An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.
Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Members of the transforming growth factor superfamily that play a role in pattern formation and differentiation during the pregastrulation and GASTRULATION stages of chordate development. Several nodal signaling ligands are specifically involved in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during development. The protein group is named after a critical region of the vertebrate embryo PRIMITIVE STREAK referred to as HENSEN'S NODE.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (1/8290)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

The mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway stimulates mos mRNA cytoplasmic polyadenylation during Xenopus oocyte maturation. (2/8290)

The Mos protein kinase is a key regulator of vertebrate oocyte maturation. Oocyte-specific Mos protein expression is subject to translational control. In the frog Xenopus, the translation of Mos protein requires the progesterone-induced polyadenylation of the maternal Mos mRNA, which is present in the oocyte cytoplasm. Both the Xenopus p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) signaling pathways have been proposed to mediate progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation. In this study, we have determined the relative contributions of the MAPK and MPF signaling pathways to Mos mRNA polyadenylation. We report that progesterone-induced Mos mRNA polyadenylation was attenuated in oocytes expressing the MAPK phosphatase rVH6. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling blocked progesterone-induced Mos protein accumulation. Activation of the MAPK pathway by injection of RNA encoding Mos was sufficient to induce both the polyadenylation of synthetic Mos mRNA substrates and the accumulation of endogenous Mos protein in the absence of MPF signaling. Activation of MPF, by injection of cyclin B1 RNA or purified cyclin B1 protein, also induced both Mos protein accumulation and Mos mRNA polyadenylation. However, this action of MPF required MAPK activity. By contrast, the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of maternal cyclin B1 mRNA was stimulated by MPF in a MAPK-independent manner, thus revealing a differential regulation of maternal mRNA polyadenylation by the MAPK and MPF signaling pathways. We propose that MAPK-stimulated Mos mRNA cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a key component of the positive-feedback loop, which contributes to the all-or-none process of oocyte maturation.  (+info)

Identification and cloning of xp95, a putative signal transduction protein in Xenopus oocytes. (3/8290)

A 95-kDa protein in Xenopus oocytes, Xp95, was shown to be phosphorylated from the first through the second meiotic divisions during progesterone-induced oocyte maturation. Xp95 was purified and cloned. The Xp95 protein sequence exhibited homology to mouse Rhophilin, budding yeast Bro1, and Aspergillus PalA, all of which are implicated in signal transduction. It also contained three conserved features including seven conserved tyrosines, a phosphorylation consensus sequence for the Src family of tyrosine kinases, and a proline-rich domain near the C terminus that contains multiple SH3 domain-binding motifs. We showed the following: 1) that both Xp95 isolated from Xenopus oocytes and a synthetic peptide containing the Src phosphorylation consensus sequence of Xp95 were phosphorylated in vitro by Src kinase and to a lesser extent by Fyn kinase; 2) Xp95 from Xenopus oocytes or eggs was recognized by an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, and the relative abundance of tyrosine-phosphorylated Xp95 increased during oocyte maturation; and 3) microinjection of deregulated Src mRNA into Xenopus oocytes increased the abundance of tyrosine-phosphorylated Xp95. These results suggest that Xp95 is an element in a tyrosine kinase signaling pathway that may be involved in progesterone-induced Xenopus oocyte maturation.  (+info)

Voltage sensors in domains III and IV, but not I and II, are immobilized by Na+ channel fast inactivation. (4/8290)

Using site-directed fluorescent labeling, we examined conformational changes in the S4 segment of each domain of the human skeletal muscle sodium channel (hSkM1). The fluorescence signals from S4 segments in domains I and II follow activation and are unaffected as fast inactivation settles. In contrast, the fluorescence signals from S4 segments in domains III and IV show kinetic components during activation and deactivation that correlate with fast inactivation and charge immobilization. These results indicate that in hSkM1, the S4 segments in domains III and IV are responsible for voltage-sensitive conformational changes linked to fast inactivation and are immobilized by fast inactivation, while the S4 segments in domains I and II are unaffected by fast inactivation.  (+info)

Acute effects of ethanol on kainate receptors with different subunit compositions. (5/8290)

Previous studies showed that recombinant homomeric GluR6 receptors are acutely inhibited by ethanol. This study examined the acute actions of ethanol on recombinant homomeric and heteromeric kainate (KA) receptors with different subunit configurations. Application of 25 to 100 mM ethanol produced inhibition of a similar magnitude of both GluR5-Q and GluR6-R KA receptor-dependent currents in Xenopus oocytes. Ethanol decreased the KA Emax without affecting the EC50 and its effect was independent of the membrane holding potential for both of these receptors subtypes. Ethanol also inhibited homomeric and heteromeric receptors transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. In these cells, the expression of heteromeric GluR6-R subunit-containing receptors was confirmed by testing their sensitivity to 1 mM alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid. Ethanol inhibited to a similar extent KA-gated currents mediated by receptors composed of either GluR6 or GluR6 + KA1 subunits, and to a slightly lesser extent receptors composed of GluR6 + KA2 subunits. Acute ethanol's effects were tested on GluR5 KA receptors that are expressed as homomers (GluR5-Q) or heteromers (GluR5-R + KA1 and GluR5-R + KA2). Homomeric and heteromeric GluR5 KA receptors were all inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol; however, there was slightly more inhibition of GluR5-R + KA2 receptors. Thus, recombinant KA receptors with different subunit compositions are all acutely inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol. In light of recent reports that KA receptors regulate neurotransmitter release and mediate synaptic currents, we postulate that these receptors may play a role in acute ethanol intoxication.  (+info)

Modulation of the channel activity of the epsilon2/zeta1-subtype N-methyl D-aspartate receptor by PSD-95. (6/8290)

A channel-associated protein PSD-95 has been shown to induce clustering of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, interacting with the COOH terminus of the epsilon subunit of the receptors. The effects of PSD-95 on the channel activity of the epsilon2/zeta1 heteromeric NMDA receptor were examined by injection of PSD-95 cRNA into Xenopus oocytes expressing the NMDA receptors. Expression of PSD-95 decreased the sensitivity of the NMDA receptor channels to L-glutamate. Mutational studies showed that the interaction between the COOH terminus of the epsilon2 subunit of the NMDA receptor and the second PSD-95/Dlg/Z0-1 domain of PSD-95 is critical for the decrease in glutamate sensitivity. It is known that protein kinase C markedly potentiates the channel activity of the NMDA receptor expressed in oocytes. PSD-95 inhibited the protein kinase C-mediated potentiation of the channels. Thus, we demonstrated that PSD-95 functionally modulates the channel activity of the epsilon2/zeta1 NMDA receptor. PSD-95 makes signal transmission more efficient by clustering the channels at postsynaptic sites. In addition to this, our results suggest that PSD-95 plays a protective role against neuronal excitotoxicity by decreasing the glutamate sensitivity of the channels and by inhibiting the protein kinase C-mediated potentiation of the channels.  (+info)

Characterization of two related Drosophila gamma-tubulin complexes that differ in their ability to nucleate microtubules. (7/8290)

gamma-tubulin exists in two related complexes in Drosophila embryo extracts (Moritz, M., Y. Zheng, B.M. Alberts, and K. Oegema. 1998. J. Cell Biol. 142:1- 12). Here, we report the purification and characterization of both complexes that we name gamma-tubulin small complex (gammaTuSC; approximately 280,000 D) and Drosophila gammaTuRC ( approximately 2,200,000 D). In addition to gamma-tubulin, the gammaTuSC contains Dgrip84 and Dgrip91, two proteins homologous to the Spc97/98p protein family. The gammaTuSC is a structural subunit of the gammaTuRC, a larger complex containing about six additional polypeptides. Like the gammaTuRC isolated from Xenopus egg extracts (Zheng, Y., M.L. Wong, B. Alberts, and T. Mitchison. 1995. Nature. 378:578-583), the Drosophila gammaTuRC can nucleate microtubules in vitro and has an open ring structure with a diameter of 25 nm. Cryo-electron microscopy reveals a modular structure with approximately 13 radially arranged structural repeats. The gammaTuSC also nucleates microtubules, but much less efficiently than the gammaTuRC, suggesting that assembly into a larger complex enhances nucleating activity. Analysis of the nucleotide content of the gammaTuSC reveals that gamma-tubulin binds preferentially to GDP over GTP, rendering gamma-tubulin an unusual member of the tubulin superfamily.  (+info)

Identification of a novel domain shared by putative components of the endocytic and cytoskeletal machinery. (8/8290)

We have identified a approximately 140 amino acid domain that is shared by a variety of proteins in budding and fission yeast, nematode, rat, mouse, frog, oat, and man. Typically, this domain is located within 20 residues of the N-terminus of the various proteins. The percent identity among the domains in the 12 proteins ranges from 42 to 93%, with 16 absolutely conserved residues: N-x(11-13)-V-x2-A-T-x(34-36)-R-x(7-8)-W-R-x3-K-x12-G-x-E-x15 -L-x11-12-D-x-G-R-x11-D-x7-R. Even though these proteins share little beyond their segment of homology, data are emerging that several of the proteins are involved in endocytosis and or regulation of cytoskeletal organization. We have named this protein segment the ENTH domain, for Epsin N-terminal Homology domain, and hypothesize that it is a candidate for binding specific ligands and/or enzymatic activity in the cell.  (+info)

The caudal-related (Cdx) homeodomain transcription factors have a conserved role in the development of posterior structures in both vertebrates and invertebrates. A particularly interesting finding is that Cdx proteins have an important function in the regulation of expression from a subset of Hox genes. In this study, we report the cloning of cDNAs from the Cdx genes of the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis. Xenopus tropicalis is a diploid species, related to the commonly used laboratory animal Xenopus laevis, and has attracted attention recently as a potential genetic model for animal development. The Xenopus tropicalis cDNAs, Xtcad1, Xtcad2, and Xtcad3, show between 88 and 94% sequence identity with their Xenopus laevis orthologues. This finding corresponds to between 90 and 95% identity at the level of derived amino acid sequence. We also present a detailed description of Xtcad1, Xtcad2, and Xtcad3 expression during normal development. In common with the Cdx genes of other vertebrates, the ...
We have moved to other location and our principal breeding facility will be closed in October. All animals, including breeding pairs of Silurana tropicalis, adult males of Silurana tropicalis, adult Xenopus laevis, albino Xenopus laevis and the whole breeding colony of Xenopus amieti are for ...
The frog genus Xenopus is widely used as a model system for studying developmental biology and fundamental cell biological processes. The advantages that Xenopus offer as an experimental system include (1) the availability of large abundant eggs that are easily manipulated, (2) ready accessibility to any developmental stage, and (3) conservation of cellular pathways between Xenopus and mammals. Over the past 50 years, pioneering studies on Xenopus have been crucial towards our understanding of nuclear reprogramming, embryonic patterning, membrane channels and receptors, and the cell cycle.. Despite its popularity for biomedical research, genomic resources for Xenopus have been lagging behind other model organisms. A major reason for this is that early developmental and molecular studies have relied on a particular species known as Xenopus laevis, which is pseudotetraploid as a result of genome duplication around 30 million years ago. The presence of four copies of every gene complicates genetic ...
We present a genetic map for Xenopus tropicalis, consisting of 2886 Simple Sequence Length Polymorphism (SSLP) markers. Using a bioinformatics-based strategy, we identified unique SSLPs within the X. tropicalis genome. Scaffolds from X. tropicalis genome assembly 2.0 (JGI) were scanned for Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs); unique SSRs were then tested for amplification and polymorphisms using DNA from inbred Nigerian and Ivory Coast individuals. Thus identified, the SSLPs were genotyped against a mapping cross panel of DNA samples from 190 F2 individuals. Nearly 4000 SSLPs were genotyped, yielding a 2886-marker genetic map consisting of 10 major linkage groups between 73 and 132cM in length, and 4 smaller linkage groups between 7 and 40cM. The total effective size of the map is 1658cM, and the average intermarker distance for each linkage group ranged from 0.27 to 0.75cM. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) was carried out using probes for genes located on mapped scaffolds to assign linkage ...
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Resumption of meiosis in oocytes of Xenopus tropicalis required translation but not transcription, and was marked by the appearance of a white spot and a dark ring, coincident with entry into metaphase I and the onset of anaphase I, respectively. Cyclin B(2)/p34(cdc2) activity increased prior to the …
Domain architectures containing both Cysteine-rich domain and PH domain-like in Xenopus tropicalis 76_4.2. Links to architectures containing these domain pairs in other groups of genomes are provided. Domain pairs which are not adjacent can be added/removed.
Domain architectures containing the following SCOP superfamilies 57424,57424,57424,57424,57424,57424,57424,57424,57424,57424,57424,57184,63825,_gap_,57196,57196,57196,_gap_,57196,_gap_ in Xenopus tropicalis 76_4.2. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of 57424,57424,57424,57424,57424,57424,57424,57424,57424,57424,57424,57184,63825,_gap_,57196,57196,57196,_gap_,57196,_gap_.
GenEZ™ ORF cDNA clones makes it easy to order customized expression-ready ORF clones from the worlds largest commercial ORF clone database. You can Browse ORF cDNA clones by species Xenopus tropicalis, page 1
GenEZ™ ORF cDNA clones makes it easy to order customized expression-ready ORF clones from the worlds largest commercial ORF clone database. You can Browse ORF cDNA clones by species Xenopus tropicalis, page 196
Xenopus Blimp1 protein: controls anterior endomesodermal cell fate in Spemanns organizer in Xenopus; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AF182280
Xenbase would like to thank Mustafa Khokha for making his data for these charts available to us. ,br/>,br/>Original reference:,br/> Khokha, M. K., Chung, C., Bustamante, E. L., Gaw, L. W., Trott, K. A., Yeh, J., Lim, N., Lin, J. C., Taverner, N., Amaya, E., Papalopulu, N., Smith, J. C., Zorn, A. M., Harland, R. M. and Grammer, T. C. (2002), Techniques and probes for the study of Xenopus tropicalis development. Developmental Dynamics, 225: 499-510. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.10184 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12454926?dopt=Abstract] ===Xenopus tropicalis=== {, border=1 class=tableizer-table class=tableizer-firstrow ! ! colspan=3 align=center , 16°C ! colspan=3 align=center , 18°C ! colspan=3 align=center , 22°C ! colspan=3 align=center , 25°C ! colspan=3 align=center , 28°C ! colspan=3 align=center , 30°C ,- , ,b>NF Stage,/b> , ,b>Average,/b> , ,b>Minimum,/b> , ,b>Maximum,/b> , ,b>Average,/b> , ,b>Minimum,/b> , ,b>Maximum,/b> , ,b>Average,/b> , ,b>Minimum,/b> , ...
Xenopus XVLG1 protein: a Xenopus DEAD box protein; homologous to Drosophila vasa; MW 78,238 Da; pI 5.54; amino acid sequence given in first source
This page was generated on 2020-11-25 00:02:29 -0500 (Wed, 25 Nov 2020). xenopus.db0 home page: release version, devel version.. Number of downloads for annotation package xenopus.db0, year by year, from 2020 back to 2009 (years with no downloads are omitted):. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Biochai \ cDNA Library Xenopus Embryo9 \ B1X34000-9 for more molecular products just contact us
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0JP86 (LAMC1_XENTR), Laminin subunit gamma-1. Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (Silurana tropicalis)
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Zhou Y, Ching YP, Kok KH, Kung HF, Jin DY. Post-transcriptional suppression of gene expression in Xenopus embryos by small interfering RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Apr 1; 30(7): 1664- ...
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In our laboratory, we use Xenopus laevis, commonly known as the African clawed frog (learn more on wikipedia). Xenopus laevis is a great model system for dissecting the molecular pathways in DNA replication and the maintenance of genomic stability. Cell-free extracts made from Xenopus eggs contain all the proteins necessary to undergo 12 rounds of cell-cycle regulated, semi-conservative DNA replication in the absence of transcription. Events in these extracts are highly synchronous, allowing the analysis of short-lived intermediates and the dissection of signal transduction cascades. Particularly, the function of essential proteins can be addressed by immunodepletion or neutralization of these proteins, coupled to rescue with recombinant proteins. Xenopus cell-free extracts are generated by centrifuging unfertilized Xenopus eggs and isolating the cytoplasmic layer. Female Xenopus can be induced to lay an abundance of eggs after hormone injection. In fact, Xenopus laevis were used as a pregnancy ...
Although thoroughly studied in terms of structural, biochemical and biophysical characteristics, the biological functions of avidins are not fully understood. Here, we expand the research on avidins by reporting xenavidin, the first avidin-like protein from a frog, which was identified as an expressed sequence tag (EST) from the Xenopus tropicalis genome project. Avidins appear to be conserved among egg-laying vertebrates [3, 4, 6] and are thought to have a role as defence proteins against microbial infections [43, 44]. Bird eggs contain egg yolk, the compartment for embryonic development, and the egg white that surrounds the egg yolk provides both nutrients and protection for the embryo. In frogs, the equivalent to egg white is called egg jelly [45]. The avidin content of egg jelly may have an important role in the embryonic development of frogs, a hypothesis that is also supported by recent studies within natural bird populations, in which the concentration of avidin in egg white appears to be ...
The community effect is an interaction among a group of many nearby precursor cells, necessary for them to maintain tissue-specific gene expression and differentiate co-ordinately. During Xenopus myogenesis, the muscle precursor cells must be in group contact throughout gastrulation in order to develop into terminally differentiated muscle. The molecular basis of this community interaction has not to date been elucidated. We have developed an assay for testing potential community factors, in which isolated muscle precursor cells are treated with a candidate protein and cultured in dispersion. We have tested a number of candidate factors and we find that only eFGF protein is able to mediate a community effect, stimulating stable muscle-specific gene expression in demonstrably single muscle precursor cells. In contrast, Xwnt8, bFGF, BMP4 and TGF(β)2 do not show this capacity. We show that eFGF is expressed in the muscle precursor cells at the right time to mediate the community effect. Moreover, ...
Genetically identical cells often show significant variation in gene expression profile and behaviour even in the same physiological condition. Notably, embryonic cells destined to the same tissue maintain a uniform transcriptional regulatory state and form a homogeneous cell group. One mechanism to keep the homogeneity within embryonic tissues is the so-called community effect in animal development. The community effect is an interaction among a group of many nearby precursor cells, and is necessary for them to maintain tissue-specific gene expression and differentiate in a coordinated manner. Although it has been shown that the cell-cell communication by a diffusible factor plays a crucial role, it is not immediately obvious why a community effect needs many cells. In this work, we propose a model of the community effect in development, which consists in a linear gene cascade and cell-cell communication. We examined the properties of the model theoretically using a combination of stochastic and
The amphibian Xenopus has long been a comparative model system of choice for a number of different biological research areas, including immunology. Specifically, the evolutionary distance between amphibians and mammals, including humans, allows for the study of both species-specific adaptations, as well as conserved features of the immune system. Furthermore, the Xenopus genus includes species with multiple levels of polyploidy, thereby providing a unique model to study whole genome duplication and its effects thereof on individual genes. To better exploit this amphibian model, the development and innovative applications of novel research tools have been a priority. In this regard, recent advances in adapting the transgenesis approach to Xenopus have allowed for in vivo studies of the impact of loss and gain of function of specific genes at the level of the whole organism, further enhancing the potential uses of Xenopus as an important biomedical model system. This review highlights some of the major
Buy Frog: Oocyte Positive Female Xenopus laevis, Pigmented, Live Specimen, LM00531 at Nasco. You will find a unique blend of products for Arts & Crafts, Education, Healthcare, Agriculture, and more!
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Wnt signaling mediator tcf1 is required for expression of foxd3 during Xenopus gastrulation. AU - Janssens, Sylvie. AU - van den Broekm, Olaf. AU - Davenport, Ian R.. AU - Akkers, Robbert C.. AU - Liu, Fei. AU - Veenstr, Gert Jan C.. AU - Hoppler, Stefan. AU - Vleminckx, Kris. AU - Destree, Olivier. N1 - We thank Dr. B. Gumbiner for providing the rabbit polyclonal antibody against Xenopus b-catenin and S.A. Blythe for sharing the Xenopus ChIP protocol. We thank Tim Deceunink,Thomas Roose and Yvonne Turnbull for animal care taking and Amin Bredan for editing the manuscript. O.v.d.B. and O.D. were supported by the IOP Genomics program (IGE01010), which is subsidized by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. We acknowledge additional support by the BBSRC (I.R.D. and S.H.) the AICR (F.L. and S.H.), the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, Earth and Life Sciences Council (NWO-ALW VIDI 864.03.002, R.C.A. and G.J.C.V.), the Research Foundation-Flanders, the ...
Signal transduction induced by generations of second messengers from membrane phospholipids is a major regulatory mechanism in the control of cell proliferation. Indeed, oncogenic p21ras alters the intracellular levels of phospholipid metabolites in both mammalian cells and Xenopus oocytes. However, it is still controversial whether this alteration it is biologically significant. We have analyzed the ras-induced signal transduction pathway in Xenopus oocytes and have correlated its mechanism of activation with that of the three most relevant phospholipases (PLs). After microinjection, ras-p21 induces a rapid PLD activation followed by a late PLA2 activation. By contrast, phosphatidylcholine-specific PLC was not activated under similar conditions. When each of these PLs was studied for its ability to activate intracellular signalling kinases, all of them were found to activate maturation-promoting factor efficiently. However, only PLD was able to activate MAP kinase and S6 kinase II, a similar ...
For over a century, amphibian embryos have been a source of significant insight into developmental mechanisms, including fundamental discoveries about the process of induction. The recently developed transgenesis for Xenopus offers new approaches to these poorly understood processes, particularly wh …
All modes of Xenopus research (embryos, cell-free extracts, and oocytes) are commonly used in direct studies of human disease genes and to study the basic science underlying initiation and progression of cancer.[19] Xenopus embryos for in vivo studies of human disease gene function: Xenopus embryos are large and easily manipulated, and moreover, thousands of embryos can be obtained in a single day. Indeed, Xenopus was the first vertebrate animal for which methods were developed to allow rapid analysis of gene function using misexpression (by mRNA injection [20]). Injection of mRNA in Xenopus that led to the cloning of interferon.[21] Moreover, the use of morpholino-antisense oligonucleotides for gene knockdowns in vertebrate embryos, which is now widely used, was first developed by Janet Heasman using Xenopus.[22] In recent years, these approaches have played in important role in studies of human disease genes. The mechanism of action for several genes mutated in human cystic kidney disorders ...
Membrane potential and resistance were measured in eggs, cleavage stages and blastulae of the South African toad Xenopus laevis, using intracellular microelectrodes.. The membrane potential increased from −6·5 ± 2mV in eggs to −57 ± 8·0mV at the mid-blastula stage.. The input resistance of fertile eggs ranged from 0·5 MΩ to 5·0 MΩ corresponding to a specific resistance of 20-200kΩcm2. During the first two or three division cycles the input resistance usually decreased by a factor of 2-10 and then subsequently rose during the blastula stages from a mean value of 600 ± 100kΩ at stage 5 to 2·0 ± 0·5 MΩ at stage 8.. At all developmental stages examined, point polarization of a surface cell in the embryo by rectangular current pulses of 0·5−6 × 10−8 A produced voltage deflexions in other surface cells. This was seen even when several (7-8) cell junctions intervened between the current passing and voltage recording microelectrodes at distances of more than 1 mm. These ...
ID XENTR44_2_PE17 STANDARD; PRT; 490 AA. AC XENTR44_2_PE17; Q6GL03; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=Ariadne homolog 2; (XENTR44_2.PE17). GN Name=arih2; Synonyms=Arih2; ORFNames=TNeu126e05.1-001; OS XENOPUS (SILURANA) TROPICALIS. OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; OC Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; OC Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amphibia; Batrachia; Anura; Mesobatrachia; OC Pipoidea; Pipidae; Xenopodinae; Xenopus. OX NCBI_TaxID=8364; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS XENTR44_2.PE17. CC Xenopus tropicalis scaffold scaffold_44 JGI4.1 partial sequence CC 1000001..1992362 annotated by Ensembl CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:Q6GL03_XENTR CC -!- SIMILARITY: Contains 1 IBR-type zinc finger. CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000216611 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR ...
Xenopus laevis is an essential model organism in several areas of biology. In addition to the key attributes of these embryos for in vivo imaging, cell-free extracts from Xenopus provide among the most powerful in vitro systems for studies of cell and molecular biology. A complete sequence of the X. laevis genome is an essential resource for accurate identification of peptides for mass-spec analyses, for cloning of an ORFeome, for identifying evolutionarily conserved regulatory regions, and for design of morpholino-oligonucleotides for gene knockdowns. The Wallingford and Marcotte labs have obtained funding from the Texas Institute for Drug and Diagnostic Development (TI3D), in coordination with projects funded by the National Institutes of Health, to begin sequencing of the X. laevis genome. We are primarily working with Scott Hunicke-Smith at the University of Texas Genome Sequencing and Analysis facility, with funding sufficient for ~20x coverage of the X. laevis genome using ABI SOLiD ...
Xenopus laevis is an essential model organism in several areas of biology. In addition to the key attributes of these embryos for in vivo imaging, cell-free extracts from Xenopus provide among the most powerful in vitro systems for studies of cell and molecular biology. A complete sequence of the X. laevis genome is an essential resource for accurate identification of peptides for mass-spec analyses, for cloning of an ORFeome, for identifying evolutionarily conserved regulatory regions, and for design of morpholino-oligonucleotides for gene knockdowns. The Wallingford and Marcotte labs obtained funding from the Texas Institute for Drug and Diagnostic Development (TI3D), in conjunction with projects funded by the National Institutes of Health, to begin sequencing of the X. laevis genome. We began the project with Scott Hunicke-Smith at the University of Texas Genome Sequencing and Analysis facility, with funding sufficient for ~20x coverage of the X. laevis genome using ABI SOLiD next-generation ...
UNSPECIFIED. (1987) THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL CAP CELLS IN XENOPUS - A MEASURE OF THE START OF ANIMAL CAP COMPETENCE TO FORM MESODERM. DEVELOPMENT, 101 (3). pp. 557-563. ISSN 0950-1991 ...
Xenopus embryos contain a considerable amount of a polysialo-ganglioside not yet fully characterized; in this paper, we will refer to it as ganglioside XI. Preliminary experiments indicate asialo-GMI as the core structure of the ganglioside XI and pa
BioAssay record AID 145963 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of the NMB evoked increases in chloride currents in xenopus oocytes expressing human NMB receptor.
A novel role of TCF family in body axis formation. Revolutionary high impact discoveries are described, elucidating the missing link in the Wnt pathway and protein-TCF combinations with dual functions. By studying the primary axis formation of Xenopus laevis, it was firstly shown that, in combination with beta-catenin, TCF acts as a potent activator of proto-oncogenes. Secondly, it was discovered that in combination with the Groucho family of proteins, TCF acts as suppressor of oncogene transcription. Stronlgy suggesting that TCF controls oncogene transcription in a dual fashion. These discoveries contributed to the origination of a major area of cancer research and opened multiple angles for cancer therapy development ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The heat shock response in xenopus oocytes, embryos, and somatic cells. T2 - A regulatory role for chromatin. AU - Landsberger, N.. AU - Ranjan, M.. AU - Almouzni, G.. AU - Stump, D.. AU - Wolffe, A. P.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - The heat shock response in Xenopus laevis has been reported to be developmentally regulated at the transcriptional level. We find that the heat shock response of an exogenous Xenopus hsp70 gene introduced into Xenopus oocytes, embryos, and somatic cells is dependent on the transcriptional assay conditions employed. Under conditions of efficient chromatin assembly, transcription from the Xenopus hsp70 gene promoter is repressed in oocytes and embryos, yet the promoter responds to heat shock by activating transcription. Under conditions of inefficient chromatin assembly, the Xenopus hsp70 gene is constitutively active in oocytes and somatic cells. Our results resolve previous controversy concerning the existence of a heat shock response for the hsp70 ...
The African clawed frogs Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis are prominent animal model organisms. Xenopus research contributes to the understanding of genetic, developmental and molecular mechanisms underlying human disease. The Xenopus Anatomy Ontology (XAO) reflects the anatomy and embryological development of Xenopus. The XAO provides consistent terminology that can be applied to anatomical feature descriptions along with a set of relationships that indicate how each anatomical entity is related to others in the embryo, tadpole, or adult frog. The XAO is integral to the functionality of Xenbase ( http://www.xenbase.org ), the Xenopus model organism database. We significantly expanded the XAO in the last five years by adding 612 anatomical terms, 2934 relationships between them, 640 synonyms, and 547 ontology cross-references. Each term now has a definition, so database users and curators can be certain they are selecting the correct term
This approach effectively reduces the size of the cDNA library to be screened and increases the probability of successful isolation of the target cDNA. The vocal apparatus of the clawed frog is designed for underwater sound production (Deuchar, 1975). The first step of this physiological process seems to involve a target site at the oocyte membrane, as shown by a variety of experimental data (4). Here we demonstrate cytoplasmic microinjection of Xenopus laevis oocytes with a nuclear import substrate, as well as preparation of the injected oocytes for visualization by … Their large nuclei and mitochondrial masses are clearly visible in the intact oocyte. The incision is sutured with surgical silk and the frog is placed in shallow water in a small tank to allow it to recover from anesthesia before placing it in a special tank for postoperative frogs. XENOPUS OOCYTES The oocyte from the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis is an often used functional expression system. Two species of Xenopus ...
Xenopus (/ˈzɛnəpəs/) (Gk., ξενος, xenos=strange, πους, pous=foot, commonly known as the clawed frog) is a genus of highly aquatic frogs native to sub-Saharan Africa. Twenty species are currently described in the Xenopus genus. The two best-known species of this genus are Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis, which are commonly studied as model organisms for developmental biology, cell biology, toxicology, neuroscience and for modelling human disease and birth defects. The genus is also known for its polyploidy, with some species having up to 12 sets of chromosomes. All species of Xenopus have flattened, somewhat egg-shaped and streamlined bodies, and very slippery skin (because of a protective mucus covering). The frogs skin is smooth, but with a lateral line sensory organ that has a stitch-like appearance. The frogs are all excellent swimmers and have powerful, fully webbed toes, though the fingers lack webbing. Three of the toes on each foot have conspicuous black claws. The ...
The first 12 cell divisions of Xenopus laevis embryos do not require gene transcription. This means that the regulation of gene expression during this period is controlled at post transcriptional levels and makes Xenopus early development a potentially interesting biological system with which to study the mechanisms involved. We describe here the stability characteristics of several maternal Xenopus mRNAs which are deadenylated soon after fertilisation (J. Paris and M. Philippe, Dev. Biol., in press). We show that these mRNAs were only degraded in the embryo after the midblastula transition (MBT), when gene transcription was initiated. The kinetics with which the deadenylated maternal mRNAs decreased in the post-MBT embryos showed sequence specificity. The degradation of these mRNAs after the MBT was inhibited by cycloheximide but was not affected by dactinomycin. Therefore, the destabilization of these mRNAs does not appear to be initiated by new embryonic gene transcripts. Sequence comparisons ...
Nine peptides with differential growth inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the tetraploid frog Xenopus borealis Parker, 1936 (Pipidae). Structural characterization of the peptides demonstrated that they were orthologous to magainin-2 (1 peptide), peptide glycine-leucine-amide, PGLa (2 peptides), caerulein-precursor fragments, CPF (4 peptides), and xenopsin-precursor fragments, XPF (2 peptides), previously isolated from Xenopus laevis and X. amieti. In addition, a second magainin-related peptide (G**KFLHSAGKFGKAFLGEVMIG) containing a two amino acid residue deletion compared with magainin-2 was identified that had only weak antimicrobial activity. The peptide with the greatest potential for development into a therapeutically valuable anti-infective agent was CPF-B1 (GLGSLLGKAFKIGLKTVGKMMGGAPREQ) with MIC=5 microM against E. coli, MIC=5 microM against S. aureus, and MIC=25 microM against Candida albicans, and
In this work, we report an efficient method to easily study transmitter receptors originally assembled in cultured cell lines and then microtransplanted to a sturdy and convenient host cell system, the Xenopus oocyte. This method has been recently used to transplant assembled transmitter receptors from human brain to Xenopus oocyte (7), following a method developed a few years ago to microtransplant AcChoRs and chloride channels from the electric organ of Torpedo to the Xenopus oocyte membrane (5, 6). Here, we injected membrane vesicles prepared from cultured cell lines, and this approach led to a rapid incorporation of neurotransmitter receptors in the oocyte plasma membrane. In this way, functional AMPA-type GluR1, α7-AcChoRs, and α4β2-AcChoRs from cultured cells were microtransplanted to the oocytes, and their respective transmitter-activated currents were analyzed.. We report here that the gross electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics of the transmitter-gated receptors ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Xenopus Staufen is a component of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing Vg1 RNA and kinesin. AU - Yoon, Young J.. AU - Mowry, Kimberly L.. PY - 2004/7. Y1 - 2004/7. N2 - RNA localization is a key mechanism for generating cell and developmental polarity in a wide variety of organisms. We have performed studies to investigate a role for the Xenopus homolog of the double-stranded RNA-binding protein, Staufen, in RNA localization during oogenesis. We have found that Xenopus Staufen (XStau) is present in a ribonucleoprotein complex, and associates with both a kinesin motor protein and vegetally localized RNAs Vg1 and VegT. A functional role for XStau was revealed through expression of a dominant-negative version that blocks localization of Vg1 RNA in vivo. Our results suggest a central role for XStau in RNA localization in Xenopus oocytes, and provide evidence that Staufen is a conserved link between specific mRNAs and the RNA localization machinery.. AB - RNA localization is a key ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RNA transport to the vegetal cortex of Xenopus oocytes. AU - Zhou, Yi. AU - King, Mary Lou. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Kim L. Mowry for providing us with the XβG, XβG-340/3′, and pSP73XβM5′ constructs, Joel K. Yisraeli for sharing his in situ hybridization protocol, and the members of the King laboratory, especially Jian Zhang and Caryl Forristall, for helpful advice and discussions. This was supported by NIH Grant GM 33932 to M. L. King.. PY - 1996/10/10. Y1 - 1996/10/10. N2 - Xcat-2 RNA, a component of the germ plasm in Xenopus, localizes with the mitochondrial cloud material to the vegetal cortex in stage II oocytes. Vg1 RNA also localizes to the vegetal cortex, but later in stage III/IV oocytes, using a microtubule dependent pathway. To further analyze the mechanisms involved in RNA transport, in situ hybridization and autoradiography were used to follow the localization of endogenous Vg1 and injected Xcat-2 transcripts in stage IV oocytes. We show that Xcat-2 ...
The vertebrate Otx gene family is related to otd, a gene contributing to head development in Drosophila. We previously reported on the expression of Xotx2 gene, homologous to the murine Otx2 gene, during early Xenopus development. In the present paper we report an extensive analysis of the expression pattern of Xotx2 during later stages of development and also the cloning and developmental expression of two additional Otx Xenopus genes, Xotx1 and Xotx4. These latter two genes bear a good degree of homology to murine Otx1, higher for Xotx1 than for Xorx4. Both these genes are expressed in the forebrain and midbrain regions and their developmental patterns of expression are very similar, although not perfectly superimposable. Spatial and temporal expression patterns of the three Xotx genes suggest that they may be involved in the early subdivision of the rostral brain, providing antero-posterior positional information within the most anterior districts of the neuraxis. The three Xotx genes are ...
BioAssay record AID 710275 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonist activity at rat GluK1 receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes by two-electrode voltage-clamp at membrane potential -60 to -80 mV electrophysiology assay.
The common laboratory frog Xenopus laevis has puzzled researchers because it has twice the normal number of genes. A newly published genome sequence shows why: between 15 and 20 million years ago, two different species interbred and produced a hybrid, which then mated with its parent species to eventually form a new organism with a doubled genome. The frog has since adapted to the excess by losing or disabling many of these genes.
The goal of this laboratory course is to introduce vertebrate developmental biology to undergraduate students, emphasizing both classical and contemporary aspects of this field. During the course, the students combine the use of living Xenopus laevis material with active tutorial participation, with the aim of illustrating how the fertilized egg can generate the diversity of cell types and complexity of pattern seen only a few days later in the embryo. Special emphasis is given to the observation and manipulation of living material. The laboratory course includes a comprehensive analysis of both oogenesis and early development and is divided into two overlapping parts that combine tutorial and practical approaches. The first part is devoted to oogenesis; oocytes are sorted out, allowed to mature in vitro and observed in histological section. In the second part, students perform an in vitro fertilization of Xenopus eggs and a mesoderm and neural induction assay of animal cap explants. Successful
Xenopus laevis) to humans, with innumerous effects in phenotype and also in development. In Xenopus laevis, REST/NRSF ... REST/NRSF in Xenopus laevis[edit]. The effects and influences of RE1/NRSE and REST/NRSF are significant in non-neuronal cells ... In Xenopus laevis, RE1/NRSE and REST/NRSF dysfunction or mutation demonstrated significant impact on neural tube, cranial ... All of these alterations can be traced to an improper patterning of the ectoderm during Xenopus development. Thus, a mutation ...
Xenopus tropicalis and Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) - eggs and embryos from these frogs are used in developmental ... Wallingford, J.; Liu, K.; Zheng, Y. (2010). "Xenopus". Current Biology. 20: R263-4. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2010.01.012. PMID ... Harland, R.M.; Grainger, R.M. (2011). "Xenopus research: metamorphosed by genetics and genomics". Trends in Genetics. 27: 507- ...
He was also guided by the advice of Harry Zwarenstein, with whom he was later to co-operate in developing the Xenopus laevis ... Shapiro and Zwarenstein (March 1935). "A Case for the Early Diagnosis of Pregnancy on the South African clawed toad (Xenopus ... On pages 45 and 46 of a review titled 'The introduction of Xenopus laevis into developmental biology: of empire, pregnancy ... SHAPIRO, H. A.; ZWARENSTEIN, H. (1934-05-19). "A Rapid Test for Pregnancy on Xenopus lævis". Nature. 133 (3368): 762. Bibcode: ...
"Host-defense peptides from skin secretions of the tetraploid frogs Xenopus petersii and Xenopus pygmaeus, and the octoploid ... Xenopus pygmaeus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Downloaded on 23 ... The Bouchia clawed frog (Xenopus pygmaeus) is a species of frog in the family Pipidae found in the Central African Republic, ... frog Xenopus lenduensis (Pipidae)". Peptides. 33 (1): 35-43. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2011.11.015. PMID 22123629. S2CID 19130453. ...
Xenopus wittei. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Downloaded on 23 July ... De Witte's clawed frog, Xenopus wittei, is a species of frog in the family Pipidae found in the Democratic Republic of the ...
... amphibiansoftheworld.amnh.org/Amphibia/Anura/Pipidae/Dactylethrinae/Xenopus/Xenopus-muelleri v t e. ... Müller's Clawed Frog (Xenopus muelleri), also known as Müller's Platanna in Southern Africa, is a species of frog in the family ... Xenopus muelleri. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 July 2007. 2. Van Dijk, D. E. 1978. English names ...
Xenopus clivii. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Downloaded on 23 July ... The Eritrea clawed frog or Peracca's clawed frog (Xenopus clivii) is a species of frog in the family Pipidae found in Eritrea, ...
... or the Sidamo clawed frog (Xenopus largeni) is a species of frogs in the family Pipidae. Endemic to ... IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2014). "Xenopus largeni". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2014: e. ...
Xenopus borealis. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 July 2007. C. Michael Hogan (2015) East African ... The Marsabit clawed frog (Xenopus borealis) is an anuran that is only found in the upper elevations of the East African montane ... The Marsabit clawed frog (Xenopus borealis) is a species of frog in the family Pipidae found in Kenya, Tanzania, and possibly ...
Xenopus nrp1; P28824); and receptor-like tyrosine protein phosphatase. The MAM domain is thought to have an adhesive function. ...
... (Xenopus petersii) is a species of frog in the family Pipidae found in Angola, Botswana, the Republic of the ... Xenopus petersii. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 July 2007. v t e. ...
The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), which Hogben first developed as a model organism, is now one of the most widely used ... Shapiro had been Hogben's student in Cape Town, and he acknowledged that Hogben had suggested that Xenopus was a suitable ... He developed the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) as a model organism for biological research in his early career, attacked ... He confirmed that female Xenopus frogs, when injected with urine from a pregnant woman, ovulated within hours. Hogben found the ...
... (Xenopus andrei) is a species of frog in the family Pipidae. It is known with certainty only from coastal ... Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Xenopus andrei Loumont, 1983". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. ... IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2013). "Xenopus andrei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T58169A18397553. doi ...
The Lake Oku clawed frog (Xenopus longipes) is a species of frog in the family Pipidae, endemic to Lake Oku, a small crater ... "Xenopus longipes - Lake Oku Clawed Frog". AmphibiaWeb. 2018. Royal Zoological Society of Scotland. "Conservation of Amphibians ... Tinsley, R. & Measey, J. (2004). "Xenopus longipes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004. Retrieved 6 July 2013.old-form ... Xenopus longipes Loumont and Kobel 1991)" (PDF). Amphibian & Reptile Conservation.. ...
The three known vertebrate copies are restricted to jawed vertebrates, with some exceptions (e.g. Xenopus tropicalis). TRPN was ...
Xenopus ruwenzoriensis. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 July 2007. Pasquier, Louis Du; Wilson, M.; ... The Uganda clawed frog (Xenopus ruwenzoriensis) is a species of frog in the family Pipidae found in Uganda and possibly the ... Sammut, B. (2009). "The fate of duplicated immunity genes in the dodecaploid Xenopus ruwenzoriensis". Front. Biosci. 14 (14): ...
Xenopus gilli. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Downloaded on 23 July ... The Cape clawed frog, Cape platanna or Gill's platanna (Xenopus gilli) is a species of frogs in the family Pipidae endemic to ...
The crocodile-faced dtella (Gehyra xenopus) is a species of gecko endemic to Western Australia. Oliver, P. & Doughty, P. 2017. ... Gehyra xenopus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database v t e. ... Gehyra xenopus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e ...
... (Xenopus fraseri) is a species of frogs in the family Pipidae found in Angola, Cameroon, Central African ... Xenopus fraseri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T89257302A18397804. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2. ...
"Genetic and genomic tools for Xenopus research: The NIH Xenopus initiative". Developmental Dynamics. 225 (4): 384-91. doi: ... Xenopus laevis, 2002.) So far, three different transcription variants (TVs) have been described for CK1δ in humans (Homo ... subsequently affected Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction resulted in development of an ectopic dorsal axis in Xenopus laevis ...
The volcano clawed frog (Xenopus amieti) is a species of frog in the family Pipidae endemic to Cameroon. Its natural habitats ... Xenopus amieti. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T58168A16929588. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS ...
Xenopus tropicalis; Teleost fishes: Takifugu rubripes (fugu), Tetraodon nigroviridis (green spotted pufferfish), Danio rerio ( ...
Fesenko I, Kurth T, Sheth B, Fleming TP, Citi S, Hausen P (August 2000). "Tight junction biogenesis in the early Xenopus embryo ... Citi S, D'Atri F, Parry DA (August 2000). "Human and Xenopus cingulin share a modular organization of the coiled-coil rod ... Cordenonsi M, Turco F, D'atri F, Hammar E, Martinucci G, Meggio F, Citi S (September 1999). "Xenopus laevis occludin. ... In Xenopus laevis embryos, maternal cingulin is recruited to apical cell-cell junctions from 2-cells stage. In 2004, a protein ...
See also Xenopus - Model organism for biomedical research. Xenopus embryos and eggs are a popular model system for a wide range ... Xenbase is the Model Organism Database (MOD) for both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis.[11] ... The western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) is a species of frog in the family Pipidae, also known as tropical clawed frog.[2] ... Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Xenopus tropicalis (Gray, 1864)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. ...
In Xenopus embryos, the blastula is composed of three different regions. The animal cap forms the roof of the blastocoel and ... Pluripotent Xenopus cells, when used in an in vivo strategy, were able to form into functional retinas. By transplanting them ... Xenopus membrane polarity is established with the first cell cleavage. Amphibian EP-cadherin and XB/U cadherin perform a ... In Xenopus, blastomeres behave as pluripotent stem cells which can migrate down several pathways, depending on cell signaling. ...
Expression in Xenopus oocytes". FEBS Letters. 261 (2): 353-7. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90)80590-f. PMID 1690150. Coats WD, Navarro ... J (Apr 1990). "Functional reconstitution of fMet-Leu-Phe receptor in Xenopus laevis oocytes". The Journal of Biological ...
Patterning the Xenopus blastula. Development 124:4179-91. 4. Heasman J. 2006. Patterning the early Xenopus embryo. Development ... For example, in Xenopus, disruption of FGF signaling results in the inhibition of the Nodal-dependent induction and formation ... In Xenopus, disruption of FGF signaling, inhibits the transcription-inducing activity of VegT and Xbra expression, even at the ... In Xenopus, VegT activates transcription of Nodal-related genes (Xnr) genes, Activin and other mesodermal transcripts, which ...
ISBN 978-0-387-35136-0. Harland, Richard M. (1997). "Neural induction in Xenopus". In Cowan, W. Maxwell (ed.). Molecular and ...
Expression in Xenopus oocytes". FEBS Letters. 261 (2): 353-7. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90)80590-f. PMID 1690150. Coats WD, Navarro ... Murphy PM, McDermott D (Jul 1991). "Functional expression of the human formyl peptide receptor in Xenopus oocytes requires a ... J (Apr 1990). "Functional reconstitution of fMet-Leu-Phe receptor in Xenopus laevis oocytes". The Journal of Biological ...
Xenopus frog XOsr Expressed in the intermediate mesoderm and required in pronephros formation.[27] ...
The xenopus - known more commonly as the clawed frog - is one of the most studied of all amphibians. The frog can be bred and ... Why do we use xenopus frogs?. The xenopus - known more commonly as the clawed frog - is one of the most studied of all ... Professor Sir John Gurdon was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 for his work, carried out using xenopus, ... Unlike humans and other mammals, the xenopuss offspring grow outside of the body. Although the eggs are initially opaque, ...
... There are no movies to show in Xenopus. You might want to try its parent group, Pipidae. ...
In the amphibian Xenopus laevis, mesoderm arises in the equatorial region... ... Smith, J. C., Price, B. M. J., Green, J. B. A., Weigel, D., and Herrmann, B. G. (1991) Expression of a Xenopus homolog of ... Jones, E. A. and Woodland, H. R. (1987) The development of animal cap cells in Xenopus: a measure of the start of animal cap ... Heasman, J. (1997) Patterning the Xenopus blastula. Development 124, 4179-4191.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Developmental genetics in Xenopus tropicalis.. Geach TJ1, Zimmerman LB.. Author information. 1. National Institute for Medical ... The diploid pipid frog Xenopus tropicalis has recently emerged as a powerful new model system for combining genetic and genomic ... Its early development closely resembles that of its well-understood tetraploid relative Xenopus laevis, from which techniques ...
Xenopus ruwenzoriensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T58180A16942495. . Downloaded on 26 February 2018.. ... This species is known to live together with Xenopus pygmaeus (Evans et al. 2011, Tymowska and Fischberg 1973). It appears that ... Uniquely among vertebrates (except Xenopus longipes), this is a dodecaploid species, and it is therefore of considerable ...
... Richard Dobson maxdob at unix.ccc.nottingham.ac.uk Tue Nov 26 10:51:05 EST 1996 *Previous message: ... Ive just started a PhD at Nottingham University looking at apoptosis in the immune system of Xenopus Laevis. Im trying to do ...
Photoreceptor cells in the Xenopus retina.. Röhlich P1, Szél A.. Author information. 1. Department of Human Morphology and ... This review summarizes our present state of knowledge about spectrally different photoreceptor cell types in the Xenopus retina ...
Xenopus boumbaensis Xenopus calcaratus Xenopus clivii (Eritrea clawed frog) Xenopus epitropicalis Xenopus eysoole Xenopus ... Xenopus lenduensis Xenopus longipes (Lake Oku clawed frog) Xenopus mellotropicalis Xenopus muelleri (Müllers platanna) Xenopus ... Xenopus allofraseri Xenopus amieti (volcano clawed frog) Xenopus andrei (Andres clawed frog) Xenopus borealis (Marsabit clawed ... fischbergi Xenopus fraseri (Frasers platanna) Xenopus gilli (Cape platanna) Xenopus itombwensis Xenopus kobeli Xenopus laevis ...
Frog: Proven Breeders, Pair Xenopus laevis, Pigmented, Live Specimen, Live Specimen 2 Options Available Product #: LM00456 ... Frog: Male (Mature) 7.5 to 9 cm Xenopus laevis, Pigmented, Live Specimen Product #: LM00715 ... Surgically extracted ovaries from mature Xenopus laevis Frogs, Live Specimen Product #: LM00935 ... Frog: Female (Mature) 9+ cm Xenopus laevis, Pigmented, Live Specimen Product #: LM00535 ...
Xenopus sp. - Campanian - Los Alamitos Formation, Argentina. *Xenopus (Xenopus) sp. - Late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation, ... "Xenopus". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-01-21.. *^ Nenni; et al. (2019). "Xenbase: Facilitating the use of Xenopus ... Xenopus] at Fossilworks.org *^ Harland, RM; Grainger, RM (2011). "Xenopus research: metamorphosed by genetics and genomics". ... Gene editing by the CRISPR/CAS system has recently been demonstrated in Xenopus tropicalis[37][38] and Xenopus laevis.[39] This ...
Xenopus lenduensis, the Lendu Plateau clawed frog, is a species of frog in the family Pipidae endemic to the Orientale Province ... IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2016). "Xenopus lenduensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e. ... Xenopus) from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with a discussion of the biogeography of African clawed frogs in the ...
Xenopus laevis (the African clawed frog) is the standard experimental amphibian used in laboratories pan-globally. Escapees ... Frogs of the genus Xenopus are the only frogs with clawed toes and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) is the largest ... Feral Xenopus laevis in South Wales. Herpetological Journal 8: 23±27.. Measey, G. J. 1998. Diet of feral Xenopus laevis in ... Feral populations of Xenopus outside Africa. In Tinsley, R. C. and Kobel, H. R. (eds.) The Biology of Xenopus. Oxford ...
Xenopus oocytes assembled functional AcChoRs from the subunit-specific RNAs. These receptors were inserted in the cell membrane ... Control of Torpedo acetylcholine receptor biosynthesis in Xenopus oocytes Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Control of Torpedo acetylcholine receptor biosynthesis in Xenopus oocytes. A L Buller and M M White ... The RNAs for the separate subunits were transcribed in vitro from cDNAs inserted in pSP64T vectors and microinjected in Xenopus ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, Amy ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, Amy ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, and ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Xenopus Laevis Posters & Prints in all sizes. 1000s of designs & options available, or custom create your own! ... Container of African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus Laevis Poster. Add to Favorites Add to List Add to List ... Container of African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus Laevis Pricing By Style and Size. Poster. Wall Decal. Mounted Print. Canvas Art. ... Interests: Styles And Patterns , Design Themes , Colors , Black , Black Background , Container of African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus ...
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (Silurana tropicalis)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,F6QKT0,F6QKT0_XENTR Lysozyme OS=Xenopus tropicalis OX=8364 PE=3 SV=1 ...
Jones P.L., Wade P.A., Wolffe A.P. (2002) Purification of the MeCP2/Histone Deacetylase Complex from Xenopus laevis. In: Ward A ... Wade, P. A., Jones, P. L., Vermaak, D., and Wolffe, A. P. (1998) A multiple subunit Mi-2 histone deacetylase from Xenopus ... Shimamura, A.and Worcel, A. (1989) The assembly of regularly spaced nucleosomes in the Xenopus oocyte S-150 extract is ... Here, we describe techniques for purifying the MeCP2-contining histone deacetylase complex from Xenopus laevis oocytes. ...
Xenopus clivii Peracca, 1898 Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Pipidae > Genus: Xenopus > Species: Xenopus clivii ... Xenopus (Xenopus) clivii - Kobel, Barandun, and Thiebaud, 1998, Herpetol. J., 8: 13. ... Xenopus clivii Peracca, 1898, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Univ. Torino, 13 (321): 3. Type(s): Not stated; MZUT An261 ( ... Possibly in the Xenopus muelleri group according to Evans, Carter, Greenbaum, Gvoždík, Kelley, McLaughlin, Pauwels, Portik, ...
Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis. ›Xenopus laevis tropicalis. ›Xenopus tropicalis (Gray, 1864). More ». ›tropical clawed frog. ...
Pale to dark grey, olive-yellow or dark olive-green above, sometimes with paler green mottling and usually with large, randomly distributed patches of blackish pigment . The underside is cream to bright yellow which may be spotted with pale or dark grey. Length of males up to 65 mm, females 80 mm.
... zebra fishes/xenopus of site Lemanic Animal Facility Network hosted by the University of Lausanne ... and xenopus, and is organized once a year in collaboration with researchers working at University of Fribourg and University of ...
... Guadalupe Álvarez-Hernán,1 Ruth Bejarano-Escobar,1 Ruth ... In the present study, we analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of Isl1-immunoreactive cells during Xenopus laevis ...
Xenopus from Dr. Norbert Perrimons lab contains the insert porcupine and is published in Genes Dev. 1996 Dec 15;10(24):3116-28 ... porcupine - Xenopus was a gift from Norbert Perrimon (Addgene plasmid # 39772 ; http://n2t.net/addgene:39772 ; RRID:Addgene_ ...
... Added by: Running From Explosions , Date: 06-Oct-19 , Class: PC-music ... Music Video - Xenopus. The first music video uploaded to Youtube from the Ziggy Holmes album Victims of Pop. It was create... ...
... and it is this process that is highlighted by the Xenopus Egg Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway. In the amphibian Xenopus, fertilization of ...
The neurogenic gene Xotch acts to divert cellular determination during gastrulation in Xenopus embryos. We examined the role of ... Xotch inhibits cell differentiation in the Xenopus retina Neuron. 1995 Mar;14(3):487-96. doi: 10.1016/0896-6273(95)90305-4. ... The neurogenic gene Xotch acts to divert cellular determination during gastrulation in Xenopus embryos. We examined the role of ...
The addition of cyclopamine did not produce any cyclopic embryos, though mutations were seen in both the experimental and ethanol control groups. For example, this picture of 4 day old embryos shows changes in the eyes in both groups. While cyclopamine did not produce cyclopic embryos, it did produce more drastic changes.. ...
Xenopus Is the Subject Area "Xenopus" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Xcsp stands for Xenopus Cysteine String Protein. Xcsp is defined as Xenopus Cysteine String Protein very rarely. ... 2018 https://www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Cysteine-String-Protein-(Xcsp).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "Xcsp." ... n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2018). Retrieved December 13 2018 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Cysteine-String-Protein-( ... a href=https://www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Cysteine-String-Protein-(Xcsp).html,Xcsp,/a,. ...
XMAP stands for Xenopus Microtubule Assembly Protein. XMAP is defined as Xenopus Microtubule Assembly Protein very rarely. ... 2019 https://www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Microtubule-Assembly-Protein-(XMAP).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "XMAP ... n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2019). Retrieved July 20 2019 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Microtubule-Assembly-Protein-( ... a href=https://www.acronymfinder.com/Xenopus-Microtubule-Assembly-Protein-(XMAP).html,XMAP,/a,. ...
  • Hemmati-Brivanlou, A. and Harland, R. M. (1989) Expression of an engrailed -related protein is induced in the anterior neural ectoderm of early Xenopus embryos. (springer.com)
  • Harland, R. M. (1991) In situ hybridization: an improved whole mount method for Xenopus embryos, in Methods in Cell Biology, Vol. 36 (Kay, B. K. and Peng, H. B., eds. (springer.com)
  • [6] Xenopus embryos and eggs are a popular model system for a wide variety of biological studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early Pleistocene Olduvai Formation, Tanzania Like many other anurans, they are often used in laboratory as research subjects.Xenopus embryos and eggs are a popular model system for a wide variety of biological studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurogenic gene Xotch acts to divert cellular determination during gastrulation in Xenopus embryos. (nih.gov)
  • 1991 ) Pathways of degradation and mechanism of action of antisense oligonucleotides in Xenopus laevis embryos. (biologists.org)
  • 1987 ) Regional specification within the mesoderm of early embryos of Xenopus laevis . (biologists.org)
  • Till now the transcription factor Xvent-2 has been studied in Xenopus embryos only by the mRNA testing. (scirp.org)
  • Schuler-Metz, A., Knochel, S., Kaufmann, E. and Knochel, W. (2000) The homeodomain transcription factor Xvent-2 mediates autocatalytic regulation of BMP-4 expression in Xenopus embryos. (scirp.org)
  • Voronina, A.S. and Potekhina, E.S. (1999) Translational regulation of synthesis of proteins responsible for dorsoventral differentiation of Xenopus laevis embryos. (scirp.org)
  • Twin Xenopus laevis embryos appearing from flattened eggs. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A complementary DNA encoding a gap junction present in Xenopus oocytes and early embryos has now been cloned and sequenced. (sciencemag.org)
  • Altered development of Xenopus embryos in a hypogeomagnetic field. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Overview of how fertilization leads to establishment of the dorsal axis in Xenopus embryos. (els.net)
  • Dorsal accumulation of β‐catenin in Xenopus embryos. (els.net)
  • Heasman J, Crawford A and Goldstone K (1994) Overexpression of cadherins and underexpression of β‐catenin inhibit dorsal mesoderm induction in early Xenopus embryos. (els.net)
  • 1997) Establishment of the dorso‐ventral axis in Xenopus embryos is presaged by early asymmetries in β ‐catenin which are modulated by Wnt signalling. (els.net)
  • 1999) Establishment of the dorsal-ventral axis in Xenopus embryos coincides with the dorsal enrichment of Dishevelled that is dependent on cortical rotation. (els.net)
  • Molenaar M, van de Wetering M and Oosterwegel M (1996) Xtcf‐3 transcription factor mediates β‐catenin induced axis formation in Xenopus embryos. (els.net)
  • In its absence, Xenopus laevis embryos develop into headless, eyeless, spineless lumps of tissue. (harvard.edu)
  • In order to identify novel apoptotic and nonapoptotic developmental caspase functions, we designed and transgenically integrated novel fluorescent caspase reporter constructs in developing Xenopus embryos and tadpoles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, Anna Philpott's group used a population of anteroventral noradrenergic (AVNA) cells from Xenopus embryos. (biologists.org)
  • The establishment of polarized membrane traffic in Xenopus laevis embryos. (rupress.org)
  • Developmental genetics in Xenopus tropicalis. (nih.gov)
  • The diploid pipid frog Xenopus tropicalis has recently emerged as a powerful new model system for combining genetic and genomic analysis of tetrapod development with embryological and biochemical assays. (nih.gov)
  • The two best-known species of this genus are Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis , which are commonly studied as model organisms for developmental biology, cell biology, toxicology, neuroscience and for modelling human disease and birth defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fully-sequenced Xenopus Gene Collection (XGC) and IMAGE cDNA clones contain full coding sequences of expressed genes from Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis . (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Xenopus resources include clones from the I.M.A.G.E. Consortium as well as Xenopus Gene Collection (XGC) clones for both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis . (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Sequencing and analysis of 10,967 full-length cDNA clones from Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis reveals post-tetraploidization transcriptome remodeling. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Xenbase: The Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis resource. (xenbase.org)
  • Extend Xenopus ORFeome coverage to include clones from two Xenopus tropicalis EST collections in Gateway entry vectors. (xenbase.org)
  • The genome of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis (top) is roughly double that of the related western clawed frog X. tropicalis (bottom). (eurekalert.org)
  • Sexual differences in exploration behavior in Xenopus tropicalis? (biologists.org)
  • Here, we investigated whether males and females differ in their exploration behavior in an aquatic frog ( Xenopus tropicalis ). (biologists.org)
  • Using a Xenopus tropicalis Tcf reporter line we demonstrate that Barhl2 inhibitory effect on Groucho-Tcf activities is maintained during embryogenesis and plays a role in the confinement of neural progenitors in the brain. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Given our current knowledge, the experimental systems already established in X. laevis , and the rapid accumulation of genetic resources for the sister species Silurana (Xenopus) tropicalis , it is our conviction that these species provide an ideal alternative to the murine system for studying tumorigenesis and tumor immunity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The xenopus - known more commonly as the clawed frog - is one of the most studied of all amphibians. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Xenopus laevis (the African clawed frog) is the standard experimental amphibian used in laboratories pan-globally. (cabi.org)
  • Frogs of the genus Xenopus are the only frogs with clawed toes and the African clawed frog ( Xenopus laevis ) is the largest species, adults reaching 120mm. (cabi.org)
  • The African clawed frog ( Xenopus laevis ) is a water-dependent species occurring in a very wide range of habitats, including heavily modified anthropogenic habitats. (cabi.org)
  • Xenopus lenduensis, the Lendu Plateau clawed frog, is a species of frog in the family Pipidae endemic to the Orientale Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Oct. 20 issue of the journal Nature, an international research consortium led by scientists from the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Tokyo reports a striking pattern of genome duplication in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have chosen as a classic article Boutilier's research entitled 'Gas exchange, storage and transport in voluntarily diving Xenopus laevis ', co-authored with his PhD mentor, Graham Shelton ( Boutilier and Shelton, 1986 ), and stemming largely from his PhD studies on X. laevis , the African clawed frog ( Boutilier, 1981 ). (biologists.org)
  • Sample traces of lung ventilation (depicted as the flow measured by a pneumotachograph) with simultaneous measurements of lung gas tensions in the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis . (biologists.org)
  • A T-cell growth factor (TCGF) is produced by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T lymphocytes from the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis . (hindawi.com)
  • The Color Atlas of 'Xenopus laevis' Histology provides the first central source on the microscopic anatomy of cells, tissues, and major organs of the adult South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis . (indigo.ca)
  • In our laboratory, we use Xenopus laevis , commonly known as the African clawed frog (learn more on wikipedia ). (openwetware.org)
  • Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) Tadpole of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). (sciencephoto.com)
  • In embryonic development in vertebrates, β-catenin signaling promotes polarization of the embryo to establish the dorsoventral axis, and it is this process that is highlighted by the Xenopus Egg Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1996 ) Modulation of Xenopus embryo mesoderm-specific gene expression and dorsoanterior patterning by receptors that activate the phosphatidylinositol cycle signal transduction pathway. (biologists.org)
  • 1994 ) Distribution of Xrel in the early Xenopus embryo: a cytoplasmic and nuclear gradient. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, I examine two process of Xenopus laevis embryo development--namely, the processes of egg flattening and twin embryo production. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • During embryonic development of the amphibian, Xenopus laevis , the dorsal side of the embryo forms approximately opposite the sperm entry point, and the anterior and posterior axes are linked to this through the process of gastrulation. (els.net)
  • Confocal microscopic image of β‐catenin in a four‐cell Xenopus embryo. (els.net)
  • I wonder why we need to inject mRNA to xenopus embryo to see the function of that gene, not cDNA. (protocol-online.org)
  • I guess that there might not be a machinery for transcription yet in early xenopus embryo. (protocol-online.org)
  • Much of the current understanding of early embryonic development derives from experiments performed in the Xenopus embryo. (thermofisher.com)
  • sgRNA targeting slc45a2 efficiently edits Xenopus embryo DNA, resulting in mostly in frame deletions. (genetics.org)
  • Based on morphological, biochemical and karyological characters, the genus Xenopus can be divided into two main groups (subgenera), Silurana and Xenopus , and the latter into five subgroups. (thebhs.org)
  • Furthermore, Xenopus oocytes are a leading system for studies of ion transport and channel physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNAs for the separate subunits were transcribed in vitro from cDNAs inserted in pSP64T vectors and microinjected in Xenopus oocytes. (pnas.org)
  • Xenopus oocytes assembled functional AcChoRs from the subunit-specific RNAs. (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest that transcript availability may control receptor expression in Xenopus oocytes. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we describe techniques for purifying the MeCP2-contining histone deacetylase complex from Xenopus laevis oocytes. (springer.com)
  • To confirm that the oocyte cDNA encodes a gap junction channel, the protein was over expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection of RNA synthesized in vitro. (sciencemag.org)
  • Distribution of exchanges upon homologous recombination of exogenous DNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes. (genetics.org)
  • Xenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division cycles and maturation of the oocyte into a mature, fertilizable egg. (genome.jp)
  • In addition to being used to generate cell-free extracts, Xenopus oocytes and eggs can also be studying directly. (openwetware.org)
  • We have examined the initiation of polarized membrane traffic in Xenopus and show that membrane traffic is not polarized in oocytes but polarized membrane domains appear at first cleavage. (rupress.org)
  • RNA blot analysis of total Xenopus oocyte RNA showed hybridization to a single 1.6-kilobase band. (sciencemag.org)
  • Homologous recombination between DNA molecules injected into Xenopus oocyte nuclei was investigated by examining the recovery of information from differentially marked parental sequences. (genetics.org)
  • CIL:26268, Xenopus laevis laevis, oocyte. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • African clawed frogs of the genus Xenopus (zen'-uh-pus, literally "strange foot") comprise more than 20 species native to sub-Saharan Africa. (eurekalert.org)
  • Oligocene) in southwestern Tanzania, providing the earliest evidence for the genus Xenopus in sub-Saharan Africa. (bioone.org)
  • Anti-Eomesodermin homolog (Xenopus laevis) antibodies can be readily obtained from commercial sources. (biocompare.com)
  • The Eomesodermin homolog (Xenopus laevis) protein is a reported synonym for the human gene EOMES, encoding eomesodermin. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 26 eomesodermin homolog (Xenopus laevis) Antibodies across 4 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Structural work has confirmed the association of the corresponding residues 284-287 in the Xenopus homolog protein to the "minor" NLS-binding site of importin alpha and has shown a second region (residues 327-330 of Xenopus TPX2) contacting the "major" NLS-binding site (Giesecke and Stewart, 2010). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Scientists are making use of Xenopus tadpoles to study autism risk genes. (the-scientist.com)
  • Why do we use xenopus frogs? (cam.ac.uk)
  • In fact, Xenopus laevis were used as a pregnancy testing method because the injection of urine from pregnant women induced these frogs to lay eggs. (openwetware.org)
  • 1991 ) Molecular nature of Spemann's organizer: The role of the Xenopus homeobox gene goosecoid . (biologists.org)
  • Schmidt, J.E., von Dassow, G. and Kimelman, D. (1996) Regulation of dorsal-ventral patterning: The ventralizing effects of the novel Xenopus homeobox gene Vox. (scirp.org)
  • Ladher, R., Mohun, N.J., Smith, J.C. and Snape, A.M. (1996) Xom: A Xenopus homeobox gene that mediates the early effects of BMP-4. (scirp.org)
  • Lemaire P, Garrett N and Gurdon JB (1995) Expression cloning of siamois, a Xenopus homeobox gene expressed in dorsal‐vegetal cells of blastulae and able to induce a complete secondary axis. (els.net)
  • In the amphibian Xenopus , fertilization of the egg results in the establishment of a parallel array of microtubules with the plus end pointing away from the sperm entry point. (sciencemag.org)
  • We provide evidence, in the amphibian Xenopus laevis, consistent with an evolutionarily conserved and crucial role of the immune system in controlling neoplasia, which involves a striking variety of anti-tumoral immune effectors including conventional CTLs, c lassical MHC c lass Ia u nrestricted CTLs (CCU-CTLs) that interact with nonclassical MHC class Ib molecules, CD8 NKT-like cells and NK cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Xenopus serves as a model organism for the study of embryonic development, developmental biology, cell biology, and oncogenesis. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Scientists soon realized that Xenopus was also a valuable and versatile laboratory model for basic biology, enabling studies that shed light on both fundamental mechanisms of vertebrate embryonic development and mechanisms underlying human diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • Among the non-mammalian models, zebrafish and Xenopus are particularly suitable for live imaging of tissue morphogenesis, owing to their external embryonic development, transparent epithelium and large brood size. (nature.com)
  • Xenopus eggs are macroscopic and can be easily manipulated for microinjection, etc. and studied for embryonic development. (openwetware.org)
  • Heasman, J. (1997) Patterning the Xenopus blastula. (springer.com)
  • For zebrafish and Xenopus , are there currently any effective gene knock out strategies? (physicsforums.com)
  • Has RNAi been successful using siRNA in Zebrafish and Xenopus? (qiagen.com)
  • Photoreceptor cells in the Xenopus retina. (nih.gov)
  • This review summarizes our present state of knowledge about spectrally different photoreceptor cell types in the Xenopus retina. (nih.gov)
  • In its lifetime, a female xenopus can produce between 1,000 and 3,000 eggs, depending on the particular species. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Uniquely among vertebrates (except Xenopus longipes ), this is a dodecaploid species, and it is therefore of considerable conservation interest. (iucnredlist.org)
  • This species is known to live together with Xenopus pygmaeus (Evans et al. (iucnredlist.org)
  • All species of Xenopus have flattened, somewhat egg-shaped and streamlined bodies, and very slippery skin (because of a protective mucus covering). (wikipedia.org)
  • Xenopus species are entirely aquatic , though they have been observed migrating on land to nearby bodies of water during times of drought or in heavy rain. (wikipedia.org)
  • [9] The females of many species produce a release call, and Xenopus laevis females produce an additional call when sexually receptive and soon to lay eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] The Xenopus species are also active during the twilight (or crepuscular ) hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xenopus is also a unique system for analyses of genome evolution and whole genome duplication in vertebrates, as different Xenopus species form a ploidy series formed by interspecific hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • This course is made for researchers working with zebrafishes (or similar species) and xenopus, and is organized once a year in collaboration with researchers working at University of Fribourg and University of Geneva (medicine faculty). (unil.ch)
  • The specimen is well preserved, allowing us to use three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to compare the shape of this neurocranium to those of all extant species of Xenopus based on microcomputed tomography scans. (bioone.org)
  • Analyses revealed that this small fossil resembles diminutive extant species of Xenopus such as X. longipes . (bioone.org)
  • We have investigated the activity and function of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) during neural specification in Xenopus . (pnas.org)
  • The NICHD-funded Xenopus ORFeome project (R01HD069352) provides the research community with a comprehensive set of full-length, end-sequence validated, high quality open reading frame clones in the Gateway cloning system ready to use for recombinant protein expression. (xenbase.org)
  • 1992 ) Bone morphogenetic protein 4:a ventralizing factor in early Xenopus development. (biologists.org)
  • Freeze fracture replica of zonula occludens junctions from the small intestine of a Xenopus laevis tadpole. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Most importantly, an ORFeome set allows high-throughput in vivo functional-genomic screening of frog gnees in manner previously not feasible, This will help resesarchers take advantage of the strengths of Xenopus as a biomedical model organism. (xenbase.org)
  • The Xenopus laevis egg contains an asymmetric distribution of ribonucleic acids (RNAs), which are parceled out to different cells during cleavage. (els.net)
  • Movie shows spindle assembly around DNA-beads in a Xenopus laevis egg extract. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • A female Xenopus frog injected with a woman's urine was put in a jar with a little water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female Xenopus can be induced to lay an abundance of eggs after hormone injection. (openwetware.org)
  • The Xenopus ORFeome sequences have been cloned from Xenopus cDNA libraries or have been chemically synthesized. (xenbase.org)
  • The complete cDNA sequence of Xenopus laevis TPX2 is available from GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ under accession number AF244546. (rupress.org)
  • 1997 ) A Xenopus type 1 activin receptor mediates the mesodermal but not neural specification during embryogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Cell-free extracts made from Xenopus eggs contain all the proteins necessary to undergo 12 rounds of cell-cycle regulated, semi-conservative DNA replication in the absence of transcription. (openwetware.org)
  • A) Immunoblot of low-speed Xenopus egg extracts, mitotic microtubule-associated proteins purified as described (Wittmann et al. (rupress.org)
  • Nieuwkoop, P. D. and Faber, J. (1967) Normal Table of Xenopus laevis (Daudin), 2nd ed. (springer.com)
  • Nieuwkoop, P.D. and Faber, J. (1956) Normal table of Xenopus laevis (daudin): A systematical and chronologica survey of the development from the fertilized egg till the end of metamorphosis. (scirp.org)
  • Onichtchouk, D., Glinka, A. and Niehrs, C. (1998) Requirement for Xvent-1 and Xvent-2 gene function in dorsoventral patterning of Xenopus mesoderm. (scirp.org)
  • Symes, K. and Smith, J. C. (1987) Gastrulation movements provide an early marker of mesoderm induction in Xenopus laevis . (springer.com)
  • The cytoplasm of ruptured Xenopus frog eggs spontaneously reorganizes into cell-like compartments, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine. (news-medical.net)
  • Xenopus laevis eggs were artificially fertilized. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This image is part of a large data set of Xenopus laevis eggs imaged at various times post fertilization (the first number of the file name corresponds minutes, eg 30_2 is 30 min post fertilization). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Xenopus cell-free extracts are generated by centrifuging unfertilized Xenopus eggs and isolating the cytoplasmic layer. (openwetware.org)
  • Xenopus has long been an important tool for in vivo studies in molecular, cell, and developmental biology of vertebrate animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xenopus developmental stage that corresponds to the end of the animal's life. (bioontology.org)
  • The GeneChip Xenopus laevis Genome 2.0 Array is designed specifically to monitor gene expression in X. laevis , providing significant utility in developmental studies, such as induction and over-expression. (thermofisher.com)
  • Xenopus has and continues to make a major impact in our understanding of cell and developmental biology. (cshl.edu)
  • Yao J., Kessler D.S. (2000) Mesoderm Induction in Xenopus. (springer.com)
  • Melby, A.E., Clements, W.K. and Kimelman, D. (1999) Regulation of dorsal gene expression in Xenopus by the ventralizing homeodomain gene Vox. (scirp.org)
  • Moon RT and Kimelman D (1998) From cortical rotation to organizer gene expression: toward a molecular explanation of axis specification in Xenopus. (els.net)
  • Brannon M, Gomperts M, Sumoy L, Moon RT and Kimelman D (1997) A β‐catenin/Xtcf‐3 complex binds to the siamoispromoter to regulate dorsal axis specification in Xenopus. (els.net)
  • Papalopulu, N. and Kintner, C. (1996) A Xenopus gene, Xbr-1, defines a novel class of homeobox genes and is expressed in the dorsal ciliary margin of the eye. (scirp.org)
  • [12] However, the wide breadth of Xenopus research stems from the additional fact that cell-free extracts made from Xenopus are a premier in vitro system for studies of fundamental aspects of cell and molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Xenopus community is in full support of this project and the ORFeome was voted as a top priority of needed Xenopus resources. (xenbase.org)
  • Clone isolation and validation of the 40% of genes not currently represented in the Xenopus ORFeome v1.0 in Gateway entry vectors. (xenbase.org)
  • Its early development closely resembles that of its well-understood tetraploid relative Xenopus laevis, from which techniques and reagents can be readily transferred, but its compact genome is highly syntenic with those of amniotes. (nih.gov)
  • The transcription factor Snai2, which is induced by canonical Wnt signaling to be expressed in the early CNC, is pivotal for CNC induction and migration in Xenopus . (nature.com)
  • All of these findings suggest that the Xenopus egg cytoplasm has the intrinsic ability to generate the basic spatial organization of the cell and even has some of its functions. (news-medical.net)
  • In the present study, we analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of Isl1-immunoreactive cells during Xenopus laevis retinal development and its relation to the formation of the retinal layers, and in combination with different markers of cell differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to the accumulation of receptors, the nerve disperses preexisting receptor clusters prior to induction of high-density regions along the contact area, and, at this early stage, denervation disperses nerve-induced receptor clusters in Xenopus cultures (Kuromi and Kidokoro, 1984a, b). (jneurosci.org)
  • The GeneChip™ Xenopus laevis Genome 2.0 Array can be used to study the whole genome of Xenopus laevis on a single array. (thermofisher.com)
  • The GeneChip Xenopus laevis Genome 2.0 Array annotation file contains design-time annotations, using both the original probe-set names and new probe-set names. (thermofisher.com)
  • New probe-set names were assigned to differentiate the probe-set identifiers for GeneChip Xenopus laevis Genome 2.0 Array from the older, version-1.0 array. (thermofisher.com)
  • Our animal resource facility include four newly renovated rooms in the vivarium that are designated for maintaining experimentally manipulated amphibians and for maintaining and breeding stocks of outbred, partially inbred, and cloned lines of Xenopus. (rochester.edu)
  • A good starting point would be 2 gram/litre, but Xenopus are surprisingly salt-tolerant amphibians, and you could raise this a bit after a week or so to perhaps 3-5 gram/litre for a few days if needs be. (wetwebmedia.com)
  • Wade, P. A., Jones, P. L., Vermaak, D., and Wolffe, A. P. (1998) A multiple subunit Mi-2 histone deacetylase from Xenopus laevis cofractionates with an associated Snf2 superfamily ATPase. (springer.com)
  • These cell-like compartments formed whether or not Xenopus sperm nuclei were added, suggesting that the behavior relied on something intrinsic to the egg. (news-medical.net)
  • Does timing of axon outgrowth influence initial retinotectal topography in Xenopus? (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we show that a cilia-driven leftward flow precedes asymmetric nodal expression in the frog Xenopus. (nih.gov)