An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
Excessive URIC ACID or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees C; greater than 0.42mmol per liter (7.0mg/dL) in men or 0.36mmol per liter (6.0mg/dL) in women. This condition is caused by overproduction of uric acid or impaired renal clearance. Hyperuricemia can be acquired, drug-induced or genetically determined (LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME). It is associated with HYPERTENSION and GOUT.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Agents that increase uric acid excretion by the kidney (URICOSURIC AGENTS), decrease uric acid production (antihyperuricemics), or alleviate the pain and inflammation of acute attacks of gout.
A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.
Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.
Uricosuric that acts by increasing uric acid clearance. It is used in the treatment of gout.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of guanine to form xanthine. EC 3.5.4.3.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A syndrome resulting from cytotoxic therapy, occurring generally in aggressive, rapidly proliferating lymphoproliferative disorders. It is characterized by combinations of hyperuricemia, lactic acidosis, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
A uricosuric drug that is used to reduce the serum urate levels in gout therapy. It lacks anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic properties.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
By inhibiting xanthine oxidase, it reduces uric acid production. High serum uric acid levels may result in gout, kidney stones ... Oxipurinol (INN, or oxypurinol USAN) is an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. It is an active metabolite of allopurinol and it is ...
Hypoxanthine is then oxidatively catabolized first to xanthine and then to uric acid, and the reaction is catalyzed by the ... 4) in sulfuric acid: (. NH. 4. ). 2. S. 2. O. 8. +. 2. H. 2. O. ⟶. H. 2. O. 2. +. 2. (. NH. 4. ). HSO. 4. {\displaystyle {\ce ... Degradation of hypoxanthine through xanthine to uric acid to form hydrogen peroxide. ... Peroxy acids, such as peracetic acid and meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid are also produced using hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen ...
Xanthine oxidase will degrade hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. Xanthine is not very soluble in water; therefore ... an increase in xanthine forms crystals (which can lead to kidney stones) and result in damage to the kidney. Xanthine oxidase ... This may be because sources of animal protein, animal fat, and cholesterol, and sweets are more acid-producing, while fruits, ... Another possible cause of Kidney disease is due to decreased function of xanthine oxidase in the purine degradation pathway. ...
Xanthine oxidase is needed to oxidize successively hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid. Thus, febuxostat inhibits xanthine ... It inhibits xanthine oxidase, thus reducing production of uric acid in the body. Febuxostat was approved for medical use in the ... thereby reducing production of uric acid. Febuxostat inhibits both the oxidized and the reduced forms of xanthine oxidase by ... is a medication used long-term to treat gout due to high uric acid levels. It is generally recommended only for people who ...
Other notable purines are hypoxanthine, xanthine, theophylline, theobromine, caffeine, uric acid and isoguanine. Aside from the ... Uric acid (8) was reacted with PCl5 to give 2,6,8-trichloropurine (10), which was converted with HI and PH4I to give 2,6- ... I." [On uric acid. I.]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft. 17: 328-338. doi:10.1002/cber.18840170196. From p. 329 ... The starting material for the reaction sequence was uric acid (8), which had been isolated from kidney stones by Carl Wilhelm ...
... and Xanthine dehydrogenase, which is involved in the synthesis of uric acid from purines. Molybdenum deficiency symptoms in ... Symptoms are most common where both conditions apply, such as in acid sandy soils. Molybdenum may be strongly sorbed in ... molybdic acid, molybdenum trioxide, and molybdenum sulfide. Typical soil and foliar application rates are 50-200 g Mo ha−1; ... sorption of Mo is strongest in acid soils. In plants, the primary functions of Mo are related to the valence changes that it ...
... "are simply swallowing uric acid". Haig opposed the consumption of cacao, coffee and tea as they contain xanthine, a purine. ... Uricacidemia was defined as excess uric acid in the blood. Collaemia was defined as "excess of uric acid in the blood, the uric ... Uric Acid as a Factor in the Causation of Disease (1896) Diet and Food (1901) Uric Acid: An Epitome of the Subject (1904) Uric ... "Uric Acid as a Factor in the Causation of Disease". New York Medical Journal. 74: 424-425. 1901. "Uric Acid as a Factor in the ...
Yu, Diane; Breaker, Ronald R. (2020-04-28). "A bacterial riboswitch class senses xanthine and uric acid to regulate genes ... Nucleic Acids Res. 45 (18): 10811-10823. doi:10.1093/nar/gkx699. PMC 5737381. PMID 28977401. ...
Others include drugs that reduce the production of uric acid: xanthine oxidase inhibitors, urate oxidase (rasburicase), and ... For example, if hypouricemia reflects high excretion of uric acid into the urine (hyperuricosuria) with its risk of uric acid ... which reduces the production of uric acid; and mutations causing abnormal kidney function that increases the excretion of uric ... Vegetarian diet has been found to result in mean serum uric acid values as low as 239 μmol/L (2.7 mg/dL). While a vegetarian ...
... is subsequently converted to uric acid by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme. ... People with the rare genetic disorder xanthinuria lack sufficient xanthine oxidase and cannot convert xanthine to uric acid. ... Xanthine (/ˈzænθiːn/ or /ˈzænθaɪn/; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most ... Clinical significance of xanthine derivatives[edit]. Derivatives of xanthine (known collectively as xanthines) are a group of ...
It is approved only for patients who have not achieved target uric acid levels with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor alone. The ... Lesinurad (brand name Zurampic) is a urate transporter inhibitor for treating high blood uric acid levels associated with gout ... high levels of uric acid in the blood serum) associated with gout. ... Lesinurad is used in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, such as allopurinol or febuxostat, for treating ...
They excrete insoluble compounds such as xanthine, guanine, and uric acid, not requiring water for their removal from the body ... Scorpion venom is a mixture of neurotoxins; most of these are peptides, chains of amino acids. Many of them interfere with ...
... shunts or endstage liver disease also have increased uric acid excretion in the urine due to reduced conversion of uric acid to ... Feeding a diet high in purines while simultaneously administering allopurinol can result in the formation of xanthine (C5H4N4O2 ... Urate stones form due to an increased excretion of uric acid in the urine. Dalmatians (especially males) and to a lesser extent ... Allopurinol is used in dogs with altered purine metabolism to prevent the formation of uric acid. ...
... oxidase catalyzes the biotransformation of hypoxanthine to xanthine Xanthine oxidase acts upon xanthine to create uric acid The ... a form of xanthine oxidoreductase) catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid A nuclease frees the nucleotide A ... Allopurinol is a drug that inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase and, thus, lowers the level of uric acid in the body. ... This may be useful in the treatment of gout, which is a disease caused by excess uric acid, forming crystals in joints. In ...
... which is an enzyme necessary for converting xanthine to uric acid. Type II xanthinuria and molybdenum cofactor deficiency lack ... Xanthinuria, also known as xanthine oxidase deficiency, is a rare genetic disorder causing the accumulation of xanthine. It is ... Ichida K, Amaya Y, Kamatani N, Nishino T, Hosoya T, Sakai O (May 1997). "Identification of two mutations in human xanthine ... Sufferers have unusually high concentrations of xanthine in their blood and urine, which can lead to health problems such as ...
Uric acid (UA) is an antioxidant oxypurine produced from xanthine by the enzyme xanthine oxidase, and is an intermediate ... Besides ascorbate, medically important conditional pro-oxidants include uric acid and sulfhydryl amino acids such as ... Sautin YY, Johnson RJ (June 2008). "Uric acid: the oxidant-antioxidant paradox". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 27 ( ... Uric acid has the highest concentration of any blood antioxidant and provides over half of the total antioxidant capacity of ...
Xanthine oxidase also produces uric acid, which may act as both a prooxidant and as a scavenger of reactive species such as ... The enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase acts in reverse, that is as a xanthine oxidase as a result of the higher availability of ...
"Essential oil from leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum acts as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and reduces the serum uric acid levels ... Also, it is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, hence a potential drug for treatment of hyperuricemia and related medical conditions ...
... cure or amelioration of hyperuricosuria include allopurinol which acts by inhibiting xanthine oxidase and reducing uric acid ... Kidney stones of uric acid (uric acid nephrolithiasis) Acute uric acid nephropathy Acute kidney failure Tumor lysis syndrome ... Hyperuricosuria is a medical term referring to the presence of excessive amounts of uric acid in the urine. For men this is at ... If neither hyperuricemia nor gout is present, then the risk of uric acid nephrolithiasis can be reduced by the use of ...
... low blood levels of uric acid, and high levels of sulphite, xanthine, and uric acid in urine. Additionally, the disease ... Furthermore, a mutational block in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis causes absence of enzyme activity of xanthine dehydrogenase ... 2006). "A Turkish case with molybdenum cofactor deficiency". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 25 (9-11): 1087-91. doi: ...
... to uric acid by xanthine oxidase in the maternal liver; a hypothesis". Bioscience Hypotheses. 1: 35-43. doi:10.1016/j.bihy. ... Elevations in serum uric acid (hyperuricemia) is used by some to "define" pre-eclampsia, though it has been found to be a poor ... Elevated levels in the blood (hyperuricemia) are likely due to reduced uric acid clearance secondary to impaired kidney ... The main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) and this enzyme mainly occurs in the liver ...
Hypoxanthine is oxidized to xanthine and finally to uric acid. Instead of uric acid secretion, guanine and IMP can be used for ... Guanine is deaminated to xanthine which in turn is oxidized to uric acid. This last reaction is irreversible. Similarly, uric ... Instead, they are degraded to the metabolically inert uric acid which is then excreted from the body. Uric acid is formed when ... They serve as monomeric units of the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of ...
... which can then be metabolized by xanthine oxidase to form 1-methyl-uric acid. Certain proposed synthetic pathways of caffeine ... which is subsequently demethylated into xanthine or oxidized by CYP2A6 and CYP1A2 into 1,7-dimethyluric acid. In another ... Paraxanthine, or 1,7-dimethylxanthine, is a dimethyl derivative of xanthine, structurally related to caffeine. Paraxanthine is ... Müller, Christa E.; Jacobson, Kenneth A. (2011), Fredholm, Bertil B. (ed.), "Xanthines as Adenosine Receptor Antagonists", ...
Xanthine oxidase inhibitors decrease the production of uric acid, by interfering with xanthine oxidase. Uricosurics increase ... Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood. In the pH conditions of body fluid, uric acid exists ... A ketogenic diet impairs the ability of the kidney to excrete uric acid, due to competition for transport between uric acid and ... Following Le Chatelier's principle, lowering the blood concentration of uric acid may permit any existing crystals of uric acid ...
... the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid, a process of purine catabolism, is catalyzed by xanthine oxidase, a molybdenum- ... The Lewis acid properties of the butyrate and perfluorobutyrate dimers, Mo2(O2CR)4 and Rh2(O2CR) 4, have been reported. The ... The activity of xanthine oxidase is directly proportional to the amount of molybdenum in the body. However, an extremely high ... Phosphomolybdic acid is a stain used in thin-layer chromatography. Molybdenum is an essential element in most organisms; a 2008 ...
In 1881 and 1882 he published papers which established the formulae of uric acid, xanthine, caffeine (achieving the first ... Emil Fischer's next research was concerned with compounds related to uric acid. Here the ground had been broken by von Baeyer, ... By the introduction of new methods, he succeeded in breaking down the complex albumins into amino acids and other nitrogenous ... His observations, published in 1886, that such hydrazones, by treatment with hydrochloric acid or zinc chloride, yielded ...
... both guanine and hypoxanthine will be made into xanthine which will then become uric acid). A deficiency of it leads to buildup ...
In addition to blocking uric acid production, inhibition of xanthine oxidase causes an increase in hypoxanthine and xanthine. ... uric acid lithiasis; acute uric acid nephropathy; neoplastic disease and myeloproliferative disease with high cell turnover ... Xanthine oxidase is responsible for the successive oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine, resulting in the production of uric ... Allopurinol, therefore, decreases uric acid formation and may also inhibit purine synthesis. The HLA-B*5801 allele is a genetic ...
Xanthine oxidase will degrade hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. Xanthine is not very soluble in water; therefore ... Xanthine oxidase deficiencyEdit. Main article: Xanthine oxidase deficiency. Another possible cause of Kidney disease is due to ... an increase in xanthine forms crystals (which can lead to kidney stones) and result in damage to the kidney. Xanthine oxidase ... Deriemaeker, Peter; Aerenhouts, Dirk; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter (2010-03-01). "Nutrient based estimation of acid-base ...
Xanthine oxidase inhibitors decrease the production of uric acid, by interfering with xanthine oxidase. Uricosurics increase ... Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood. In the pH conditions of body fluid, uric acid exists ... A ketogenic diet impairs the ability of the kidney to excrete uric acid, due to competition for transport between uric acid and ... Following Le Chatelier's principle, lowering the blood concentration of uric acid may permit any existing crystals of uric acid ...
Uric acid (UA) is an antioxidant oxypurine produced from xanthine by the enzyme xanthine oxidase, and is an intermediate ... Uric acid[edit]. Uric acid is by far the highest concentration antioxidant in human blood. ... Besides ascorbate, medically important conditional pro-oxidants include uric acid and sulfhydryl amino acids such as ... "Uric acid: the oxidant-antioxidant paradox". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 27 (6): 608-19. doi:10.1080/ ...
Uric Acid. BiblioBazaar. 0554619911. http://books.google.com/books?id=yDASAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR1&lpg=PR1&dq=Uric+Acid,+Francis+H.+ ... "Effect of adenine metabolites on survival of Drosophila melanogaster of low xanthine dehydrogenase activity". Comparative ... Proctor P (1970). "Similar functions of uric acid and ascorbate in man?". Nature 228 (5274): 868. PMID 5477017. doi:10.1038/ ... Aringer M, Graessler J (December 2008). "Understanding deficient elimination of uric acid". Lancet 372 (9654): 1929-30. PMID ...
... so that it stopped producing GULO may have been of benefit to early primates by increasing uric acid levels and enhancing ... Xanthine oxidase. 1.1.4: disulfide as acceptor. *Vitamin K epoxide reductase. *Vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin- ... The L-xylo-hex-3-gulonolactone (2-keto-gulono-gamma-lactone) is able to convert to hexuronic acid (ascorbic acid) spontaneously ... Grano A, De Tullio MC (2007). "Ascorbic acid as a sensor of oxidative stress and a regulator of gene expression: the Yin and ...
... a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, which inhibits uric acid production) as well as adequate IV hydration to maintain high urine ... The hypersecretion of uric acid can be detected with a high urine uric acid - creatinine ratio , 1.0, compared to a value of ... Two common conditions related to excess uric acid, gout and uric acid nephrolithiasis, are not features of tumor lysis syndrome ... However, at the high concentrations of uric acid generated by tumor lysis, uric acid is apt to precipitate as monosodium urate ...
... high serum uric acid levels).[83] Dosage is adjusted to maintain a reduced urinary excretion of uric acid. Serum uric acid ... People afflicted with xanthinuria often produce stones composed of xanthine. People afflicted with adenine ... Uric acid stones[edit]. About 5-10% of all stones are formed from uric acid.[18] People with certain metabolic abnormalities, ... The formation of uric acid stones requires a combination of hyperuricosuria (high urine uric acid levels) and low urine pH; ...
2008). „SLC2A9 influences uric acid concentrations with pronounced sex-specific effects". Nature Genetics. 40 (4): 430-6. PMID ... Effect of adenine metabolites on survival of Drosophila melanogaster of low xanthine dehydrogenase activity". Comparative ... Uric Acid. Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank.". Архивирано из оригинала на датум 05. 03. 2008. Приступљено 18. 07. 2010. ... P, Proctor (1970). „Similar functions of uric acid and ascorbate in man?". Nature. 228 (5274): 868. PMID 5477017. doi:10.1038/ ...
Hypoxanthine is then oxidized to form xanthine and then uric acid through the action of xanthine oxidase. The other purine ... Guanine is then deaminated via guanine deaminase to form xanthine which is then converted to uric acid. Oxygen is the final ... Nucleic acid metabolism is the process by which nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are synthesized and degraded. Nucleic acids are ... Uric acid is then excreted from the body in different forms depending on the animal.[4] ...
... xanthine + H2O2 xanthine + H2O + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } uric acid + H2O2 Xanthine oxidase can also act on ... Because xanthine oxidase is a metabolic pathway for uric acid formation, the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol is used in ... In the reaction with xanthine to form uric acid, an oxygen atom is transferred from molybdenum to xanthine, whereby several ... doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2001.03700.x. [2][dead link] Dawson J, Walters M (December 2006). "Uric acid and xanthine oxidase: ...
... uric acid MeSH D03.438.759.758.824.938 - xanthine MeSH D03.438.759.794 - saxitoxin MeSH D03.438.759.854 - thioguanine MeSH ... pipemidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.650 - piromidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.900 - 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6- ... niflumic acid MeSH D03.066.515.635 - pipemidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.650 - piromidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.950 - xanthinol ... nalidixic acid MeSH D03.438.810.835.055.550 - nedocromil MeSH D03.438.810.835.055.580 - oxolinic acid MeSH D03.438.810.835.188 ...
... who was attempting to synthesize derivatives of uric acid. Originally discovered in 1900 by Alberto Ascoli, it was isolated by ... Based on 12C/13C isotopic ratios of organic compounds found in the Murchison meteorite, it is believed that uracil, xanthine, ... Experiments on the synthesis of substances in the uric acid series]. Annalen der Chemie. 229 (1-2): 1-44. doi:10.1002/jlac. ... NH3 The most common way to synthesize uracil is by the condensation of malic acid with urea in fuming sulfuric acid: C4H4O4 + ...
... by suppressing xanthine oxidase and downregulating production of mRNA for renal uric acid transporter mURAT1. "rootdown.us"." ... Sān miào wán has been reported to lower serum and liver uric acid concentration in mice with hyperuricemia, but not normal mice ...
Uric acid is the relatively water-insoluble end product of purine nucleotide metabolism. It poses a special problem for humans ... Xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Prevents uric acid production and lowers elevated serum uric acid levels. May be considered as an ... Inhibits xanthine oxidase, the enzyme that synthesizes uric acid from hypoxanthine. Reduces synthesis of uric acid without ... By blocking the conversion of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid, it produces a reduction in serum uric acid concentration ...
... uric acid; xanthine oxidase; oxidative stressWord count (main text): 1877*Correspondence: Dr. Panagiotis Korantzopoulos, ... Opinion ArticleXanthine oxidase and uric acid in atrial fibrillationPanagiotis Korantzopoulos1*, Konstantinos P. Letsas2 and ... Xanthine Oxidase and Uric Acid in Atrial Fibrillation ... Xanthine Oxidase and Uric Acid in Cardiovascular Disease. *Uric ... Xanthine Oxidase and Uric Acid in Cardiovascular Disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that xanthine oxidase (XO) is an ...
Fagaceae) Extract: Active Constituents, Serum Uric Acid Suppression, and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity. In-Soo Yoon,1 ... The aim of this study was to determine in vitro and in vivo xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory and antihyperuricemic activities ...
Administration of procyanidins from grape seeds reduces serum uric acid levels and decreases hepatic xanthine dehydrogenase/ ... Inbred ICROxonic AcidProanthocyanidinsSeedsTime FactorsUrate OxidaseUric AcidVitisXanthine DehydrogenaseXanthine Oxidase ... Effects of cassia oil on serum and hepatic uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice and xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine ... A Chinese herbal medicine Ermiao wan reduces serum uric acid level and inhibits liver xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine ...
Xanthine oxidase and uric acid in cardiovascular disease: clinical impact and therapeutic options ZORA Maintenance. Advanced ... Doehner, W; Landmesser, U (2011). Xanthine oxidase and uric acid in cardiovascular disease: clinical impact and therapeutic ... The association between increased uric acid (UA) levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed and studied for many ... The association between increased uric acid (UA) levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed and studied for many ...
A new xanthine oxidase inhibitor: the uric acid reduction and additional efficacy in CKD patients. Zeitschrift:. Clinical and ... Treatment with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat lowers uric acid and alleviates systemic and glomerular hypertension ... A new xanthine oxidase inhibitor: the uric acid reduction and additional efficacy in CKD patients ... Uric acid: a marker of increased cardiovascular risk. Atherosclerosis. 2009;202:11-7. PubMedCrossRef ...
... hypoxanthine and xanthine in human plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. ... The uric acid and hypoxanthine content in human plasma was measured using the proposed method. Good recoveries of uric acid ( ... Simultaneous determination of guanine, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine in human plasma by reversed-phase high-performance ... uric acid, 1-5000 mumol dm-3; guanine, 0.5-2000 mumol dm-3; hypoxanthine, 0.1-500 mumol dm-3 and xanthine, 0.5-5000 mumol dm-3 ...
Suppression of Plasma Uric Acid by Inhibiting Xanthine Oxidase. Last Updated on Wed, 18 Mar 2015 , Tea Products ... effect of pu-erh tea may come from the inhibitory effects of tea polyphenols on the uric acid-generating enzyme xanthine ... Theaflavins and EGCG inhibit XO to produce uric acid and also act as scavengers of superoxide TF3 acts as a competitive ... gallic acid, and propyl gallate, on XO have been investigated 11 These six antioxidant compounds reduce oxidative stress in HL- ...
... xanthine, and uric acid concentrations (9). An increased rate of urinary excretion of radioactivity after 8-14C-adenine ... and uric acid production, in association with gout and uric acid urolithiasis. In some families, however, neurodevelopmental ... The patients plasma urate levels and daily uric acid excretion were markedly increased, and the ratio of uric acid to ... Juan G. Puig, Rosa J. Torres, Eugenio de Miguel, Arantxa Sánchez, Rebeca Bailén, José R. Banegas, Uric acid excretion in ...
Xanthine is subsequently converted to uric acid by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme. ... People with the rare genetic disorder xanthinuria lack sufficient xanthine oxidase and cannot convert xanthine to uric acid. ... Xanthine (/ˈzænθiːn/ or /ˈzænθaɪn/; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most ... Clinical significance of xanthine derivatives[edit]. Derivatives of xanthine (known collectively as xanthines) are a group of ...
Historically, uric acid was thought to be a secondary response to hypertension or its... ... Uric acid was first associated with primary hypertension in 1874, yet its role in this condition remains unclear. ... It remains possible that uric acid is a marker for xanthine oxidase-associated oxidants and that the latter could be driving ... urinary uric acid clearance, and plasma uric acid concentration. JAMA 1991, 266:3008-3011.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Serum uric acid. Traditional Xanthine oxidase inhibitor; URAT1 inhibitor. Hepatitis A (Hep A) vaccine. Persons to be immunized ... Serum uric acid. Traditional Uric acid specific enzyme. Supportive cancer care. Patients with non-myeloid malignancies ... malignancies who are receiving anti-cancer therapy expected to result in tumor lysis and subsequent elevation of uric acid.. ...
Uric Acid 38. Cystine 39. Xanthine 39. Amorphous (Phosphate, Urate, Silicates) 40 ...
Guanine, Xanthine and Uric Acid Assemblies: Comparative Theoretical and Experimental Studies. Gábor Paragi, János Szolomájer, ... Computational Methods for Studying G-quadruplex Nucleic Acids. B. Islam, V. DAtri, M. Sgobba, J. Husby and S. Haider ... The Reality of Quadruplex Nucleic Acids as a Therapeutic Target. G. N. Parkinson ...
Xanthine OxidoReductase (XOR) is one of the main generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Uric acid (UA), a major ... Differential Effects of Uric Acid and Xanthine Oxidoreductase on Endothelial Function and Oxydative Stress. ... Uric Acid Effects on Endothelium and Oxydative Stress. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... Uric Acid. Gout Suppressants. Antirheumatic Agents. Antioxidants. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Protective ...
More worrisome is that allopurinol blocks conversion of xanthine to uric acid, and in patients with a high cancer cell mass can ... The role of uric acid Shimada, M, Johnson, RJ, May, WS. "A novel role for uric acid in acute kidney injury associated with ... the rasburicase will metabolize the uric acid in the tube and within an hour the uric acid in the tube will often be ,0.5 mg/dL ... In patients treated with allopurinol, the accumulation of xanthine, a precursor of uric acid, which has low solubility, can ...
Excessive purine intake may contribute to the production of stones containing uric acid and uric acid plus calcium components. ... Allopurinol increases the filtered load of xanthine in patients with tumor lysis to produce xanthinuria. Furosemide decreases ... Endemic bladder stones (uric acid and ammonium acid urate) are rare in the United States, though common in developing countries ... Low urine pH: Uric acid and cysteine are less soluble in acid urine. ...
Impaction of uric acid renal stones:-. Adequate therapy with Zyloric will lead to dissolution of large uric acid renal pelvic ... These steps may reduce the risk of xanthine and/or oxipurinol deposition complicating the clinical situation. See also section ... Pharmacotherapeutic group: Preparations inhibiting uric acid production The main metabolite of Zyloric is oxipurinol. Other ... Xanthine deposition:-. In conditions where the rate of urate formation is greatly increased (e.g. malignant disease and its ...
Impaction of uric acid renal stones:-. Adequate therapy with Zyloric will lead to dissolution of large uric acid renal pelvic ... These steps may reduce the risk of xanthine and/or oxipurinol deposition complicating the clinical situation. See also section ... Pharmacotherapeutic group: Preparations inhibiting uric acid production The main metabolite of Zyloric is oxipurinol. Other ... Elimination of allopurinol is mainly by metabolic conversion to oxipurinol by xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase, with less ...
xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Uric acid lowering drug. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Gout. Arthritis. Joint Diseases. ...
Teneligliptin decreases the uric acids levels by reducing xanthine dehydrogenase expression in white adipose tissue of the male ...
Uric Acid and Xanthine Levels in Pregnancy Complicated by Gestational Diabetes Mellitus-The Effect on Adverse Pregnancy ... Uric Acid and Xanthine Levels in Pregnancy Complicated by Gestational Diabetes Mellitus-The Effect on Adverse Pregnancy ... Uric acid (UA) levels are associated with many diseases including those related to lifestyle. The aim of this study was to ... Uric acid (UA) levels according to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9; SLC2A9 gene). Box ...
Used to treat hyperuricemia (high uric acid in the blood) in patients with gout. This medicine is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. ...
Epigallocatechin gallate reduces uric acid levels by regulating xanthine oxidase activity and uric acid excretion in vitro and ... Onion reduces serum uric acid levels and hepatic xanthine enzyme activity in hyperuricemic rats. Jul 15, 2008. ... Lonicera hypoglauca inhibits xanthine oxidase and reduces serum uric acid in mice.Feb 28, 2009. ... Paederia scandens has significant xanthine oxidase inhibiting and uric acid lowering activity.Sep 01, 2008. ...
Hypoxanthine is then oxidatively catabolized first to xanthine and then to uric acid, and the reaction is catalyzed by the ... 4) in sulfuric acid: (. NH. 4. ). 2. S. 2. O. 8. +. 2. H. 2. O. ⟶. H. 2. O. 2. +. 2. (. NH. 4. ). HSO. 4. {\displaystyle {\ce ... Degradation of hypoxanthine through xanthine to uric acid to form hydrogen peroxide. ... Peroxy acids, such as peracetic acid and meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid are also produced using hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen ...
xanthine oxidase which is involved in the pathways of purine degradation and formation of uric acid. In some animals, adding a ... xanthine oxidase.. The pure metal has a tendency to flake apart during machining.. Molybdenum prices have increased from a low ... In 1996, an increase in acid rain near Uppsala, Sweden caused a depletion in the natural foods of moose in nearby rural areas. ... moose to venture into the fields of oat farmers who had been heavily liming their soil to compensate for the effect of the acid ...
Uric Acid Dihydrate.- c) Apatite.- d) Struvite.- e) Ammonium Dihydrogenurate.- f) Brushite.- g) Cystine.- h) Xanthine.- i) ... Uric Acid Stone Disease.- a) Introduction.- b) Urinary Risk Factors.- c) Stone Disease.- d) Stone-Formation.- 3. Infected Stone ...
... on the serum uric acid level were investigated using the rats pretreated with the uricase inhibitor pota ... 5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (2), compounds contained in the flowers of Chrysanthemum sinense SABINE, ... 69-93-2/Uric Acid; 77-95-2/Quinic Acid; 937-13-3/Oxonic Acid; EC 1.17.3.2/Xanthine Oxidase ... Oxonic Acid. Quinic Acid / analogs & derivatives*, pharmacology, therapeutic use*. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Uric Acid / ...
Uric Acid / blood * Uricosuric Agents / therapeutic use * Xanthine Oxidase / antagonists & inhibitors Substances * Anti- ...
... xanthine --, uric acid --, allantoin --, allantoic acid --, urea --, CO(2) + NH(3) pathway. These results indicate that the low ... 10532727 - Uric acid in the aqueous humor and tears of retinoblastoma patients.. 16737297 - Suzuki coupling of oxazoles.. ... 7389777 - Effect of the organic matrix on the dissolution of uric acid stones.. 454067 - Hypouricemia by defect in the tubular ...
  • Xanthine oxidase inhibitor. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat lowers uric acid and alleviates systemic and glomerular hypertension in experimental hyperuricaemia. (springermedizin.de)
  • Use of xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat inhibits renal interstitial inflammation and fibrosis in unilateral obstructive nephropathy. (springermedizin.de)
  • This medicine is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. (umm.edu)
  • Because xanthine oxidase is a metabolic pathway for uric acid formation, the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol is used in the treatment of gout. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allopurinol (4-hydroxyl-1 H -pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, Figure 1 ), a prototypical xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitor, has been used to treat hyperuricemia and its complications including chronic gout for several decades [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Unlike allopurinol, oxipurinol is a non-competitive, suicide inhibitor of the same enzyme, xanthine oxidase--once the enzyme and oxipurinol meet, it's effectively out of commission forever, and a new molecule of xanthine oxidase must be synthesized to take its place. (yarchive.net)
  • The effects of acacetin (1) and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (2), compounds contained in the flowers of Chrysanthemum sinense SABINE, on the serum uric acid level were investigated using the rats pretreated with the uricase inhibitor potassium oxonate as an animal model for hyperuricemia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor that decreases the production of uric acid. (nih.gov)
  • Allopurinol is a type of medicine called a xanthine-oxidase inhibitor. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Febuxostat (ULORIC) is a novel, xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase (XO/XDH) inhibitor being developed by Teijin, TAP Pharmaceuticals, and Ipsen for the treatment of gout. (drugbank.ca)
  • ULORIC (febuxostat) is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. (rxlist.com)
  • ULORIC is a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor indicated for the chronic management of hyperuricemia in adult patients with gout who have an inadequate response to a maximally titrated dose of allopurinol, who are intolerant to allopurinol, or for whom treatment with allopurinol is not advisable. (rxlist.com)
  • Oxipurinol (INN, or oxypurinol USAN) is an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenuric tablets contain the active ingredient febuxostat, which is a type of medicine called a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • In October 2016, Ironwood began commercializing ZURAMPIC in the U.S. for the treatment of hyperuricemia in patients with uncontrolled gout who are already taking a xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI), such as allopurinol or Uloric ® (febuxostat). (businesswire.com)
  • Lesinurad is used together with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor (eg, allopurinol, febuxostat) to treat gout. (drugs.com)
  • Take this medicine with food and water in the morning and together with your xanthine oxidase inhibitor (eg, allopurinol, febuxostat). (drugs.com)
  • At a dose of 10 mg/kg, the hypouricemic action of Y-700 was more potent and of longer duration than that of 4-hydroxypyrazolo(3,4- d )pyrimidine, whereas its action was approximately equivalent to that of 2-(3-cyano-4-isobutoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, a nonpurine inhibitor of XOR. (aspetjournals.org)
  • As research reveals new methods to treat uric acid, I will expand my pages on Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor choice for Gout Patients. (goutpal.com)
  • So, you should discuss your choice of xanthine oxidase inhibitor with your professional health adviser. (goutpal.com)
  • It should be used in patients who are already taking appropriate doses of a xanthine oxidase inhibitor such as allopurinol, but who have not yet reached target levels of serum uric acid. (aafp.org)
  • Lesinurad in a dosage of 200 mg per day should be taken with food and water at the same time as the morning dose of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor (at least 300 mg of allopurinol or an equivalent). (aafp.org)
  • Patients should stop taking lesinurad if the xanthine oxidase inhibitor is discontinued. (aafp.org)
  • Lesinurad taken in addition to a xanthine oxidase inhibitor reduces serum uric acid levels. (aafp.org)
  • alkalinization Potassium citrate 20 mEq three times daily Hyperuricosuric patients (24-hours urine uric acid more than 750 mg/day in male and more than 650mg/day in females), will receive Allopurinol, a competitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, in a dose of 300 mg daily. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Hyperuricemia and uric acid nephropathy. (medscape.com)
  • Used to treat hyperuricemia (high uric acid in the blood) in patients with gout. (umm.edu)
  • The referral mentioned that despite the presence of hyperuricemia, urinary uric acid levels were normal to low. (aappublications.org)
  • The precipitating factor in a first acute episode of gout is usually hyperuricemia (defined as a serum uric acid (sUA) concentration greater than 6.8 mg per deciliter [dl] in men and greater than 6.0 in women). (ahrq.gov)
  • Hyperuricemia can be the result of either inadequate renal excretion of UA or, less commonly, UA overproduction (UA is a breakdown product of dietary or endogenous purines, which are among the building blocks of nucleic acids) and is associated with the formation and deposition of the UA crystals, usually in a single joint but sometimes may also involve multiple joints. (ahrq.gov)
  • It is most commonly used in the management of gout and hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid). (nih.gov)
  • TSD has an obvious effect of anti- hyperuricemia It may reduce the reabsorption of uric acid by inhibiting the high expression of rat renal URAT1. (curehunter.com)
  • Over the course of years, or even decades, hyperuricemia may cause deposits of crystallized uric acid throughout the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Overproduction of uric acid will lead to hyperuricemia and finally cause gout and other diseases. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we describe the unrecognized role of hyperuricemia in cancer development and summarize major mechanisms linking uric acid to carcinogenesis. (jcancer.org)
  • Allopurinol is used for the prevention of acute uric acid nephropathy. (medscape.com)
  • Since xanthine oxidase is involved in the metabolism of 6-mercaptopurine, caution should be taken before administering allopurinol and 6-mercaptopurine, or its prodrug azathioprine, in conjunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type II xanthinuria may result from a failure of the mechanism which inserts sulfur into the active sites of xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase, a related enzyme with some overlapping activities (such as conversion of allopurinol to oxypurinol). (wikipedia.org)
  • A study found that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) had a decrease in oxidative stress, including glutathione oxidation and lipid peroxidation, when xanthine oxidase was inhibited using allopurinol. (wikipedia.org)
  • A series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives related to allopurinol has been synthesized and evaluated for its cytotoxicity against a panel of three cancer cell lines as well as its xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activities. (mdpi.com)
  • 6 g) exhibited significant xanthine oxidase inhibition activity at 150 ug/ml as compared to the reference standard allopurinol 67. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One drug used to treat the long term manifestations of gout and other situations in which uric acid levels are excessively high is called allopurinol. (yarchive.net)
  • Allopurinol first competes with hypoxanthine for the active site on xanthine oxidase, and is converted in the process to an active metabolite/ drug called alloxanthine or oxipurinol--take your pick. (yarchive.net)
  • Thus, instead of an accumulation of excessively high levels of uric acid in a patient being treated with allopurinol, you end up with a mixture of hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid in the particular bodily fluid, and each of these (believe it or not) have solubilities in water that are independent of one another, and this often allows the three well-disssolved metabolites to be flushed out as their kidneys intended. (yarchive.net)
  • Allopurinol is used to treat gout, high levels of uric acid in the body caused by certain cancer medications, and kidney stones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Allopurinol is in a class of medications called xanthine oxidase inhibitors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Allopurinol decreases the production of uric acid by inhibiting xanthine oxidase, which catalyzes the conversion of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, allopurinol facilitates the incorporation of hypoxanthine and xanthine into DNA and RNA, and the resulting increase in nucleotide concentration leads to a feedback inhibition of de novo purine synthesis, which in turn leads to a decrease in uric acid levels ( 5 ). (nih.gov)
  • Allopurinol is rapidly oxidized in the liver to the active metabolite oxypurinol, which also inhibits xanthine oxidase. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, it is thought that the effective inhibition of xanthine oxidase over a 24-hour period after a single dose of allopurinol is largely brought about by the effects of oxypurinol ( 4 ). (nih.gov)
  • Everything you need to know about allopurinol, which is taken to lower levels of uric acid in the body. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Allopurinol is used to lower levels of uric acid in the body. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Allopurinol inhibits the action of this enzyme and as a result lowers uric acid levels. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The main use of allopurinol is in preventing attacks of gout, which occur as a result of a build-up of uric acid crystals in the joints. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • This is because the allopurinol will still be working to lower uric acid. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Allopurinol, febuxostat and in particular Xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOIs) are recommended as first-line drugs 16 . (nature.com)
  • Children with serum uric acid equal to or greater than 5.0mg per dl will be randomized (in a one to one to one ratio) to receive placebo, allopurinol or probenecid. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Xanthine oxidase inhibitors, like allopurinol, can cause nephropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allopurinol is an effective treatment for reducing concentrations of uric acid. (nps.org.au)
  • Renal function guides the starting dose of allopurinol and the baseline serum uric acid concentration guides the maintenance dose. (nps.org.au)
  • Adding lesinurad therapy has been shown to decrease serum uric acid levels in patients with an average uric acid concentration of 7.0 mg per dL (416 μmol per L) who are already taking at least 300 mg per day of allopurinol. (aafp.org)
  • 3 , 4 It has also not been studied to determine its effect on the rate of uric acid nephropathy, and it has not been compared with other uricosuric agents added to allopurinol, such as probenecid. (aafp.org)
  • It is created from hypoxanthine by xanthine oxidoreductase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Xanthine oxidase (XO, sometimes 'XAO') is a form of xanthine oxidoreductase, a type of enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species. (wikipedia.org)
  • an oxidoreductase catalyzing the reaction of xanthine, O 2 , and H 2 O to produce urate and superoxide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Xanthine oxidoreductase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The thermodynamics of xanthine oxidoreductase catalysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The role of xanthine oxidoreductase and uric acid in metabolic syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Hyperuricaemia, Xanthine Oxidoreductase and Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins from Plants: The Contributions of Fiorenzo Stirpe to Frontline Research. (nih.gov)
  • XO and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) are often collectively referred to as xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR). (ahajournals.org)
  • With a dual role, uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism via xanthine oxidoreductase, which is mainly eliminated by the kidney and the intestinal tract [ 8 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Molybdenum cofactor is a cofactor required for the activity of enzymes such as sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidoreductase, and aldehyde oxidase. (hmdb.ca)
  • Epigallocatechin gallate reduces uric acid levels by regulating xanthine oxidase activity and uric acid excretion in vitro and in vivo. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In this study we have investigated the effects of administration of procyanidins from grape seeds on serum uric acid levels in a model of hyperuricaemia in mice pretreated with oxonate, as well as the xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase activities in mouse liver in vivo. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In addition, the hepatic activities of xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase in the procyanidins-treated mice were found to decrease significantly. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • However, the hypouricaemic effects observed in the experimental animals did not seem to parallel the changes in xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase activities, implying that the procyanidins might be acting via other mechanisms apart from simple inhibition of enzyme activities. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The same protein, which in humans has the HGNC approved gene symbol XDH, can also have xanthine dehydrogenase activity (EC 1.17.1.4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the protein in the liver exists in a form with xanthine dehydrogenase activity, but it can be converted to xanthine oxidase by reversible sulfhydryl oxidation or by irreversible proteolytic modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • We postulated that H 2 O 2 may modulate the irreversible conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) to XO and sought to examine mechanisms involved. (ahajournals.org)
  • Xanthine is a precursor of uric acid. (rsc.org)
  • it is a precursor of uric acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. A yellowish-white, crystalline purine base, C 5 H 4 N 4 O 2 , that is a precursor of uric acid and is found in blood, urine, muscle tissue, and certain plants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It works by reducing the production of uric acid in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • By lowering the production of uric acid, flare-ups of gout can be prevented. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • It reduces the production of uric acid in your body. (studystack.com)
  • Xanthine oxidase (XO) helps in the production of uric acid, an end product of protein (purine) metabolism. (healthy.net)
  • Uricosuric drugs are inhibitors of uric acid synthesis and the enzyme uricase. (nature.com)
  • Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors (XOIs) for Gout Sufferers explains how to restrict uric acid production. (goutpal.com)
  • Or, my common term: uric acid inhibitors. (goutpal.com)
  • So, in this article, I use the term used by medics: Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors. (goutpal.com)
  • Leave Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors to read Questions for Gout Sufferers . (goutpal.com)
  • Simultaneous determination of guanine, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine in human plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. (duke.edu)
  • A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with amperometric detection is described for the separation and quantification of uric acid, guanine, hypoxanthine and xanthine. (duke.edu)
  • Uric acid, guanine, hypoxanthine and xanthine were completely separated, with detection limits in the range 2-20 pmol per injection. (duke.edu)
  • Good recoveries of uric acid (97.9-103%), hypoxanthine (98.0-99.2%), guanine (96.0-98.3%) and xanthine (96.0-102%) were obtained from human plasma. (duke.edu)
  • [4] [5] In August 2011, a report, based on NASA studies with meteorites found on Earth, was published suggesting xanthine and related organic molecules, including the DNA and RNA components adenine and guanine , were found in outer space . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inability to recycle hypoxanthine and guanine produces a lack of feedback control of synthesis accompanied by rapid catabolism of these bases to uric acid (Fig 1) . (aappublications.org)
  • Gua = guanine, UA = uric acid. (aappublications.org)
  • Your doctor may increase your dose of febuxostat after 2 weeks if a laboratory test shows that you still have too much uric acid in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Febuxostat inhibits the action of this enzyme and as a result lowers uric acid levels. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • When administered per orally at doses of 20 and 50 mg/kg, 1 reduced the serum uric acid level by 49.9 and 63.9%, respectively and 2 reduced the level by 31.2 and 44.4%, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • On the other hand, when the same doses were given intraperitoneally, both of compounds also exhibited a dose-dependent and more marked reduction of the serum uric acid level (% reduction at 20 and 50 mg/kg were 63.0 and 95.1% in 1, respectively and 66.9 and 86.5% in 2, respectively). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Testing for the target serum uric acid level of less than 6 mg/dL may be performed as early as two weeks after initiating ULORIC therapy. (rxlist.com)
  • Use of pretreatment serum uric acid level to predict metastasis in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Reduces synthesis of uric acid without disrupting biosynthesis of vital purines. (medscape.com)
  • The following chemical reactions are catalyzed by xanthine oxidase: hypoxanthine + H2O + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } xanthine + H2O2 xanthine + H2O + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } uric acid + H2O2 Xanthine oxidase can also act on certain other purines, pterins, and aldehydes. (wikipedia.org)
  • it's a biochemical intermediate found in your body during the metabolism of purines to uric acid (which is thereupon excreted by the kidneys, or sometimes insufficiently excreted, such as in the case of gout. (yarchive.net)
  • Uric acid is formed in the bloodstream when the body breaks down waste products, mainly those containing purines. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If you want to cure gout naturally, you need to know how to keep purines out of your body and uric acid flushed. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Because uric acid is a byproduct of purines and purines are mostly found in animal products, you should become a quasi-vegetarian for a few days. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Inhibits xanthine oxidase, the enzyme that synthesizes uric acid from hypoxanthine. (medscape.com)
  • Lonicera hypoglauca inhibits xanthine oxidase and reduces serum uric acid in mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 10 to 75 mg per day inhibits xanthine oxidase which is required for uric acid production. (selfgrowth.com)
  • By blocking the conversion of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid, it produces a reduction in serum uric acid concentration and in the urinary excretion of urates. (medscape.com)
  • Mangiferin ameliorates hyperuricemic nephropathy which is associated with downregulation of AQP2 and increased urinary uric acid excretion. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In normal rats, orally administered Y-700 (0.3-3 mg/kg) dose dependently reduced the urinary excretion of urate and allantoin, accompanied by an increase in the excretion of hypoxanthine and xanthine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Uricosuric drugs, such as probenecid, increase uric acid excretion. (nps.org.au)
  • It works to lower uric acid levels in the blood. (drugs.com)
  • XOIs for Gout Herbalists are a wide range of extracts from plants that have been shown to lower uric acid. (goutpal.com)
  • Gout flares may occur after initiation of ULORIC due to changing serum uric acid levels resulting in mobilization of urate from tissue deposits. (rxlist.com)
  • Drug efficacy and safety, as outcomes, were measured by whether the target level of serum urate acid was achieved and whether any adverse events occurred, respectively. (nature.com)
  • XOR catalyzes the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine and xanthine, the last two steps in urate biosynthesis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Uric acid (urate) permease YgfU. (tcdb.org)
  • YgfU exhibits low affinity (0.5 mM) but high capacity for urate and very poor activity for xanthine. (tcdb.org)
  • Uric acid nephropathy and end-stage renal disease--review of a non-disease. (medscape.com)
  • Mene P, Punzo G. Uric acid: bystander or culprit in hypertension and progressive renal disease? (medscape.com)
  • Serum uric acid and the risk of cardiovascular and renal disease. (medscape.com)
  • Essential hypertension, progressive renal disease, and uric acid: a pathogenetic link? (medscape.com)
  • Elevated levels of xanthine in blood and urine samples are indicative of pathological conditions such as xanthinuria, gout, or renal failure. (rsc.org)
  • Xanthinuria is a rare genetic disorder where the lack of xanthine oxidase leads to high concentration of xanthine in blood and can cause health problems such as renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 3-generation kindred is described in which the recognition of partial HPRT deficiency in 2 adolescent male siblings presenting with uric acid lithiasis led to the diagnosis in 2 maternal uncles already in renal failure of unknown cause. (aappublications.org)
  • We sought to evaluate the association between changes in serum uric acid (SUA) levels over time and the risk of incident DM, CVD, and renal function decline in gout patients. (plos.org)
  • Desai RJ, Franklin JM, Spoendlin-Allen J, Solomon DH, Danaei G, Kim SC (2018) An evaluation of longitudinal changes in serum uric acid levels and associated risk of cardio-metabolic events and renal function decline in gout. (plos.org)
  • Thus, G. applanatum produced outstanding hypouricemic effects, mediated by renal OAT1, GLUT9, and URAT1 and gastrointestinal CNT2 that might elevate urine uric secretions and decline in the absorption of purine in the gastrointestinal tracts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hyperuricaemia is defined as a serum uric acid more than 0.36 mmol/L in women and more than 0.42 mmol/L in men. (nps.org.au)
  • Overactivity of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (PRS) is an X chromosome-linked disorder of purine metabolism that is characterized by gout with uric acid overproduction and, in some families, neurodevelopmental impairment. (wiley.com)
  • Superactivity of PRS is an X chromosome-linked inborn error of metabolism ( 4 ) characterized by increased rates of PRPP, purine nucleotide, and uric acid production, in association with gout and uric acid urolithiasis. (wiley.com)
  • 1 - 3 HPRT deficiency (McKusick #308000) is an X-linked defect (Xq26-q27.2) of purine metabolism with considerable genetic and clinical heterogeneity, the biochemical hallmark being increased levels of uric acid in blood and urine. (aappublications.org)
  • The effect of ischemia/reperfusion on adenine nucleotide metabolism and xanthine oxidase production in skeletal muscle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Xanthinuria , rare inherited disorder of purine metabolism that results from a deficiency in the enzyme xanthine oxidase. (britannica.com)
  • Radiolableled amino acid-based agents are useful in PET brain tumor imaging because F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG), commonly used in PET tumor imaging, is relatively insensitive for detecting tumors in the brain due the high levels of glycolytic metabolism in the normal cortex and to a lesser extent in white matter. (cancer.gov)
  • Xanthine oxidase (XO) catalyses hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid in human metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • In theory, this deficiency may alter exercise energy metabolism by impairing the purine nucleotide cycle (PNC) and reducing tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle anaplerosis. (wiley.com)
  • It is important to several enzyme systems, most significantly that of xanthine oxidase, which supports many functions, including uric acid metabolism and mobilization of iron from the liver for body use. (healthy.net)
  • Molybdenum is a vital part of three important enzyme systems-xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase-and so has a vital role in uric acid formation and iron utilization, in carbohydrate metabolism, and sulfite detoxification as well. (healthy.net)
  • Carnitine is an essential factor in fatty acid metabolism in mammals. (hmdb.ca)
  • These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and can further catalyze the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalyzes the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidase, which catalyzes the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine, and xanthine to uric acid. (yarchive.net)
  • Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. (uniprot.org)
  • Xanthine oxidase will degrade hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic gout may be associated with deposits of uric acid crystals known as tophi. (ahrq.gov)
  • Gout is caused by too much uric acid in the blood that leads to a build-up of uric acid crystals in the joints. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • therefore, an increase in xanthine forms crystals (which can lead to kidney stones) and result in damage to the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gout results from a raised total body uric acid concentration with consequent deposition of crystals in joints and occasionally elsewhere. (nps.org.au)
  • Because gout is caused by uric acid crystals, it only makes sense to try to dissolve and flush the uric acid. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Stanton JR, Freis ED: The serum uric acid concentration in essential hypertension. (springer.com)
  • High serum uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the absence of the enzyme, xanthine is not metabolized by the body and its concentration builds up in the blood and urine. (britannica.com)
  • Prevents uric acid production and lowers elevated serum uric acid levels. (medscape.com)
  • The association between increased uric acid (UA) levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed and studied for many decades. (uzh.ch)
  • Increased UA levels may be an indicator of up-regulated activity of xanthine oxidase, a powerful oxygen radical-generating system in human physiology. (uzh.ch)
  • Uric Acid and Xanthine Levels in Pregnancy Complicated by Gestational Diabetes Mellitus-The Effect on Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Uric acid (UA) levels are associated with many diseases including those related to lifestyle. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of clinical and anthropometric parameters on UA and xanthine (X) levels during pregnancy and postpartum in women with physiological pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and to evaluate their impact on adverse perinatal outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • A blood test can show if you have high levels of uric acid in your body. (healthline.com)
  • High levels of uric acid may cause gout attacks or kidney stones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hypouricemic effects of acacetin and 4,5-o-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester on serum uric acid levels in potassium oxonate-pretreated rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1 - 4 ] Acute gout is triggered by uric acid crystallization within the joints and lowering serum uric acid to subsaturating levels (≤6.8 mg/dl) to prevent crystal deposition is the primary approach of managing gout. (plos.org)
  • The long-term management of gout , to control uric acid levels and prevent gout attacks. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Certain types of cancer and treatments for cancer can raise uric acid levels. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Objective- We have previously demonstrated that endothelial xanthine oxidase (XO) levels are dependent on the NADPH oxidase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, the urine uric acid (UUA) levels were enhanced by GAE and GAW. (frontiersin.org)
  • Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels are associated with glucose control. (springer.com)
  • High serum uric acid levels may result in gout, kidney stones, and other medical conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reducing high blood uric acid levels (hyperuricaemia) in gout and thus preventing gout attacks. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • This medicine is not recommended for people being treated for high uric acid levels as a result of cancer or Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (a rare inherited condition in which there is too much uric acid in the blood). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Gout occurs when there are high levels of uric acid circulating in the blood, and the acid crystallizes and settles in the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prognostic value of pre-operative serum uric acid levels in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients who undergo R0 esophagectomy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2. Test the hypothesis that lowering uric acid will reduce plasma renin activity and serum angiotensin II levels. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, you should avoid pineapples, tomatoes, oranges and cranberries which are loaded with high levels of acids. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Daily dosages of aspirin greater than 325 mg may increase uric acid levels, reducing the effect of uric acid treatment. (aafp.org)
  • Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. (curehunter.com)
  • A MeDiet enriched with either virgin olive oil or nuts enhances the plasma antioxidant capabilities and decreases xanthine oxidase. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • It is also assumed that the radical scavenging action of circulating uric acid decreases neoplastic transformation, to reduce the risk of cancer [ 4 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Uric acid stones and calcium oxalate stones are common in these patients. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Approximately 75% to 80% of stones are composed of predominantly calcium oxalate, 5% to 10% are predominantly calcium phosphate, 10% to 20% are struvite and 5% are pure uric acid . (tripdatabase.com)
  • Potassium citrate is a potentially effective medication for children with calcium oxalate stones and concomitant hypocitraturia, as well as children with uric acid stones. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Acute uric acid nephropathy. (medscape.com)
  • The Role of Uric Acid in Acute Kidney Injury. (medscape.com)
  • The potential therapeutic use for uric acid is as an adjunct in acute ischemic stroke. (drugbank.ca)
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that xanthine oxidase (XO) is an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular disease ( Doehner and Landmesser, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In mammalian cells, a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is xanthine oxidase (XO), an enzyme that uses xanthine and hypoxanthine as reducing substrates and yields both superoxide (O 2 ·− ) and H 2 O 2 via 1- and 2-electron reductions of molecular oxygen. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bovine xanthine oxidase (from milk) was originally thought to have a binding site to reduce cytochrome c with, but it has been found that the mechanism to reduce this protein is through XO's superoxide anion byproduct, with competitive inhibition by carbonic anhydrase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most, but not all, nucleic acids in the cell are associated with protein. (utah.edu)
  • After dissociation of the protein and nucleic acid, the protein is metabolized like any other protein. (utah.edu)
  • A buildup of the amino acid cystine, a building block of protein, causes 1% of kidney stones in adults and up to 8% of stones in children. (umm.edu)
  • Thus, carnitine is an unusual amino acid and has different functions than most other amino acids, which are most usually employed by the body in the construction of protein. (hmdb.ca)
  • People with the rare genetic disorder xanthinuria lack sufficient xanthine oxidase and cannot convert xanthine to uric acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I xanthinuria has been traced directly to mutations of the XDH gene which mediates xanthine oxidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xanthinuria is a rare disease, in which xanthine oxidase deficiency leads to the accumulation of xanthine (XA) in urine. (ufl.edu)
  • Accordingly, inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity has been shown to improve a range of surrogate markers in patients with CVD, but this effect seems to be confined to hyperuricemic patients because disappointing results were reported in studies with normouricemic patients. (uzh.ch)
  • Inhibition of xanthine oxidase has been proposed as a mechanism for improving cardiovascular health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xanthine oxidase activity was expressed as percent inhibition of xanthine oxidase, calculated as (1 - B/A) x100, where A is the change in absorbance of the assay without the plant extract (Dabs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine in vitro and in vivo xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory and antihyperuricemic activities of an ethyl acetate extract of QA leaf (QALE) and identify its active phytochemicals using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC) systems. (hindawi.com)
  • These results demonstrated the hypouricemic action of 1 and 2, which may be attributable to their xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • XOR activity was measured by evaluation of uric acid formation. (pulsus.com)
  • Uric acid is produced by the breakdown of purine nucleotides, and high concentrations of uric acid can lead to gout and uric acid kidney stones. (nih.gov)
  • Treating certain enzyme disorders that result in overproduction of uric acid, for example Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Pathologic metabolites (Hyp = hypoxanthine, Xan = xanthine) used as specific markers in differential diagnosis are shown as is the importance of functional HPRT in nucleotide feedback control of synthesis (defective in HPRT deficiency). (aappublications.org)
  • One of the important specialized pathways of a number of amino acids is the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. (utah.edu)
  • Hypoxanthine and xanthine are not incorporated into the nucleic acids as they are being synthesized but are important intermediates in the synthesis and degradation of the purine nucleotides. (utah.edu)
  • Peptides are further split into free amino acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The muscle biopsies were analysed for AMPD activity, purine nucleotides/nucleosides and bases, creatine, phosphocreatine, amino acids, and the TCA cycle intermediates malate, citrate and fumarate. (wiley.com)
  • EC 2.7.6.1) catalyzes the phosphoribosylation of ribose 5-phosphate to 5- phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, which is necessary for the salvage pathways of purine and pyrimidine, pyridine nucleotide cofactors NAD and NADP, the amino acids histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis [ 1 , 2 ]. (pulsus.com)
  • Like the other amino acids used or manufactured by the body, carnitine is an amine. (hmdb.ca)
  • In humans, about 25% of carnitine is synthesized in the liver, kidney and brain from the amino acids lysine and methionine. (hmdb.ca)
  • The active ingredient in ULORIC is 2-[3-cyano4-( 2-methylpropoxy) phenyl]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid, with a molecular weight of 316.38. (rxlist.com)
  • For patients who do not achieve a serum uric acid (sUA) less than 6 mg/dL after two weeks, the recommended ULORIC dosage is 80 mg once daily. (rxlist.com)
  • Derivatives of xanthine (known collectively as xanthines ) are a group of alkaloids commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators , notably in the treatment of asthma symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • Fishberg AM: The interpretation of increased blood uric acid in hypertension. (springer.com)
  • AMP is part of the structure of some of the coenzymes like NAD and Coenzyme A. And, of course, the nucleotides are part of nucleic acids. (utah.edu)
  • The nucleic acids are hydrolyzed randomly by nucleases to yield a mixture of polynucleotides. (utah.edu)
  • Although the electrolyte complications have significant morbid potential, the liberation of nucleic acids plays a major role in the AKI seen in TLS ( 16 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • or their kidneys can't excrete it rapidly enough (or sometimes both situations at the same time), uric acid can precipitate out of solution and form crystal deposit in joints, beneath the skin, or in the kidney (among other places). (yarchive.net)
  • Gout is a type of arthritis in which uric acid, a naturally occurring substance in the body, builds up in the joints and causes sudden attacks of redness, swelling, pain, and heat in one or more joints. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Studies reported in 2008, based on 12 C/ 13 C isotopic ratios of organic compounds found in the Murchison meteorite , suggested that xanthine and related chemicals, including the RNA component uracil , were formed extraterrestrially. (wikipedia.org)
  • But different analogues show varying potency at the numerous subtypes, and a wide range of synthetic xanthines (some nonmethylated) have been developed searching for compounds with greater selectivity for phosphodiesterase enzyme or adenosine receptor subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypoxanthine (one oxygen atom) xanthine (two oxygens) uric acid (three oxygens) Because XO is a superoxide-producing enzyme, with general low specificity, it can be combined with other compounds and enzymes and create reactive oxidants, as well as oxidize other substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xanthine compounds such as theophylline have diuretic properties. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Methylated xanthine compounds such as caffeine , theobromine , and theophylline are used for their bronchodilator effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Methylated xanthine compounds (e.g., caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) are used for their bronchodilator effect. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, the compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the rat liver xanthine oxidase activity with IC(50) values of 2.22 muM and 5.27 muM, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups. (hmdb.ca)
  • By inhibiting xanthine oxidase, it reduces uric acid production. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, after oxypurinol is filtered by the kidneys, it is reabsorbed in a manner similar to how uric acid is reabsorbed. (nih.gov)
  • Normally, the kidneys filter uric acid particles out of the blood and excrete it into the urine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If the body produces too much uric acid or the kidneys aren't able to filter enough of it out, there is a buildup of uric acid in the bloodstream. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some patients, however, develop xanthine stones in their kidneys. (britannica.com)
  • Uric acid enters the bloodstream, and then passes primarily into the kidneys. (umm.edu)
  • From the kidneys, uric acid leaves the body in the urine. (umm.edu)
  • A number of stimulants are derived from xanthine, including caffeine and theobromine . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 A large number of mild xanthine derived stimulants, like caffeine and theobromine, are available in tea and coffee. (rsc.org)
  • For example, it efficiently converts 1-methylxanthine (a metabolite of caffeine) to 1-methyluric acid, but has little activity on 3-methylxanthine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another reaction catalyzed by xanthine oxidase is the decomposition of S-Nitrosothiols (RSNO), a reactive nitrogen species, to nitric oxide (NO), which reacts with a superoxide anion to form peroxynitrite under aerobic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xanthine oxidase is a superoxide-producing enzyme found normally in serum and the lungs, and its activity is increased during influenza A infection. (wikipedia.org)