.eu)
  • o-Xylene is a colorless slightly oily flammable liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the EPA have found that there is insufficient information to determine whether or not xylene is carcinogenic. (cdc.gov)
  • Under the Draft Revised Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1999), data are inadequate for an assessment of the carcinogenic potential of xylenes. (epa.gov)
  • The ratio of isomers can be shifted to favor the highly valued p-xylene via the patented UOP-Isomar process or by transalkylation of xylene with itself or trimethylbenzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • o-Xylene (ortho-xylene) is an aromatic hydrocarbon with the formula C6H4(CH3)2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xylenes, Technical is a hydrocarbon that is aromatic and is a mixture of isomers. (grainger.com)
  • From measurements of the relative loss of H₂ and hydrocarbon rate constants for the reactions of the radicals H and H0₂ with each xylene were obtained. (bl.uk)
  • There are several types of xylene substitutes in the market today including both standard hydrocarbon and citrus limonene types that contain overpowering odors. (polysciences.com)
  • Technicians commonly use xylene and toluene in a laboratory setting. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Overexposure to xylene most commonly affects the nervous system, respiratory system and skin. (ndtv.com)
  • Xylene is also used as: - Cleaning Agent - Paint Thinner and Remover - Varnish - Airplane Fuel - Gasoline - Shellac - Rust Preventatives - Pesticides - Lacquers. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • p-Xylene is the principal precursor to terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate, both monomers used in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles and polyester clothing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most (c. 89%) xylene is produced as a mixture of isomers, along with benzene and toluene, with subsequent isolation of xylenes as required. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • 98% of p-xylene production, and half of all xylenes produced is consumed in this manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • For that matter, plastics production need not rely on xylene either, since plant-based oils are safer, more environmentally friendly, and non-toxic-- from conception, to production, to retail. (wisegeek.com)
  • Xylene is used in the production of terephthalic acid monomer. (gsnmagazine.com)
  • Xylene is produced widely in the EC at high tonnages (total production in the range 500 to 1,000 Ktonnes, according to the EU ' s IUCLID database). (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • In the UK, production of mixed xylenes is significant, but of the isomers, only p-xylene is produced in isolation in substantial quantities. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • Estimated annual production capacities in the UK for the early 1990s were 150 Ktonnes mixed xylenes and 200 Ktonnes p-xylene, with major production at only two sites (ChemInform 1992). (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • During their production and use, xylenes are released primarily to the atmosphere. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • The facility would be capable of producing 15,000 barrels of xylene per day for export, primarily to Asia, representing roughly a 9 percent increase in total US xylene production. (sightline.org)
  • Xylene production also creates yet another spill risk for the Salish Sea , and xylene tanker mishaps have caused tremendous damage in the past, such as the 2007 spill on the Mississippi River . (sightline.org)
  • China dominated the otho-xylene production in 2011 and this trend is expected to continue within the forecast period. (sbwire.com)
  • A Study on the Production of Isophthalic Acid from M-xylene under the Catalysis of Cobalt and H3PW12O40/Carbon Modified by HNO3 Solution" International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering , vol. 13, no. 3, 2015, pp. 413-425. (degruyter.com)
  • Wang, Z., Yang, Z., Wu, S. and Long, X. (2015) A Study on the Production of Isophthalic Acid from M-xylene under the Catalysis of Cobalt and H3PW12O40/Carbon Modified by HNO3 Solution. (degruyter.com)
  • CO 2 hydrogenation coupled with toluene methylation can markedly enhance the production of high value-added para -xylene. (sciencemag.org)