X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Tomography, X-Ray: Tomography using x-ray transmission.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.Tooth, Artificial: A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesDental Restoration Wear: Occlusal wear of the surfaces of restorations and surface wear of dentures.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Elasmobranchii: A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.Fast Neutrons: Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Bender-Gestalt Test: A psychological test consisting of nine geometric designs on cards. The subject is asked to redraw them from memory after each one is presented individually.Mechanics: The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Hagfishes: Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.ScotlandWood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Convection: Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.HydrocarbonsBeauty: Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)MiningHuman Body: The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.TailEar, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Ear Canal: The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.

Soft tissue morphometry of the malleus-incus complex from micro-CT imaging. (1/936)

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Comparative effects of scaffold pore size, pore volume, and total void volume on cranial bone healing patterns using microsphere-based scaffolds. (2/936)

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In vivo quantification of subcutaneous and visceral adiposity by micro-computed tomography in a small animal model. (3/936)

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Multimodality rodent imaging chambers for use under barrier conditions with gas anesthesia. (4/936)

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Tumorigenic potential and disease manifestations of malignant B-cell variants differing in their fibronectin adhesiveness. (5/936)

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The leucine-rich amelogenin peptide alters the amelogenin null enamel phenotype. (6/936)

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Occult injury in the residual lung after pneumonectomy in mice. (7/936)

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The role of lipase and alpha-amylase in the degradation of starch/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) fiber meshes and the osteogenic differentiation of cultured marrow stromal cells. (8/936)

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  • Micro computed tomography or 'micro-CT' is x-ray imaging in 3D, by the same method used in hospital CT (or 'CAT') scans, but on a small scale with massively increased resolution. (bruker.com)
  • The presentation of other in vitro or in vivo techniques, such as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) or X-ray absorptiometry accordingly, would be the issue of another article. (hindawi.com)
  • A micro-focus x-ray source illuminates the object and a planar x-ray detector collects magnified projection images. (bruker.com)
  • The cone-beam system is based on a 2D X-ray detector (camera) and an electronic X-ray source, creating projection images that later will be used to reconstruct the image cross-sections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technology uses an X-ray cone beam, which will pass through the sample to a detector. (stinstruments.com)
  • Cone-beam X-ray microtomography attracts increasing attention due to its applications in biomedi- cal sciences, material engineering, and industrial nondestructive evaluation. (scribd.com)
  • In this article, we reformulate a generalized Feldkamp cone-beam image reconstruction algorithm, utilize curved voxels and mapping tables, improve the reconstruction efficiency by an order of magnitude relative to a direct implementation of the standard algorithm, and demonstrate the feasibility with numerical simulation and experiments using a prototype cone-beam X-ray microtomographic system. (scribd.com)
  • 1999). With an X-ray point source and a 2D- detector array, X-rays intersecting a spherical specimen form a cone, giving rise to the nomenclature cone-beam. (scribd.com)
  • 1988). We de- veloped a prototype cone-beam X-ray microtomographic system (Cheng et al. (scribd.com)
  • This protocol is presented to characterize the complex wetting conditions of an opaque porous medium (hydrocarbon reservoir rock) using three-dimensional images obtained by X-ray microtomography at subsurface conditions. (jove.com)
  • physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/XrayMassCoef/tab3.html ), the greater the number of diffraction and scattering events, thereby weakening the X-ray beam that reaches the detector. (pharmtech.com)
  • Even if several other techniques allow a structural determination of surfaces, X-ray diffraction offers unique possibilities. (esrf.eu)
  • Surface X-ray diffraction is not limited to free surfaces under UHV conditions but it can be applied with success to study solid interfaces. (esrf.eu)
  • The ESRF also offers complementary techniques such as X-ray diffraction topography and phase-contrast imaging, which exploits the coherence of the beam. (esrf.eu)
  • Real-time monitoring of laser powder bed fusion process using high-speed X-ray imaging and diffraction. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report studies of two fossil bone samples, specifically the tibia of a 300-million-year-old tetrapod, Discosauriscus austriacus , and the humerus of a 370-million-year-old lobe-finned fish, Eusthenopteron foordi , using XRD-CT - a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and computed tomography (CT). (nature.com)
  • This article presents a microscale modelling approach coupled with X-ray computed micro-tomography for the evaluation of material properties of polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced by birch pulp fibers under the effect of moisture. (vtt.fi)
  • The purpose of this work is to present a protocol to characterize the complex wetting conditions of hydrocarbon reservoir rock using pore-scale three-dimensional X-ray imaging at subsurface conditions. (jove.com)
  • In addition, perspectives on the impact of synchrotron based applications, particularly X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and the role of synchrotron applications in remediation, regulatory, and decision making processes are considered. (elsevier.com)
  • Approach to investigate both the chemical and physical properties with handheld Raman and X-ray CT, respectively, promise the accurate discrimination of the SFs, even if their visual appearance is similar with authentic products. (ajtmh.org)
  • With the advent of high-resolution time-resolved three-dimensional X-ray imaging, all the terms in this expression can be measured directly. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • One contrast enhanced MRA method, projection magnetic resonance digital subtraction angiograph (MRDSA), generates time-resolved angiograms in a manner similar to conventional digital x-ray digital subtraction angiography. (iospress.com)
  • In one setup, the X-ray source and detector are typically stationary during the scan while the sample/animal rotates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second setup, much more like a clinical CT scanner, is gantry based where the animal/specimen is stationary in space while the X-ray tube and detector rotate around. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fan-beam system is based on a one-dimensional (1D) X-ray detector and an electronic X-ray source, creating 2D cross-sections of the object. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intensity of the X-rays reaching the detector is controlled by the sample path length and the X-ray attenuation coefficient of the material that it encounters on that path (4). (pharmtech.com)
  • The resolution of the image is determined by the size of the x-ray focal spot, number of projection views per rotation, the detector cell size, and the software algorithms used in image reconstruction. (stinstruments.com)
  • It is common to construct an area X-ray detector with a scintillator, which converts X-rays to visible light, and a camera to observe the scintillation. (iucr.org)
  • The capabilities of the CCD such as its good linearity, fast readout and high sensitivity make it a competitive X-ray detector. (iucr.org)
  • The project, carried out with palaeontologist Dr Carole Burrow from the University of Queensland , was the first use of x-ray microtomography to investigate small vertebrate fossils. (abc.net.au)
  • A two-dimensional 'shadow' image is produced by accurately rastering the X-ray beam across the sample. (pharmtech.com)
  • Phase-contrast can also be used to image low-density materials, which do not absorb X-rays sufficiently to form a conventional X-ray image. (mdpi.com)
  • It made use of x-ray tomography and image processing techniques to quantify the internal structure using (i) directional parameters as particle, contact normal, branch vector and void orientations, (ii) scalar parameters and Coordination Number and Contact Index and (iii) the operational grading of the soil and the 3D shape of the constituent grains. (city.ac.uk)
  • Equipment available at the X-ray beamlines includes a Kirkpatrick-Baez microfocusing mirror system, 4-circle Huber goniometer, 13-element Ge and single element Si (Li) detectors and a 50 micron resolution image plate system. (lsu.edu)
  • Scientists x-ray an object from various angles to produce an outline image similar to a standard x-ray. (innovations-report.com)
  • Since a mouse fetus is mostly made of soft tissues, only poor contrast is obtained by absorption-based X-ray CT of a native fetus. (biologists.org)