A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Mechanical ascending and descending devices which convey objects and/or people.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
A family of nucleotide diphosphate kinases that play a role in a variety of cellular signaling pathways that effect CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS. They are considered multifunctional proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins and have functions that are unrelated to their enzyme activity.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
A nucleoside diphosphate kinase subtype that is localized to the intermembrane space of MITOCHONDRIA. It is believed to play a role in the synthesis of triphosphonucleotides using ATP formed through OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
People afflicted with xanthinuria often produce stones composed of xanthine. People afflicted with adenine ...
Type I xanthinuria can be caused by a deficiency of xanthine oxidase, which is an enzyme necessary for converting xanthine to ... Xanthinuria, also known as xanthine oxidase deficiency, is a rare genetic disorder causing the accumulation of xanthine. It is ... Type II xanthinuria and molybdenum cofactor deficiency lack one or two other enzyme activities in addition to xanthine oxidase ... "Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for classical type I xanthinuria". J. Clin. ...
People with rare genetic disorders, specifically xanthinuria and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, lack sufficient xanthine oxidase and ... Xanthine is subsequently converted to uric acid by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Xanthine is used as a drug ... Derivatives of xanthine (known collectively as xanthines) are a group of alkaloids commonly used for their effects as mild ... Several stimulants are derived from xanthine, including caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. Xanthine is a product on the ...
... xanthine/NAD+ oxidoreductase, and xanthine oxidoreductase. Defects in xanthine dehydrogenase cause xanthinuria, may contribute ... Xanthine dehydrogenase, also known as XDH, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the XDH gene. Xanthine dehydrogenase ... Xanthine dehydrogenase can be converted to xanthine oxidase by reversible sulfhydryl oxidation or by irreversible proteolytic ... Aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead domain MOCOS Xanthine oxidase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Xanthinuria is a rare genetic disorder where the lack of xanthine oxidase leads to high concentration of xanthine in blood and ... explaining why xanthine oxidase is being researched for links to cardiovascular health. Both xanthine oxidase and xanthine ... Type II xanthinuria may result from a failure of the mechanism which inserts sulfur into the active sites of xanthine oxidase ... xanthine + H2O2 xanthine + H2O + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } uric acid + H2O2 Xanthine oxidase can also act on ...
People with the rare genetic disorder xanthinuria lack sufficient xanthine oxidase and cannot convert xanthine to uric acid. ... Clinical significance of xanthine derivatives[edit]. Derivatives of xanthine (known collectively as xanthines) are a group of ... Xanthine (/ˈzænθiːn/ or /ˈzænθaɪn/; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most ... Xanthine is subsequently converted to uric acid by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme. ...
1993). "cDNA cloning, characterization, and tissue-specific expression of human xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase". Proc ... 2001). "Mutation of human molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene is responsible for classical xanthinuria type II". Biochem. ... "Analysis of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase as possible candidate genes for autosomal recessive familial ...
Xanthine oxidase inhibitors decrease the production of uric acid, by interfering with xanthine oxidase. Uricosurics increase ... Medications most often used to treat hyperuricemia are of two kinds: xanthine oxidase inhibitors and uricosurics. ... Yamamoto T, Moriwaki Y, Takahashi S (June 2005). "Effect of ethanol on metabolism of purine bases (hypoxanthine, xanthine, and ... Ethanol also increases the plasma concentrations of hypoxanthine and xanthine via the acceleration of adenine nucleotide ...
Hypoxanthine is then oxidized to form xanthine and then uric acid through the action of xanthine oxidase. The other purine ... Guanine is then deaminated via guanine deaminase to form xanthine which is then converted to uric acid. Oxygen is the final ...
People afflicted with xanthinuria often produce stones composed of xanthine. People afflicted with adenine ...
Xanthine oxidase deficiency, see Hereditary xanthinuria. *Xanthinuria, see Hereditary xanthinuria. *XDH deficiency, see ...
Xanthinuria, rare inherited disorder of purine metabolism that results from a deficiency in the enzyme xanthine oxidase. ... Normally this enzyme breaks down the purine base xanthine to uric acid, which is then excreted. In the absence of the enzyme, ... xanthine is not metabolized by the body and its ... Xanthinuria, rare inherited disorder of purine metabolism that ... Xanthinuria is not a serious condition, and many individuals are symptomless. Some patients, however, develop xanthine stones ...
Has a history of gout or is under treatment for: gout or hyperuricemia; hereditary xanthinuria; hypouricemia or xanthine ...
Combined deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase, see Hereditary xanthinuria. *Combined immunodeficiency due ... Combined xanthine oxidase and sulfite oxidase and aldehyde oxidase deficiency, see Molybdenum cofactor deficiency ... Combined deficiency of sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase, see Molybdenum cofactor deficiency ...
Xanthinuria is a rare genetic disorder where the lack of xanthine oxidase leads to high concentration of xanthine in blood and ... explaining why xanthine oxidase is being researched for links to cardiovascular health. Both xanthine oxidase and xanthine ... Type II xanthinuria may result from a failure of the mechanism which inserts sulfur into the active sites of xanthine oxidase ... xanthine + H2O2 xanthine + H2O + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } uric acid + H2O2 Xanthine oxidase can also act on ...
Type I xanthinuria can be caused by a deficiency of xanthine oxidase, which is an enzyme necessary for converting xanthine to ... Xanthinuria, also known as xanthine oxidase deficiency, is a rare genetic disorder causing the accumulation of xanthine. It is ... Type II xanthinuria and molybdenum cofactor deficiency lack one or two other enzyme activities in addition to xanthine oxidase ... "Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for classical type I xanthinuria". J. Clin. ...
Sumi, S. and Wada, Y. [Xanthine oxidase deficiency (hereditary xanthinuria), molybdenum cofactor deficiency]. Nippon Rinsho ... Nishino, T. and Okamoto, K. The role of the [2Fe-2s] cluster centers in xanthine oxidoreductase. J Inorg.Biochem 2000;82(1-4): ... Brondino, C. D., Romao, M. J., Moura, I., and Moura, J. J. Molybdenum and tungsten enzymes: the xanthine oxidase family. Curr ... Borges, F., Fernandes, E., and Roleira, F. Progress towards the discovery of xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Curr Med Chem 2002;9( ...
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria). Disease. Methionine Adenosyltransferase Deficiency. Disease. ... Xanthinuria type I. Disease. Homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia due to defect in cobalamin metabolism, cblG complementation ...
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria). Disease. Azathioprine Action Pathway. Drug action. Operon: De Novo Purine ...
... causes xanthinuria.. xan·thine ox·i·dase. (zanthēn oksi-dās) Flavoprotein containing molybdenum; also oxidizes hypoxanthine, ... xanthine oxidase. (redirected from hypoxanthine oxidase). Also found in: Encyclopedia. xan·thine ox·i·dase. a flavoprotein ... xan·thine ox·i·dase/ (ok´sĭ-dās) a flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to ... xanthine. a purine compound found in most bodily tissues and fluids; it is a precursor of uric acid. Xanthine compounds such as ...
... xanthine explanation free. What is xanthine? Meaning of xanthine medical term. What does xanthine mean? ... Looking for online definition of xanthine in the Medical Dictionary? ... Mutational analysis of the xanthine dehydrogenase gene in a Turkish family with autosomal recessive classical xanthinuria.. ... Related to xanthine: Xanthine oxidase, Xanthine DeHydrogenase, xanthine oxidase deficiency. xanthine. [zan´thēn] a purine ...
Xanthine oxydase deficiency... Joint pain *Xanthinuria... Joint pain *Yaws... Joint pain *Yersiniosis... joint pains Types of ...
Mutations Associated with Functional Disorder of Xanthine Oxidoreductase and Hereditary Xanthinuria in Humans ...
Mutations Associated with Functional Disorder of Xanthine Oxidoreductase and Hereditary Xanthinuria in Humans ...
Mutations Associated with Functional Disorder of Xanthine Oxidoreductase and Hereditary Xanthinuria in Humans ...
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria). *Xanthinuria type I. *Xanthinuria type II. Reactions. Adenosine triphosphate ...
Two inherited forms of xanthinuria principally result from a deficiency of the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase, which is the ... Xanthinuria is a descriptive term for excess urinary excretion of the purine base xanthine. ... enzyme responsible for degrading hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid. ... Xanthinuria is a descriptive term for excess urinary excretion of the purine base xanthine. Two inherited forms of xanthinuria ...
... xanthine stone disease); two types of the disease; causes, signs, and management; dog and cat breeds at risk. ... Xanthinuria. Xanthinuria is a descriptive term for excess urinary excretion of xanthine. Xanthine is a nitrogenous by-product ... Type I xanthinuria is the result of a deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase enzyme. Type II xanthinuria is characterized by a ... Xanthine urolithiasis in a cat: a case report and evaluation of a candidate gene for xanthine dehydrogenase. Journal of Feline ...
Bilateral xanthine nephrolithiasis in a dog. Kucera J - - 1997 Xanthinuria is an uncommon metabolic disorder clinically ...
Allopurinol increases the filtered load of xanthine in patients with tumor lysis to produce xanthinuria. Furosemide decreases ...
Xanthine oxydase deficiency ... Failure to thrive*Xanthinuria ... Failure to thrive. Z. *ZAP70 deficiency ... Failure to thrive ...
History of gout, xanthinuria or other indications for uric acid lowering therapy such as cancer chemotherapy ... Adverse reactions to allopurinol or other xanthine oxidase inhibitors. *Use of uric acid lowering therapy within 3 months ...
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria). *Xanthinuria type I. *Xanthinuria type II. Reactions. 2-deoxyribonucleoside ...
Elevated levels of xanthine in blood and urine samples are indicative of pathological conditions such as xanthinuria, gout, or ... Xanthine oxidase (XOD) (E.C.1.1.3.2) from buttermilk (0.15 U mg−1), xanthine extrapure, N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) ... To study the analytical recovery of exogenously added xanthine, 0.1 mL of xanthine solutions (10 mg L−1, 20 mg L−l) in fish ... Thus, xanthine attracts much attention as an indicator of fish freshness.3 Biochemical assays of xanthine are routinely ...
Mutations associated with functional disorder of xanthine oxidoreductase and hereditary xanthinuria in humans ...
... and xanthine to uric acid, as the final catabolism of purines. Deficient in the human disease xanthinuria ... Dehydrogenases involved in conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine, ... Chemically, xanthine is a purine. There is a genetic disease of xanthine metabolism, xanthinuria, due to deficiency of an ... xanthine oxidase. Dehydrogenases involved in conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine, and xanthine to uric acid, as the final ...
... is related to xanthinuria, type ii and xanthinuria, type i. An important gene associated with Xanthinuria is XDH (Xanthine ... Wikipedia : 76 Xanthinuria, also known as xanthine oxidase deficiency, is a rare genetic disorder causing the... more... ... Human xanthine dehydrogenase cDNA sequence and protein in an atypical case of type I xanthinuria in comparison with normal ... Identification of a xanthinuria type I case with mutations of xanthine dehydrogenase in an Afghan child. ( 22981351 ) ...
Xanthinuria is a rare disease, in which xanthine oxidase deficiency leads to the accumulation of xanthine (XA) in urine. ... Xanthinuria is a rare disease, in which xanthine oxidase deficiency leads to the accumulation of xanthine (XA) in urine. ... Voltammetry of Ferricyanide Voltammetry of Xanthine PAGE 76. Sensitivity in Fast Scan Voltammetry of Xanthine PAGE 78. Xanthine ... xanthinuria. Chemistry -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF. Genre: Chemistry thesis, Ph.D.. bibliography ( marcgt ). theses ( ...
... and Xanthinuria (deficiency of xanthine oxidase) can lower serum uric acid.4,6,7 Hypouricemia is reported with acute ...
Less commonly, xanthine crystals build up in the muscles, causing pain and cramping. In some people with hereditary xanthinuria ... Because xanthine is not converted to uric acid, affected individuals have high levels of xanthine and very low levels of uric ... OMIM: XANTHINE DEHYDROGENASE. *. Xu P, Huecksteadt TP, Hoidal JR. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human xanthine ... The excess xanthine can accumulate in the kidneys and other tissues. In the kidneys, xanthine forms tiny crystals that ...
  • Normally this enzyme breaks down the purine base xanthine to uric acid , which is then excreted. (britannica.com)
  • Catalyzes the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and can further catalyze the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following chemical reactions are catalyzed by xanthine oxidase: hypoxanthine + H2O + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } xanthine + H2O2 xanthine + H2O + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } uric acid + H2O2 Xanthine oxidase can also act on certain other purines, pterins, and aldehydes. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypoxanthine (one oxygen atom) xanthine (two oxygens) uric acid (three oxygens) Because XO is a superoxide-producing enzyme, with general low specificity, it can be combined with other compounds and enzymes and create reactive oxidants, as well as oxidize other substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the reaction with xanthine to form uric acid, an oxygen atom is transferred from molybdenum to xanthine, whereby several intermediates are assumed to be involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because xanthine oxidase is a metabolic pathway for uric acid formation, the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol is used in the treatment of gout. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I xanthinuria can be caused by a deficiency of xanthine oxidase, which is an enzyme necessary for converting xanthine to uric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two inherited forms of xanthinuria principally result from a deficiency of the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase, which is the enzyme responsible for degrading hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid. (medscape.com)
  • Iatrogenic xanthinuria can occur during allopurinol therapy, which is used to reduce urine uric acid excretion in conditions with endogenous overproduction of uric acid. (medscape.com)
  • Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase enzyme, is sometimes recommended to decrease urinary uric acid excretion. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Xanthine is a precursor of uric acid. (rsc.org)
  • Dehydrogenases involved in conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine, and xanthine to uric acid, as the final catabolism of purines. (academic.ru)
  • Specifically, it carries out the final two steps in the process: the conversion of a molecule called hypoxanthine to another molecule called xanthine, and the conversion of xanthine to uric acid, a waste product that is normally excreted in urine and feces. (nih.gov)
  • Because xanthine is not converted to uric acid, affected individuals have high levels of xanthine and very low levels of uric acid in their blood and urine. (nih.gov)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. (nih.gov)
  • It is characterized by high levels of a compound called xanthine and very low levels of another compound called uric acid in the blood and urine. (malacards.org)
  • Xanthinuria , also known as Xanthine oxydase deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that causes a deficiency of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme necessary for converting xanthine to uric acid . (chemeurope.com)
  • Type I xanthinuria, a type of classical xanthinuria (see this term), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of purine metabolism (see this term) characterized by the isolated deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase, causing hyperxanthinemia with low or absent uric acid and xanthinuria, leading to urolithiasis, hematuria, renal colic and urinary tract infections, while some patients are asymptomatic and others suffer from kidney failure. (cdc.gov)
  • A xanthine oxidase inhibitor is any substance that inhibits the activity of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme involved in purine metabolism.In humans, inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces the production of uric acid, and several medications that inhibit xanthine oxidase are indicated for treatment of hyperuricemia and related medical conditions including gout. (lamotora.com.ec)
  • Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. (lamotora.com.ec)
  • Xanthine oxidase (XO) converts hypoxanthine to xanthine, and xanthine to uric acid. (lamotora.com.ec)
  • In both patients, plasma and urinary concentrations of uric acid were low but xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were markedly elevated. (gale.com)
  • This is due to the genetic deficiency of enzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase [1] that is responsible for degrading hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid leaving excess hypoxanthine and xanthine amounts. (explainmedicine.com)
  • In humans, inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces the production of uric acid, and several medications that inhibit xanthine oxidase are indicated for treatment of hyperuricemia and related medical conditions including gout. (tokobunganusantara.com)
  • Xanthine is a natural by-product of purine metabolism, which is normally converted to uric acid (the waste product of proteins found in the blood) by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. (petmd.com)
  • Xanthine is involved in human physiology and is an intermediate in the production of uric acid. (kanellasgroup.gr)
  • Aminophylline, NCI Thesaurus) An orally available, non-purine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase with uric acid lowering activity. (kanellasgroup.gr)
  • Xanthine is subsequently converted to uric acid by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme. (bionity.com)
  • People with the rare genetic disorder xanthinuria lack sufficient xanthine oxidase and cannot convert xanthine to uric acid. (bionity.com)
  • During this process the xanthine dehydrogenase, degrates hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid. (blogspot.com)
  • Characteristic biochemical abnormalities include decreased serum uric acid and increased urine sulfite levels due to the combined enzymatic deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase ( XDH ) and sulfite oxidase ( SUOX ), both of which use molybdenum as a cofactor. (mendelian.co)
  • Deficiency of the enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase, which catalyzes the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and of xanthine to uric acid. (mhmedical.com)
  • Laboratory findings include low or absent uric acid replaced by xanthine in concentrations from 10 to 40 µ mol/L. Hypoxanthine concentrations are lower than 5 µ mol/L. Xanthine and hypoxanthine can be found in the urine, xanthine calculi in the urinary tract, and crystalline deposits in skeletal muscles. (mhmedical.com)
  • an oxidoreductase catalyzing the reaction of xanthine, O 2 , and H 2 O to produce urate and superoxide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Xanthine oxidase (XO, sometimes 'XAO') is a form of xanthine oxidoreductase, a type of enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is suggested that xanthine oxidoreductase, along with other enzymes, participates in the conversion of nitrate to nitrite in mammalian tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xanthine oxidoreductase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The thermodynamics of xanthine oxidoreductase catalysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Allopurinol, a prototypical xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, has been widely prescribed for treatment of gout and hyperuricemia. (lamotora.com.ec)
  • It is created from hypoxanthine by xanthine oxidoreductase. (bionity.com)
  • Type II (caused by mutation of human MoCo sulfurase gene), with deficiency of xanthine oxidoreductase and aldehyde oxidase. (mhmedical.com)
  • Xanthinuria occurs in molybdenum cofactor deficiency, where sulfite oxidase (SO) is also inactive in addition to xanthine oxidoreductase and aldehyde oxidase. (mhmedical.com)
  • Type II xanthinuria and molybdenum cofactor deficiency lack one or two other enzyme activities in addition to xanthine oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • elevated in molybdenum cofactor deficiency and in xanthinuria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The other inherited form of xanthinuria, termed molybdenum cofactor deficiency, presents in the neonatal period with microcephaly, hyperreflexia, and other CNS manifestations. (medscape.com)
  • This condition is inherited recessively and is caused by a congenital defect of a molybdenum-containing cofactor essential for the function of 3 distinct enzymes (ie, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase, sulfite oxidase). (medscape.com)
  • xanthine oxidase - n a crystallizable flavoprotein enzyme containing iron and molybdenum that promotes the oxidation esp. (academic.ru)
  • Xanthine dehydrogenase belongs to the group of molybdenum-containing hydroxylases involved in the oxidative metabolism of purines. (novusbio.com)
  • Absence of hepatic molybdenum cofactor: an inborn error of metabolism leading to a combined deficiency of sulphite oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1980. Characterization of the molybdenum cofactor of sulfite oxidase, xanthine, oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (asmscience.org)
  • 1978. Combined deficiency of xanthine oxidase and sulphite oxidase: a defect of molybdenum metabolism or transport? (ac.ir)
  • A mixture of xanthine oxidase deficiency and sulfite oxidase deficiency may also result in xanthinuria and has been attributed to an absence of the molybdenum cofactor for catalytic activity required for each enzymes to be lively. (tallerdepolitica.org)
  • The molybdenum cofactor sulfurase ABA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana specifically regulates the activity of the molybdenum enzymes aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase by converting their molybdenum cofactor from the desulfo-form into the sulfo-form. (meta.org)
  • At least 12 mutations in the XDH gene have been found to cause hereditary xanthinuria type I, a condition that most often affects the kidneys. (nih.gov)
  • In some people with hereditary xanthinuria, the condition does not cause any health problems. (nih.gov)
  • Primary cases (without exposure to xanthine dehydrogenase inhibitors) occur as a consequence of hereditary xanthinuria, although the causal mutation has only been discovered in a subset of cases. (bvsalud.org)
  • 25 Hereditary xanthinuria is a condition that most often affects the kidneys. (malacards.org)
  • Researchers have described two major forms of hereditary xanthinuria, types I and II. (malacards.org)
  • Hereditary Xanthinuria, also known as xanthinuria , is related to xanthinuria and urolithiasis . (malacards.org)
  • Hereditary xanthinuria type I, a defect of purine matabolism, results from a genetic deficiency of xanthine oxidase. (gale.com)
  • Xanthinuria type I, a rare hereditary disorder, is characterized by a marked and isolated defi-ciency of xanthine oxidase activity in the ti-ssues, resulting in hypouricemia and hypourico-suria. (gale.com)
  • Xanthinuria is excess urinary excretion of the xanthine which is a hereditary condition. (explainmedicine.com)
  • Xanthine crystalluria in humans has been described in accordance to a hereditary xanthinuria. (laboklin.com)
  • In the absence of the enzyme, xanthine is not metabolized by the body and its concentration builds up in the blood and urine. (britannica.com)
  • Sufferers have unusually high concentrations of xanthine in their blood and urine, which can lead to health problems such as renal failure and xanthine kidney stones, one of the rarest types of kidney stones. (wikipedia.org)
  • When there is a deficiency of one or two enzymes, xanthine accumulates in the plasma and urine and causes disorders of blood vessels, muscles, kidneys, bladder stones, and kidney failure . (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Irritation of the tubular epithelium by xanthine crystals results in hematuria (blood in the urine), whereas renal tissue deposits induce an inflammation of the kidneys. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Since alkalinization of the urine has little affect upon the solubility of xanthine, it adds little to the therapeutic regimen. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Elevated levels of xanthine in blood and urine samples are indicative of pathological conditions such as xanthinuria, gout, or renal failure. (rsc.org)
  • 12 A purine-pyrimidine metabolic disorder characterized by deficiency of xanthine oxidase, resulting in excretion of large amounts of xanthine in the urine and the formation of xanthine stones. (malacards.org)
  • Xanthinuria is a rare disease, in which xanthine oxidase deficiency leads to the accumulation of xanthine (XA) in urine. (ufl.edu)
  • Xanthine may precipitate in acidic urine in an amorphous form especially in dogs and cats which were given allopurinol. (laboklin.com)
  • Microphotographic picture from amorphous xanthine crystals in the urine sediment of a two-and-a-half-year-old castrated male shorthair cat whom allopurinol had been orally given to dissolve bladder calculus of ammonium urate. (laboklin.com)
  • Because xanthine is the least soluble of the purines excreted in urine, excessive amounts of xanthines in the urine may be associated with formation of xanthine uroliths (stones). (petmd.com)
  • Impairment of xanthine oxidase ultimately results in xanthines in the blood (hyperxanthinemia) and xanthines spilling over into the urine (xanthinuria). (petmd.com)
  • The urinalysis will show xanthine crystals in the urine sediment. (petmd.com)
  • For a precise diagnosis, the urine should be sent for infrared spectroscopy, which can be used to differentiate xanthine uroliths (urinary tract stones) from other types of uroliths. (petmd.com)
  • Also, high-pressure liquid chromatography of urine can be done to detect xanthine, hypoxanthine, and other purine metabolites. (petmd.com)
  • Urine pH may be increased to prevent xanthine uroliths, and a low-purine diet may be fed along with plenty of water to increase urine output. (petmd.com)
  • Literally "yellow urine," xanthinuria is an inherited metabolic disorder in which there is deficiency of an enzyme needed to process xanthine, a yellowish substance found in caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, and related substances. (drugline.org)
  • Characterized by the excretion of large amounts of xanthine in the urine and tendency to form xanthine stones and severe hypouricemia. (mhmedical.com)
  • Type II xanthinuria may result from a failure of the mechanism which inserts sulfur into the active sites of xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase, a related enzyme with some overlapping activities (such as conversion of allopurinol to oxypurinol). (wikipedia.org)
  • Type II xanthinuria is characterized by a deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase and a related enzyme, aldehyde oxidase. (medscape.com)
  • The distinction between the 2 types is based on the ability or inability to oxidize allopurinol, a substrate for xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase. (medscape.com)
  • Five patients with a combined deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase, sulphite oxidase and, possibly, also of aldehyde oxidase are described. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Results: Moco, as the cofactor of sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrite reductase plays a substantial role in maintaining normal body homeostasis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. (ac.ir)
  • Species-Specific Involvement of Aldehyde Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase in the Metabolism of the Pyrimidine-Containing mGlu 5 -Negative Allosteric Modulator VU0424238 (Auglurant). (wikipathways.org)
  • In vitro, the NifS-like domain of ABA3 activates aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase in the absence of the C-terminal domain, but in vivo, the C-terminal domain is required for proper activation of both target enzymes. (meta.org)
  • Deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase results in plasma accumulation and excess urinary excretion of the highly insoluble xanthine, which may lead to arthropathy, myopathy, crystal nephropathy, urolithiasis, or renal failure. (medscape.com)
  • In dogs and cats, xanthinuria is an uncommon metabolic disorder that is clinically manifested as urolithiasis . (gopetsamerica.com)
  • In addition, xanthinuria often leads to Urolithiasis. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Xanthine urolithiasis in a cat: a case report and evaluation of a candidate gene for xanthine dehydrogenase. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Xanthine urolithiasis is rare in veterinary medicine. (bvsalud.org)
  • We report here two children with xanthine urolithiasis. (gale.com)
  • Xanthinuria , rare inherited disorder of purine metabolism that results from a deficiency in the enzyme xanthine oxidase. (britannica.com)
  • Since xanthine oxidase is involved in the metabolism of 6-mercaptopurine, caution should be taken before administering allopurinol and 6-mercaptopurine, or its prodrug azathioprine, in conjunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of ischemia/reperfusion on adenine nucleotide metabolism and xanthine oxidase production in skeletal muscle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Xanthine continues to accumulate, despite the recycling of hypoxanthine, because of the metabolism of guanine to xanthine by the enzyme guanase (see image below). (medscape.com)
  • Xanthinuria is only a marker in this setting because (1) the clinical presentation is overshadowed by neurologic manifestations and (2) death in the first year of life is caused by the deficiency of sulfite oxidase, which is the final step in cysteine metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • Xanthine is a nitrogenous by-product of the metabolism of certain proteins. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • An important gene associated with Xanthinuria is XDH (Xanthine Dehydrogenase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Purine metabolism and Sulfur relay system . (malacards.org)
  • Xanthine oxidase (XO), a key enzyme in purine metabolism, produces reactive oxygen species causing vascular injuries and chronic heart failure. (lukaszkowalski.com)
  • A xanthine oxidase inhibitor is any substance that inhibits the activity of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme involved in purine metabolism. (tokobunganusantara.com)
  • Violation of purine metabolism, and as a result of xanthinuria, is caused by a defect of the enzyme xanthine oxidase nephorpathy defective gene is localized dhsmetabolic the 2-nd chromosome. (kuzemkinomo.ru)
  • Some patients, however, develop xanthine stones in their kidneys. (britannica.com)
  • Patients with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome or patients with partial HGPRT deficiency have developed xanthine nephropathy, acute kidney failure, and stones following treatment with allopurinol. (medscape.com)
  • In the kidneys, xanthine forms tiny crystals that occasionally build up to create kidney stones. (nih.gov)
  • Stones can invade the kidney and urinary tract, causing destruction of parenchyma, [2] therefore acute and chronic renal failure are complications of xanthinuria. (explainmedicine.com)
  • They also present with loin to groin pain as the xanthine stones. (explainmedicine.com)
  • Xanthine stones are also radiolucent in appearance. (explainmedicine.com)
  • People today troubled with xanthinuria generally make stones composed of xanthine. (tinyblogging.com)
  • Xanthine uroliths in the urethra and bladder stones near the urethra may be detected by urethrocystoscopy, which uses a small flexible tube that is equipped with a camera and can be inserted into small spaces, in this case, the urethral passage. (petmd.com)
  • Unchecked, xanthinuria can lead to kidney stone formation and urinary tract disease (due to xanthine stones) and to muscle disease (due to deposits of xanthine in the muscle). (drugline.org)
  • therefore, an increase in xanthine forms crystals which can lead to kidney stones and result in damage of the kidney. (kuzemkinomo.ru)
  • This leads to an increased urinary excretion of hypoxanthine and xanthine, with a tendency to form xanthine stones. (mhmedical.com)
  • Kidney complications are initiated by the formation of xanthine crystals in the tubules, leading to parenchymal deposition and/or radiolucent stone formation. (medscape.com)
  • Others include febuxostat, topiroxostat, and â ¦ Xanthines are metabolised (>Â 90%) by numerous mixed-function oxidase enzymes, and xanthine oxidase. (kanellasgroup.gr)
  • Methylated xanthine compounds such as caffeine , theobromine , and theophylline are used for their bronchodilator effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Methylated xanthine compounds (e.g., caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) are used for their bronchodilator effect. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1 A large number of mild xanthine derived stimulants, like caffeine and theobromine, are available in tea and coffee. (rsc.org)
  • Xanthine - A substance found in caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and encountered in tea, coffee, and the colas. (academic.ru)
  • xanthines: n.pl a family of chemicals that includes caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, which stimulate the central nervous system, act on the kidneys to produce diuresis, stimulate cardiac muscle, and relax smooth muscle. (kanellasgroup.gr)
  • The xanthine alkaloids include caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline, and are well-known components of tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea arabica), cola ingredients (Cola spp. (kanellasgroup.gr)
  • A number of mild stimulants are derived from xanthine, including caffeine and theobromine. (kanellasgroup.gr)
  • Biosynthetic pathway to the xanthine alkaloids, theobromine (181) and caffeine (183). (kanellasgroup.gr)
  • Methylated xanthine derivatives include caffeine , paraxanthine , theophylline , and theobromine (found mainly in chocolate). (bionity.com)
  • Ichida K, Amaya Y, Kamatani N, Nishino T, Hosoya T, Sakai O. Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for classical type I xanthinuria. (nih.gov)
  • Xanthinuria is a rare genetic disorder where the lack of xanthine oxidase leads to high concentration of xanthine in blood and can cause health problems such as renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xanthinuria, also known as xanthine oxidase deficiency, is a rare genetic disorder causing the accumulation of xanthine. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6 g) exhibited significant xanthine oxidase inhibition activity at 150 ug/ml as compared to the reference standard allopurinol 67. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inhibition of xanthine dehydrogenase by allopurinol may lead to accumulation and urinary excretion of xanthine. (medscape.com)
  • [ 3 ] A few incidents of xanthine nephropathy and renal failure have been reported in patients treated with allopurinol during chemotherapy for malignancy. (medscape.com)
  • The detection of xanthine crystals allows to presume an excessive dose of allopurinol related to the amount of purine predecessor in the food. (laboklin.com)
  • Consumption of high purine diets (high protein) increases the risk of xanthinuria in patients being treated with allopurinol. (petmd.com)
  • Therapy for individuals with 2,8-dihydroxyadenine calculi consists of proscribing dietary purines, excessive fluid consumption, and remedy with allopurinol to prevent the oxidation of adenine by xanthine oxidase. (tallerdepolitica.org)
  • Accumulation of xanthine in the joints over a long period of time may result in joint problems. (explainmedicine.com)
  • XDH gene mutation is the underlying cause of classical xanthinuria: A second report. (explainmedicine.com)
  • When unrecognized, xanthinuria can lead to nephrec-tomy or end-stage renal failure. (gale.com)
  • Most of the protein in the liver exists in a form with xanthine dehydrogenase activity, but it can be converted to xanthine oxidase by reversible sulfhydryl oxidation or by irreversible proteolytic modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xanthine dehydrogenase can be converted to xanthine oxidase by reversible sulfhydryl oxidation or by irreversible proteolytic modification. (novusbio.com)
  • Xanthinuria is a descriptive term for excess urinary excretion of the purine base xanthine. (medscape.com)
  • Some crystal types, such as cystine, xanthine, and urate, may suggest metabolic abnormalities and warrant further investigation even in the absence of uroliths. (todaysveterinarypractice.com)
  • Amorphous xanthine crystals resemble to amorphous urate crystals (Fig. 64-66). (laboklin.com)
  • Xanthine stone disease affects multiple organ systems. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Deficient in the human disease xanthinuria. (academic.ru)
  • Causes of kidney disease include deposition of the Immunoglobulin A antibodies in the glomerulus, administration of analgesics, xanthine oxidase deficiency, toxicity of chemotherapy agents, and long-term exposure to lead or its salts. (hyperleap.com)
  • Xanthinuria can be a congenital or an acquired disease. (petmd.com)
  • Xanthine can form crystals in the tubules, later parenchymal deposits and calculi formation. (explainmedicine.com)
  • Xanthine oxidase can also act on certain other purines, pterins, and aldehydes. (cfapps.io)
  • Xanthine uroli-thiasis is usually a benign condition, easy to prevent or cure by appropriate alkalinization, forced hydration and restriction of dietary purines. (gale.com)
  • sup] [1] Total urinary purine excretion is not in-creased, whereas excretion of xanthine and hy-poxanthine is considerably increased as a res-ponse to the elevated serum levels of these oxy-purines. (gale.com)
  • xanthine oxidase inhibitors can be attributed to the increased level of tryptophan by the inhibition of xanthine oxidase. (lamotora.com.ec)
  • Bagikan informasi tentang natural xanthine oxidase inhibitors kepada teman atau kerabat Anda. (tokobunganusantara.com)
  • Natural xanthine oxidase inhibitors are all around us in many plants, but the difficulty lies in extracting a controlled dose. (tokobunganusantara.com)
  • Objective: In the present study we critically discussed the various techniques such as 3-D QSAR and molecular docking for the study of the natural based xanthine oxidase inhibitors with their mechanistic insight into the interaction of xanthine oxidase and various natural leads. (tokobunganusantara.com)
  • xanthine oxidase inhibitors of diverse chemotypes. (tokobunganusantara.com)
  • Xanthine oxidase inhibitors derived from natural products are less toxic, safe, and less prone to allergic reactions and have a wide range of sources. (tokobunganusantara.com)
  • Why are Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors prescribed? (tokobunganusantara.com)
  • Inhibitors of xanthine oxidase thus find a crucial role in the therapeutic treatment of these deadly diseases. (tokobunganusantara.com)
  • value of xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors for persistent chronic pain. (tokobunganusantara.com)
  • Xanthine oxidase inhibitors: an emerging class of drugs for heart failure. (tokobunganusantara.com)
  • Otiv: To develop new xanthine oxidase inhibitors from natural constituents along with antioxidant potential. (tokobunganusantara.com)
  • Pulmonary effects of seven xanthines, exhibiting a range of potencies as cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors and as adenosine antagonists, were â ¦ 2. (kanellasgroup.gr)
  • Xanthine oxidase inhibitors, like allopurinolcan cause nephropathy. (kuzemkinomo.ru)
  • The same protein, which in humans has the HGNC approved gene symbol XDH, can also have xanthine dehydrogenase activity (EC 1.17.1.4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I xanthinuria has been traced directly to mutations of the XDH gene which mediates xanthine oxidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The XDH gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called xanthine dehydrogenase. (nih.gov)
  • Ichida K, Amaya Y, Noda K, Minoshima S, Hosoya T, Sakai O, Shimizu N, Nishino T. Cloning of the cDNA encoding human xanthine dehydrogenase (oxidase): structural analysis of the protein and chromosomal location of the gene. (nih.gov)
  • Xu P, Huecksteadt TP, Hoidal JR. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human xanthine dehydrogenase gene (XDH). (nih.gov)
  • Xanthine oxidase is a superoxide-producing enzyme found normally in serum and the lungs, and its activity is increased during influenza A infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum oxypurine (xanthine and hypoxanthine) concentrations and urinary oxypurine excretion are increased. (tallerdepolitica.org)
  • Specifically, xanthine dehydrogenase is sometimes converted to another form called xanthine oxidase, which produces superoxide radicals. (nih.gov)
  • The primary organs affected in xanthinuria are the kidney and, to a lesser extent, skeletal muscle and joints. (medscape.com)
  • Xanthine is well cleared from the kidney [4] therefore if there is volume reduction, it favours the calculi formation. (explainmedicine.com)
  • Bovine xanthine oxidase (from milk) was originally thought to have a binding site to reduce cytochrome c with, but it has been found that the mechanism to reduce this protein is through XO's superoxide anion byproduct, with competitive inhibition by carbonic anhydrase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xanthine oxidase (XOD) extracted from bovine milk was immobilized covalently via N -ethyl- N ′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and N -hydroxy succinimide (NHS) chemistry onto cadmium oxide nanoparticles (CdO)/carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotube (c-MWCNT) composite film electrodeposited on the surface of an Au electrode. (rsc.org)
  • Crystallographic structure (monomer) of bovine xanthine oxidase. (cfapps.io)
  • Crystalline deposits of xanthine and hypoxanthine in muscle have been described in a number of people with muscle cramps following train and may also be associated with polyarthritis. (tallerdepolitica.org)
  • Febuxostat, an Inhibitor of Xanthine Oxidase, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced MCP-1 Production via MAPK Phosphatase-1-Mediated Inactivation of JNK. (lamotora.com.ec)
  • Xanthine oxidase activity was expressed as percent inhibition of xanthine oxidase, calculated as (1 - B/A) x100, where A is the change in absorbance of the assay without the plant extract (Dabs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inhibition of Xanthine oxidase. (tokobunganusantara.com)
  • Adequate hydration must be ensured to minimize the urinary concentration of xanthine and hypoxanthine. (mhmedical.com)
  • After being used 100 times over a period of 120 days, only 50% loss of the initial activity of the biosensor was evaluated when stored at 4 °C. The fabricated biosensor was successfully employed for the determination of xanthine in fish meat. (rsc.org)
  • This paper presents a detailed review of methods of isolation, determination of xanthine oxidase activity, and the effect of plant extracts and their constituents on it. (lamotora.com.ec)
  • Out of these two, hypoxanthine can be metabolized using hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase where xanthine is accumulated in plasma. (explainmedicine.com)
  • Under optimal operation conditions (25 °C, +0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl, sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.5), the following characteristics are attributed to the biosensor: linearity of response up to xanthine concentrations of 120 μM, detection limit of 0.05 μM ( S / N = 3) and a response time of at most 4 s. (rsc.org)
  • Xanthine oxidase has a substrate optimum between 0.1 and 0.2 mM xanthine â ¦ Upon addition of Cu2+, the α-helical content increased by up to 12% for metal concentrations up to 1 µM, and then began to decrease, reaching 62% of the control in 2 mM Cu2+. (lukaszkowalski.com)
  • Xanthine» Xanthine , is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms. (kanellasgroup.gr)
  • Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and hypouricemia Native xanthine oxidase from buttermilk. (lamotora.com.ec)