An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI that is a major cause of SEPTICEMIA and disseminated CANDIDIASIS, especially in patients with LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is also found as part of the normal human mucocutaneous flora.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
A multifunctional protein that is both a DEAD-box RNA helicase and a component of the SMN protein complex.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Type III intermediate filament proteins expressed mainly in neurons of the peripheral and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS. Peripherins are implicated in neurite elongation during development and axonal regeneration after injury.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
A multifunctional heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that may play a role in homologous DNA pairing and recombination. The N-terminal portion of protein is a potent transcriptional activator, while the C terminus is required for RNA binding. The name FUS refers to the fact that genetic recombination events result in fusion oncogene proteins (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION) that contain the N-terminal region of this protein. These fusion proteins have been found in myxoid liposarcoma (LIPOSARCOMA, MYXOID) and acute myeloid leukemia.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A degradation product of ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) fungicides. It has been found to be carcinogenic and to cause THYROID hyperplasia.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (1/4351)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. (2/4351)

Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene were found to cause human congenital heart disease (Schott, J.-J., Benson, D. W., Basson, C. T., Pease, W., Silberbach, G. M., Moak, J. P., Maron, B. J., Seidman, C. E. and Seidman, J. G. (1998) Science 281, 108-111). To investigate the functions of Csx/Nkx2.5 in cardiac and extracardiac development in the vertebrate, we have generated and analyzed mutant mice completely null for Csx/Nkx2.5. Homozygous null embryos showed arrest of cardiac development after looping and poor development of blood vessels. Moreover, there were severe defects in vascular formation and hematopoiesis in the mutant yolk sac. Interestingly, TUNEL staining and PCNA staining showed neither enhanced apoptosis nor reduced cell proliferation in the mutant myocardium. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2.5 null ES cells, there were almost no ES cell-derived cardiac myocytes, while there were substantial contributions of Csx /Nkx2.5-deficient cells in other organs. Whole-mount &bgr;-gal staining of chimeric embryos showed that more than 20% contribution of Csx/Nkx2. 5-deficient cells in the heart arrested cardiac development. These results indicate that (1) the complete null mutation of Csx/Nkx2.5 did not abolish initial heart looping, (2) there was no enhanced apoptosis or defective cell cycle entry in Csx/Nkx2.5 null cardiac myocytes, (3) Csx/Nkx2.5 regulates expression of several essential transcription factors in the developing heart, (4) Csx/Nkx2.5 is required for later differentiation of cardiac myocytes, (5) Csx/Nkx2. 5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (3/4351)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Bcl-2 regulates amplification of caspase activation by cytochrome c. (4/4351)

Caspases, a family of specific proteases, have central roles in apoptosis [1]. Caspase activation in response to diverse apoptotic stimuli involves the relocalisation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm where it stimulates the proteolytic processing of caspase precursors. Cytochrome c release is controlled by members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulators [2] [3]. The anti-apoptotic members Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL may also control caspase activation independently of cytochrome c relocalisation or may inhibit a positive feedback mechanism [4] [5] [6] [7]. Here, we investigate the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in the regulation of caspase activation using a model cell-free system. We found that Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL set a threshold in the amount of cytochrome c required to activate caspases, even in soluble extracts lacking mitochondria. Addition of dATP (which stimulates the procaspase-processing factor Apaf-1 [8] [9]) overcame inhibition of caspase activation by Bcl-2, but did not prevent the control of cytochrome c release from mitochondria by Bcl-2. Cytochrome c release was accelerated by active caspase-3 and this positive feedback was negatively regulated by Bcl-2. These results provide evidence for a mechanism to amplify caspase activation that is suppressed at several distinct steps by Bcl-2, even after cytochrome c is released from mitochondria.  (+info)

Identification and cloning of xp95, a putative signal transduction protein in Xenopus oocytes. (5/4351)

A 95-kDa protein in Xenopus oocytes, Xp95, was shown to be phosphorylated from the first through the second meiotic divisions during progesterone-induced oocyte maturation. Xp95 was purified and cloned. The Xp95 protein sequence exhibited homology to mouse Rhophilin, budding yeast Bro1, and Aspergillus PalA, all of which are implicated in signal transduction. It also contained three conserved features including seven conserved tyrosines, a phosphorylation consensus sequence for the Src family of tyrosine kinases, and a proline-rich domain near the C terminus that contains multiple SH3 domain-binding motifs. We showed the following: 1) that both Xp95 isolated from Xenopus oocytes and a synthetic peptide containing the Src phosphorylation consensus sequence of Xp95 were phosphorylated in vitro by Src kinase and to a lesser extent by Fyn kinase; 2) Xp95 from Xenopus oocytes or eggs was recognized by an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, and the relative abundance of tyrosine-phosphorylated Xp95 increased during oocyte maturation; and 3) microinjection of deregulated Src mRNA into Xenopus oocytes increased the abundance of tyrosine-phosphorylated Xp95. These results suggest that Xp95 is an element in a tyrosine kinase signaling pathway that may be involved in progesterone-induced Xenopus oocyte maturation.  (+info)

Neuronal differentiation and patterning in Xenopus: the role of cdk5 and a novel activator xp35.2. (6/4351)

Cdk5, a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, has been shown to play an important role in development of the central nervous system in mammals when partnered by its activator p35. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a novel activator of cdk5 in Xenopus, Xp35.2. Xp35.2 is expressed during development initially in the earliest differentiating primary neurons in the neural plate and then later in differentiating neural tissue of the brain. This is in contrast to the previously described Xenopus cdk5 activator Xp35.1 which is expressed over the entire expanse of the neural plate in both proliferating and differentiating cells. Expression of both Xp35.1 and Xp35.2 and activation of cdk5 kinase occur when terminal neural differentiation is induced by neurogenin and neuro D overexpression but not when only early stages of neural differentiation are induced by noggin. Moreover, blocking cdk5 kinase activity specifically results in disruption and reduction of the embryonic eye where cdk5 and its Xp35 activators are expressed. Thus, cdk5/p35 complexes function in aspects of neural differentiation and patterning in the early embryo and particularly in formation of the eye.  (+info)

Lack of regulation in the heart forming region of avian embryos. (7/4351)

The ability to regenerate a heart after ablation of cardiogenic mesoderm has been demonstrated in early stage fish and amphibian embryos but this type of regulation of the heart field has not been seen in avians or mammals. The regulative potential of the cardiogenic mesoderm was examined in avian embryos and related to the spatial expression of genes implicated in early cardiogenesis. With the identification of early cardiac regulators such as bmp-2 and nkx-2.5, it is now possible to reconcile classical embryological studies with molecular mechanisms of cardiac lineage determination in vivo. The most anterior lateral embryonic cells were identified as the region that becomes the heart and removal of all or any subset of these cells resulted in the loss of corresponding cardiac structures. In addition, removal of the lateral heart forming mesoderm while leaving the lateral endoderm intact also results in loss of cardiac structures. Thus the medial anterior mesoderm cannot be recruited into the heart lineage in vivo even in the presence of potentially cardiac inducing endoderm. In situ analysis demonstrated that genes involved in early events of cardiogenesis such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp-2) and nkx-2.5 are expressed coincidentally with the mapped far lateral heart forming region. The activin type IIa receptor (actR-IIa) is a potential mediator of BMP signaling since it is expressed throughout the anterior mesoderm with the highest level of expression occurring in the lateral prospective heart cells. The posterior boundary of actR-IIa is consistent with the posterior boundary of nkx-2.5 expression, supporting a model whereby ActR-IIa is involved in restricting the heart forming region to an anterior subset of lateral cells exposed to BMP-2. Analysis of the cardiogenic potential of the lateral plate mesoderm posterior to nkx-2.5 and actR-IIa expression demonstrated that these cells are not cardiogenic in vitro and that removal of these cells from the embryo does not result in loss of heart tissue in vivo. Thus, the region of the avian embryo that will become the heart is defined medially, laterally, and posteriorly by nkx-2.5 gene expression. Removal of all or part of the nkx-2.5 expressing region results in the loss of corresponding heart structures, demonstrating the inability of the chick embryo to regenerate cardiac tissue in vivo at stages after nkx-2.5 expression is initiated.  (+info)

RNA sorting in Xenopus oocytes and embryos. (8/4351)

Cytoplasmic localization of mRNA molecules has emerged as a powerful mechanism for generating spatially restricted gene expression. This process is an important contributor to cell polarity in both somatic cells and oocytes, and can provide the basis for patterning during embryonic development. In vertebrates, this phenomenon is perhaps best documented in the frog, Xenopus laevis, where polarity along the animal-vegetal axis coincides with the localization of numerous mRNA molecules. Research over the last several years has made exciting progress toward understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cytoplasmic mRNA localization.  (+info)

As our bodies form, cells within the embryo divide and separate. Certain cells come together to form the outer layer, or ectoderm, of the early embryo, and give rise to tissue such as the skin and nervous system (spine, peripheral nerves and brain). Other cells come together to form the mesoderm or middle layer of the embryo, and eventually give rise to tissue like muscle, heart or bone. Once cells have been assigned to the different regions - mesoderm or ectoderm - a mysterious mechanism draws boundaries between them that mark their permanent separation. Any defect in these boundaries leads to disorganized mixing of cell populations, severe embryo abnormalities and eventually lethality.. Until now, adherence was thought to be the principle force responsible for the separation of the ectoderm from the mesoderm in embryonic cells. The Differential Adhesion Hypothesis used to explain the process of embryonic tissue separation - which has been accepted until now - postulates that cells from each ...
We show that, in addition to a role in mesoderm induction during blastula stages, FGF signalling plays an important role in maintaining the properties of the mesoderm in the gastrula of Xenopus laevis. eFGF is a maternally expressed secreted Xenopus FGF with potent mesoderm-inducing activity. Howeve …
Beta-catenin, a component of the wnt-signal-transduction pathway, is essential for the formation of the dorsal axis in Xenopus laevis embryos. On the dorsal side of the embryo, beta-catenin is translocated into the nuclei via a process linked to cortical rotation. When cortical rotation is blocked by UV-irradiation, nuclear beta-catenin is found in the vegetal pole of the embryo. Here we show that overexpression of beta-catenin in animal cap explants, in the absence of mesoderm induction, is sufficient to activate the expression of genes with dorsalizing activity such as siamois (sia) and nodal-related 3 (nr3) but not goosecoid (gsc). In embryos ventralized by UV-treatment, the expression of the dorsal-specific genes sia, nr3 and gsc is induced at the vegetal pole after the Mid-Blastula-Transition (MBT). While nr3 and sia expression continues in these embryos until gastrula stages, gsc transcription cannot be maintained. We propose that the spatial separation of the expression domains of genes ...
To program pluripotent cells into blood, a knowledge of the locations of precursors during their journey through the embryo and the signals they experience would be informative. The anterior (a) and posterior (p) ventral blood islands (VBIs) in Xenopus are derived from opposite sides of the pregastrula embryo. The aVBI goes through a hemangioblast state, characterized by coexpression of blood and endothelial genes at neurula stages, whereas the pVBI expresses these genes in a nonoverlapping fashion several hours later, after commitment to either a blood or an endothelial fate. We describe a novel role for fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in controlling the timing of Scl, Lmo2, and Runx1 expression in the 2 VBI compartments. Blocking FGF signaling during gastrulation expands expression at neurula stages into posterior regions. We show, by lineage labeling, explant analysis, and targeted blocking of FGF signaling, that this is due to the pVBI prematurely expressing these genes with the timing of the aVBI.
Figure 3. Clk2 promotes neural induction and suppresses epidermis differentiation via inhibition of BMP signal. (a) Clk2 induced neural tissues in X. laevis ectodermal explants. clk2‐GR and clk2 SYA‐GR mRNAs (500 pg, 1,000 pg and 1,500 pg) were injected into the animal hemisphere of 4‐cell stage embryos. At the blastula stage, embryos were transferred to a medium containing DEX and the ectodermal explants were isolated. At the neurula stage, the explants were subjected to an RT‐PCR analysis to examine the expression of marker genes. Expression of early neural markers (sip1, sox2 and sox3), an anterior neural marker (otx2) and a posterior neural marker (hoxb9) was upregulated by Clk2 overexpression, whereas the differentiated neural marker (ncam) was only slightly increased. The expression of epidermal keratin was reduced in the presence of Clk2. Embryo and −RT indicate whole embryos examined in the presence or absence of reverse transcriptase, respectively. histone h4 was used as ...
In Drosophila embryos, the dorsal gene, a member of the rel family of transcription factors, is a maternal gene required for dorsal/ventral axis specification and mesoderm and neural migration and differentiation. In this report, the presence and distribution of Xrel-1 protein, a Xenopus homologue o …
This study analyzes the expression and the function of Xenopus msx-1 (Xmsx-1) in embryos, in relation to the ventralizing activity of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4). Expression of Xmsx-1 was increased in UV-treated ventralized embryos and decreased in LiCl-treated dorsalized embryos at the neurula stage (stage 14). Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis showed that Xmsx-1 is expressed in marginal zone and animal pole areas, laterally and ventrally, but not dorsally, at mid-gastrula (stage 11) and late-gastrula (stage 13) stages. Injection of BMP-4 RNA, but not activin RNA, induced Xmsx-1 expression in the dorsal marginal zone at the early gastrula stage (stage 10+), and introduction of a dominant negative form of BMP-4 receptor RNA suppressed Xmsx-1 expression in animal cap and ventral marginal zone explants at stage 14. Thus, Xmsx-1 is a target gene specifically regulated by BMP-4 signaling. Embryos injected with Xmsx-1 RNA in dorsal blastomeres at the 4-cell stage exhibited a ...
A Xenopus laevis homeobox gene, Xhox3, has been isolated using the homeobox of the Drosophila pair-rule gene even skipped as a hybridization probe. Xhox3 is first transcribed at the midblastula transition; RNA levels peak at the early neurula stage and decrease thereafter. During the early period of Xhox3 expression, the gastrula and neurula stages, transcripts are found in a graded fashion along the anteroposterior (A-P) axis in the mesoderm and are most concentrated at the posterior pole. In the late period of expression, the tailbud and tadpole stage, transcripts are concentrated at the two ends of the embryo: in the anterior nervous system and posterior tail bud. Analysis of Xhox3 expression in experimentally perturbed embryos shows that different A-P fates in the mesoderm are correlated with different levels of Xhox3 expression. Based on these results and those with other frog homeobox genes, we propose a role for homeobox genes in the patterning of the A-P embryonic axis.. ...
Free Online Library: Twin Xenopus laevis embryos appearing from flattened eggs.(Report) by Japan Academy Proceedings Series B: Physical and Biological Sciences; Agricultural industry Engineering and manufacturing Biological sciences Common plantanna Genetic aspects Research Embryonic development Analysis Gene expression
The common laboratory frog Xenopus laevis has puzzled researchers because it has twice the normal number of genes. A newly published genome sequence shows why: between 15 and 20 million years ago, two different species interbred and produced a hybrid, which then mated with its parent species to eventually form a new organism with a doubled genome. The frog has since adapted to the excess by losing or disabling many of these genes.
To gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the formation of maternally stored mRNPs during Xenopus laevis development, we searched for soluble cytoplasmic proteins of the oocyte that are able to selectively bind mRNAs, using as substrate radiolabeled mRNA. In vitro mRNP assembly in solution was followed by UV-cross-linking and RNase digestion, resulting in covalent tagging of polypeptides by nucleotide transfer. Five polypeptides of approximately 54, 56 60, 70, and 100 kD (p54, p56, p60, p70, and p100) have been found to selectively bind mRNA and assemble into mRNPs. These polypeptides, which correspond to previously described native mRNP components, occur in three different particle classes of approximately 4.5S, approximately 6S, and approximately 15S, as also determined by their reactions with antibodies against p54 and p56. Whereas the approximately 4.5S class contains p42, p60, and p70, probably each in the form of individual molecules or small complexes, the approximately 6S particles ...
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Transcriptional regulation of tissue separation during gastrulation of Xenopus laevis [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by Isabelle Köster : Transcriptional regulation of tissue separation during gastrulation of Xenopus laevis Dissertation submitted to the Combined Faculties of the Natural Sciences and for Mathematics of the Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg, Germany for the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences presented by Dipl.-Biol. Isabelle Köster Dissertation submitted to the Combined Faculties of the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spatially and temporally regulated α6 integrin cleavage during Xenopus laevis development. AU - Demetriou, Manolis C.. AU - Stylianou, Panayiota. AU - Andreou, Maria. AU - Yiannikouri, Olga. AU - Tsaprailis, George. AU - Cress, Anne E. AU - Skourides, Paris. PY - 2008/2/15. Y1 - 2008/2/15. N2 - The α6 integrin is essential for early nervous system development in Xenopus laevis. We have previously reported a uPA cleaved form of integrin α6 (α6p), in invasive human prostate cancer tissue, whose presence correlates with increased migration and invasive capacity. We now report that α6 is cleaved during the normal development of Xenopus in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. In addition, unlike normal mammalian tissues, which lack α6p, the major form of the α6 integrin present in adult Xenopus is α6p. The protease responsible for the cleavage in mammals, uPA, is not involved in the cleavage of Xenopus α6. Finally, overexpression of a mammalian α6 mutant which ...
Author: Schmidt, A. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2005-02-15; Keywords: cell cycle; anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome; Xenopus; polo-like kinase; cytostatic factor; mitotic exit; Title: Xenopus polo-like kinase Plx1 regulates XErp1, a novel inhibitor of APC/C activity
The caudal-related (Cdx) homeodomain transcription factors have a conserved role in the development of posterior structures in both vertebrates and invertebrates. A particularly interesting finding is that Cdx proteins have an important function in the regulation of expression from a subset of Hox genes. In this study, we report the cloning of cDNAs from the Cdx genes of the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis. Xenopus tropicalis is a diploid species, related to the commonly used laboratory animal Xenopus laevis, and has attracted attention recently as a potential genetic model for animal development. The Xenopus tropicalis cDNAs, Xtcad1, Xtcad2, and Xtcad3, show between 88 and 94% sequence identity with their Xenopus laevis orthologues. This finding corresponds to between 90 and 95% identity at the level of derived amino acid sequence. We also present a detailed description of Xtcad1, Xtcad2, and Xtcad3 expression during normal development. In common with the Cdx genes of other vertebrates, the ...
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) mediate many cell-to-cell signaling events during early development. Nou-darake (ndk), a gene encoding an FGF receptor (FGFR)-like molecule, was found to be highly and specifically expressed in the head region of the planarian Dugesia japonica, and its functional analyses provided strong molecular evidence for the existence of a brain-inducing circuit based on the FGF signaling pathway. To analyze the role of ndk during vertebrate development, we isolated the Xenopus ortholog of ndk, the vertebrate FGFR-like 1 gene (XFGFRL1). Expression of XFGFRL1/Xndk was first detected in the anterior region at the late gastrula stage and dramatically increased at the early neurula stage in an overall anterior mesendodermal region, including the prechordal plate, paraxial mesoderm, anterior endoderm, and archenteron roof. This anterior expression pattern resembles that of ndk in planarians, suggesting that the expression of FGFRL1/ndk is conserved in evolution between these two
In our laboratory, we use Xenopus laevis, commonly known as the African clawed frog (learn more on wikipedia). Xenopus laevis is a great model system for dissecting the molecular pathways in DNA replication and the maintenance of genomic stability. Cell-free extracts made from Xenopus eggs contain all the proteins necessary to undergo 12 rounds of cell-cycle regulated, semi-conservative DNA replication in the absence of transcription. Events in these extracts are highly synchronous, allowing the analysis of short-lived intermediates and the dissection of signal transduction cascades. Particularly, the function of essential proteins can be addressed by immunodepletion or neutralization of these proteins, coupled to rescue with recombinant proteins. Xenopus cell-free extracts are generated by centrifuging unfertilized Xenopus eggs and isolating the cytoplasmic layer. Female Xenopus can be induced to lay an abundance of eggs after hormone injection. In fact, Xenopus laevis were used as a pregnancy ...
The frog genus Xenopus is widely used as a model system for studying developmental biology and fundamental cell biological processes. The advantages that Xenopus offer as an experimental system include (1) the availability of large abundant eggs that are easily manipulated, (2) ready accessibility to any developmental stage, and (3) conservation of cellular pathways between Xenopus and mammals. Over the past 50 years, pioneering studies on Xenopus have been crucial towards our understanding of nuclear reprogramming, embryonic patterning, membrane channels and receptors, and the cell cycle.. Despite its popularity for biomedical research, genomic resources for Xenopus have been lagging behind other model organisms. A major reason for this is that early developmental and molecular studies have relied on a particular species known as Xenopus laevis, which is pseudotetraploid as a result of genome duplication around 30 million years ago. The presence of four copies of every gene complicates genetic ...
Rödder, D., Ihlow, F., Courant, J., Secondi, J., Herrel, A., Rebelo, R., Measey, G. J., et al. (2017): Global realized niche divergence in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. - Ecology and Evolution 2017: 1-15; DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3010
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MASTL (microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase-like), more commonly known as Greatwall (GWL), has been proposed as a novel cancer therapy target. GWL plays a crucial role in mitotic progression, via its known substrates ENSA/ARPP19, which when phosphorylated inactivate PP2A/B55 phosphatase. When over-expressed in breast cancer, GWL induces oncogenic properties such as transformation and invasiveness. Conversely, down-regulation of GWL selectively sensitises tumour cells to chemotherapy. Here we describe the rst structure of the GWL minimal kinase domain and development of a small-molecule inhibitor GKI-1 (Greatwall Kinase Inhibitor-1). In vitro, GKI-1 inhibits full-length human GWL, and shows cellular e cacy. Treatment of HeLa cells with GKI-1 reduces ENSA/ARPP19 phosphorylation levels, such that they are comparable to those obtained by siRNA depletion of GWL; resulting in a decrease in mitotic events, mitotic arrest/cell death and cytokinesis failure. Furthermore, GKI-1 will be a useful ...
Delineation of apical and basolateral membrane domains is a critical step in the epithelialization of the outer layer of cells in the embryo. We have examined the initiation of polarized membrane traffic in Xenopus and show that membrane traffic is not polarized in oocytes but polarized membrane domains appear at first cleavage. The following proteins encoded by injected RNA transcripts were used as markers to monitor membrane traffic: (a) VSV G, a transmembrane glycoprotein preferentially inserted into the basolateral surface of polarized epithelial cells; (b) GThy-1, a fusion protein of VSV G and Thy-1 that is localized to the apical domains of polarized epithelial cells; and (c) prolactin, a peptide hormone that is not polarly secreted. In immature oocytes, there is no polarity in the expression of VSV G or GThy-1, as shown by the constitutive expression of both proteins at the surface in the animal and vegetal hemispheres. At meiotic maturation, membrane traffic to the surface is blocked; ...
Domain architectures containing both Cysteine-rich domain and PH domain-like in Xenopus tropicalis 76_4.2. Links to architectures containing these domain pairs in other groups of genomes are provided. Domain pairs which are not adjacent can be added/removed.
In zebrafish embryos, factors involved in both axis induction and primordial germ cell (PGC) development are localized to the vegetal pole of the egg. However, upon egg activation axis induction factors experience an asymmetric off-center shift whereas PGC factors undergo symmetric animally-directed movement. We examined the spatial relationship between the proposed dorsal genes wnt8a and grip2a and the PGC factor dazl at the vegetal cortex. We find that RNAs for these genes localize to different cortical depths, with the RNA for the PGC factor dazl at a deeper cortical level than those for axis-inducing factors. In addition, and in contrast to the role of microtubules in the long-range transport of dorsal determinants, we find that germ line determinant transport depends on the actin cytoskeleton. Our results support a model in which vegetal cortex differential RNA transport behavior is facilitated by RNA localization along cortical depth and differential coupling to cortical transport ...
Domain architectures containing the following SCOP superfamilies 49313,49313,_gap_,49899,57196,57196,57196,_gap_ in Xenopus tropicalis 76_4.2. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of 49313,49313,_gap_,49899,57196,57196,57196,_gap_.
GenEZ™ ORF cDNA clones makes it easy to order customized expression-ready ORF clones from the worlds largest commercial ORF clone database. You can Browse ORF cDNA clones by species Xenopus tropicalis, page 196
GenEZ™ ORF cDNA clones makes it easy to order customized expression-ready ORF clones from the worlds largest commercial ORF clone database. You can Browse ORF cDNA clones by species Xenopus tropicalis, page 1
Xenopus laloo protein: involved in induction of mesoderm by fibroblast growth factor; isolated from Xenopus laevis; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AF081803
Embryonic Stage **[[Stage 1]] **Cleavage ***[[Stage 2]] ***[[Stage 3]] ***[[Stage 4]] ***[[Stage 5]] ***[[Stage 6]] **Blastula ***[[Stage 7]] ***[[Stage 8]] ***[[Stage 9]] **Gastrula ***[[Stage 10]] ***[[Stage 11]] ***[[Stage 12]] **Neurula ***[[Stage 13]] ***[[Stage 14]] ***[[Stage 15]] ***[[Stage 16]] ***[[Stage 17]] ***[[Stage 18]] ***[[Stage 19]] ***[[Stage 20]] ***[[Stage 21]] **Tailbud ***Early tailbud ****[[Stage 22]] ****[[Stage 23]] ****[[Stage 24]] ****[[Stage 25]] ****[[Stage 26]] ****[[Stage 27]] ****[[Stage 28]] ***Late tailbud ****[[Stage 29/30,Stage 29 and 30]] ****[[Stage 31]] ****[[Stage 32]] ****[[Stage 33/34,Stage 33 and 34]] ****[[Stage 35/36,Stage 35 and 36]] ****[[Stage 37/38,Stage 37 and 38]] ****[[Stage 39]] ****[[Stage 40]] ****[[Stage 41]] ****[[Stage 42]] ****[[Stage 43]] ****[[Stage 44]] **Tadpole ***Premetamorphosis ****[[Stage 45]] ****[[Stage 46]] ****[[Stage 47]] ****[[Stage 48]] ****[[Stage 49]] ****[[Stage 50]] Digitized images and developmental data from ...
A novel role of TCF family in body axis formation. Revolutionary high impact discoveries are described, elucidating the missing link in the Wnt pathway and protein-TCF combinations with dual functions. By studying the primary axis formation of Xenopus laevis, it was firstly shown that, in combination with beta-catenin, TCF acts as a potent activator of proto-oncogenes. Secondly, it was discovered that in combination with the Groucho family of proteins, TCF acts as suppressor of oncogene transcription. Stronlgy suggesting that TCF controls oncogene transcription in a dual fashion. These discoveries contributed to the origination of a major area of cancer research and opened multiple angles for cancer therapy development ...
Xenbase would like to thank Mustafa Khokha for making his data for these charts available to us. ,br/>,br/>Original reference:,br/> Khokha, M. K., Chung, C., Bustamante, E. L., Gaw, L. W., Trott, K. A., Yeh, J., Lim, N., Lin, J. C., Taverner, N., Amaya, E., Papalopulu, N., Smith, J. C., Zorn, A. M., Harland, R. M. and Grammer, T. C. (2002), Techniques and probes for the study of Xenopus tropicalis development. Developmental Dynamics, 225: 499-510. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.10184 [] ===Xenopus tropicalis=== {, border=1 class=tableizer-table class=tableizer-firstrow ! ! colspan=3 align=center , 16°C ! colspan=3 align=center , 18°C ! colspan=3 align=center , 22°C ! colspan=3 align=center , 25°C ! colspan=3 align=center , 28°C ! colspan=3 align=center , 30°C ,- , ,b>NF Stage,/b> , ,b>Average,/b> , ,b>Minimum,/b> , ,b>Maximum,/b> , ,b>Average,/b> , ,b>Minimum,/b> , ,b>Maximum,/b> , ,b>Average,/b> , ,b>Minimum,/b> , ...
Induces expression of a number of neural crest marker genes as part of a heterodimer with isoform b of pbx1, to specify neural crest cell fate. Binds to a highly conserved region in the promoter of the neural crest marker gene zic3.
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Xenopus Blimp1 protein: controls anterior endomesodermal cell fate in Spemanns organizer in Xenopus; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AF182280
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) are members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of signaling molecules known to be involved in embryonic patterning and morphogenesis. The Hh proteins undergo an autocatalytic cleavage to yield an N- terminal and a C-terminal peptide, with the signaling capacities confined to the N peptide. Drosophila Hh-N has been shown to act via both short- and long-range signaling. In vertebrates, however, attempts to directly demonstrate Shh (SHH) or Ihh (IHH) proteins at a distance from producing cells have been largely unsuccessful. Furthermore, the fact that the Hh N peptides occur in a cholesterol-modified, membrane-tethered form is not easily reconciled with long-range signaling. This study used optimized immunohistochemistry combined with tissue separation and biochemical analyses in vivo and in vitro to determine the range of action of SHH and IHH in the mouse embryo. In all embryonic structures studied, we detect signaling peptides in producing cells, but we ...
Xkid es una cromoquinesina del sistema de Xenopus, necesaria para el alineamiento de los cromosomas en la placa metafásica y para la transición entre la meiosis I y meiosis II en los oócitos. El objectivo de este trabajo era estudiar la regulación de Xkid por fosforilación en los oócitos y en el extracto de huevos de Xenopus. Para poder cumplirlo se estableció un método para la expresión de proteínas añadiendo al extracto de huevos ARN mensajeros sintetizados in vitro. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que Xkid es eficientemente fosforilada en el sitio cdk1 durante la meiosis y la mitosis. Aunque la forma de Xkid fosforilada se localiza eficientemente a nivel de los cromosomas mitóticos, esta fosforilación no parece tener ningún papel regulador sobre esta localización. En cambio, parece interferir con la localización de Xkid sobre los microtúbulos mitóticos. El efecto dominante negativo de la forma de Xkid que mimetiza la fosforilación durante la formación del huso mitótico, ...
Fujifilms 3D mammography creates 3D images by using two high resolution images taken from different angles. One of these images is a conventional 2D image. The images are presented on a special viewer. 3D images enable the internal anatomical breast structures to be identified more clearly than in a 2D image due to tissue separation and microcalcifications stratification. With this system, it is expected that image interpretation is as quick or even quicker than 2D mammography and false positives are reduced.. ...
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Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for gi|139635|sp|P19009| from Xenopus laevis . Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Recombinant Prkr Interacting Protein 1 (IL11 Inducible) (PRKRIP1) Protein (His tag). Species: Xenopus laevis. Source: Yeast. Order product ABIN1674163.
हम इन विट्रो में स्व-निरंतर mitotic दोलनों की पीढ़ी के लिए एक विधि वर्तमान में Xenopus laevis के अंडे के अर्क...
The first 12 cell divisions of Xenopus laevis embryos do not require gene transcription. This means that the regulation of gene expression during this period is controlled at post transcriptional levels and makes Xenopus early development a potentially interesting biological system with which to study the mechanisms involved. We describe here the stability characteristics of several maternal Xenopus mRNAs which are deadenylated soon after fertilisation (J. Paris and M. Philippe, Dev. Biol., in press). We show that these mRNAs were only degraded in the embryo after the midblastula transition (MBT), when gene transcription was initiated. The kinetics with which the deadenylated maternal mRNAs decreased in the post-MBT embryos showed sequence specificity. The degradation of these mRNAs after the MBT was inhibited by cycloheximide but was not affected by dactinomycin. Therefore, the destabilization of these mRNAs does not appear to be initiated by new embryonic gene transcripts. Sequence comparisons ...
The African clawed frogs Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis are prominent animal model organisms. Xenopus research contributes to the understanding of genetic, developmental and molecular mechanisms underlying human disease. The Xenopus Anatomy Ontology (XAO) reflects the anatomy and embryological development of Xenopus. The XAO provides consistent terminology that can be applied to anatomical feature descriptions along with a set of relationships that indicate how each anatomical entity is related to others in the embryo, tadpole, or adult frog. The XAO is integral to the functionality of Xenbase ( ), the Xenopus model organism database. We significantly expanded the XAO in the last five years by adding 612 anatomical terms, 2934 relationships between them, 640 synonyms, and 547 ontology cross-references. Each term now has a definition, so database users and curators can be certain they are selecting the correct term
The vertebrate Otx gene family is related to otd, a gene contributing to head development in Drosophila. We previously reported on the expression of Xotx2 gene, homologous to the murine Otx2 gene, during early Xenopus development. In the present paper we report an extensive analysis of the expression pattern of Xotx2 during later stages of development and also the cloning and developmental expression of two additional Otx Xenopus genes, Xotx1 and Xotx4. These latter two genes bear a good degree of homology to murine Otx1, higher for Xotx1 than for Xorx4. Both these genes are expressed in the forebrain and midbrain regions and their developmental patterns of expression are very similar, although not perfectly superimposable. Spatial and temporal expression patterns of the three Xotx genes suggest that they may be involved in the early subdivision of the rostral brain, providing antero-posterior positional information within the most anterior districts of the neuraxis. The three Xotx genes are ...
We have examined the timing of specification of the pronephric tubules and duct in Xenopus laevis by explanting the presumptive pronephric rudiments into blastula ectodermal wraps. We have established I-he time point of specification using the monoclonal antibody markers 3G8 and 4A6 which recognize antigens in pronephric tubule and duct, respectively. We show that, by experimental analysis in explants, kidney tubules are specified by stage 12.5 in the pronephric anlagen whereas pronephric duct is specified later between stages 13 and 14. Furthermore we show that signals involved in tubulogenesis of the pronephric tubules are normally received between stage 12.5 and 13. These experiments unambiguously pinpoint the timing of pronephros specification analyzed by explant experimentation to a developmental stage prior to that demonstrated for urodele amphibia, and provide an essential biological backdrop to a search for the molecular nature of pronephric inducers. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ireland ...
The goal of this laboratory course is to introduce vertebrate developmental biology to undergraduate students, emphasizing both classical and contemporary aspects of this field. During the course, the students combine the use of living Xenopus laevis material with active tutorial participation, with the aim of illustrating how the fertilized egg can generate the diversity of cell types and complexity of pattern seen only a few days later in the embryo. Special emphasis is given to the observation and manipulation of living material. The laboratory course includes a comprehensive analysis of both oogenesis and early development and is divided into two overlapping parts that combine tutorial and practical approaches. The first part is devoted to oogenesis; oocytes are sorted out, allowed to mature in vitro and observed in histological section. In the second part, students perform an in vitro fertilization of Xenopus eggs and a mesoderm and neural induction assay of animal cap explants. Successful
In vertebrate species, induction of the embryonic axis is initiated by the transport of maternally supplied determinants, initially localized to the vegetal pole of the egg, toward the prospective organizer in the animal region. This transport process remains incompletely understood. Here, we review studies involving embryonic manipulations, visualization, and functional analysis of the cytoskeleton and loss- and gain-of-function conditions, which provide insights in this process. Transport of dorsal determinants requires cytoskeletal reorganization of a vegetal array of microtubules, microtubule motors, and an off-center movement of the vegetal cortex with respect to the inner egg core, a so-called cortical rotation. Additional mechanisms may be used in specific systems, such as a more general animally directed movement found in the teleost embryo. Initial polarity of the microtubule movement depends on early asymmetries, which are amplified by the movement of the outermost cortex. An interplay between
Part I of the dissertation focused on (1) the identification of maternal dorsalizing RNAs that are localized within the animal hemisphere along the dorsal-ventral axis at the 16-cell stage and (2) the determination of their post-transcriptional activation mechanism. An RT-PCR screen to investigate the differential expression of known maternal dorsalizing factors revealed the localized accumulation of XWnt8b transcripts in ventral animal midline blastomeres. This finding is interesting since XWnts have been shown to induce secondary axis formation when ectopically expressed on the ventral side before the onset of zygotic transcription (MBT). Overexpression of XWnt8b in dorsal animal midline blastomeres inhibited their ability to autonomously elongate, implicating that XWnt8b counteracts an intrinsic dorsal program of these blastomeres. However, the mere localization of XWnt8b transcripts does not predict protein distribution and therefore, the time point at which these transcripts are in the ...
Zebrafish paraxial protocadherin (papc) encodes a transmembrane cell adhesion molecule (PAPC) expressed in trunk mesoderm undergoing morphogenesis. Microinjection studies with a dominant-negative secreted construct suggest that papc is required for proper dorsal convergence movement s during gastrulation. Genetic studies show that papc is a close downstream target of spadetail, gene encoding a transcription factor required for mesodermal morphogenetic movements. Further, we show that the floating head homeobox gene is required in axial mesoderm to repress the expression of both spadetail and papc, promoting notochord and blocking differentiation of paraxial mesoderm. The PAPC structural cell-surface transcription factors and the actual cell biological behaviors that execute morphogenesis during gastrulation ...
In most organisms, control of the developmental program involves a regulated transition from maternally supplied mRNAs and proteins to newly synthesized zygotically encoded factors. This phenomena, known as the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT), is observed in a wide range of embryos in the animal and plant kingdoms; in chordates, the MZT typically occurs during midblastula stages, and therefore is often referred to as the midblastula transition (MBT). Early development of most organisms is exclusively maternally controlled, and the zygotic genome of the embryo remains transcriptionally silent until after the MBT, when the transition to zygotic control culminates. Recent work in a number of organisms has identified several genes that are activated prior to the MBT, but whether precocious expression of specific mRNAs is important for later development has not been examined in detail. In this work, I characterize the role of a maternal transcription factor in preMBT transcription, and identify a
Kolm, Peggy J.; Sive, Hazel L. (September 1995). "Efficient Hormone-Inducible Protein Function in Xenopus laevis". ... She used a simple anterior organ, the mucus-secreting cement gland of the frog Xenopus, to define the genetic network required ... In 1993, Sive founded the Cold Spring Harbor Course on Early Development of Xenopus and taught this together with colleagues ... Function of these genes, including otx2 and zic1 (opl), was studied using hormone-inducible fusion proteins, a technique first ...
The Kinesin-related protein XKCM1 stimulates catastrophes in Xenopus microtubules. The Kinesin-Related Protein 13 MCAK ... Catastrophin (Catastrophe-related protein) is a term use to describe proteins that are associated with the disassembly of ... shows an ability to inhibit catastrophe without affecting the microtubule growth rate Xenopus Microtubule Protein 215 (XMAP215 ... Microtubule-associated protein Kinesin Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walter ...
"Anterior gradient 2 homolog (Xenopus laevis)". Gene/Protein. The Human Protein Atlas. Retrieved 28 February 2014. Thompson DA, ... Anterior gradient protein 2 homolog (AGR-2), also known as secreted cement gland protein XAG-2 homolog, is a protein that in ... Many other homologous proteins have been discovered afterwards in Xenopus. AGR2 is the human homolog of XAG-2. It is expressed ... Its protein expression has been shown to be regulated by both androgens and estrogens. AGR2 is a protein disulfide isomerase, ...
Losada A, Hirano M, Hirano T (1998). "Identification of Xenopus SMC protein complexes required for sister chromatid cohesion". ... SMC1β, REC8 and STAG3 proteins are meiosis specific cohesins. The STAG3 protein appears to be essential for female meiosis. A ... Several proteins aid in the loading process. For example, Scc2 and Scc4 are both required for cohesin to load in budding yeast ... The SMC proteins are found in prokaryotes and have been conserved through evolution. The coils of SMC1 and SMC3 are conserved ...
A similar protein in Xenopus is involved in embryonic pattern formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript ... This gene encodes a ubiquitin ligase that is specific for receptor-regulated SMAD proteins in the bone morphogenetic protein ( ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SMURF1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SMURF1 gene. ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (4): 273-81. doi: ...
"Drosophila Shaking-B protein forms gap junctions in paired Xenopus oocytes". Nature. 391 (6663): 181-4. Bibcode:1998Natur.391.. ... Innexins or related proteins are widespread among Eumetazoa, with the exception of echinoderms. Gap junction proteins with no ... Innexins are transmembrane proteins that form gap junctions in invertebrates. Gap junctions are composed of membrane proteins ... "Drosophila Shaking-B protein forms gap junctions in paired Xenopus oocytes". Nature. 391 (6663): 181-4. Bibcode:1998Natur.391.. ...
Erikson, Eleanor; Maller, James L. (1985). "A Protein Kinase from Xenopus Eggs Specific for Ribosomal Protein S6". PNAS. 82 (3 ... Ribosomal+Protein+S6+Kinases,+90-kDa at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Ribosomal+Protein+ ... including other ribosomal proteins. Cytosolic substrates of p90rsk include protein phosphatase 1; glycogen synthase kinase 3 ( ... There are two subfamilies of rsk, p90rsk, also known as MAPK-activated protein kinase-1 (MAPKAP-K1), and p70rsk, also known as ...
Xenopus laevis stomach proteins xP1 and xP4; xenopus integumentary mucins A.1 (preprospasmolysin) and C.1, proteins which may ... xenopus skin protein xp2 (or APEG); Zona pellucida sperm-binding protein B (ZP-B); intestinal sucrase-isomaltase (EC ... including protein pS2 (TFF1) a protein secreted by the stomach mucosa; spasmolytic polypeptide (SP) (TFF2), a protein of about ... The trefoil knot fold is a protein fold in which the protein backbone is twisted into a trefoil knot shape. "Shallow" knots in ...
Appearance of water channels in Xenopus oocytes expressing red cell CHIP28 protein. Science 256(5055): 385-387 Barrett-Jolley, ... It is analogous to the genome, the metabolome (describing metabolites), the proteome (describing general protein expression), ...
"Genome-Wide Identification and Expression of Xenopus F-Box Family of Proteins". PLOS ONE. 10 (9): e0136929. doi:10.1371/journal ... and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this ... The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), ... Ge R, Wang Z, Zeng Q, Xu X, Olumi AF (July 2011). "F-box protein 10, an NF-κB-dependent anti-apoptotic protein, regulates TRAIL ...
Arthur PK, Claussen M, Koch S, Tarbashevich K, Jahn O, Pieler T (July 2009). "Participation of Xenopus Elr-type proteins in ... In the case of protein-coding genes, this usually leads to a reduction in the quantity of the corresponding protein in the cell ... Some Morpholinos knock down expression so effectively that, after degradation of preexisting proteins, the targeted proteins ... a protein can help to determine the function of the protein moiety encoded by that exon or can sometimes knock down the protein ...
"Appearance of water channels in Xenopus oocytes expressing red cell CHIP28 protein". Science. 256 (5055): 385-7. Bibcode: ... Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major intrinsic protein (MIP or AQP0). This gene ... The protein physically resembles channel proteins and is abundant in erythrocytes and renal tubes. The gene encoding this ... "Erythrocyte Mr 28,000 transmembrane protein exists as a multisubunit oligomer similar to channel proteins". The Journal of ...
This domain was first identified as a zinc finger at the C terminus of AN1 SWISSPROT, a ubiquitin-like protein in Xenopus ... Proteins containing an AN1-type zinc finger include: Ascidian posterior end mark 6 (pem-6) protein . Human AWP1 protein ( ... "Two related localized mRNAs from Xenopus laevis encode ubiquitin-like fusion proteins". Gene. 128 (2): 181-8. doi:10.1016/0378- ... Certain stress-associated proteins (SAP) contain AN1 domain, often in combination with A20 zinc finger domains (SAP8) or C2H2 ...
Vale, Ronald D. (22 February 1991). "Severing of stable microtubules by a mitotically activated protein in Xenopus egg extracts ... In 1991, he discovered the first protein that severed microtubules and later purified and named it katanin. In 1996, Vale and ... Since 2003, Vale has focused on dynein, a motor protein discovered by Ian R. Gibbons in 1965. Although its discovery occurred ... In 1985, Vale, Sheetz and Reese isolated the dominant motor protein in the cytosol, naming it "kinesin." They showed that ...
However, it has been found to encompass a wide variety of differing protein structures in eukaryotic cells. Xenopus laevis ... It often appears as a metal-binding domain in multi-domain proteins. Proteins that contain zinc fingers (zinc finger proteins) ... The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) binds to the CpG site. It is used in mammals for antiviral defense. Various protein ... This method classifies zinc finger proteins into "fold groups" based on the overall shape of the protein backbone in the folded ...
"Differential antero-posterior expression of two proteins encoded by a homeobox gene in Xenopus and mouse embryos". The EMBO ... "A gradient of homeodomain protein in developing forelimbs of Xenopus and mouse embryos". Cell. 55 (6): 1017-1024. doi:10.1016/ ... Most homeodomain-containing proteins function as transcription factors and fundamentally bind and regulate the activity of ... The homeodomain is the segment of the protein that binds to precise regulatory regions of the target genes. Genes within the ...
"Global absolute quantification reveals tight regulation of protein expression in single Xenopus eggs". Nucleic Acids Research. ... The conversion to DNA makes it possible to amplify protein levels and use NGS to quantify proteins. In one such approach, two ... to map variable protein expression in tissues and/or tumors, and to measure changes in protein expression and cell signaling in ... or dimethyl labels which are used to identify which cell a certain protein came from (proteins coming from each cell have a ...
I. Complete sequence and homology with the Xenopus protein, N1/N2". Biol. Reprod. 43 (4): 559-68. doi:10.1095/biolreprod43.4. ... Nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NASP gene. Multiple isoforms are encoded by ... 2000). "Characterization of the histone H1-binding protein, NASP, as a cell cycle-regulated somatic protein". J. Biol. Chem. ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ...
A gradient of homeodomain protein in developing forelimbs of Xenopus and mouse embryos. Cell 55, 1017-1024 Oliver, G., Sosa- ... In 2020, he published his research on the role of the Reelin protein promotes cardiac regeneration and repair by reducing cell ...
Wright, C. V., Schnegelsberg, P., & De Robertis, E. M. (1989). XlHbox 8: a novel Xenopus homeo protein restricted to a narrow ... In humans this protein is encoded by the PDX1 gene, which was formerly known as IPF1. The gene was originally identified in the ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus PDX1+protein,+human at the US National Library of ... 1997). "The p38/reactivating kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade mediates the activation of the transcription ...
Chartrain I, Couturier A, Tassan JP (2006). "Cell-cycle-dependent cortical localization of pEg3 protein kinase in Xenopus and ... Paternally-expressed gene 3 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PEG3 gene. PEG3 is an imprinted gene ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... Yarden RI, Brody LC (2002). "Identification of proteins that interact with BRCA1 by Far-Western library screening". J. Cell. ...
... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... similarity to Xenopus importin, yeast SRP1, and human RCH1 (KPNA2), respectively. The similarities among these proteins ... 1994). "The Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 influences nuclear localization of viral nucleic acids in ... Importin subunit alpha-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KPNA3 gene. The transport of molecules between the ...
In amphibians (Xenopus) a similar mass protein is contained in the utricle along with calcite. The saccule contains aragonite ... In mice the protein contains 469 amino acids, and is coded by 1906 base-pair DNA. In mice the protein is first formed at day ... It is the major protein component of the otoconia (ear dust). In mice the protein is called otoconin-90, and is coded by the ... By ten days after birth the protein is not found in any cells, but only in the acellular membranes. The otoconin-90 contains ...
"Coexpression of Drosophila TRP and TRP-like proteins in Xenopus oocytes reconstitutes capacitative Ca2+ entry". Proceedings of ... Following his independent cloning of TRP in the 1980s, Pollock has re-focused his research on TRP related proteins that are ... Co-expression of Drosophila TRP and TRPL in Xenopus oocytes reconstitutes a capacitative Ca2+ entry similar to the light- ... while Lozenge proteins contribute to how a cell chooses a specific fate. ...
It is the homolog of the Xenopus protein XMAP215 and is also known as ch-Tog. It has at least two distinct roles in spindle ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2002). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ... Cytoskeleton-associated protein 5 is a microtubule-associated protein that in humans is encoded by the CKAP5 gene. ... protein with ch-TOG and GAS41/NuBI1 suggests multiple TACC1-containing protein complexes in human cells". Biochem. J. 363 (Pt 1 ...
"Identification of the yeast MCM3-related protein as a component of Xenopus DNA replication licensing factor". Cell. 81 (4): 601 ... This protein is a subunit of the protein complex that consists of MCM2-7. It has been shown to interact directly with MCM5/ ... The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and may be ... The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in ...
Speedy homolog E1 (Xenopus laevis) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPDYE1 gene. This gene is located at ... "Entrez Gene: Speedy homolog E1 (Xenopus laevis)". Dinarina A, Perez LH, Davila A, Schwab M, Hunt T, Nebreda AR (March 2005). " ...
DiNitto, JP; Huber, PW (Oct 23, 2001). "A role for aromatic amino acids in the binding of Xenopus ribosomal protein L5 to 5S ... Several important proteins which interact with 5S rRNA are listed below. Interaction of 5S rRNA with the La protein prevents ... Crystallographic studies indicate that 5S rRNA-binding proteins and other proteins of the central protuberance of the LSU plays ... along with numerous associated proteins. In eukaryotes, the LSU contains 5S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNAs and even more proteins. The ...
"Beta-amyloid peptide binding protein does not couple to G protein in a heterologous Xenopus expression system". J. Neurosci. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a beta-amyloid peptide-binding protein. It contains a structural module related to that of ... This protein may be a target of neurotoxic beta-amyloid peptide, and may mediate cellular vulnerability to beta-amyloid peptide ... Kirfel G, Borm B, Rigort A, Herzog V (2002). "The secretory beta-amyloid precursor protein is a motogen for human epidermal ...
The protein Ectodermin, firstly identified in Xenopus embryos, promotes ectodermal fate and suppresses the mesoderm formation ... Snir, M., Ofir, R., Elias, S., and Frank, D. (2006). Xenopus laevis POU91 protein, an Oct3/4 homologue, regulates competence ... In Xenopus laevis, the specification of the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm) occurs at the blastula stage. ... The p53 protein binds to the promoters of early mesodermal genes. p53 is maternally deposited transcript that forms a ...
"Xenbase Gene: Summary for pax8, species: Xenopus tropicalis". Xenbase. Retrieved 2009-07-17. A Xenopus laevis and ... The PAX genes give instructions for making proteins that attach themselves to certain areas of DNA.[6] This nuclear protein is ... These mutations can affect different functions of the protein including DNA biding, gene activation, protein stability, and ... Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX8 gene.[5] ...
... annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations. It is produced and ... Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis 1.249938611×10. ^. 9 Drosophila melanogaster 1.11996522×10. ^. 9 Pan troglodytes 1.008323292×10. ...
Required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin to prevent anemia Meat, seafood, nuts, beans, dark chocolate[23] ... and Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog).[39][48] In animals, supplemental boron has been shown to reduce calcium excretion and ...
Lissamphibia: llyffant Xenopus tropicalis;. *Pysgod teleost: Takifugu rubripes (fugu), Tetraodon nigroviridis (chwyddbysgodyn ... Opsiwn arall yw anodiad awtomatig - defnyddio pŵer cyfrifiadurol i gymharu dilyniannau protein a DNA. ...
The protein degradation processEdit. Ribbon diagram of ubiquitin, the highly conserved protein that serves as a molecular tag ... "Cyclin B dissociation from CDK1 precedes its degradation upon MPF inactivation in mitotic extracts of Xenopus laevis embryos". ... Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks ... Proteins are tagged for degradation with a small protein called ubiquitin. The tagging reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called ...
Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Ataliotis, P; Symes, K; Chou, MM; Ho, L; Mercola, M (September 1995). "PDGF signalling is required for gastrulation of Xenopus ... a b Proto-Oncogene+Proteins+c-sis at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Hannink M, Donoghue DJ (1989). "Structure and function of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and related proteins". Biochim ...
Yeast cells are normally protected by a thick cell wall which makes extraction of cellular proteins difficult. Enzymatic ... coli spheroplast can be used as an ion-channel expression system comparable to the Xenopus oocyte.[4][5][6][7] ...
"The human histamine H3 receptor couples to GIRK channels in Xenopus oocytes". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 567 (3): 206-10. PMID 17537431 ... receptor antagonist clobenpropit enhances GABA release to protect against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity through the cAMP/protein ...
October 2017). "Multiplexed quantification of proteins and transcripts in single cells". Nature Biotechnology. 35 (10): 936-939 ... and Xenopus laevis.[83] In each case multiple stages of the embryo were studied, allowing the entire process of development to ... In 2017, two approaches were introduced to simultaneously measure single-cell mRNA and protein expression through ...
2005). „Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. PMID ... 1999). „The Orc4p and Orc5p subunits of the Xenopus and human origin recognition complex are related to Orc1p and Cdc6p". J. ... 2004). „Self-assembling protein microarrays". Science. 305 (5680): 86-90. PMID 15232106. doi:10.1126/science.1097639.. ... Jiang W, McDonald D, Hope TJ, Hunter T (1999). „Mammalian Cdc7-Dbf4 protein kinase complex is essential for initiation of DNA ...
It contains no detergents but is created by whipping up proteins and lectins secreted by the female.[81][82] ... Barthalmus, G. T.; Zielinski W. J. (1988). "Xenopus skin mucus induces oral dyskinesias that promote escape from snakes". ... "Proteins of frog foam nests". School of Life Sciences, University of Glasgow. Retrieved August 24, 2012.. ... Xenopus laevis), which gives the frogs an opportunity to escape.[129][130] Caecilians have been little studied in this respect ...
Channels Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes by the Ca2+. Channel Antagonist Mibefradil (Ro 40-5967)". Molecular Pharmacology. 48 (3 ... Western blot and protein analysis were conducted to determine the relative amounts of VGCC subunit expression. α1C, α1D, and α2 ... "The involvement of actin, calcium channels and exocytosis proteins in somato-dendritic oxytocin and vasopressin release" ...
2004). „Self-assembling protein microarrays". Science. 305 (5680): 86-90. PMID 15232106. doi:10.1126/science.1097639.. ... The Orc4p and Orc5p subunits of the Xenopus and human origin recognition complex are related to Orc1p and Cdc6p". J Biol Chem. ... Jiang W, McDonald D, Hope TJ, Hunter T (1999). „Mammalian Cdc7-Dbf4 protein kinase complex is essential for initiation of DNA ... Kneissl M, Pütter V, Szalay AA, Grummt F (2003). „Interaction and assembly of murine pre-replicative complex proteins in yeast ...
Xenopus laevis)". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (10): 4612. Fowler, Sarah; Cavanagh, Rachel. "Sharks, ... some use natural antifreeze or antifreeze proteins to resist ice crystal formation in their tissues. Most sharks are "cold- ...
In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of ... Bogenhagen DF, Brown DD (1981). "Nucleotide sequences in Xenopus 5S DNA required for transcription termination". Cell. 24 (1): ... Genetic testing identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins.[6] Usually, testing is used to find changes that are ... In biological systems, nucleic acids contain information which is used by a living cell to construct specific proteins. The ...
DiNitto, JP; Huber, PW (Oct 23, 2001). "A role for aromatic amino acids in the binding of Xenopus ribosomal protein L5 to 5S ... La proteinEdit. Interaction of 5S rRNA with the La protein prevents the RNA from degradation by exonucleases in the cell.[17] ... Proteins are shown in blue, 23S rRNA in orange and 5S rRNA in yellow.[11] 5S rRNA together with the ribosomal proteins L5 and ... Other ribosomal proteinsEdit. In prokaryotes the 5S rRNA binds to the L5, L18 and L25 ribosomal proteins, whereas in eukaryotes ...
These regions mediate protein-protein interactions and help DVL channel signals into either the β-catenin or the β-catenin ... Xenopus (Xdsh), mice (Dvl1, -2, -3) and humans (DVL-1, -2, -3). Dsh relays complex Wnt signals in tissues and cells, in normal ... This region mediates many protein-protein interactions and regulates multiple biological processes.[3] ... This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
Xenopus tadpoles may be able to swim for minutes as long as they do not bump into anything.[4] The tadpole live from remaining ... "Octylphenol (OP) Alters the Expression of Members of the Amyloid Protein Family in the Hypothalamus of the Snapping Turtle, ... of a Xenopus hatchling's first day after hatching is spent hanging from a thread of mucus secreted from near its mouth will ...
miR-181 expression has a reverse correlation with Tcl1 protein expression. mir-181 a and b are over-expressed and act as bad ... Tang GQ, Maxwell ES (January 2008). "Xenopus microRNA genes are predominantly located within introns and are differentially ... It has been shown that miR-181 targets the homeobox protein Hox-A11 and participates in establishing muscle tissue ... They target and modulate protein expression by inhibiting translation and / or inducing degradation of target messenger RNAs. ...
Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.[104] Some ... Amphibian frog Xenopus laevis serves as an ideal model system for the study of the mechanisms of apoptosis. In fact, iodine and ... The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor-suppressing proteins.[83] These tumor-suppressing proteins regulate the ...
The linear plasmids which contain a protein that has been covalently attached to the 5' end of the DNA strands are known as ... Cohen, Sarit; Marcel Mechali (2002). "Formation of extrachromosomal circles from telomeric DNA in Xenopus laevis". EMBO Reports ... The size of an animal mtDNA plasmid is roughly 16.6 kb and although it contains genes for tRNA and mRNA synthesis, proteins ... Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically engineered to contain a gene which encodes for an antigen or a protein produced by a ...
If Xenopus neurons are grown in an environment with RNA synthesis or protein synthesis inhibitors that transition is prevented. ... Xenopus sodium and potassium currents increase drastically after a neuron goes through its final phase of mitosis. The sodium ... Miller C (1987). "How ion channel proteins work". In LK Kaczmarek; IB Levitan. Neuromodulation: The Biochemical Control of ... A cell membrane consists of a lipid bilayer of molecules in which larger protein molecules are embedded. The lipid bilayer is ...
... yielding different proteins from the same DNA sequence".[2][3][4][5][6][7] He has been selected to receive the 2015 Othmer Gold ... Miskevich F.; Doench J.G.; Townsend M.T.; Sharp P.A.; Constantine-Paton M. (15 April 2006). "RNA Interference of Xenopus NMDAR ...
When expressed, the myoD gene produces a protein referred to as MyoD (or MyoD1), which can bind certain DNA sequences, stop ... Turner, DL; Weintraub, H (1994). "Expression of achaete-scute homolog 3 in Xenopus embryos converts ectodermal cells to a ... Benezra, R; Davis, RL; Lockshon, D; Turner, DL; Weintraub, H (1990). "The protein Id: a negative regulator of helix-loop-helix ... Weisbrod, S; Weintraub, H (1979). "Isolation of a subclass of nuclear proteins responsible for conferring a DNAse I-sensitive ...
... protein = , water = , alcohol = , caffeine = , vitA_ug = , vitA_iu = , betacarotene_ug = , lutein_ug = , thiamin_mg = , ...
... , also known as metablastin and oncoprotein 18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STMN1 gene. Stathmin is a ... phylogenetic conservation and developmental regulation in Xenopus". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (22): 16420-9. ... Regulation of stathmin is cell cycle dependent and controlled by the cell's protein kinases in response to specific cell ... Jourdain L, Curmi P, Sobel A, Pantaloni D, Carlier MF (September 1997). "Stathmin: a tubulin-sequestering protein which forms a ...
Protein Crystallography: Xenon and Krypton Derivatives for Phasing (vaadatud 07.03.2015) ... The diverse actions of volatile and gaseous anesthetics on human-cloned 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptors expressed in Xenopus ... Principles of Protein X-Ray Crystallography. New York, Springer, 2007, pp. 123-171. ...
Gene and protein expression[edit]. Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression ... infecting the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis". Parasite. 21: 20. doi:10.1051/parasite/2014020. PMC 4018937. PMID 24823278. ... The highest expressed kidney specific protein is uromodulin, the most abundant protein in urine with functions that prevent ... Many of the corresponding kidney specific proteins are expressed in the cell membrane and function as transporter proteins. ...
"Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... "The Orc4p and Orc5p subunits of the Xenopus and human origin recognition complex are related to Orc1p and Cdc6p". The Journal ... Kneissl M, Pütter V, Szalay AA, Grummt F (Mar 2003). "Interaction and assembly of murine pre-replicative complex proteins in ... "Self-assembling protein microarrays". Science. 305 (5680): 86-90. doi:10.1126/science.1097639. PMID 15232106.. الوسيط , ...
The mitotic apparatus is made up of a central spindle and polar asters made up of polymers of tubulin protein called ... "In vivo magnetic resonance microscopy of differentiation in Xenopus laevis embryos from the first cleavage onwards". ... Cytokinesis is mediated by the contractile ring made up of polymers of actin protein called microfilaments. Karyokinesis and ... The rapid cell cycles are facilitated by maintaining high levels of proteins that control cell cycle progression such as the ...
kelch domain-containing protein 8A [Xenopus tropicalis] kelch domain-containing protein 8A [Xenopus tropicalis]. gi,118403658, ... The NIH Xenopus initiative. [Dev Dyn. 2002] Genetic and genomic tools for Xenopus research: The NIH Xenopus initiative.. Klein ... kelch domain-containing protein 8A [Xenopus tropicalis]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_001072317.1 ... RefSeq protein isoforms See the other reference sequence protein isoform for the klhdc8a gene (XP_017946827.1). ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, Amy ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, Amy ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, and ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
The NIH Xenopus initiative. [Dev Dyn. 2002] Genetic and genomic tools for Xenopus research: The NIH Xenopus initiative.. Klein ... Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ... prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 precursor [Xenopus tropicalis] prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 precursor [Xenopus tropicalis]. gi, ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q91884. Q6NUE7. Xenopus laevis (African clawed ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q91884. Q68F97. A0A1L8ENT7. Q6DDR9. UPI00022F3388 ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF00622. SPRY. 1 hit. PF00643. zf-B_box. 1 hit. PF13445. zf- ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF08833, Axin_b-cat_bind, 1 hit. PF00778, DIX, 1 hit. ... "Interaction of dishevelled and Xenopus axin-related protein is required for wnt signal transduction.". Itoh K., Antipova A., ... "Interaction of dishevelled and Xenopus axin-related protein is required for wnt signal transduction.". Itoh K., Antipova A., ...
Xcsp stands for Xenopus Cysteine String Protein. Xcsp is defined as Xenopus Cysteine String Protein very rarely. ... *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "Xcsp." Retrieved ...,Xcsp,/a,. ... ... ...
XMAP stands for Xenopus Microtubule Assembly Protein. XMAP is defined as Xenopus Microtubule Assembly Protein very rarely. ... *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "XMAP." Retrieved ...,XMAP,/a,. ... ...
Xenopus laevis. For example, a number of heat shock protein genes, such as hsp70, hsp90, and ubiquitin are not heat-inducible ... Stress-induced heat shock protein gene expression is developmentally regulated during early embryogenesis of the frog, ... Heat Shock Protein Gene Expression During Xenopus Development Cell Mol Life Sci. 1997 Jan;53(1):114-21. doi: 10.1007/pl00000573 ... Stress-induced heat shock protein gene expression is developmentally regulated during early embryogenesis of the frog, Xenopus ...
To examine the functional state of the Xenopus-expressed P proteins, the polypeptides were tested for their ability to for … ... proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes from microinjected in vitro transcribed mRNA analogs, with yields of up to 100 ng ... Complex formation between influenza virus polymerase proteins expressed in Xenopus oocytes Virology. 1989 Jul;171(1):162-9. doi ... To examine the functional state of the Xenopus-expressed P proteins, the polypeptides were tested for their ability to form ...
Cloning and expression of a Xenopus embryonic gap junction protein. By L Ebihara, EC Beyer, KI Swenson, DL Paul, DA Goodenough ... Cloning and expression of a Xenopus embryonic gap junction protein. By L Ebihara, EC Beyer, KI Swenson, DL Paul, DA Goodenough ... Cloning and expression of a Xenopus embryonic gap junction protein Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... To confirm that the oocyte cDNA encodes a gap junction channel, the protein was over expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection ...
Coexpression of Drosophila TRP and TRP-like proteins in Xenopus oocytes reconstitutes capacitative Ca2+ entry. B. Gillo, I. ... The Alphavirus 6K Protein Activates Endogenous Ionic Conductances when Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes ... Coexpression of Drosophila TRP and TRP-like proteins in Xenopus oocytes reconstitutes capacitative Ca2+ entry ... Coexpression of Drosophila TRP and TRP-like proteins in Xenopus oocytes reconstitutes capacitative Ca2+ entry ...
U8 snoRNA-binding protein X29. A, B. 212. Xenopus laevis. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: nudt16. EC: (UniProt), ( ... Crystal Structure of Xenopus laevis nudix hydrolase nuclear SnoRNA decapping Protein X29. Scarsdale, J.N., Peculis, B.A., ... Crystal Structure of Xenopus laevis nudix hydrolase nuclear SnoRNA decapping Protein X29. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1U20/pdb ...
... isolated from Xenopus laevis; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AF081803 ... Xenopus laloo protein: involved in induction of mesoderm by fibroblast growth factor; ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Amphibian Proteins*Xenopus Proteins*Xenopus laloo protein ... Xenopus laloo protein. Subscribe to New Research on Xenopus laloo protein involved in induction of mesoderm by fibroblast ...
... a Xenopus DEAD box protein; homologous to Drosophila vasa; MW 78,238 Da; pI 5.54; amino acid sequence given in first source ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Amphibian Proteins*Xenopus Proteins*Xenopus XVLG1 protein ... Xenopus XVLG1 protein. Subscribe to New Research on Xenopus XVLG1 protein a Xenopus DEAD box protein; homologous to Drosophila ... XVLG1 protein, Xenopus; Xenopus vasa-like gene 1 product, Xenopus; vasa-like 1 protein, Xenopus ...
Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein ... Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein ... Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein ... Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein ...
Localized synthesis of the Vg1 protein during early Xenopus development Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... REF-1, a protein with two bHLH domains, alters the pattern of cell fusion in C. elegans by regulating Hox protein activity ... We have raised antibodies to recombinant Vg1 protein and used them to show that Vg1 protein is first detected in stage IV ... During embryogenesis, Vg1 protein is synthesized until the gastrula stage. The embryonically synthesized Vg1 protein is present ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 4: a ventralizing factor in early Xenopus development Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... We show that transcripts encoding Xenopus bone morphogenetic protein 4 (XBMP-4) are detectable in the unfertilized egg, and ... The dominance of XBMP-4 over activin may account for the ability of injected XBMP-4 RNA to ventralize whole Xenopus embryos. ... The mesoderm of amphibian embryos such as Xenopus laevis arises through an inductive interaction in which cells of the vegetal ...
deoxyribonucleic acid) by The Biological Bulletin; Biological sciences Phosphorylation Genetic aspects Protein kinases ... DNA-dependent protein phosphorylation activity in Xenopus is coupled to a Ku-like protein. ( ... APA style: DNA-dependent protein phosphorylation activity in Xenopus is coupled to a Ku-like protein.. (n.d.) >The Free Library ... MLA style: "DNA-dependent protein phosphorylation activity in Xenopus is coupled to a Ku-like protein.." The Free Library. 1997 ...
... and developmental expression of a novel low molecular weight neuronal intermediate filament protein expressed in Xenopus laevis ... and developmental expression of a novel low molecular weight neuronal intermediate filament protein expressed in Xenopus laevis ... and developmental expression of a novel low molecular weight neuronal intermediate filament protein expressed in Xenopus laevis ... and developmental expression of a novel low molecular weight neuronal intermediate filament protein expressed in Xenopus laevis ...
Xklp2 stands for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2. Xklp2 is defined as Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 rarely. ... Targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2); (Targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2) protein ... Targeting protein for xenopus kinesin-like protein 2; protein targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin; Ser-139-phosphorylated ... The targeting protein for the Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2), a microtubule-associated protein, has been utilized as a ...
Labeling of the Xenopus oocyte O-GlcNAc-bearing proteins by GalNAz and biotin alkyne.A, after labeling of the Xenopus oocytes ( ... Several of these proteins were already identified as bearing O-GlcNAc residues, but none were described previously in Xenopus ( ... Because of a low expression of O-GlcNAcylation in Xenopus oocyte, classical enrichment of O-GlcNAc-bearing proteins using O- ... 2B) were performed on immature and matured Xenopus oocytes crude extracts, and bound proteins were analyzed by Western blot. ...
Xenopus (Frog) Model System of Fragile X and Related Proteins. FRAXA Research Foundation 2001-2005 Grants • Completed Research ... This animal, the frog Xenopus laevis, contains all three genes, but the number of protein forms coded by these genes is much ... While frogs have the same number of genes (3) in this family of genes, they have far fewer isoforms of the protein products ... Once this model has been developed, new avenues to study the functions of the FXR proteins in the nervous system will hopefully ...
Xenopus embryonic ectoderm has become an attractive model for studies of cell polarity. An assay is described, in which ... In summary, the above experimental protocol will help in diverse studies of protein-protein interactions and protein ... Fluorescent fusion proteins are expressed in Xenopus embryos by RNA microinjection, ectodermal explants are prepared and ... Xenopus embryonic epithelial cells is an excellent system to study subcellular localization of various signaling proteins. ...
... proteins and CArG binding factor-A (CBF-A). The Hnrpab proteins comprise numerous proteins with a general packing role in RNA ... and protein concentration was measured using the Bio-Rad protein assay. For DIGE minimal labeling, 25 μg of protein sample were ... the analysis of 45 protein spots allowed the identification of 28 different proteins (Table I). Single peptide-based protein ... Protein Expression Profiling in the African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis Tadpoles Exposed to the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture ...
Expression and localization of the Xenopus laevis small heat shock protein, HSPB6 (HSP20), in A6 kidney epithelial cells.. [ ... Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are molecular chaperones that bind to unfolded protein, inhibit the formation of toxic ... Previously, the only sHSPs that have been studied in detail in the model frog system, Xenopus laevis, were members of the HSP30 ... X. laevis HSPB6 cDNA encodes a 168 aa protein that contains an α-crystallin domain, a polar C-terminal extension and some ...
Protein (His tag). Species: Xenopus tropicalis. Source: Yeast. Order product ABIN1630893. ... It can be used to produce protein material with high added value that is very close to the natural protein. Our proteins ... A protein expressed by the mammalian cell system is of very high-quality and close to the natural protein. But the low ... Protein Type Recombinant Purification tag / Conjugate His tag Application ELISA. Options Bulk discount ...
Spatio-temporal distribution of the protein of Xenopus vasa homologue (Xenopus vasa-like gene 1, XVLG1) in embryos * * IKENISHI ... Involvement of the protein of Xenopus vasa homolog (Xenopus vasa-like gene 1, XVLG1) in the differentiation of primordial germ ... Possible role of the 38kDa protein, lacking in the gastrula-arrested Xenopus mutant, in gastrulation Tanaka Tetsuya S. , ... Characterization and localization of tropomyosin proteins in Xenopus embryos with specific antibodies TANAKA Tetsuya S. , ...
Protein (His tag). Species: Xenopus laevis. Source: Yeast. Order product ABIN1631713. ... It can be used to produce protein material with high added value that is very close to the natural protein. Our proteins ... Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) Characteristics Please inquire if you are interested in this recombinant protein expressed ... A protein expressed by the mammalian cell system is of very high-quality and close to the natural protein. But the low ...
In order to uncover the Mus101 function in DNA replication, we have isolated the Xenopus Mus101 protein and used Xenopus egg ... The Xenopus Xmus101 protein is required for the recruitment of Cdc45 to origins of DNA replication. Ruth A. Van Hatten, Antonin ... 1 A). To initiate an analysis of this protein family in DNA replication, we isolated a Xenopus homologue of Mus101, named ... These antibodies recognize a 180-kD protein in Xenopus egg extract (Fig. 1 B), and can immunoprecipitate the 180 kD in vitro ...
Different forms of soluble cytoplasmic mRNA binding proteins and particles in Xenopus laevis oocytes and embryos.. M T Murray, ... Different forms of soluble cytoplasmic mRNA binding proteins and particles in Xenopus laevis oocytes and embryos. ... To gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the formation of maternally stored mRNPs during Xenopus laevis development, we ... suggesting that these proteins are involved in the developmental translational regulation of maternal mRNAs. ...
  • In amphibian embryos, several lines of evidence indicate that neural fate is repressed by bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) and anterior neural specification occurs via a reduction in signaling through the BMP-4 receptor ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • A complementary DNA encoding a gap junction present in Xenopus oocytes and early embryos has now been cloned and sequenced. (
  • A bHLH protein, termed NeuroD, for neurogenic differentiation, has now been identified as a differentiation factor for neurogenesis because (i) it is expressed transiently in a subset of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems at the time of their terminal differentiation into mature neurons and (ii) ectopic expression of neuroD in Xenopus embryos causes premature differentiation of neuronal precursors. (
  • The Xenopus Vg1 gene encodes a maternal mRNA that is localized to the vegetal hemisphere of both oocytes and embryos and encodes a protein related to the TGF-beta family of small secreted growth factors. (
  • The mesoderm of amphibian embryos such as Xenopus laevis arises through an inductive interaction in which cells of the vegetal hemisphere of the embryo act on overlying equatorial and animal pole cells. (
  • The dominance of XBMP-4 over activin may account for the ability of injected XBMP-4 RNA to 'ventralize' whole Xenopus embryos. (
  • Fluorescent fusion proteins are expressed in Xenopus embryos by RNA microinjection, ectodermal explants are prepared and protein localization is evaluated by epifluorescence. (
  • Different forms of soluble cytoplasmic mRNA binding proteins and particles in Xenopus laevis oocytes and embryos. (
  • In the present study, we have examined for the first time the expression of the hsp110 gene in Xenopus laevis cultured cells and embryos. (
  • Analysis of Xenopus embryos revealed that hsp110 mRNA was present in unfertilized eggs, indicating that it is a maternal mRNA, unlike the hsp70 message which was only detectable in response to heat shock. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that the SLRP family member Asporin (ASPN) plays a crucial role in the early stages of eye development in Xenopus embryos. (
  • Xoom is maternally stored and functions as a transmembrane protein for gastrulation movement in Xenopus embryos. (
  • In pull-down experiments, the xARH phosphotyrosine binding domain interacted with the LDL and vitellogenin receptors found in Xenopus oocytes and embryos. (
  • Zhou, Y, Zhang, J & King, ML 2003, ' Xenopus Autosomal Recessive Hypercholesterolemia Protein Couples Lipoprotein Receptors with the AP-2 Complex in Oocytes and Embryos and Is Required for Vitellogenesis ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 278, no. 45, pp. 44584-44592. (
  • The inhibition of BMPs at the onset of neurulation (stage 13) was sufficient to prevent tail formation in Xenopus embryos. (
  • The expression of Xenopus laevis ePABP2 is restricted to early embryos. (
  • Embryos of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis are widely used for the study of early vertebrate development. (
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Xenopus laevis embryos were sectioned, and whole-mount antibody staining and immunofluorescence studies were carried out to determine the total number and percentage of differentiated cardiomyocytes in mitosis. (
  • We show that cell-cycling post-gastrulation is not essential for cardiac differentiation in Xenopus embryos, and conversely that some cells can express markers of cardiac differentiation even when still in cycle. (
  • Developmental regulation of the expression of a glucose-regulated gene encoding a 78 kd protein, GRP78, has been characterized by microinjection of a rat GRP78/CAT chimeric gene into early Xenopus embryos. (
  • The RSRF/MEF2 protein SL1 regulates cardiac muscle-specific transcription of a myosin light-chain gene in Xenopus embryos. (
  • We have examined the role of two RSRF/MEF2 proteins in the onset of skeletal and cardiac muscle differentiation in early Xenopus embryos. (
  • We find that impairment of REST/NRSF function in Xenopus embryos leads to the perturbation of neural tube, cranial ganglia, and eye development. (
  • Here, we trace the origins of the defects associated with the interference of XREST/NRSF function to the acquisition of the cell fates of the ectoderm, using an inducible dominant-negative (dn) XREST/NRSF form and a morpholino-modified antisense oligonucleotide in Xenopus embryos (MoREST). (
  • The Xenopus laevis anterior gradient genes - XAG-1, XAG-2, and XAG-3 - were discovered through dissection of different-aged embryos. (
  • Furthermore, the family of small heat shock protein genes, hsp30, are differentially expressed after the midblastula stage as well as being regulated at the level of mRNA stability. (
  • All three influenza virus polymerase (P) proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes from microinjected in vitro transcribed mRNA analogs, with yields of up to 100 ng per oocyte. (
  • To gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the formation of maternally stored mRNPs during Xenopus laevis development, we searched for soluble cytoplasmic proteins of the oocyte that are able to selectively bind mRNAs, using as substrate radiolabeled mRNA. (
  • We have also observed changes in the in vitro mRNA binding properties of these polypeptides during oogenesis and early embryonic development, in relation to their phosphorylation state and to the activity of an approximately 15S particle-associated protein kinase, suggesting that these proteins are involved in the developmental translational regulation of maternal mRNAs. (
  • In Xenopus A6 kidney epithelial cells hsp110 mRNA was detected constitutively and was heat inducible. (
  • In a previous report we documented an increased Na(+)-dependent transport of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) in Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with mRNA isolated from rabbit duodenum (Yagci et al. (
  • MGP messenger RNA (mRNA) was present in all tissues analyzed although predominantly expressed in Xenopus bone and heart and its presence was detected early in development at the onset of chondrocranium development and long before the appearance of the first calcified structures and metamorphosis. (
  • Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that CROCC mRNA encoding a coiled coil protein was present maternally, as well as throughout early development. (
  • Poly (A) binding proteins are intimately implicated in controlling a number of events in mRNA metabolism from nuclear polyadenylation to cytoplasmic translation and stability. (
  • Although Agr2 mRNA levels are correlated with the tamoxifen therapy response, AGR2 protein levels have yet to be statistically associated with the therapy. (
  • AGR2 may help regulate the protein and mRNA levels in a cell overall as well. (
  • During late pregnancy and lactation, AGR2 levels peak when milk proteins are produced, and mammary-specific Agr2 knockout mice had downregulated milk protein mRNA expression. (
  • Expression analysis of the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) and its paralogs PTBP2 and PTBP3 during Xenopus tropicalis embryogenesis. (
  • We have determined expression patterns of the three members of this gene family ptbp1, ptbp2 and ptbp3 during Xenopus tropicalis embryogenesis using whole-mount in situ hybridization. (
  • We generated a transgenic X . tropicalis line that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) driven by the snai2 promoter/enhancer, and observed eGFP expression not only in the pre-migratory and migrating CNC, but also the differentiating CNC. (
  • See the other reference sequence protein isoform for the klhdc8a gene (XP_017946827.1). (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • Stress-induced heat shock protein gene expression is developmentally regulated during early embryogenesis of the frog, Xenopus laevis. (
  • In cells treated simultaneously with 10 μM sodium arsenite and different heat shock temperatures, enhanced accumulation of HSP30 and HSP70 protein was first detected at 26˚C with larger responses at 28 and 30 ˚C. HSF1 activity was involved in combined stress-induced hsp gene expression since the HSF1 activation inhibitor, KNK437, inhibited HSP30 and HSP70 accumulation. (
  • Human BCRP is the second member of the G subfamily of the ABC transporter proteins (ABCG2), and is closely related to the white gene of Drosophila melanogaster . (
  • Identification of alternative promoter usage for the matrix Gla protein gene. (
  • Recent cloning of the Xenopus laevis (Xl) matrix Gla protein (MGP) gene indicated the presence of a conserved overall structure for this gene between mammals and amphibians but identified an additional 5'-exon, not detected in mammals, flanked by a functional, calcium-sensitive promoter, 3042 bp distant from the ATG initiation codon. (
  • Xoom has been identified as a novel gene that plays an important role in gastrulation of Xenopus laevis embryo. (
  • To clone the first anion channel from Xenopus laevis ( X. laevis ), we isolated a calcium -activated chloride channel (CLCA)-like membrane protein 6 gene (CMP6) in X. laevis . (
  • Transcription factors belonging to the CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression during differentiation, development and disease. (
  • We report here studies that investigate the regulation of the Xenopus laevis C/EBPα gene (xC/EBPα). (
  • Tunicamycin-induced expression of the chimeric gene during Xenopus development was similar to the pattern of endogenous GRP78 protein synthesis, with expression first being detected at gastrula and increasing at least until the tailbud stage. (
  • Anterior gradient protein 2 homolog (AGR-2), also known as secreted cement gland protein XAG-2 homolog, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AGR2 gene. (
  • I am studying a protein that is usually responsible for male gonad differentiation in mammals but is. (
  • Cardiac differentiation in Xenopus requires the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27Xic1. (
  • We have shown that the most prominent CDKI in Xenopus, p27(Xic1)(Xic1), plays a role in neuronal and myotome differentiation beyond its ability to arrest the cell cycle. (
  • A targeted knock-down of Xic1 protein by Xic1Mo microinjection decreases the expression of markers of cardiac differentiation, which can be partially rescued by co-injection of full-length Xic1 RNA, demonstrating that Xic1 is essential for heart formation. (
  • CONCLUSION: Altogether, our results demonstrate that the CDKI Xic1 is required in Xenopus cardiac differentiation, and that this function is localized at its N-terminus, but it is distinct from its ability to arrest the cell cycle and inhibit overall CDK kinase activity. (
  • I. Studies on cellular morphology and protein and nucleic acid synthesis during differentiation. (
  • EGF-like domains in extracellular matrix proteins : localized signals for growth and differentiation? (
  • In Xenopus AGR2 plays a role in cement gland differentiation, but in human cancer cell lines high levels of AGR2 correlate with downregulation of the p53 response, cell migration, and cell transformation. (
  • We have utilised a cell-free system of concentrated Xenopus laevis egg extracts to investigate the regulation and possible functions of DNA-PK. (
  • The imposing size of this cell (1.3-mm diameter with a nucleus of 300 μm), a total protein quantity of 25 μg/oocyte, and its amenability for manipulation made this model powerful for the characterization and the identification of many key cell cycle components, such as the M phase-promoting factor (MPF) and the cytostatic factor ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • In this study, we focused on the pharmacological characterization of cannabinoid receptor coupling to G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. (
  • This study presents, for the first time, a characterization of HSP110 in Xenopus laevis, adding to the growing knowledge of HSPs in this important model organism. (
  • Characterization of a native swelling-induced chloride current, ICl.swell, and its regulatory protein, pICln, in Xenopus oocytes. (
  • The expert contributors explore the isolation and characterization of RNA-protein complexes, the analysis and measurement of RNA-protein interaction, and related novel techniques and strategies. (
  • Identification, purification, and partial characterization of a novel M r 28,000 integral membrane protein from erythrocytes and renal tubules. (
  • DNA-PK has been reported to suppress RNA polymerase I transcription in extracts of embryonic kidney cells of Xenopus (Kuhn et al. (
  • Xenopus embryonic ectoderm has become an attractive model for studies of cell polarity. (
  • Xenopus embryonic epithelial cells is an excellent system to study subcellular localization of various signaling proteins. (
  • Among the non-mammalian models, zebrafish and Xenopus are particularly suitable for live imaging of tissue morphogenesis, owing to their external embryonic development, transparent epithelium and large brood size. (
  • Many of these stress proteins are also synthesized constitutively during oogenesis and embryogenesis during which they may act as molecular chaperones as well as being involved in sequestering proteins in an inactive state until required by the developing embryo. (
  • During stressful conditions heat shock proteins probably prevent aggregation or misfolding of damaged proteins within the embryo. (
  • We find that Vg1 protein is glycosylated and associated with membranes in the early embryo. (
  • These results support the proposal that the Vg1 protein is an endogenous growth-factor-like molecule involved in mesoderm induction within the amphibian embryo. (
  • Among the most potent MIFs are the activins, members of the TGF-beta family, but RNA for activin A and B is not detectable in the Xenopus embryo until neurula and late blastula stages, respectively, and this is probably too late for the molecules to act as natural inducers. (
  • To address the function of xARH, we examined its expression pattern in development and used pull-down experiments to assess interactions between xARH, lipoprotein receptors and proteins in embryo extracts. (
  • The xARH C-terminal region pulled-down several proteins from embryo extracts including α- and β-adaptins, subunits of the AP-2 endocytic complex. (
  • Our previous study of REST/NRSF function in vivo , using the Xenopus laevis embryo model (XREST/NRSF), showed that interference with its function does not lead to early lethality. (
  • Furthermore, experiments with extracts of Xenopus eggs have indicated that DNA-PK may be involved in the phosphorylation of P1 protein (Someya et al. (
  • The Xenopus Cdc6 protein is essential for the initiation of a single round of DNA replication in cell-free extracts . (
  • We have cloned a Xenopus Cdc6 homolog ( Xcdc6 ) and characterized its role in DNA replication with Xenopus egg extracts. (
  • Here, we developed an in vitro import system based on Xenopus egg extracts. (
  • Here, we use the eight-subunit augmin complex as an example of how to dissect the function and assembly of a protein complex using meiotic Xenopus egg extracts. (
  • Song, JG & Petry, S 2018, ' Dissecting protein complexes in branching microtubule nucleation using meiotic xenopus egg extracts ', Cold Spring Harbor Protocols , vol. 2018, no. 9, pp. 728-732. (
  • In order to understand how origin licensing and Mcm2-7 loading are regulated, we have been purifying from Xenopus egg extracts all the proteins required to support functional origin licensing [ 3 ]. (
  • For example, a number of heat shock protein genes, such as hsp70, hsp90, and ubiquitin are not heat-inducible until after the midblastula stage of embryogenesis. (
  • During embryogenesis, Vg1 protein is synthesized until the gastrula stage. (
  • xARH is a localized maternal RNA in Xenopus with an unknown function in oogenesis and embryogenesis. (
  • We have investigated the activity and function of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) during neural specification in Xenopus . (
  • Because FGF signaling is mediated largely by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway ( 26 , 27 ), these studies suggest that MAPK may play a critical role in the specification of neural fate and anteroposterior pattern. (
  • DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a multi-subunit enzyme that includes the Ku protein, which is a heterodimer composed of 70-kDa and 80-kDa polypeptide subunits (Dvir et al. (
  • The results suggest that PCBs induce mechanisms against oxidative stress (peroxiredoxins 1 and 2), adaptative changes in the energetic metabolism (enolase 1, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase muscle and brain types), and the implication of the unfolded protein response system (glucose-regulated protein, 58 kDa). (
  • DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) consists of a 460 kDa subunit that contains the catalytic domain (DNA-PKcs) complexed with two polypeptides of 70 kDa and 80 kDa (Ku70 and Ku80) which comprise the Ku autoantigen. (
  • In terms of protein expression in oocytes, the Herpes simplex thymidine kinase (TK) promoter was up to sevenfold more effective than the simian virus 40 (SV40) early promoter, and equally as effective as the Moloney murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat element. (
  • Preincubation of GIRK channel-expressing oocytes with phospholipase C inhibitor, {1-[6-((17b-3-Methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl) amino)hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione} (U73122), or protein kinase C inhibitor, staurosporine or chelerythrine, blocked the inhibitory ginsenoside effect on the GIRK current. (
  • Taken together, these results suggest that ginsenoside inhibits the activity of the GIRK 1/4 channel expressed in the Xenopus oocyte through a pertussis toxin-insensitive and Gα q/11 -, phospholipase C- and protein kinase C-mediated signal transduction pathway. (
  • Here we show that the transport of deoxyglucose and 3-O-methylglucose into Xenopus laevis oocytes is stimulated about 2.5-fold when mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) is microinjected into these oocytes. (
  • We also demonstrate that microinjection of the proto-oncogene product c-Mos (an activator of MAP kinase kinase, which activates MAP kinase in Xenopus oocytes), and purified MAP kinase kinase produce similar increases in deoxyglucose transport. (
  • The extracellular and transmembrane domains of Mat-8 are homologous to those of phospholemman (PLM), the major plasmalemmal substrate for cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C in several different tissues. (
  • PLM, which induces chloride currents when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, contains consensus phosphorylation sites for both cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and protein kinase C in its cytoplasmic domain. (
  • abstract = "Recently, we provided evidence that ginsenoside, the active component of Panax ginseng, uses the pertussis toxin-insensitive Gαq/11-phospholipase C-β3 signal transduction pathway to increase Ca2+-activated Cl- currents in the Xenopus oocyte. (
  • Sequence comparison suggests that PTPX10 is the Xenopus homolog of the human PTPase Meg-02, while PTPX1 is a structurally related yet distinct PTPase, Intrinsic PTPase activity of PTPX1 and PTPX10 was demonstrated in lysates of Sf9 cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses encoding either enzyme. (
  • Anterior gradient homolog 2 was originally discovered in Xenopus laevis. (
  • A collection of articles that focus on an array of different scientific topics such as pathways, cancer, transmembrane proteins. (
  • X-linked anhidrotic (hypohidrotic) ectodermal dysplasia is caused by mutation in a novel transmembrane protein. (
  • We recently identified a novel 8-kDa transmembrane protein, Mat-8, that is expressed in a subset of murine breast tumors. (
  • The ATP-binding domain of SMC proteins is structurally related to that of ABC transporters , a large family of transmembrane proteins that actively transport small molecules across cellular membranes. (
  • This rules out major transmembrane proteins such as band 3, the glucose carrier, and CHIP28 as candidates for the urea transporter. (
  • Oogenesis in Xenopus laevis (Daudin). (
  • To explore these phenomena, Xenopus laevis oocytes from stages I-VI of oogenesis were isolated and proteins analyzed on SDS-PAGE. (
  • The CHIP28 protein is an abundant integral membrane protein in mammalian RBCs and renal proximal tubules and belongs to a family of membrane proteins with unknown functions. (
  • Fariss RN, Molday RS, Fisher SK, Matsumoto B. Evidence from normal and degenerating photoreceptors that two outer segment integral membrane proteins have separate transport pathways. (
  • The data show that Cy-ncAAs (based on Cy3 and Cy5) are tolerated by the eukaryotic ribosome in cell-free and whole-cell environments and can be incorporated into soluble and membrane proteins. (
  • This shortcoming is further limiting when labelling side-chains in eukaryotic membrane proteins which can have many 'background' cysteine residues, that when mutated can lower expression profiles or have functional consequences. (
  • p -(chloromercuri)benzenesulfonate binding by membrane proteins and the inhibition of water transport in human erythrocytes. (
  • Evidence for differential expression during early development in Xenopus laevis. (
  • This thesis looks at the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) during tail development in Xenopus laevis. (
  • In the present study, I examined the effect of concurrent low doses of sodium arsenite and mild heat shock temperatures on the expression of hsp30 and hsp70 genes in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. (
  • The methylation pattern of tRNA genes in Xenopus laevis. (
  • Expression and localization of the Xenopus laevis small heat shock protein, HSPB6 (HSP20), in A6 kidney epithelial cells. (
  • An assay is described, in which subcellular distribution of fluorescent proteins is assessed in ectoderm cells. (
  • FoxI1e activates ectoderm formation and controls cell position in the Xenopus blastula. (
  • The Xenopus LIM-homeodomain protein Xlim5 regulates the differential adhesion properties of early ectoderm cells. (
  • Ectopic expression of the myogenic factors in explants of presumptive ectoderm induces expression of both SL1 and SL2, whereas in reciprocal experiments, neither RSRF protein activates the endogenous myoD or Myf5 genes. (
  • Our findings are consistent with the need of XREST/NRSF function for the appropriate patterning of the ectoderm, at least in part through mechanisms that involve the modification of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. (
  • In their research article , Jiří Friml and colleagues describe PATELLINs, plasma membrane-localized proteins required for auxin-induced PIN1 relocalization and multiple developmental processes. (
  • Little information exists about single N-acetylglucosamine modifications on proteins in growth and developmental model systems. (
  • The -1131/+41 promoter region was capable of directing high levels of expression in both the human hepatoma Hep3B and the Xenopus kidney epithelial A6 cell lines, and was auto-activated by expression vectors specifying for xC/EBPα or xC/EBPβ. (
  • Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are molecular chaperones that bind to unfolded protein, inhibit the formation of toxic aggregates and facilitate their refolding and/or degradation. (
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (
  • Matrix Gla protein in Xenopus laevis: molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and evolutionary considerations. (
  • Although the phenomenon of regulatory volume decrease (RVD), whereby a swollen cell loses salt and water to restore its original volume, has been appreciated for decades, the molecular identities of the proteins responsible for the volume control machinery and their regulation are essentially unknown. (
  • Molecular cloning of cDNA sequences coding for the major alpha- and beta-globin polypeptides of adult Xenopus laevis. (
  • Molecular cloning and sequencing of mRNAs coding for minor adult globin polypeptides of Xenopus laevis. (
  • In breast cancer, HSP90 is a molecular chaperone expressed in tumor cells when there exists an excess of unfolded protein, and its co-chaperone has been reported to induce expression of AGR2, so AGR2 may be used by the endoplasmic reticulum to assist with protein folding to alleviate proteotoxic stress. (
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (
  • To evaluate the function and substrate specificity of human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) in the absence of cofactors or heterologous partner proteins, Xenopus laevis oocytes were injected with cRNA of wild-type or mutant (R482T) BCRP. (
  • To examine the functional state of the Xenopus-expressed P proteins, the polypeptides were tested for their ability to form stable complexes with each other. (
  • Sedimentation analysis of free and complexed P proteins indicated that PB1 and PB2 did not exist as free monomers, and that similarly, complexes of all three P proteins did not simply consist of one copy of each protein. (
  • The heterodisperse sedimentation rate seen for complexes of all three P proteins did not appear to result from their binding to RNA, suggesting the incorporation of additional polypeptides in the polymerase complex. (
  • however, little is known about the assembly of the protein complexes. (
  • This approach can be applied to investigate the assembly of other multisubunit protein complexes that function in branching microtubule nucleation and mitotic spindle assembly. (
  • During late mitosis and early G1, proteins are assembled onto replication origins which culminates in the origin becoming 'licensed' for a single round of DNA replication by loading complexes of Mcm2-7 proteins [ 4 - 8 ]. (
  • Expression of human estrogen receptor mutants in Xenopus oocytes: correlation between transcriptional activity and ability to form protein-DNA complexes. (
  • Transcription complexes that program Xenopus 5S RNA genes are stable in vivo. (
  • Eukaryotes have at least six SMC proteins in individual organisms, and they form three distinct heterodimers with specialized functions: A pair of SMC1 and SMC3 constitutes the core subunits of the cohesin complexes involved in sister chromatid cohesion. (
  • A proteomics analysis was performed on developing Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed from 2 to 5 days postfertilization to either 0.1 or 1 ppm Aroclor 1254, a PCB mixture. (
  • We knocked down FMRP expression using morpholino oligos in the optic tectum of Xenopus laevis tadpoles and performed a series of behavioral and electrophysiological assays. (
  • In this study, Xenopus laevis tadpoles were used to assess the early effects of FMRP upregulation and knockdown in the optic tectum. (
  • Normal Table of Xenopus laevis (Daudin): a Systematical and Chronological Survey of the Development from the Fertilized Egg Till the End of Metamorphosis. (
  • This protein sequence is homologous to the well-characterized gap junction structural proteins rat connexin32 and connexin43. (
  • Cryptochromes and photolyases are homologous proteins with a central flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) chromophore that fulfil different biological functions, which are most often triggered by light. (
  • Many other homologous proteins have been discovered afterwards in Xenopus. (
  • In the context of the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system, this technique yields ion channels with encoded Cy-ncAAs that are trafficked to the plasma membrane where they display robust function and distinct fluorescent signals as detected by TIRF microscopy. (
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (
  • Your search returned 2 Proteins H1 histone family member 0 L homeolog Recombinant Proteins across 2 suppliers. (
  • The yeast protein expression system is the most economical and efficient eukaryotic system for secretion and intracellular expression. (
  • The yeast protein expression system serve as a eukaryotic system integrate the advantages of the mammalian cell expression system. (
  • A protein expressed by yeast system could be modificated such as glycosylation, acylation, phosphorylation and so on to ensure the native protein conformation. (
  • Our proteins produced by yeast expression system has been used as raw materials for downstream preparation of monoclonal antibodies. (
  • We have raised antibodies to recombinant Vg1 protein and used them to show that Vg1 protein is first detected in stage IV oocytes and reaches maximal levels in stage VI oocytes and eggs. (
  • Because of a low expression of O -GlcNAcylation in Xenopus oocyte, classical enrichment of O -GlcNAc-bearing proteins using O -GlcNAc-directed antibodies or wheat germ agglutinin lectin affinity were hard to apply, albeit these techniques allowed the identification of actin and erk2. (
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (
  • The proteins were probed with antibodies specific for O-GlcNAc. (
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • Toward this goal, MGP was purified from Xenopus long bones and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined and used to clone the Xenopus MGP complementary DNA (cDNA) by a mixture of reverse-transcription (RT)- and 5'- rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (
  • A protein lacking an SKL sequence can be coimported, providing strong evidence for import of a folded protein. (
  • Sequence analysis showed that p32 has about 50% identity to the known nuclear poly(A) binding proteins (PABPN1) but is more closely related to a group of mammalian proteins of unknown function. (
  • The p20 sequence revealed that it belongs to the family of the WAP (whey acidic protein) proteins, often functioning as a protease inhibitor. (
  • Injection of the DNA construct encoding prochymosin without its signal sequence resulted in synthesis of prochymosin protein that was localized exclusively in the oocyte cytoplasm. (
  • A DNA sequence encoding the Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) TGF-beta 1 / TGFB1, was expressed in the hosts and tags indicated. (
  • Both PTPases share sequence identities in their N-terminal segments with two lipid-binding proteins, cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein and SEC14p, a phospholipid transferase. (
  • In addition, the unique insert sequence of PTPX1 shares identity with PSSA, a protein involved in phosphatidylserine biosynthesis. (
  • The mutation prevents expression of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) throughout development. (
  • In Xenopus, germ layer specification occurs prior to gastrulation and requires the transcription factor VegT both for the cell-autonomous specification of endoderm and the generation of mesoderm-inducing signals. (
  • MeCP2 is the founder member of a family of methyl-CpG-binding proteins able to repress transcription from methylated DNA. (
  • The transcription factor Snai2, which is induced by canonical Wnt signaling to be expressed in the early CNC, is pivotal for CNC induction and migration in Xenopus . (
  • and the N-terminal domain of Xenopus TATA box-binding protein has been shown to be a target of DNA-PK in vivo (Labhart, 1996). (
  • 1996), The Xenopus Cdc6 protein is essential for the i. (
  • A protein expressed by the mammalian cell system is of very high-quality and close to the natural protein. (
  • The capability of the mammalian methyl-CpG-binding protein to interact with p20 is confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments performed overexpressing the WAP protein. (
  • Dependence of an adenosine-activated potassium current on a GTP-binding protein in mammalian central neurons. (
  • To confirm that the oocyte cDNA encodes a gap junction channel, the protein was over expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection of RNA synthesized in vitro. (
  • X. laevis HSPB6 cDNA encodes a 168 aa protein that contains an α-crystallin domain, a polar C-terminal extension and some possible phosphorylation sites. (
  • The Xenopus hsp110 cDNA encodes an 854 amino acid protein, which shares 74% identity with mice and humans. (
  • the X10 cDNA encodes a protein of 597 amino acids (approximate to 69 kDa). (
  • The most common approach for expression of exogenous proteins in Xenopus oocytes is to inject in vitro transcribed complementary RNA into the oocyte cytoplasm ( Figure 1a ). (
  • While frogs have the same number of genes (3) in this family of genes, they have far fewer isoforms of the protein products compared to humans (where FMRP alone can exist in at least 12 distinct forms), making study of the different functions simpler. (
  • SMC proteins are conserved from bacteria to humans. (
  • We show that transcripts encoding Xenopus bone morphogenetic protein 4 (XBMP-4) are detectable in the unfertilized egg, and that injection of XBMP-4 RNA into the animal hemisphere of Xenopus eggs causes animal caps isolated from the resulting blastulae to express mesoderm-specific markers. (
  • We chose Xenopus sperm nuclei as the DNA template because it is the natural substrate for replication in Xenopus eggs and because it is replicated very efficiently in the cell-free system. (
  • All-species-as-fusion-proteins. (
  • Most bacteria have a single SMC protein in individual species that forms a homodimer. (
  • Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS. (
  • Positional cloning revealed that tls1 encodes a protein in the aquaporin family co-orthologous to known B channel proteins in other species. (
  • In this experimental protocol we describe how subcellular localization of Diversin, a cytoplasmic protein that has been implicated in signaling and cell polarity determination 6, 7 is visualized in Xenopus ectodermal cells to study Wnt signal transduction 8 . (
  • The intracellular localization of HSP110 protein in response to stress was also investigated. (
  • We have described previously the sudden O -GlcNAcylation increase occurring during the Xenopus laevis oocyte G 2 /M transition, and we have demonstrated that the inhibition of O -GlcNAc-transferase (OGT) blocked this process, showing that the O -GlcNAcylation dynamism interferes with the cell cycle progression. (
  • Cleavage and inactivation of DNA-PKcs is prevented by prior addition of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 or inhibition of an apoptotic protease that has characteristics of the CPP-32/Ced-3 family of cysteine proteases that cleave poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. (
  • In order to study the effects of BMP signalling in later development, a transgenic line of Xenopus that allows heat-shock inducible inhibition of BMPs was utilised. (
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (
  • PTPX1 can be recovered in both soluble and membrane fractions from Xenopus oocytes with the membrane form exhibiting approximate to 4-fold higher activity than the soluble form. (
  • Moreover, we have demonstrated that a cloned protein, pICln, endogenous to oocytes is critical for the activation of this volume-sensitive chloride conductance pathway [Krapivinsky et al. (
  • The identification of an endogenous protein participating in the regulation of an endogenous current may help understand the physiological activities of swelling-induced chloride channels. (
  • We report here, for the first time, a requirement for Pitx proteins in cement gland formation, in vivo: knockdown of both Pitx1 and Pitx2c inhibits endogenous cement gland formation. (
  • We demonstrate that, indeed, the xp20 not only can significantly increase the stability of an exogenously expressed MeCP2 in Xenopus oocytes but also can stabilize the human endogenous MeCP2. (
  • Ajuba LIM proteins interact with Snail in the nucleus on endogenous E-cadherin promoters and contribute to Snail-dependent repression of E-cadherin. (
  • Yang, Chen, Pan, Kou, Xu: Glycosylation modification of human prion protein provokes apoptosis in HeLa cells in vitro. (