Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.
A measure of relative protection provided by SUNSCREENING AGENTS against burns due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from a light source.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
Organizations which certify physicians and dentists as specialists in various fields of medical and dental practice.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)

The effect of thin filament activation on the attachment of weak binding cross-bridges: A two-dimensional x-ray diffraction study on single muscle fibers. (1/5671)

To study possible structural changes in weak cross-bridge attachment to actin upon activation of the thin filament, two-dimensional (2D) x-ray diffraction patterns of skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle were recorded at low and high calcium concentration in the presence of saturating concentrations of MgATPgammaS, a nucleotide analog for weak binding states. We also studied 2D x-ray diffraction patterns recorded under relaxing conditions at an ionic strength above and below 50 mM, because it had been proposed from solution studies that reducing ionic strength below 50 mM also induces activation of the thin filament. For this project a novel preparation had to be established that allows recording of 2D x-ray diffraction patterns from single muscle fibers instead of natural fiber bundles. This was required to minimize substrate depletion or product accumulation within the fibers. When the calcium concentration was raised, the diffraction patterns recorded with MgATPgammaS revealed small changes in meridional reflections and layer line intensities that could be attributed in part to the effects of calcium binding to the thin filament (increase in I380, decrease in first actin layer line intensity, increase in I59) and in part to small structural changes of weakly attached cross-bridges (e.g., increase in I143 and I72). Calcium-induced small-scale structural rearrangements of cross-bridges weakly attached to actin in the presence of MgATPgammaS are consistent with our previous observation of reduced rate constants for attachment and detachment of cross-bridges with MgATPgammaS at high calcium. Yet, no evidence was found that weakly attached cross-bridges change their mode of attachment toward a stereospecific conformation when the actin filament is activated by adding calcium. Similarly, reducing ionic strength to less than 50 mM does not induce a transition from nonstereospecific to stereospecific attachment.  (+info)

Model studies of chromatin structure based on X-ray diffraction data. (2/5671)

Model calculations are presented in order to interpret the X-ray diffraction diagrams given by chromatin gels. It is shown that by taking into account the hydration of chromatin subunits, the problem of calculating the interference function in concentrated gels is greatly simplified. In this way it is spossible to fully interpret the influence of concentration on the position and intensity of the various rings present in the X-ray diffraction patterns. The possibilities and limitations of models based on spherical symmetry are also discussed. It is concluded that each chromatin subunit most likely contains three turns of DNA in each 200 base pairs segment surrounding a central protein core. With the method presented here it is possible to test if other models of chromatin based on different kinds of evidence are compatible with the X-ray diffraction data.  (+info)

Chromatin nu bodies: isolation, subfractionation and physical characterization. (3/5671)

Monomer chromatin subunit particles (nu1) have been isolated in gram quantities by large-scale zonal centrifugation of micrococcal nuclease digests of chicken erythrocyte nuclei. nu1 can be stored, apparently indefinitely, frozen in 0.2 mM EDTA (pH 7.0) at less than or equal to 25 degrees C. Aliquots of the stored monomers have been subfractionated by dialysis against 0.1 M KCl buffers into a soluble fraction containing equimolar amounts of H4, H3, H2A, H2B associated with a DNA fragment of approximately 130-140 nucleotide pairs, and a precipitated fraction containing all of the histones including H5 and H1 associated with DNA fragments. The total nu1 and the KCl-soluble fraction of nu1 have been examined by sedimentation, diffusion, sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation, low-angle X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. Physical parameters from all of these techniques are presented and correlated in this study.  (+info)

Maximum solubility of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers. (4/5671)

In any lipid bilayer membrane, there is an upper limit on the cholesterol concentration that can be accommodated within the bilayer structure; excess cholesterol will precipitate as crystals of pure cholesterol monohydrate. This cholesterol solubility limit is a well-defined quantity. It is a first-order phase boundary in the phospholipid/cholesterol phase diagram. There are many different solubility limits in the literature, but no clear picture has emerged that can unify the disparate results. We have studied the effects that different sample preparation methods can have on the apparent experimental solubility limit. We find that artifactual demixing of cholesterol can occur during conventional sample preparation and that this demixed cholesterol may produce artifactual cholesterol crystals. Therefore, phospholipid/cholesterol suspensions which are prepared by conventional methods may manifest variable, falsely low cholesterol solubility limits. We have developed two novel preparative methods which are specifically designed to prevent demixing during sample preparation. For detection of the cholesterol crystals, X-ray diffraction has proven to be quantitative and highly sensitive. Experiments based on these methods yield reproducible and precise cholesterol solubility limits: 66 mol% for phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers and 51 mol% for phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) bilayers. We present evidence that these are true, equilibrium values. In contrast to the dramatic headgroup effect (PC vs. PE), acyl chain variations had no effect on the cholesterol solubility limit in four different PC/cholesterol mixtures.  (+info)

An ordered metastable phase in hydrated phosphatidylethanolamine: the Y-transition. (5/5671)

By using time-resolved X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning densitometry, we observed rapid formation at low temperature of a metastable ordered phase, termed LR1 phase, in fully hydrated dihexadecylphosphatidylethanolamine (DHPE). The LR1 phase has the same lamellar repeat period as the gel Lbeta phase but differs from the latter in its more ordered, orthorhombic hydrocarbon chain arrangement. It forms at about 12 degrees C upon cooling and manifests itself as splitting of the sharp, symmetric wide-angle X-ray peak of the DHPE gel phase into two reflections. This transition, designated the 'Y-transition', is readily reversible and proceeds with almost no hysteresis between cooling and heating scans. Calorimetrically, the LR1-->Lbeta transition is recorded as a low-enthalpy (0.2 kcal/mol) endothermic event. The formation of the LR1 phase from the gel phase is associated with a small, about 2 microl/g, decrease of the lipid partial specific volume recorded by scanning densitometry, in agreement with a volume calculation based on the X-ray data. The formation of the equilibrium Lc phase was found to take place from within the LR1 phase. This appears to be the only observable pathway for crystallisation of DHPE upon low-temperature incubation. Once formed, the Lc phase of this lipid converts directly into Lbeta phase at 50 degrees C, skipping the LR1 phase. Thus, the LR1 phase of DHPE can only be entered by cooling of the gel Lbeta phase. The data disclose certain similarities between the low-temperature polymorphism of DHPE and that of long-chain normal alkanes.  (+info)

Ups and downs of protein crystallization: studies of protein crystals by high-performance capillary electrophoresis. (6/5671)

High-performance capillary electrophoresis is a high-technology micro-separation method. Short run time, full automation and minute amounts of sample make it a very attractive technique. In this report we describe studies of protein crystals by capillary electrophoresis. We show how high-performance capillary electrophoresis can be used effectively for rapid evaluation and examination of the protein solution used for crystallization, the protein crystals (solubilized) and surrounding mother liquor. With coated capillaries, the runs were reproducible and disturbing effects, such as electroendosmosis and interaction of the proteins with the capillary wall, were suppressed efficiently. We recommend this new technique as a powerful and routine companion to protein crystallography.  (+info)

Protein folding at the air-water interface studied with x-ray reflectivity. (7/5671)

We report the results of x-ray reflectivity measurements of thin films formed by different water-soluble proteins at the air-aqueous solution interface. It is demonstrated that glucose oxidase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and urease molecules denaturate at the air-aqueous solution interface to form 8- to 14-A-thick peptide sheets. X-ray reflectivity data indicate that the spreading of a lipid monolayer at the aqueous solution surface before protein injection does not prevent proteins from unfolding. On the other hand, crosslinking of proteins results in intact enzyme layers at the subphase surface. A model that involves interaction of glucose oxidase molecules with a phospholipid monolayer is proposed. In this model, an observed decrease of the lipid electron density in the protein presence is explained in terms of "holes" in the monolayer film caused by protein molecule adsorption.  (+info)

Structural characteristics of supramolecular assemblies formed by guanidinium-cholesterol reagents for gene transfection. (8/5671)

We have recently discovered that cationic cholesterol derivatives characterized by guanidinium polar headgroups are very efficient for gene transfection in vitro and in vivo. In spite of being based on some rationale at the molecular level, the development of these new synthetic vectors was nevertheless empirical. Indeed, the factors and processes underlying cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer are still poorly understood. Thus, to get a better insight into the mechanisms involved, we have examined the supramolecular structure of lipid/DNA aggregates obtained when using reagent bis(guanidinium)-tren-cholesterol (BGTC), either alone or as a liposomal formulation with the neutral phospholipid dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). We here report the results of cryotransmission electron microscopy studies and small-angle x-ray scattering experiments, indicating the presence of multilamellar domains with a regular spacing of 70 A and 68 A in BGTC/DOPE-DNA and BGTC-DNA aggregates, respectively. In addition, DNA lipoplexes with similar lamellar patterns were detected inside transfected HeLa cells by conventional transmission electron microscopy. These results suggest that DNA condensation by multivalent guanidinium-cholesterol cationic lipids involves the formation of highly ordered multilamellar domains, the DNA molecules being intercalated between the lipid bilayers. These results also invite further investigation of the intracellular fate of the internalized lipid/DNA structures during their trafficking toward the cell nucleus. The identification of the basic features of active complexes should indeed help in the design of improved guanidinium-based vectors.  (+info)

To better understand radiation-matter interaction at the surface, we perform grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) measurements of a deuterium-ion (D-ion) plasma-irradiated bulk zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystal. The D-ion-irradiated crystal exhibits the (100) reflection of hexagonal wurtzite ZnO similar to the non-irradiated sample but with an asymmetric and shifted peak, broader rocking curve, larger a-axis lattice constant, and positive Cauchy strain along the a-axis. These structural properties are attributed to the presence of a strained lattice on the irradiated surface of the bulk crystal. D-ion irradiation of the ZnO (100) surface leads to a lattice expansion along the crystals a-axis and in-plane compression along the c-axis. Our results show the specific effects of D-ion plasma irradiation on the ZnO crystal lattice along with the interaction of D-ions with the ZnO surface.. ...
In this study, x-ray diffraction measurements of liquid water are reported at pressures up to 360 MPa corresponding to a density of 0.0373 molecules per Å 3. The measurements were conducted at a spatial resolution corresponding to Q max = 16 Å -1. The method of data analysis and measurement in this study follows the earlier benchmark results reported for water under ambient conditions having a density of 0.0333 molecules per Å 3 and Q max = 20 Å -1 [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 074506 (2013)] and at 70°C having a density of 0.0327 molecules per Å 3 and Q max = 20 Å -1 [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 214507 (2014)]. The structure of water is very different at these three different T and P state points and thus they provide the basis for evaluating the fidelity of molecular simulation. Measurements show that at 360 MPa, the 4 waters residing in the region between 2.3 and 3 Å are nearly unchanged: the peak position, shape, and coordination number are nearly identical to their values under ambient conditions. ...
Changes in the molecular structure of striated muscle during contraction can be determined owing to corresponding changes in X-ray diffraction data. The work presented in this thesis analyses X-ray diffraction patterns obtained from frog sartorius muscles using Synchrotron Radiation at two distinctly different stages of the contractile cycle; rest and peak of isometric plateau.;Two-dimensional theoretical diffraction patterns were produced from a three-dimensional computer model of striated muscle and compared with experimental X-ray diffraction data. Modifications were made to both the thick and thin filaments situated within a hexagonal lattice, within the model, however the emphasis of the work was upon the protein myosin. In particular, the configuration, orientation and axial distribution of the myosin heads were analysed until the meridional intensity profile was comparable with experiment. Additionally, the dominant equatorial and row line reflections were modelled to fully define the ...
Using grazing incidence geometry and a thin layer cell, x-ray scattering has been used to study the structure of electrochemically deposited monolayers of lead on silver (111) and gold (111) electrodes in-situ. For the lead monolayer deposited on sliver, the lead was found to order in a hexagonoal closed packed (hcp) geometry with the lead lattice compresssed 1.2% relative to bulk lead. A rotational epitaxy angle of 4.4 deg was observed. From the width of the first order diffraction peak, the domain size of the lead was determined to be 300 A indicating that even when deposited from a solution, the lead forms a well ordered two-dimensional solid. On a gold (111) substrate, the lead monolayer was again found to order into a hcp layer, incommensurate with the gold. The lead was compressed 0.7% relative to bulk lead, with a domain size 200 A. Keywords: X-ray electrode; Lead(Metal); Gold electrode; Interface structure; Electrodeposition.*ELECTRODES
A century has passed since the first X-ray diffraction experiment (Friedrich et al. 1912). During this time, X-ray diffraction has become a commonly used technique for the identification and characterization of materials and the field has seen continuous development. Advances in the theory of diffraction, in the generation of X-rays, in techniques and data analysis tools changed the ways X-ray diffraction is performed, the quality of the data analysis, and expanded the range of samples and problems that can be addressed. X-ray diffraction was first applied exclusively to crystalline structures idealized as perfect, rigid, space and time averaged.... ...
Real-time synchrotron diffraction has been used to monitor the phase transformations of highly exothermic, fast self-propagating solid combustion reactions on a subsecond time scale down to 100 milliseconds and in some instances to 10 milliseconds. Three systems were investigated: Ti + C → TiC; Ti + C + xNi → TiC + Ni-Ti alloy; and Al + Ni → AlNi. In all three reactions, the first step was the melting of the metal reactants. Formation of TiC in the first two reactions was completed within 400 milliseconds of the melting of the Ti metal, indicating that the formation of TiC took place during the passage of the combustion wave front. In the Al + Ni reaction, however, passage of the wave front was followed by the appearance and disappearance of at least one intermediate in the afterburn region. The final AlNi was formed some 5 seconds later and exhibited a delayed appearance of the (210) reflection, which tends to support a phase transformation from a disordered AlNi phase at high temperature ...
William Astbury, a British scientist, obtained the first X-ray diffraction pattern of DNA.. X-ray diffraction patterns of crystallized molecules can reveal their structures with atomic precision. Astbury obtained X-ray diffraction patterns of uncrystallized DNA. He extracted DNA from cells, then dipped a needle into the viscous DNA solution and dragged out a strand containing many molecules lined up roughly parallel to each other.. The X-ray diffraction patterns off this strand revealed that DNA must have a regular, periodic structure. He suggested that the nucleotide bases are stacked on top of each other like a pile of pennies.. « Previous Event , Next Event ». ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Grazing incidence X-ray absorption characterization of amorphous Zn-Sn-O thin film. AU - Moffitt, S. L.. AU - Ma, Q.. AU - Buchholz, D. B.. AU - Chang, R. P.H.. AU - Bedzyk, M. J.. AU - Mason, T. O.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - We report a surface structure study of an amorphous Zn-Sn-O (a-ZTO) transparent conducting film using the grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique. By setting the measuring angles far below the critical angle at which the total external reflection occurs, the details of the surface structure of a film or bulk can be successfully accessed. The results show that unlike in the film where Zn is severely under coordinated (N , 4), it is fully coordinated (N = 4) near the surface while the coordination number around Sn is slightly smaller near the surface than in the film. Despite a 30% Zn doping, the local structure in the film is rutile-like.. AB - We report a surface structure study of an amorphous Zn-Sn-O (a-ZTO) transparent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - COMMENSURATE AND INCOMMENSURATE STRUCTURES IN MOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXIALLY GROWN Ge//xSi//1// minus //xFILMS ON Si(100).. AU - Fiory, A. T.. AU - Bean, J. C.. AU - Feldman, Leonard C. AU - Robinson, I. K.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - The transition between commensurate and incommensurate growth of Ge//xSi//1// minus //x alloys on Si is observed directly by means of ion channeling and x-ray diffraction measurements. Molecular beam epitaxial films of thickness h up to 2500 A thick show commensurate epitaxy for x APP 1STH 50% and h APP GRTH h//c, a critical thickness dependent upon x. The observed values of h//c are discussed in terms of a model invoking the maximum theoretical interfacial shear strength and a barrier to misfit dislocation formation.. AB - The transition between commensurate and incommensurate growth of Ge//xSi//1// minus //x alloys on Si is observed directly by means of ion channeling and x-ray diffraction measurements. Molecular beam epitaxial films of ...
Ultrafast time-resolved wide angle x-ray scattering from chemical reactions in solution has recently emerged as a powerful technique for determining the structural dynamics of transient photochemical species. Here we examine the structural evolution of photoexcited CH(2)I(2) in the nonpolar solvent cyclohexane and draw comparisons with a similar study in the polar solvent methanol. As with earlier spectroscopic studies, our data confirm a common initial reaction pathway in both solvents. After photoexcitation, CH(2)I(2) dissociates to form CH(2)I* + I*. Iodine radicals remaining within the solvent cage recombine with a nascent CH(2)I* radical to form the transient isomer CH(2)I-I, whereas those which escape the solvent cage ultimately combine to form I(2) in cyclohexane. Moreover, the transient isomer has a lifetime approximately 30 times longer in the nonpolar solvent. Of greater chemical significance is the property of time-resolved wide angle x-ray diffraction to accurately determine the structure of
Our X-ray Diffraction Field Measurement Services team uses portable x-ray diffractometer equipment on-location to provide x-ray diffraction measurements.
An X-ray diffraction method has been developed which was able to describe the diffusion zone produced by annealing nickel plated copper specimens at 750 degrees and 850 degrees. The experimental X-ray diffraction data were first corrected for instrumental broadening and then used to compute concentration-penetration curves across the diffusion zone. the experimental curves are in general agreement with a new mathematical analysis and also the diffusion coefficients reported in the literature ...
This thesis is composed of two parts. In part I the x-ray structural analyses of two sesquiterpenoids and two derivatives of 2-naphthol are reported, while in part II the results from molecular mechanics calculations are used to investigate the conformational processes occurring in a series of cyclo-octa-1,5-dienes and to interpret some of the stereochemical peculiarities of germacrane based sesquiterpenoids. The crystal structure analysis of the germacranolide, costunolide, was undertaken to determine its structure and stereochemistry. An incomplete structure was available at the commencement of this study, derived partially from x-ray diffraction measurements using Mo - Ka radiation and partially from synthetic and spectral observations. The diffraction data were recollected using Cu - Ka radiation in order to obtain more accurate measurements of the weaker reflexions. This technique was completely successful and allowed the structure and stereochemistry to be determined. Crystals of the ...
In the absorption edge region of metals the photoelectron is excited to the first unoccupied level above the Fermi level. Therefore its w:mean free path in a pure single crystal at zero temperature is as large as infinite, and it remains very large increasing the energy of the final state up to about 5 eV above the Fermi level. Beyond the role of the unoccupied density of states and matrix elements in single electron excitations, many-body effects appear as an infrared singularity at the absorption threshold in metals.. In the absorption edge region of insulators the photoelectron is excited to the first unoccupied level above the chemical potential but the unscreened core hole forms a localized bound state called core exciton.. ...
In this study, the course of myofibrillogenesis in Drosophila pupae was followed by means of conventional X-ray diffraction and end-on microdiffraction. Owing to the high transmission of X-ray beams, the diffraction technique is suitable for detecting overall regularity in molecular arrangement in bulk specimens such as the thoraces of insects. With the wavelength of the X-ray used here (0.1 nm), this technique will be applicable to larger insects, including honeybees and silkworm moths. In the conventional X-ray diffraction recordings, in which the beamsize is comparable to the size of a Drosophila thorax (approx. 1 mm), the extent of development of thoracic musculature can be diagnosed with a single shot of chest X-ray. This is a non-invasive method requiring relatively low doses of X-rays and may be incorporated for routine checks of developmental status and/or quick assessment of effect of mutations on flight muscle-related genes. On the other hand, the end-on microdiffraction recording is ...
In-situ X-ray diffraction study of hydrogen absorption and desorption processes in Pd thin films: Hydrogen composition dependent anisotropic expansion and its quantitative descriptionIn-situ X-ray diffraction study of hydrogen absorption and desorption processes in Pd thin films: Hydrogen composition dependent anisotropic expansion and its quantitative description ...
X-ray Diffraction Patterns of Activated Carbons Prepared under Various Conditions - Activated carbon;$H_3PO_4$-activation;steam pyrolysis;graphite structure;X-ray diffraction;
Author(s): Nasreen, Farzana; Antonio, Daniel; VanGennep, Derrick; Booth, Corwin H; Kothapalli, Karunakar; Bauer, Eric D; Sarrao, John L; Lavina, Barbara; Iota-Herbei, Valentin; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Zhao, Yusheng; Cornelius, Andrew L | Abstract: We report a study of high pressure x-ray absorption (XAS) performed in the partial fluorescence yield mode (PFY) at the U L3 edge (0-28.2 GPa) and single crystal x-ray diffraction (SXD) (0-20 GPa) on the UCd11 heavy fermion compound at room temperature. Under compression, the PFY-XAS results show that the white line is shifted by +4.1(3) eV at the highest applied pressure of 28.2 GPa indicating delocalization of the 5f electrons. The increase in full width at half maxima and decrease in relative amplitude of the white line with respect to the edge jump point towards 6d band broadening under high pressure. A bulk modulus of K0 = 62(1) GPa and its pressure derivative, K0 = 4.9(2) was determined from high pressure SXD results. Both the
Wertz, D. L. (1992). X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of the Argonne Premium Coals: Descriptors of the Near Diffraction Peak. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 204, 37-Fuel ...
High- and low-angle X-ray diffraction studies of hard α -keratin have been studied, and various models have been proposed over the last 70 years. Most of these studies have been confined to one or two forms of alpha keratin. This high- and low-angle synchrotron fibre diffraction study extends the study to cover all available data for all known forms of hard α -keratin including hairs, fingernails, hooves, horn, and quills from mammals, marsupials, and a monotreme, and it confirms that the model proposed is universally acceptable for all mammals. A complete Bragg analysis of the meridional diffraction patterns, including multiple-time exposures to verify any weak reflections, verified the existence of a superlattice consisting of two infinite lattices and three finite lattices. An analysis of the equatorial patterns establishes the radii of the oligomeric levels of dimers, tetramers, and intermediate filaments (IFs) together with the centre to centre distance for the IFs, thus confirming the ...
FOR some time X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to study living muscle in the resting state1-4. Using a modified Frankss type of small-angle camera5,6 and a Hilger microfocus X-ray generator, it has been possible for the first time to record equatorial and meridional X-ray reflexions from striated muscle during contraction as well as during rest.
The structure of the synthetic deoxyoctamer d(GGIGCTCC) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques to a resolution of 1.7A. The sequence crystallises in space group P6(1), with unit cell dimensions a = b = 45.07, c = 45.49A. The refinement converged with a crystallographic residual R = 0.14 and the location of 81 solvent molecules. The octamer forms an A-DNA duplex with 6 Watson-Crick (G.C) base pairs and 2 inosine-thymine (I.T) pairs. Refinement of the structure shows it to be essentially isomorphous with that reported for d(GGGGCTCC) with the mispairs adopting a wobble conformation. Conformational parameters and base stacking interactions are compared to those for the native duplex d(GGGGCCCC) and other similar sequences. A rationale for the apparent increased crystal packing efficiency and lattice stability of the I.T octamer is given. Refined crystal structure of an octanucleotide duplex with I.T. mismatched base pairs.,Cruse WB, Aymani J, Kennard O, Brown T, Jack ...
Coherent X-ray Diffraction patterns of collagen in soft tissues have been measured for the first time by Dr Felisa Berenguer at the London Centre for Nanotechnology with her colleagues.
We performed the solution-phase synthesis of a set of model peptides, including homo-oligomers, based on the 2-aminoadamantane-2-carboxylic acid (Adm) residue, an extremely bulky, highly lipophilic, tricyclic, achiral, Ca-tetrasubstituted a-amino acid. In particular, for the difficult peptide coupling reaction between two Adm residues, we took advantage of the Meldals a-azidoacyl chloride approach. Most of the synthesized Adm peptides were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The results indicate a significant propensity for the Adm residue to adopt ¿-turn and ¿-turn-like conformations. Interestingly, we found that a -CO-(Adm)2-NH- sequence is folded in the crystal state into a regular, incipient ¿-helix, at variance with the behavior of all of the homo-dipeptides from Ca-tetrasubstituted a-amino acids already investigated, which tend to adopt either the ß-turn or the fully extended conformation. Our density functional theory conformational energy calculations on the ...
The first hard X-ray laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), produces 120 shots per second. Particles injected into the X-ray beam are hit randomly and in unknown orientations by the extremely intense X-ray pulses, where the femtosecond-duration X-ray pulses diffract from the sample before the particle structure is significantly changed even though the sample is ultimately destroyed by the deposited X-ray energy. Single particle X-ray diffraction experiments generate data at the FEL repetition rate, resulting in more than 400,000 detector readouts in an hour, the data stream during an experiment contains blank frames mixed with hits on single particles, clusters and contaminants. The diffraction signal is generally weak and it is superimposed on a low but continually fluctuating background signal, originating from photon noise in the beam line and electronic noise from the detector. Meanwhile, explosion of the sample creates fragments with a characteristic signature. Here, we describe ...
The Library actively supports the Universitys mission by providing integrated and timely access to high quality scholarly resources, an inspiring environment for intellectual growth and discovery, with responsive and outreaching services... [read more ]. ...
In this work, the electronic bandstructure of GaAs1-xBix/GaAs single quantum well (QW) samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated by photomodulated reflectance (PR) measurements as a function of Bi content (0.0065
Porphyrin-based materials are prime candidates for solar energy harvesting applications. New compounds incorporating the porphyrin core, which exhibit the columnar liquid crystal (LC) phase, were synthesized as they offer a route to obtaining defect-free large area monodomain films. The structure of the phases exhibited by these materials has been probed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction with a microfocus (14ím x14 ím) beam. Exploiting the multidomain nature (i.e., having differently oriented crystal axes) of a thin glass cell, it was possible to obtain complete structural information without the need to have one single macroscopic crystal, which is normally difficult to obtain. The results confirmed the existence of the isotropic, discotic (columnar) LC, and discotic-ordered LC phases in these materials. The optical microscopic work demonstrates how macroscopic control of columnar orientations is achieved by manipulating the LC film thickness, substrate preparation, and the thermal annealing process.
RapiData 2017 at SSRL - Data Collection and Structure Solving: A Practical Course in Macromolecular X-ray Diffraction Measurement, April 16-21, 2017, Menlo Park, CA The announcement, agenda, registration and additional information are now available at the RapiData 2017 website canSAS-IX Meeting, June 5-7, 2017, San Francisco, CA. Please join us in San Francisco for canSAS-IX Meeting from June 5-7, 2017. The meeting will be hosted jointly between the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The collective action for nomadic materials science small angle scatterers (canSAS) is an ongoing activity to provide the small-angle scattering user community with shared tools and information. For more information please visit both canSAS and the meeting website. 7th International Conferences on Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, September 11-15, 2017, Berkeley, CA. The 7th International ...
An optical pick-up device comprising an optical system including a light source and an optical diffraction grating element and a light receiving element, wherein the optical diffraction grating element guides the 0th-order diffracted lights of a light beam emitted from the light source onto a recording medium and guides the first-order diffracted lights of a reflected light from the recording medium onto the light receiving element to produce a plurality of focused light spots having the same light amount, wherein the optical diffraction grating element includes diffraction gratings having a configuration in which grooves and flat lands each positioned between the adjacent grooves are successively alternately formed, wherein the diffraction gratings have the same groove depth, groove width and groove tilt angle in order to obtain a constant 0th-order diffraction efficiency and first-order diffraction efficiency in the optical diffraction grating element while the pitches of the diffraction gratings are
We consider the problem of phase determination for continuous diffraction patterns obtained from a beam of identical, aligned large molecules (such as proteins), each coated with a layer of water or vitreous ice. Many laser-aligned molecules are assumed to lie within a wide continuous x-ray beam at any instant. An iterative phasing method is developed to extract the common target structure in three dimensions from diffraction patterns of these doped ice balls. Several measurements of the diffraction intensity in reciprocal space are needed. We found iteratively two boundaries (supports) (between protein and ice and the outer iceball support) by using the charge-flipping and multiple hybrid input-output algorithms, working with multiple sets of measured data. The approach is applied to simulated data from hydrated lysozyme proteins generated by the serial crystallography method of laser-aligned protein-beam diffraction proposed by Spence and Doak [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 198102 (2004) ]. We consider ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Specimen preparation for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of biological cells and cellular organelles by using the X-ray free-electron laser at SACLA. AU - Kobayashi, Amane. AU - Sekiguchi, Yuki. AU - Oroguchi, Tomotaka. AU - Okajima, Koji. AU - Fukuda, Asahi. AU - Oide, Mao. AU - Yamamoto, Masaki. AU - Nakasako, Masayoshi. PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) allows internal structures of biological cells and cellular organelles to be analyzed. CXDI experiments have been conducted at 66 K for frozen-hydrated biological specimens at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser facility (SACLA). In these cryogenic CXDI experiments using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses, specimen particles dispersed on thin membranes of specimen disks are transferred into the vacuum chamber of a diffraction apparatus. Because focused single XFEL pulses destroy specimen particles at the atomic level, diffraction patterns are collected ...
A knowledge of the structure of collagen fibrils is important for any rational discussion of the occurrence and treatment of fibrosis. The different genetic types of collagen, and the structure of the triple-helical molecule as refined from X-ray fibre diffraction data, are described. The problem of determining molecular arrangement in native tissues is discussed. The various models proposed for the molecular arrangement of type I collagen are compared and an account is given of the quasi-hexagonal model. A detailed analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns from native type I collagen fibres is used to provide a quantitative description of the quasi-hexagonal model. Parameters such as molecular positions, azimuthal orientation and axial shift can be estimated from the diffraction patterns. These parameters refer to the helix main-chain. Side-chain conformations can then be built in by molecular graphics and the predicted X-ray pattern for the complete model compared with the observed pattern.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The molecular structure of maleimide. T2 - an electron diffraction study. AU - Harsányi, László. AU - Vajda, Erzsébet. AU - Hargittai, István. PY - 1985/7. Y1 - 1985/7. N2 - The molecular structure of maleimide has been investigated by electron diffraction. The experimental data are consistent with a C2v symmetry model. The following bond lengths (rg) and bond angles (rc) were determined:NC 1.409 = 0.003, CC 1.508 ± 0.003, C=C 1.344 ± 0.004, and C=O 1.206 ± 0.002 A; CNC 112.0 = 0.2, NCC 106.8 ± 0.2, NC=O 123.9 ± 0.3, and CCH 114.7 ± 1.3°. The electron diffraction structure is in agreement with the results of quantum chemical calculations. The bond lengths indicate a somewhat greater delocalization about the N atom than in the OCCCCO skeleton.. AB - The molecular structure of maleimide has been investigated by electron diffraction. The experimental data are consistent with a C2v symmetry model. The following bond lengths (rg) and bond angles (rc) were determined:NC ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Monitoring the Myosin Crossbridge Cycle in Contracting Muscle. T2 - Steps towards Muscle the Movie.. AU - Eakins, Felicity. AU - Knupp, Carlo. AU - Squire, John M. PY - 2019/7/20. Y1 - 2019/7/20. N2 - Some vertebrate muscles (e.g. those in bony fsh) have a simple lattice A-band which is so well ordered that low-angle X-ray difraction patterns are sampled in a simple way amenable to crystallographic techniques. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction through the contractile cycle should provide a movie of the molecular movements involved in muscle contraction. Generation of Muscle-The Movie was suggested in the 1990s and since then eforts have been made to work out how to achieve it. Here we discuss how a movie can be generated, we discuss the problems and opportunities, and present some new observations. Low angle X-ray difraction patterns from bony fsh muscles show myosin layer lines that are well sampled on row-lines expected from the simple hexagonal A-band lattice. The 1st, 2nd ...
Dilauroylglycerol arginine conjugates constitute a novel class of specific biocompatible surfactants, which can be considered analogues of partial glycerides and phospholipids. During their preparation, spontaneous intramolecular acyl-migration reactions are observed and both possible regioisomers are obtained: 1,2-dilauroyl-rac-glycero-3-(Nα-acetyl-l-arginine) (1212RAc) and 1,3-dilauroylglycero-2-(Nα-acetyl-l-arginine) (12RAc12). To study the influence of the presence of both regioisomers on the physicochemical properties, the phase behavior in the dry state of pure 1,2-dilauroyl-rac-glycero-3-(Nα-acetyl-l-arginine) and two mixtures of both regioisomers were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray diffraction complemented by polarized light microscopy. The experiments were performed for a sequence of heating, cooling and reheating scans. The results have shown that all samples investigated display thermotropic liquid crystallinity. The transition temperatures have ...
Denis Andrault, Guillaume Fiquet, Jean-Paul Itie, Pascal Richet, Philippe Gillet, Daniel Haeusermann, Michael Hanfland; Thermal pressure in the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell; an X-ray diffraction study. European Journal of Mineralogy ; 10 (5): 931-940. doi: Download citation file:. ...
The first goal of the platform is to provide research teams working in the field of macromolecular crystallography at the Institut Pasteur with the expertise and technology required for automated crystallogenesis, X-ray diffraction measurements, and crystallographic computing as a core facility. The platform has obtained significant funding from the Institut Pasteur and from external sources such as the National Genopole Network (RNG-France), and from GIS-IBISA allowing us to upgrade or to acquire new equipment. Our crystallogenesis pipeline today is the most fully automated in academic institutions in France. Each year more than 900 different protein samples are submitted to automated crystallization assays. Most of these samples (about 80%) originated from crystallographic research groups within the department of Structural Biology & Chemistry and the department of Virology at Pasteur. The remaining 20% originated from outside Pasteur (Institut de biologie physico-chimique, CEA-Saclay, and ...
After producing a recombinant form of AqpZ in E. coli, the proteins were crystallized--capturing five water molecules inside--and then analyzed by state-of-the-art high-resolution X-ray diffraction techniques. The architecture of aquaporin Z is typical of aquaporins, with a spiral of eight oxygens providing water-binding sites inside the channel. The outer membrane and cytoplasmic ends of the channel are wider than the interior, which is long and narrow. This structure demonstrates that aquaporin selectivity arises in part from erecting a physical barrier: small molecules, like water, can easily pass, but larger ones simply cant fit. And the strategic positioning of amino acid residues with hydrophilic or hydrophobic properties along the channel helps police the influx of molecules based on their affinity for water. While it seems two amino acid chains located in the middle of the channel also provide a water-friendly surface, Stroud et al. say they play a more intriguing role. Noting that the ...
EuTe is a magnetic semiconductor with potential applications in prototype optoelectronic and spintronic devices. In this work, we investigated the structural properties of EuTe grown on BaF2(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on two series of samples with different growth times and temperatures. The growth occurs in the Volmer-Webber mode, with initial formation of islands that then coalesce to form thin films. The islands size, mosaic spread, and strain state are deduced as a function of growth conditions. Surprisingly, the EuTe islands exhibit in-plane tensile strain, while compressive strain is expected for structures grown over a substrate with smaller lattice parameter. The islands tensile strain relaxes with increasing deposition times and substrate temperature, and it tends to zero for thick EuTe films. We propose that the EuTe/BaF2 lattice mismatch is compensated by the formation of interfacial misfit dislocations. The growth ...
Tutorial-like scientific monograph on X-ray diffraction analysis Summarizes the complete knowledge on X-Ray diffraction crystallography and structure
A homologous series of novel λ-shaped mesogenic compounds in which three mesogenic groups are connected to 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic acid has been prepared and their physical properties investigated by means of optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction measurements. The λ-shaped
We report the growth of Mn-doped wurtzite GaN epilayers by nitrogen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, with a systematic attention to the dependence on the growth conditions. The addition of Mn modifies the growth diagram related to the Ga/N flux ratio. In particular, the stable Ga-bilayer coverage on the growth surface for the Ga-rich condition is destabilized in the presence of Mn. Mn incorporation in the epilayers is found to strongly depend on the Ga/N flux ratio: it varies by two orders of magnitude between the Ga-rich and the N-rich growth conditions. X-ray diffraction measurements on epilayers grown in the stoichiometric condition reveal a clear contrast between the precipitation of perovskite GaMn[sub 3]N clusters at Mn compositions higher than 1.7%, and the single phase of wurtzite Ga[sub 1-x]Mn[sub x]N at lower Mn compositions. © 2003 American Institute of Physics ...
Ligation of 2,6-diphenylbenzenethiol (DppSH) onto Au clusters stabilized by poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and subsequent core etching yielded a single cluster Au25(SDpp)11. High-energy X-ray diffraction measurement showed that Au25 constitutes a core in Au25(SDpp)11. We propose a bi-icosahedral Au25 core whose
1 Properties of X-rays 2 Geometry of Crystals 3 Diffraction I: Directions of Diffracted Beams 4 Diffraction II: Intensities of Diffracted Beams 5 Diffraction III: Non-Ideal Samples 6 Laure Photographs 7 Powder Photographs 8 Diffractometer and Spectrometer 9 Orientation and Quality of Single Crystals 10 Structure of Polycrystalline Aggregates 11 Determination of Crystal Structure 12 Precise Parameter Measurements 13 Phase-Diagram Determination 14 Order-Disorder Transformation 15 Chemical Analysis of X-ray Diffraction 16 Chemical Analysis by X-ray Spectrometry 17 Measurements of Residual Stress 18 Polymers 19 Small Angle Scatters 20 Transmission Electron Microscope
Lecture 16 Diffraction Chp. 36. Topics Youngs double slit interference experiment Diffraction and the wave theory Single slit diffraction Intensity of single slit diffraction Circular aperture and double slit diffraction Diffraction grating Dispersion and resolving power Demos Slideshow 1282984 by Ava
We report experimental results on x-ray diffraction of quantum-state- selected and strongly aligned ensembles of the prototypical asymmetric rotor molecule 2,5-diiodobenzonitrile using the Linac Coherent Light Source. The experiments demonstrate first steps toward a new approach to diffractive imaging of distinct structures of individual, isolated gas-phase molecules. We confirm several key ingredients of single molecule diffraction experiments: the abilities to detect and count individual scattered x-ray photons in single shot diffraction data, to deliver state-selected, e.g., structural-isomer-selected, ensembles of molecules to the x-ray interaction volume, and to strongly align the scattering molecules. Our approach, using ultrashort x-ray pulses, is suitable to study ultrafast dynamics of isolated molecules ...
High-pressure single-crystal diffraction experiments often suffer from the crushing of single crystals due to the application of high pressure. Consequently, only diffraction data resulting from several particles in random orientations is available, which cannot be routinely indexed by commonly used methods designed for single-crystal data. A protocol is proposed to index such diffraction data. The techniques of powder pattern indexing are first used to propose the possible lattice parameters, and then a genetic algorithm is applied to determine the orientation of the reciprocal lattice for each of the particles. This protocol has been verified experimentally ...
White blood cell. X-ray crystallography diffraction pattern for a white blood cell, obtained as part of research on biochemical structures. This image was produced by British physicist and molecular biologist Maurice Wilkins (1916-2004) while working at the MRC Biophysics Research Unit at Kings College London, UK. It was here in the early 1950s that Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin, and other crystallographers obtained X-ray diffraction patterns for DNA that led to James Watson and Francis Cricks DNA double helix model. As well as DNA, the Kings College researchers investigated other materials, cells, and biological tissues. - Stock Image C020/9044
In this work, 100 ps time-resolved liquid diffraction experiments on the photoreactions of diiodomercury (HgI2) dissolved in methanol (10 mM) were performed at beamline ID09B, using the optical pump and X-ray probe method. This molecular system has been investigated using the same technique as before, but the transient pathway and subsequent structural dynamics have not been elucidated due to the poor signal-to-noise ratio and limited data analysis method [2]. An optical pulse (267 nm, 2 ps, 986 Hz) triggers impulsive photodissociation of HgI2, followed by subsequent reactions and then the X-ray pulse (100 ps, 0.067 nm, 986 Hz) interrogates the reacting sample by making the diffraction patterns on the CCD detector in a stroboscopic manner for the different time-delays spanning from 100 picosecond to 1 microsecond. The difference diffraction and corresponding radial intensities were extracted from the diffraction pattern and analysed using the so-called global-fitting method which considers ...
4.2 Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. *5 Convergent-beam electron diffraction. *6 Other STEM techniques *6.1 STEM ... Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy[edit]. In energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) or (EDXS), which is also referred to ... Convergent-beam electron diffraction[edit]. Convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) is a STEM technique that provides ... CBED differs from conventional electron diffraction in that CBED patterns consist of diffraction disks, rather than spots. The ...
ISBN 1586035371 Warren, B.E. (1969). X-Ray Diffraction. Guinier, A (1963). X-Ray Diffraction. San Francisco and London: WH ... X-Ray Diffraction Procedures, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1974, p 687-703, ISBN 978-0-471-49369-3. B.E. Warren, X-Ray ... B.D. Cullity & S.R. Stock, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction, 3rd Ed., Prentice-Hall Inc., 2001, p 96-102, ISBN 0-201-61091-4. R. ... The Scherrer equation, in X-ray diffraction and crystallography, is a formula that relates the size of sub-micrometre ...
X-ray diffraction; Combustion analysis. Compared to normal analyses methods, microanalysis: Requires less time for preparation ... X-ray fluorescence, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and mass spectrometry Most of the chromatography methods : high- ...
His recollections of his early work His personal remembrances for the book "50 Years of X-ray Diffraction" (pg. 574) v t e. ... André Guinier (1 August 1911 - 3 July 2000) was a French physicist who did important work in the field of X-ray diffraction and ... He developed the Guinier camera for use in X-ray diffraction and contributed to the development of the electron microprobe by ... Guinier, André (1963). "X-ray Diffraction. In Crystals, Imperfect Crystals, and Amorphous Bodies". W. H. Freeman and Co. ...
"Spraytec Laser Diffraction System". AZO Materials. "X'Pert³ Powder Cost-Effective, Multipurpose X-ray Diffraction from ... "The New Empyrean - a Revolution in the World of X-Ray Diffraction". Technology Networks. 3 July 2018. "Epsilon 4 X-ray ... "The New Empyrean - a Revolution in the World of X-ray Diffraction". Technology Networks. 3 July 2018. "Malvern Panalytical ... Spraytec droplet size system Mastersizer laser diffraction systems Zetasizer particle size systems Wavelength Dispersive X-ray ...
International Centre for Diffraction Data. Retrieved from icdd.com The British Museum (n.d.). X-ray diffraction analysis. ... International Centre for Diffraction Data. Retrieved from icdd.com The British Museum (n.d.). X-ray diffraction analysis. ... An overview Retrieved from the International Centre for Diffraction Data "The Songye X-ray Project". IMA Magazine. Indianapolis ... An X-ray of the Ghent Altarpiece, painted by Jan Van Eyck, in Saint Bavo Cathedral in Ghent, Belgium revealed the structure and ...
"Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction". Science Education Resource Center. Carleton College. Retrieved 18 September 2015. Thomas, ...
... simple X-ray diffraction or with a polarized microscope. Neutron and synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction are suitable for ... Traditionally both X-ray diffraction and EBSD may collect pole figures. Different methodologies exist to obtain the O D F {\ ... ISBN 978-0-8031-2895-8. B. C. Cullity (1956). Elements of X-Ray Diffraction. United States of America: Addison-Wesley. pp. 273- ... Among the quantitative techniques, the most widely used is X-ray diffraction using texture goniometers, followed by the EBSD ...
In May 1952, Raymond Gosling, a graduate student working under the supervision of Rosalind Franklin, took an X-ray diffraction ... "Original X-ray diffraction image". Oregon State Library. Archived from the original on 30 January 2009. Retrieved 6 February ... The first published reports of A-DNA X-ray diffraction patterns-and also B-DNA-used analyses based on Patterson transforms that ... An alternative analysis was then proposed by Wilkins et al., in 1953, for the in vivo B-DNA X-ray diffraction-scattering ...
"Studies in X-ray Diffraction". Cite journal requires ,journal= (help). ... In 1929, Krishnamurti was the a co-author of a paper, along with Raman titled 'A new x-ray effect', published in Nature. In ... Krishnamurthi is the author of two books: Sir C.V. Raman: A Short Biographical Sketch Studies in X-ray Diffraction http://hdl. ...
Diffraction gratings are constructed such that the angle of the incident ray, θi, is related to the angle of the mth outgoing ... typically using a diffraction grating to disperse the light and a slit to select the desired wavelength; however, a diffraction ... An ultrafast monochromator uses a second diffraction grating to compensate time delays introduced to the pulse by the first ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Palmer, Christopher (2020). Diffraction Grating Handbook (8th ed.). MKS Newport. v t e. ...
Crystallography International Centre for Diffraction Data Neutron diffraction Spallation Neutron Source X-ray crystallography ... A novel use of x-ray diffraction involves studying the surface of Mars to determine if it ever supported life. ... Robert, Turner, Stuart Matthew (2017-03-09). Novel X-ray Diffraction and the Remote Analysis of Mars (Thesis). University of ... There are several types of X-ray diffractometer, depending of the research field (material sciences, powder diffraction, life ...
"Field deployment of a portable X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence instrument on Mars analog terrain". Powder Diffraction. 20 ... On 17 October 2012, at "Rocknest", the first X-ray diffraction analysis of Martian soil was performed. The results revealed the ... CheMin is the Chemistry and Mineralogy X-ray powder diffraction and fluorescence instrument. CheMin is one of four ... "MSL Chemistry & Mineralogy X-ray diffraction(CheMin)". NASA/JPL. Retrieved 25 November 2011. Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D.; Feldman, ...
Advances in X-ray Analysis. JCPDS-International Centre for Diffraction Data. 50 (2): 57-63. Bibcode:2007PDiff..22..126H. doi: ...
X-ray diffraction is still considered the ultimate proof of absolute structure, but other techniques such as circular dichroism ... Bijvoet, J. M.; Bernal, J. D.; Patterson, A. L. (1952). "Forty Years of X-Ray Diffraction". Nature. 169 (4310): 949. Bibcode: ... Some new X-ray radiation is generated from the inner electron shells of the atoms. The X-ray radiation already being scattered ... In 1951, using an X-ray tube with a zirconium target, Bijvoet and his coworkers Peerdeman and van Bommel achieved the first ...
Shafranovskii, I. I.; Belov, N. V. "E. S. Fedorov 1853-1919". In Ewald, P. P. (ed.). Fifty Years of X-Ray Diffraction. ... known for Bragg's law of diffraction and Atomic Structures of Minerals Georg Brandt (1694-1768) Auguste Bravais (1811-1863) ...
X-ray diffraction studies of the". U.S. Geological Survery Bulletin. doi:10.3133/b1808JK. Cather, Steven M. (2020). "Jurassic ...
... along with the emerging field of X-ray microscopy. Optical microscopy and electron microscopy involve the diffraction, ... Though less common, X-ray microscopy has also been developed since the late 1940s. The resolution of X-ray microscopy lies ... A 3D X-ray microscope employs a range of objectives, e.g., from 4X to 40X, and can also include a flat panel. The field of ... X-ray microscopy is three-dimensional and non-destructive, allowing for repeated imaging of the same sample for in situ or 4D ...
Van Valkenburg Jr, A.; McMurdie, H.F. (1947). "High‐Temperature X‐Ray Diffraction Apparatus". Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 26 (5): 139 ...
Mark worked on X-ray diffraction. Linus Pauling learned X-ray diffraction from Mark, and that knowledge led to Pauling's ... Mark's x-ray diffraction work on the molecular structure of fibers provided important evidence for the macromolecular theory of ... Albert Einstein asked Mark and his colleagues worked to use the intense and powerful X-ray tubes available at their laboratory ...
Advances in X-ray Analysis. JCPDS-International Centre for Diffraction Data. 50: 57-63. ISSN 1097-0002. Archived from the ...
Advances in X-ray Analysis - proceedings of the Denver X-ray Conferences. Volume 44. The International Centre for Diffraction ... Spinvalve Structures Using X-Ray Diffraction and Reflectivity (PDF). ...
Seiler, P.; Dunitz, J. D. (1986). "Are ionic solids really built of ions? New evidence from x-ray diffraction". Helvetica ... Dunitz, J. D.; Maverick, E. F.; Trueblood, K. N. (1988). "Atomic Motions in Molecular Crystals from Diffraction Measurements". ... Dunitz, J. D.; Schweizer, W. B.; Seiler, P. (1983). "X-Ray Study of the Deformation Density in Tetrafluoroterephthalodinitrile ... Dunitz, J. D.; Schomaker, V.; Trueblood, K. N. (1988). "Interpretation of atomic displacement parameters from diffraction ...
X-ray and Neutron Diffraction Studies". Acta Crystallogr. B. 37 (7): 1347-1352. doi:10.1107/S0567740881005906. Corradini, Paolo ... ISBN 3-527-28165-7. Sweany, Ray L.; Brown, Theodore L. (1977). "Infrared spectra of matrix-isolated dicobalt octacarbonyl. ... 6 CoBr2 X-ray crystallographic analysis shows the product contains a triangle of cobalt atoms at distances near 2.48 Å, each ...
The primary, most accessible source of crystallinity information is X-ray diffraction and cryo-electron microscopy, although ... Amorphous solid Crystallite Crystallography DNA Single crystal X-ray pattern of a B-DNA paracrystal X-ray scattering techniques ... Hosemann R.; Bagchi R.N. (1962). Direct analysis of diffraction by matter. Amsterdam; New York: North-Holland. OCLC 594302398. ... Baianu I.C. (1978). "X-ray scattering by partially disordered membrane systems". Acta Crystallogr. A. 34 (5): 751-753. Bibcode: ...
3D X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) is a microscopy technique using hard X-rays (with energy in the 30-100 keV range) to investigate ... Other techniques employing X-rays to investigate the internal structure of polycrystalline materials include X-ray diffraction ... Poulsen, Henning Friis (2012-12-01). "An introduction to three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy". Journal of Applied ... Poulsen, Henning (2004). Three-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy. Springer Tracts in Modern Physics. 205. doi:10.1007/ ...
X-ray and Neutron Diffraction Studies". Acta Crystallogr. B. 37 (7): 1347-1352. doi:10.1107/S0567740881005906.. ... The structure has been analyzed by X-ray crystallography. The Co-Co distances are near 2.48 Å in length. The compound is ...
1990). X-Ray Diffraction by Disordered Lamellar Structures. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. pp. vi, x. doi:10.1007/978-3- ... Mering published over 100 technical papers on X-ray and electron diffraction of clays and related layer silicates, and of ... A technical book titled X-Ray Diffraction by Disordered Lamellar Structures was published in 1990 by his former students and ... Fifty Years of X-Ray Diffraction. US: Springer-Verlag. p. 454. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-9961-6_32. ISBN 978-1-4615-9963-0. ...
Resolution obtained by X-ray Diffraction". Nature. 196 (4860): 1173-1176. doi:10.1038/1961173a0. PMID 13971463. S2CID 4186428. ... Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot; Maslen, E. N. (1 May 1961). "The X-ray analysis of the structure of cephalosporin C". Biochemical ... This proposal was confirmed in 1945 by Dorothy Hodgkin using X-ray crystallography. Florey formally recognised Abraham's work ... and was later the first enzyme to have its structure solved using X-ray crystallography, by Lord David Philips. He then won a ...
"Bessel functions and diffraction by helical structures". planetphysics.org.[permanent dead link] "X-Ray Diffraction Patterns of ... by Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling in 1953) of A-DNA X-ray diffraction patterns-and also B-DNA-used analyses based on ... in 1953 for B-DNA X-ray diffraction and scattering patterns of hydrated, bacterial-oriented DNA fibers and trout sperm heads in ... Their corresponding X-ray diffraction & scattering patterns are characteristic of molecular paracrystals with a significant ...
... (/ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the nineteenth-century British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt ... Anomalous diffraction theory applies to optically soft but larger particles. ...
Structure of 2.2.2-Cryptand encapsulating a potassium cation (purple). At crystalline state, obtained with an X-ray diffraction ... Kane, Raymond; Sell, Heinz (2001). Revolution in lamps: A chronicle of 50 years of progress. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-88173-351-8. . ... Radioisotopes of caesium require special precautions: the improper handling of caesium-137 gamma ray sources can lead to ... Determination of the Solid-State Structure by Synchrotron Powder Diffraction". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 120 (7 ...
"X-Ray Interactions With Matter". The Center for X-Ray Optics. Archived from the original on 2011-08-27. Retrieved 2011-08-30.. ... This is an important concept in optics because it determines the phase of the light and governs interference and diffraction of ... is the X-ray wavelength, and n. e. {\displaystyle n_{e}}. is the electron density. One may assume the electron density is ... Als-Nielsen, J.; McMorrow, D. (2011). Elements of Modern X-ray Physics. Wiley-VCH. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-470-97395-0. . One ...
Most geology departments have X-ray powder diffraction equipment to analyze the crystal structures of minerals.[8]:54-55 X-rays ... 15 X-ray diffraction was demonstrated by Max von Laue in 1912, and developed into a tool for analyzing the crystal structure of ... Diffraction, the constructive and destructive interference between waves scattered at different atoms, leads to distinctive ... More recently, driven by advances in experimental technique (such as neutron diffraction) and available computational power, ...
Kadota H, Iijima K (1965). "The X-ray diffraction pattern of spores of Bacillus subtilis". Agric Biol Chem. 29 (1): 80-81. doi: ... The X-ray diffraction pattern of purified B. subtilis endospores indicates the presence of a component with a regular periodic ...
The phase moiré effect is the basis for a type of broadband interferometer in x-ray and particle wave applications. It also ... In super-resolution microscopy, the moiré pattern can be used to obtain images with a resolution higher than the diffraction ... for example when scanning a halftone picture or ray tracing a checkered plane (the latter being a special case of aliasing, due ... "A universal moiré effect and application in X-ray phase-contrast imaging". Nature Physics. 12 (9): 830-834. Bibcode:2016NatPh ...
X-ray diffraction, calorimetry, nuclear microscopy (HEFIB), Rutherford backscattering, neutron diffraction, small-angle X-ray ... Cullity, B.D. (1978). Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (2nd ed.). Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN ... Because of this, the powder diffraction method, which uses diffraction patterns of polycrystalline samples with a large number ... This involves methods such as diffraction with X-rays, electrons, or neutrons, and various forms of spectroscopy and chemical ...
These often enable the user to manually dock in protein coordinates (structures from X-ray crystallography or NMR) of subunits ... Both real space methods (treating sections of the helix as single particles) and reciprocal space methods (using diffraction ...
Some techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-Ray diffraction (EDXRD)[8] can be used to discover ...
Tracing the conversion of aurichalcite to a copper catalyst by combined X-ray absorption and diffraction[40] ... began using synchrotron radiation and devised techniques which combine X-ray spectroscopy and high-resolution X-ray diffraction ... "Tracing the conversion of aurichalcite to a copper catalyst by combined X-ray absorption and diffraction". Nature. 354 (6353): ... new solid catalysts and trying to understand the structure and activity of existing ones using techniques such as X-ray ...
a b P. Busch, M. Rauscher, D.-M. Smilgies, D. Posselt, and C. M. Papadakis: "Grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering ( ... from grazing-incidence diffraction (GID), and from diffuse reflectometry. From SAS it uses the form factors and structure ... The scattered probe is either photons (grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, GISAXS) or neutrons (grazing-incidence ... Film thicknesses may range from a few nm to several 100 nm, and such thin films are still fully penetrated by the x-ray beam. ...
"Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of human CLEC5A (MDL-1), a dengue virus receptor". Acta Crystallographica. ...
Historically, spectrophotometers use a monochromator containing a diffraction grating to produce the analytical spectrum. The ... including x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and/or microwave wavelengths. ...
In other cases, minerals can only be classified by more complex optical, chemical or X-ray diffraction analysis; these methods ... the underlying crystal structure is always periodic and can be determined by X-ray diffraction.[9] Minerals are typically ... Recent advances in high-resolution genetics and X-ray absorption spectroscopy are providing revelations on the biogeochemical ...
An X-ray diffraction study» Chem. Phys. Lett. 466[4-6] (2008) 205-208 DOI:10.1016/j.cplett.2008.10.064 ...
for his work on] molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons ... "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"[56] ...
Typically, astronomical spectroscopy uses high-dispersion diffraction gratings to observe spectra at very high spectral ...
Instead, they create a diffraction limited system, which has an increased depth of field, similar to using a small aperture in ... X-ray vision. Notes[edit]. *^ Chinese judges wore dark glasses to hide their facial expressions during court proceedings.[19] ...
The transformation of illite to muscovite in pelitic rocks : Constraints from X-ray diffraction, Clays and clay minerals, 46, ... The transformation of illite to muscovite in pelitic rocks: Constraints from X-ray diffraction, Clays and clay minerals, 46, ...
Chang, Raymond (1998). Chemistry (6th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-115221-1. .. ... Spectroscopy does not generally refer to diffraction studies where particles such as neutrons, electrons, or high energy X-rays ...
... is useful for monochromators for beamlines used in single crystal neutron scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The ... Diehl, R.; Prantzos, N.; Vonballmoos, P. (2006). "Astrophysical constraints from gamma-ray spectroscopy". Nuclear Physics A. ... Eugene P. Bertin, Principles and practice of X-ray spectrometric analysis, Chapter 5.4-Analyzer crystals, Table 5.1, p. 123; ... Germanium crystals are also used in X-ray spectrometers for the determination of phosphorus, chlorine and sulfur.[77] ...
for his work on] molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons ... "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"[63] ...
If a ray travels through a region of nonuniform density whose spatial gradient has a component orthogonal to the ray, that ray ... Raman, C. V.; Nagendra Nathe, N. S. (October 1935). "The diffraction of light by high frequency sound waves: Part I.". ... Ray optics description[edit]. A parallel beam is described as a group of straight and parallel 'rays'.[citation needed] The ... This ray is no longer parallel, so it doesn't intersect the focal point of the focusing element and is not blocked by the knife ...
Confocal X-ray fluorescence imaging is a newer technique that allows control over depth, in addition to horizontal and vertical ... For example, if the pinhole diameter is set to 1 Airy unit then only the first order of the diffraction pattern makes it ... Here, the size of the scanning volume is determined by the spot size (close to diffraction limit) of the optical system because ... The size of this diffraction pattern and the focal volume it defines is controlled by the numerical aperture of the system's ...
Observations of the small-scale structure can be made by shining the foam with laser light or x-ray beams and measuring the ... Considering the different scales, experimental techniques are diffraction ones, mainly light scattering techniques (DWS, see ...
Ewald, P. P. (ed.) 50 Years of X-Ray Diffraction (Reprinted in pdf format for the IUCr XVIII Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, ... Nobel Lecture Address - Max von Laue Concerning the Detection of X-ray Interferences, 12 November 1915 ... In June, Sommerfeld reported to the Physikalische Gesellschaft of Göttingen on the successful diffraction of X-rays by Laue, ... was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals. ...
In the optical frequency regime developing the superlens may allow for imaging below the diffraction limit. Other potential ... the ray in the higher-index medium is closer to the normal. ... Resolution below the diffraction limit becomes possible. This ... In contrast, conventional materials are usually curved, and cannot achieve resolution below the diffraction limit. Also, ... waveguides that can go beyond the diffraction limit, phase compensators, advancements in focusing devices (e.g. microwave lens ...
Using "Photo 51" (the X-ray diffraction results of Rosalind Franklin and her graduate student Raymond Gosling of King's College ... In 1954, at the age of 37, Crick completed his Ph.D. thesis: "X-Ray Diffraction: Polypeptides and Proteins" and received his ... Franklin's X-ray diffraction data for DNA and her systematic analysis of DNA's structural features was useful to Watson and ... The X-ray diffraction images collected by Gosling and Franklin provided the best evidence for the helical nature of DNA. ...
... crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase from Peking duck". Acta ...
X-ray lithography[edit]. X-ray lithography is a process used in electronic industry to selectively remove parts of a thin film ... The primary advantage of electron beam lithography is that it is one of the ways to beat the diffraction limit of light and ... An early example of a MEMS device is the resonistor, an electromechanical monolithic resonator patented by Raymond J. Wilfinger ...
All employees are researchers planning to work with radiation producing machines must attend an orientation session with one of the health physicist in the EHS Office. This work specific course is part of the certification process to become an authorized radiation worker at the Institute. Topics include:. * Regulatory requirements * Radiation protection program and policies at the Institute * Radiation fundamentals * Safe laboratory procedures. Attendees will receive copies of the Radiation Safety Manual and the Radiation Safety Training and Reference Manual.. To enroll in this course: ...
Media in category "X-ray diffraction". The following 200 files are in this category, out of 286 total. ... Pages in category "X-ray diffraction". This category contains only the following page. ... High School Student Conducting a X-Ray Diffraction Test.jpg 1,069 × 1,061; 179 KB. ... Insights-into-Minor-Group-Rhinovirus-Uncoating-The-X-ray-Structure-of-the-HRV2-Empty-Capsid-ppat.1002473.s005.ogv 49 s, 600 × ...
X-ray Diffraction Lab. The Departments X-ray Diffraction Lab features a Rigaku MiniFlex Powder Diffractometer, a simple-to-run ... Related to X-ray Diffraction Lab About * Diversity and Inclusion * Facilities * Analytical Geochemistry & Geochronology ... The X-ray Diffraction Lab was made possible in part by funds graciously donated by Dr. Irene Gesiak Kelley (CAS54, GRS55, ... automated diffractometer connected to a Windows PC running powerful data reduction software with extensive diffraction pattern ...
X-ray diffraction, a phenomenon in which the atoms of a crystal, by virtue of their uniform spacing, cause an interference ... Alternative Title: X-ray diffraction analysis. X-ray diffraction, a phenomenon in which the atoms of a crystal, by virtue of ... More About X-ray diffraction. 18 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *atomic structures* In ... the discovery and explanation of X-ray diffraction by Max von Laue of Germany and his collaborators, a discovery that was ...
... is a non-destructive analytical technique which provides detailed information about the ... X-ray diffraction is now a common technique for the study of crystal structures and atomic spacing. X-ray diffraction is based ... What is Single-crystal X-ray Diffraction. Single-crystal X-ray Diffraction is a non-destructive analytical technique which ... Single-crystal X-ray Diffraction. Single-crystal X-ray Diffraction. Christine M. Clark, Eastern Michigan University. Barbara L ...
... is a rapid analytical technique primarily used for phase identification of a crystalline ... X-ray diffraction is now a common technique for the study of crystal structures and atomic spacing. X-ray diffraction is based ... What is X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a rapid analytical technique primarily used for phase ... X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD). X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD). Barbara L Dutrow, Louisiana State University ...
... which indicates that they will give distinctive X-ray diffraction patterns. Primarily X-ray powder diffraction has been used ... The use of X-ray powder diffraction as a method for air monitoring was discussed. Most of the airborne dusts monitored by this ... which indicates that they will give distinctive X-ray diffraction patterns. Primarily X-ray powder diffraction has been used ... The use of X-ray powder diffraction as a method for air monitoring was discussed. Most of the airborne dusts monitored by this ...
When measuring the x-ray diffraction of clays, d is constant and λ is the known wavelength from the x-ray source, so the ... Typically, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an average of randomly oriented microcrystals that should equally represent all ... Well-crystallized and pure samples are ideal for x-ray diffraction, but this is rarely the case for clay. Clay minerals are ... Samples should be as homogeneous as possible, both in grain size and composition before mounting them for X-ray diffraction and ...
Energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) is an analytical technique for characterizing materials. It differs from ... Kämpfe, B.; Luczak, F.; Michel, B. (2005). "Energy Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction". Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 22 (6): 391-396. ... April 2013). "Energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction beamline at Indus-2 synchrotron source". Pramana. 80 (4): 607-619. Bibcode: ... Laine, E.; Lähteenmäki, I. (February 1980). "The energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method: annotated bibliography 1968-78". ...
... The departments X-ray Diffraction Lab features a Rigaku MiniFlex Powder Diffractometer, a simple-to-run ... The X-ray Diffraction Lab was made possible in part by funds graciously donated by Dr. Irene Gesiak Kelley (CAS54, GRS55, ... automated diffractometer connected to a Windows PC running powerful data reduction software with extensive diffraction pattern ...
The X-ray Diffraction Laboratory provides a broad variety of measurement techniques that use a combination of modern XRD ... X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) is a powerful, non-destructive technique capable of providing structural characterization of natural ...
The book is a collection of principles and methods stressing X-ray diffraction rather than metallurgy. The book is written ... Intended to acquaint the reader with the theory of x-ray diffraction, the experimental methods involved, and the main ... tetragonal texture thickness twin twin band unit cell vector voltage wave wavelength x-ray beam x-ray diffraction x-ray tube ... Diffraction.html?id=WpxpAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareElements of X-ray Diffraction. ...
6 and a Hilger microfocus X-ray generator, it has been possible for the first time to record equatorial and meridional X-ray ... FOR some time X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to study living muscle in the resting state1-4. Using a modified ... X-ray Diffraction from Living Striated Muscle during Contraction. *G. F. ELLIOTT1. , ... FOR some time X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to study living muscle in the resting state1-4. Using a modified ...
20 SOLID STATE AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION 20.1 INTRODUCTION X-ray diffraction on inorganic and organic solids is an increasingly ... SOLID STATE AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION. 20.1 INTRODUCTION. X-ray diffraction on inorganic and organic solids is an increasingly ...
1.5.1 Diffraction Pattern Measured by Area Detector 21. 1.5.2 Two-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction System and Major Components 22 ... experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and ... Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, ... 2.3.1 Ideal Detector for Diffraction Pattern in 3D Space 35. 2.3.2 Diffraction Cones and Conic Sections with Flat 2D Detectors ...
... x-ray photon in the imaging of biological material, which are not shared by other... ... Sayre D. (1980) Prospects for long-wavelength X-ray microscopy and diffraction. In: Schlenker M., Fink M., Goedgebuer J.P., ... B.L. Henke and E.S. Ebisu, in: Advances in X-Ray Analysis (C.L. Grant, C.S. Barrett, J.B. Newkirk, and C.O. Ruud, eds.), Vol. ... R.A. McCorkle, Soft x-ray emission by an electron-beam sliding-spark device, J. Phys. B11, L407-408 (1978).Google Scholar ...
Tutorial-like scientific monograph on X-ray diffraction analysis Summarizes the complete knowledge on X-Ray diffraction ... Tutorial-like scientific monograph on X-ray diffraction analysis. *Summarizes the complete knowledge on X-Ray diffraction ... X-Ray Diffraction Crystallography. Book Subtitle. Introduction, Examples and Solved Problems. Authors. * Yoshio Waseda ... X-ray diffraction crystallography for powder samples is a well-established and widely used method. It is applied to materials ...
... https://www.jyu.fi/science/en/chemistry/research/infrastructure/the-x-ray-diffraction-facility ... The X-ray Diffraction Facility (XRDF) of the Chemistry Department is a shared facility housed both in the Chemistry Department ... The X-ray Diffraction Facility offers research and collaboration opportunities to scientists and access is provided to world- ...
X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for obtaining molecular information regarding bond lengths, bond angles, hydrogen bond ... Brito-Arias M. (2016) X-Ray Diffraction of Glycosides. In: Synthesis and Characterization of Glycosides. Springer, Cham. https ... X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for obtaining molecular information regarding bond lengths, bond angles, hydrogen bond ... Brown GM, Levy HA (1963) Sucrose: precise determination of crystal and molecular structure by neutron diffraction. Science 141: ...
X-ray Diffraction Studies Series/Report no.: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Research Laboratory of Electronics. ... X-ray Diffraction Studies. Research and Teaching Output of the MIT Community. ...
... William Astbury, a British scientist, obtained the first X-ray diffraction pattern of DNA. ... X-ray diffraction patterns of crystallized molecules can reveal their structures with atomic precision. Astbury obtained X-ray ... The X-ray diffraction patterns off this strand revealed that DNA must have a regular, periodic structure. He suggested that the ... diffraction patterns of uncrystallized DNA. He extracted DNA from cells, then dipped a needle into the viscous DNA solution and ...
By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the ... At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro ... By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the ... By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the ...
... Start: Nov 06, 2014 09:30 AM End: Nov 06, ... A one day workshop exploring principles and applications of x-ray diffraction of archaeological ceramics and clay will be held ... 10:00-10:30: Patrick Quinn (Institute of Archaeology, University College London) Introduction to X-ray Diffraction of ... An Application of Powder X-ray Diffraction. 13:00-14:30: Lunch Break (Sandwiches will be provided in the adjacent Staff and ...
X-ray crystallography has been a workhorse for chemists since the 1940s and 50s, revealing the 3D structure of complex ... Yes, neither x-ray microscopy nor x-ray diffraction are new. This appears to be essentially small-sample x-ray diffraction, as ... As for x-ray microscopes, search up scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) or X-ray Photoelectron emission microscopy (X ... First X-Ray Diffraction Image of a Single Virus 57 Posted by kdawson on Friday June 20, 2008 @12:02PM. from the caught-ya dept ...
X-ray Powder Diffraction. Panalytical XPert Pro. X-ray powder diffraction is an important method for the characterization of ... Home / Advanced Materials Research Institute / AMRI FACS / Analysis / X-ray powder Diffraction ... Our Institute has two X-ray powder diffractometers for rapid analysis of materials. Sample preparation is usually easy and ...
X-Ray Diffraction Manager. Dr Mark Light is an X-ray diffraction and scattering specialist, with 20+ years experience in ... X-Ray diffraction is a non-destructive technique that provides structural information on length scales from microns down to the ... Available techniques include: X-Ray reflectivity for film thickness measurements, grazing incidence diffraction for thin film ... Southampton Diffraction Centre (SDC) brings together world leading facilities and staff to offer a wide range of high-end ...
2D X-Ray Diffraction A diffraction simulation with two-dimensional apertures.. *Download ejss_model_XRayDiffraction2D.zip - ... How did Rosalind Franklin discover the helical structure of DNA? The X-Ray Diffraction JavaScript Model computes diffraction ... X-Ray Diffraction JS Model Documents. This material has 2 associated documents. Select a document title to view a documents ... The X-Ray Diffraction JavaScript Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) version 5. This beta release is ...
Laue diffraction is one of the oldest diffraction techniques. Traditionally, it was applied to determine the orientation of ... In these experiments a small section of the sample is scanned through the x-ray microbeam and at each point a Laue diffraction ... Laue diffraction is one of the oldest diffraction techniques. Traditionally, it was applied to determine the orientation of ... a comparative study between spatially resolved Laue and monochromatic X-Ray micro-diffraction maps. Sadat T, Verezhak M, Godard ...
The Principles of X-ray Diffraction 6.1. X-ray Reflection according to W. L. Bragg. Consider a set of N+1 equidistant atomic ... X-ray Diffraction according to Laue. a. The linear grating. We first consider a row of equally spaced atoms, each of which ... Extract from 50 Years of X-ray Diffraction, edited by P. P. Ewald ... X-ray diffraction and its impact on physics. *Chapter 15. ... aspects early history journals history extension previous executive committees photos of crystallographers 50 years of x-ray ...
Excellent sample stages for in-situ X-ray diffraction under controlled temperature and pressure conditions. Non-ambient sample ... Superior diversity in X-ray diffraction. The powerful high-temperature and low-temperature sample stages from Anton Paar for in ... X-ray diffraction (XRD) combine longstanding experience with state-of-the-art technology. Whether for in-situ investigations of ... to our customers have made Anton Paar the most successful and reliable partner in the field of non-ambient X-ray diffraction. ...
  • For typical powder patterns, data is collected at 2 θ from ~5 ° to 70 ° , angles that are preset in the X-ray scan. (carleton.edu)
  • Most of the airborne dusts monitored by this method have been crystalline compounds, which indicates that they will give distinctive X-ray diffraction patterns. (cdc.gov)
  • These peaks can be compared to known diffraction patterns for better identification but if some peaks are broader than others, it is likely that multiple clays are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diffraction patterns calculated using theoretical methods do not generally match with experimental diffraction patterns, so using diffraction patterns from known samples to help identify a clay is preferable to calculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • With no need for a goniometer, EDXRD is able to collect full diffraction patterns very quickly. (wikipedia.org)
  • X-ray diffraction patterns of crystallized molecules can reveal their structures with atomic precision. (genome.gov)
  • Astbury obtained X-ray diffraction patterns of uncrystallized DNA. (genome.gov)
  • The X-ray diffraction patterns off this strand revealed that DNA must have a regular, periodic structure. (genome.gov)
  • The X-Ray Diffraction JavaScript Model computes diffraction patterns from first principles for simple apertures including a sinusoidal wave corresponding to a 2D projection of a helix as described in a paper by Braun, Tierney and Schmitzer. (compadre.org)
  • Using intense synchrotron sources we observed that six different ex vivo amyloid fibrils and two synthetic fibril preparations all gave similar high-resolution X-ray fibre diffraction patterns, consistent with a helical array of beta-sheets parallel to the fibre long axis, with the strands perpendicular to this axis. (nih.gov)
  • It allows compressing micron-sized objects (usually in the shape of micro-pillars) while recording Laue diffraction patterns. (psi.ch)
  • Thus, the diffraction patterns of various products show differences which can be seen clearly (Figure 3). (news-medical.net)
  • We demonstrate a ptychographic imaging method that bridges the gap between CDI and STXM by measuring complete diffraction patterns at each point of a STXM scan. (sciencemag.org)
  • The latter is an experimental method developed in the 1970s for electron microscopy ( 14 ), which consists of measuring multiple diffraction patterns by scanning a finite illumination on an extended specimen. (sciencemag.org)
  • X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded from single muscle cells ( Figure 87b ) while they were stimulated electrically under conditions whereby the length and load on the muscle cell could be controlled precisely. (esrf.eu)
  • Fig. 3: Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of irradiated and simulated SIFSIX-3-M structures. (nature.com)
  • X‐ray diffraction patterns from live frog skeletal muscles taken with an image plate detector (see Wakabayashi and Amemiya, ) at the small‐angle X‐ray scattering/diffraction beamline of the Photon Factory (Japan). (els.net)
  • High‐resolution X‐ray diffraction patterns from live frog skeletal muscles taken with a CCD detector at the BioCAT beamline of the Advanced Photon Sources (USA). (els.net)
  • An optical pulse (267 nm, 2 ps, 986 Hz) triggers impulsive photodissociation of HgI 2 , followed by subsequent reactions and then the X-ray pulse (100 ps, 0.067 nm, 986 Hz) interrogates the reacting sample by making the diffraction patterns on the CCD detector in a stroboscopic manner for the different time-delays spanning from 100 picosecond to 1 microsecond. (esrf.eu)
  • Now that we have learned about crystals and X-ray diffraction patterns, let's look at how an X-ray diffractometer works. (jove.com)
  • It was here in the early 1950s that Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin, and other crystallographers obtained X-ray diffraction patterns for DNA that led to James Watson and Francis Crick's DNA double helix model. (sciencephoto.com)
  • This diffraction pattern can be thought of as a chemical fingerprint, and chemical identification can be performed by comparing this diffraction pattern to a database of known patterns. (rigaku.com)
  • Coherent X-ray Diffraction patterns of collagen in soft tissues have been measured for the first time by Dr Felisa Berenguer at the London Centre for Nanotechnology with her colleagues. (phys.org)
  • This provides additional information on the 'phases' of the diffraction pattern, which are not measurable, but vitally needed to convert the diffraction patterns into images of the tissue. (phys.org)
  • Sorting of data according to different criteria and rapid filtering of events to retain only diffraction patterns of interest results in significant reductions in data volume, thereby simplifying subsequent data analysis and management tasks. (iucr.org)
  • The Coherent X-ray Imaging instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), for example, delivers full frames of data at up to 120 Hz, resulting in 432 000 diffraction patterns per hour and data sets of tens to hundreds of terabytes in size. (iucr.org)
  • I found the optical diffraction pattern for a triangular aperture, but I'm not sure if optical diffraction patterns would be the same as XRD patterns. (physicsforums.com)
  • These crystals will eventually be used in X-ray crystallography, a technique in which diffraction patterns that are produced by bombarding crystals with intense X-ray beams are decoded to determine the atomic structure of the enzyme. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The author has also developed software suitable for efficiently processing of diffraction patterns and retrieving electron density maps of specimen particles based on the diffraction theory used in CXDI. (springer.com)
  • Scattered x-radiation can be used for computed tomographic reconstruction of the distribution of crystallographic phases within the interior of specimens, and diffraction patterns can be measured for each volume element (voxel) within a reconstructed slice. (spie.org)
  • High-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data were used to solve this crystal structure by molecular replacement adapted for Rietveld refinement. (rcsb.org)
  • The demonstrated ability to solve and refine a protein crystal structure from powder diffraction data suggests that this approach can be employed, for example, to examine structural changes in a series of protein derivatives in which the structure of one member is known from a single-crystal study. (rcsb.org)
  • The International Centre for Diffraction Data® (ICDD®) is a non-profit scientific organization dedicated to collecting, editing, publishing, and distributing powder diffraction data for the identification of materials. (icdd.com)
  • PDFgetX3: A rapid and highly automatable program for processing powder diffraction data into total scattering pair distribution functions ," J. Appl. (cambridge.org)
  • The crystal structure of orthorhombic Er(HPO 4 )(NO 3 )·3 H 2 O has been determined from X-ray powder diffraction data. (degruyter.com)
  • X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) is a powerful, non-destructive technique capable of providing structural characterization of natural and synthetic solids including powders, thin films, single- and poly-crystals. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The book deals with fundamental properties of X-rays, geometry analysis of crystals, X-ray scattering and diffraction in polycrystalline samples and its application to the determination of the crystal structure. (springer.com)
  • The reciprocal lattice and integrated diffraction intensity from crystals and symmetry analysis of crystals are explained. (springer.com)
  • Next, Part 1 gives a description of the physical phenomenon of X-ray diffraction on perfect and imperfect crystals. (wiley.com)
  • X-ray diffraction analysis of protein structure is often limited by the availability of suitable crystals. (rcsb.org)
  • However, the absence of single crystals need not present an insurmountable obstacle in protein crystallography any more than it does in materials science, where powder diffraction techniques have developed to the point where complex oxide, zeolite and small organic molecular structures can often be solved from powder data alone. (rcsb.org)
  • These results suggest that crystals producing diffraction of this quality will be suitable for the structural determination of human CLEC-2. (iucr.org)
  • Darwin's paper is a masterpiece of physical insight into what is essential for explaining the features of X-ray diffraction by perfect crystals, and all later work, experimental and theoretical, has vindicated it. (iucr.org)
  • New X-ray lasers allow for high-resolution imaging of protein crystals too small for conventional X-ray crystallography. (diva-portal.org)
  • The crystals of SgfSL belonged to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.64, b = 94.72, c = 117.40 Å, β = 90.672°, and diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. (nih.gov)
  • The results of dynamic calculations of grazing-incidence diffraction in defect-containing crystals are compared with calculations in the kinematic approximation. (osti.gov)
  • X-ray diffraction is a common analytical technique used in materials science and biochemistry to determine the structures of crystals. (jove.com)
  • Single-crystal X-ray diffraction requires high-quality crystals without impurities, grain boundaries, or other interfacial defects. (jove.com)
  • In comparison to single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction is a bulk characterization technique that does not require single crystals. (jove.com)
  • Previously, X-ray diffraction from individual two-dimensional crystals did not represent a suitable investigational tool because of radiation damage. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • X-ray diffraction (XRD) is one of the most important non-destructive tools to analyze all kinds of matter-ranging from fluids, to powders and crystals. (rigaku.com)
  • We used a split-and-delay line based on diffractive X-ray optics at the Linac Coherent Light Source XFEL to investigate the time dependence of X-ray radiation damage to lysozyme crystals. (psi.ch)
  • For these tests, crystals were delivered to the X-ray beam using a fixed target approach. (psi.ch)
  • Even though significant impact on the crystals was observed at long time scales after exposure with a single X-ray pulse, the collected diffraction data did not show significant signal reduction that could be assigned to beam damage on the crystals in the sampled time window and resolution range. (psi.ch)
  • The experiments presented here demonstrate the feasibility of time-resolved pump-multiprobe X-ray diffraction experiments on protein crystals. (psi.ch)
  • Single-crystal X-ray Diffraction is a non-destructive analytical technique which provides detailed information about the internal lattice of crystalline substances, including unit cell dimensions, bond-lengths, bond-angles, and details of site-ordering. (carleton.edu)
  • Single-crystal X-ray Diffraction Instrumentation - How Does It Work? (carleton.edu)
  • Powder X-ray diffraction reveals the crystal structure of the sample, while single-crystal X-ray diffraction additionally reveals the chemical content and locations of atoms. (jove.com)
  • The meeting addresses current and future developments in single crystal X-ray diffraction ( SCXRD ) and features a diverse range of talks, posters, workshops and exhibitions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Single crystal X-ray diffraction is performed by analyzing the pattern of X-rays diffracted by a single crystal - an ordered array of identical molecules. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Department's X-ray Diffraction Lab features a Rigaku MiniFlex Powder Diffractometer, a simple-to-run automated diffractometer connected to a Windows PC running powerful data reduction software with extensive diffraction pattern databases. (bu.edu)
  • Rigaku FR-E+ Single Crystal X-Ray Diffractometer. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Beam line 10-2 is a wiggler end-station that splits time between the front hutch (BL10-2a), which is instrumented for x-ray absorption spectroscopy imaging, and the rear hutch (BL10-2b), which has a dedicated 6-circle diffractometer that is used for materials scattering. (stanford.edu)
  • The BL10-2b rear hutch is equiped with a six-circle diffractometer for x-ray diffraction/scattering. (stanford.edu)
  • This video illustrates the operation of an X-ray diffractometer, procedures for both single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, and discusses a few applications. (jove.com)
  • An X-ray diffractometer consists of three basic components: an X-ray source, a specimen, and a detector. (jove.com)
  • Multi-technique approach for nanoparticles characterization on a laboratory X-ray diffractometer ," Solid State Phenom. (cambridge.org)
  • Incorporating Rigaku's patented cross beam optics (CBO) technology for permanently mounted, permanently aligned and user-selectable parallel and focusing geometries, the Ultima IV X-ray diffractometer can perform many different measurements. (rigaku.com)
  • When coupled with CBO and the in-plane arm, the automatic alignment capability makes the Ultima IV X-ray diffractometer the most flexible system available for multipurpose applications. (rigaku.com)
  • Conversion of the diffraction peaks to d-spacings allows identification of the mineral because each mineral has a set of unique d-spacings. (carleton.edu)
  • Compared to other diffractometers, the ARL EQUINOX 100 affords extremely fast data collection as it features a special curved position sensitive detector (CPS) that simultaneously measures all diffraction peaks and in real time. (news-medical.net)
  • By merging data from about a dozen single crystal diffraction images, we unambiguously identified the diffraction peaks to a resolution of 7 Å, thus improving the observable resolution with respect to that achievable from a single pattern alone. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In traditional small-angle X-ray scattering these give rise to sharp diffraction peaks due to the array of collagen molecules within each fibril, similar to those appearing at the edge of the picture. (phys.org)
  • The structure of thermally grown SiO2 has been considered to be amorphous, however sharp diffraction peaks were observed in the films formed using both oxygen molecules and radicals. (ieice.org)
  • If the experimental angle is systematically changed, all possible diffraction peaks from the powder will be detected. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • X-ray stress measurement by using synchrotron radiation source (Y. Yoshioka). (elsevier.com)
  • X‐ray diffraction with intense synchrotron radiation has demonstrated a structural basis for the molecular mechanism underlying muscle contraction with high spatial‐ and time‐resolution. (els.net)
  • Free-electron lasers could provide femtosecond X-ray flashes with a peak brilliance 10-11 orders of magnitude higher than that which is currently available from synchrotrons. (diva-portal.org)
  • Particles injected into the X-ray beam are hit randomly and in unknown orientations by the extremely intense X-ray pulses, where the femtosecond-duration X-ray pulses diffract from the sample before the particle structure is significantly changed even though the sample is ultimately destroyed by the deposited X-ray energy. (diva-portal.org)
  • Available techniques include: X-Ray reflectivity for film thickness measurements, grazing incidence diffraction for thin film characterisation, reciprocal lattice mapping for epitaxial systems, pole figure measurement for texture analysis, residual stress determination, in-plane diffraction & microdiffraction (50 microns) for sample mapping. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Application of x-ray measurements to rolling bearing technology (N. Tsushima). (elsevier.com)
  • Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction Measurements of InAs/GaAs Qua. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Such ultrafast, optical-pump, x-ray diffraction probe measurements provide a way to study many other transient processes in physics, chemistry, and biology, including direct observation of the atomic motion by which many solid-state processes and chemical and biochemical reactions take place. (sciencemag.org)
  • Crystalline like structures in SiO2 thin films formed using oxygen molecules/radicals were investigated by X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and grazing incident X-ray diffraction (GIXD) measurements. (ieice.org)
  • Optional in-plane diffraction arm for in-plane measurements without reconfiguration. (rigaku.com)
  • Ambient and non-ambient Bragg diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), as well as total scattering and pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis are combined to obtain a comprehensive picture of the samples. (cambridge.org)
  • This report is a part of a systematic study devoted to investigate the possibility of utilizing the Bragg diffraction technique to concentrate hard X-rays. (spie.org)
  • The Bragg equation, nλ = 2dsinθ is one of the keystones in understanding X-ray diffraction. (rigaku.com)
  • Powder and single-crystal diffraction vary in instrumentation beyond this. (carleton.edu)
  • The single crystal diffraction lab comprises both small molecule and macromolecular instrumentation including the brightest molybdenum lab source in the world. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Rigaku Oxford Diffraction is presenting information about its current portfolio of macromolecular and small molecule crystallography instrumentation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • After the introduction surface-sensitive X-ray diffraction methods are briefly explained and specialized instrumentation developed for the in situ investigation of surfaces and nanostructures across the pressure gap is presented combined with simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of reactants and products. (lu.se)
  • A review of x-ray analysis techniques applied to the characterization of nanomaterials will be presented with focus on x-ray lab source instrumentation similar to the facilities available at the Birck Nanotechnology Center. (nanohub.org)
  • In this work, 100 ps time-resolved liquid diffraction experiments on the photoreactions of diiodomercury (HgI 2 ) dissolved in methanol (10 mM) were performed at beamline ID09B , using the optical pump and X-ray probe method. (esrf.eu)
  • The mesophase structures of three novel mesomorphic porphyrin derivatives were examined using polarized optical microscopy and microfocus synchrotron X-ray diffraction at various temperatures using a beam with a 14 $\mu $m$\times $14$\mu $m cross-section at the bending magnet beamline of Sector 20 at the Advanced Photon Source. (aps.org)
  • Pulse durations are presently not brief enough to circumvent damage, causing the sample to deteriorate during imaging, and the accuracy of the averaged diffraction pattern is impaired by structural variations. (diva-portal.org)
  • books.google.com - Intended to acquaint the reader with the theory of x-ray diffraction, the experimental methods involved, and the main applications. (google.com)
  • Laue's original theory of X-ray diffraction was characterized in Ch. 6 as a kinematical theory. (iucr.org)
  • The trick is to take a diffraction pattern of the virus and then subtract the diffraction pattern of its surroundings ( abstract ). (slashdot.org)
  • X-ray diffraction , a phenomenon in which the atoms of a crystal , by virtue of their uniform spacing, cause an interference pattern of the waves present in an incident beam of X rays. (britannica.com)
  • Typical mineral structures contain several thousand unique reflections, whose spatial arrangement is referred to as a diffraction pattern. (carleton.edu)
  • Indices ( hkl ) may be assigned to each reflection, indicating its position within the diffraction pattern. (carleton.edu)
  • X-rays are directed at the sample while slowly rotated which produce a diffraction pattern which show intensity of x-rays collected at different angles. (wikipedia.org)
  • William Astbury, a British scientist, obtained the first X-ray diffraction pattern of DNA. (genome.gov)
  • In these experiments a small section of the sample is scanned through the x-ray microbeam and at each point a Laue diffraction pattern is recorded. (psi.ch)
  • b) X-ray diffraction pattern from a resting muscle fibre. (esrf.eu)
  • X‐ray diffraction is the interference of the X‐rays scattered from the electron densities of the matter, and the Fourier transformation of the interference pattern yields the structure of the matter. (els.net)
  • The difference diffraction and corresponding radial intensities were extracted from the diffraction pattern and analysed using the so-called " global-fitting method " which considers time-dependent changes of solute and cage structures and changes of solvent structure, itself due to the time-dependent heat and density changes. (esrf.eu)
  • X-ray diffraction pattern: concentric rings indicate resolution ranges and the high-resolution diffraction pattern is magnified. (nih.gov)
  • Powder XRD is used extensively for the identification of phases by measuring the diffraction angles and intensities of these diffracted beams, and comparing the resulting diffraction pattern to a reference database of diffraction data. (icdd.com)
  • The diffraction pattern of a powder crystalline sample is comprised of intense spots, which form rings of constructive interference. (jove.com)
  • X-ray crystallography diffraction powder pattern obtained as part of research to determine the structure of the protein procollagen, precursor to the connective tissue protein collagen. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Here is a typical powder X-ray diffraction or XRD pattern, in this case, of a cement sample. (rigaku.com)
  • X-ray crystallography diffraction pattern of rolled flux, obtained as part of research to determine the structure of various materials. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Diffraction pattern of collagen obtain by Dr Berenguer and al during the scope of this research. (phys.org)
  • The breakthrough realized by Dr Berenguer et al is to use a coherent beam of X-rays produced by the APS to measure the coherent diffraction pattern before radiation damage sets in. (phys.org)
  • What's the x-ray diffraction pattern of triangular atoms? (physicsforums.com)
  • A primary use of the technique is the identification and characterization of compounds based on their diffraction pattern. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D.M. Kim, and E. Spiller, Transmission microscopy of unmodified biological materials: comparative radiation dosages with electrons and ultrasoft x-ray photons, Ultramicroscopy 2, 337-349 (1977). (springer.com)
  • See also same authors, Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials, Science 196, 1339-1340 (1977). (springer.com)
  • L. Manuelidis, J. Sedat, R. Feder, and E. Spiller, Three-dimensional information on polytene and diploid interphase nuclei, to be presented at Conference on Ultrasoft X-Ray Microscopy, N.Y. Acad. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of Talc by X-ray Diffraction and Polarized Light Microscopy. (cdc.gov)
  • One hundred samples of talc from different mines supplied by NIOSH were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and polarized light microscopy. (cdc.gov)
  • Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) are two popular microscopy techniques that have evolved quite independently. (sciencemag.org)
  • The simplest CDI method, called diffraction microscopy, involves the reconstruction of an image or a three-dimensional (3D) density from far-field diffraction intensities. (sciencemag.org)
  • Another powerful microscopy technique is scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). (sciencemag.org)
  • In this work, we have designed a technique that we call scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy (SXDM), which bridges the gap between scanning microscopy and coherent diffractive methods. (sciencemag.org)
  • Structural features determined by X-ray scattering techniques are corroborated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. (cambridge.org)
  • X-ray diffraction microscopy has been used to determine microstructure maps of bulk polycrystalline material. (aps.org)
  • Max von Laue, in 1912, discovered that crystalline substances act as three-dimensional diffraction gratings for X-ray wavelengths similar to the spacing of planes in a crystal lattice. (carleton.edu)
  • Laue diffraction is one of the oldest diffraction techniques. (psi.ch)
  • Only with the use of X-ray tubes giving strong monochromatic X-rays did it become certain that a diffracted (or 'reflected') ray was not as weak as it appeared to be from the Laue diagram. (iucr.org)
  • In the symmetrical Laue case, i.e. when the reflecting planes are at right angles to the surface of the crystal plate, the primary and secondary ray emerge at the underside of the plate equally inclined. (iucr.org)
  • Previous workers have demonstrated that higher intensities of shock metamorphism progressively decrease the size of coherent scatter domains (CSDs), and increase the density of X-ray observable defects, associated with specific crystallographic zones in silicates. (confex.com)
  • When this equation is satisfied, X-rays scattered by the atoms in the plane of a periodic structure are in phase and diffraction occurs in the direction defined by the angle θ.In the simplest instance, an X-ray diffraction experiment consists of a set of diffracted intensities and the angles at which they are observed. (rigaku.com)
  • The powerful high-temperature and low-temperature sample stages from Anton Paar for in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) combine longstanding experience with state-of-the-art technology. (anton-paar.com)
  • In situ X-ray diffraction allows the determination of the structure of transient states of matter. (unt.edu)
  • The detailed design of the cells and experimental problems which arise when using the in situ X-ray diffraction technique are discussed. (epfl.ch)
  • Grazing incidence diffraction (GID) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) are used in situ to investigate the nucleation, evolution of strain, morphology and interfacial structure during the MBE growth. (hu-berlin.de)
  • How Rosalind Franklin Discovered the Helical Structure of DNA: Experiments in Diffraction," Gregory Braun, Dennis Tierney and Heidrun Schmitzer, The Physics Teacher, vol 49.3, 140-143 (2011). (compadre.org)
  • The very high brilliance and collimation of the X-ray beam combined with the high sensitivity and resolution of the 2D X-ray detectors overcame the major technical challenge of these experiments: to record X-ray signals from a single muscle cell on the millisecond timescale with very high spatial resolution. (esrf.eu)
  • We also report on recent experiments where we have obtained diffraction images from shock-compressed single-crystal iron. (unt.edu)
  • Single particle X-ray diffraction experiments generate data at the FEL repetition rate, resulting in more than 400,000 detector readouts in an hour, the data stream during an experiment contains blank frames mixed with hits on single particles, clusters and contaminants. (diva-portal.org)
  • Originally developed for experiments at X-ray free-electron lasers, the software is based on a modular facility-independent library to promote portability between different experiments and is available under version 3 or later of the GNU General Public License. (iucr.org)
  • Afterwards catalytic reaction experiments in batch mode are reported, followed by an overview of current research using a flow reactor for surface-sensitive X-ray diffraction. (lu.se)
  • Recent advances in X-ray free electron laser (XFEL)-coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiments allow for the structural analysis of non-crystalline particles to a resolution of 7 nm, and to a resolution of 20 nm for biological materials. (springer.com)
  • To conduct CXDI experiments in both synchrotron and XFEL facilities, the author has developed apparatuses, named KOTOBUKI-1 and TAKASAGO-6 for cryogenic diffraction experiments on frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at around 66 K. At the synchrotron facility, cryogenic diffraction experiments dramatically reduce radiation damage of specimen particles and allow tomography CXDI experiments. (springer.com)
  • The rate, which depends on the number density of scattered particles and the size of X-ray beams, is currently 20-90%, probably the world record in XFEL-CXDI experiments. (springer.com)
  • We describe powder X-ray diffraction experiments on lithium intercalation compounds. (epfl.ch)
  • X-ray powder diffraction is an important method for the characterization of crystalline materials. (uno.edu)
  • The characterization of the Nigerian Igbokoda Standard Sand was performed by X-ray diffraction, IR and Raman Spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. (csir.co.za)
  • Cases studies of materials characterization in various fields will be used to present x-ray based analytical methods employed in the determination of phases and crystallographic structure, grain sizes, strain, preferred orientation, residual stress, layer thickness, interface roughness, composition and mosaicity. (nanohub.org)
  • Examples will range from powder diffraction analysis to thin film characterization and high-resolution reciprocal space mapping. (nanohub.org)
  • Dr. Sardela holds a Ph.D. in Materials Science and Technology (Linkoping University, Sweden, 1994) with emphasis in x-ray scattering and characterization of semiconductor materials. (nanohub.org)
  • The present work describes synthesis, spectral characterization, and X-ray diffraction studies of Cr(III) with "metformin," an oral antidiabetic drug. (hindawi.com)
  • Adjustment of the X, Y and Z orthogonal directions allows centering of the crystal within the X-ray beam. (carleton.edu)
  • Peak positions occur where the X-ray beam has been diffracted by the crystal lattice. (carleton.edu)
  • R.A. McCorkle, Soft x-ray emission by an electron-beam sliding-spark device, J. Phys. (springer.com)
  • At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. (unt.edu)
  • By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. (unt.edu)
  • Study on the fatigue fracture surface of highly hardened material by micro-beam x-ray techniques (Y. Natsume and S. Miyakawa). (elsevier.com)
  • For x-ray diffraction analysis, the x-ray beam needed to be nearly monoenergetic. (orau.org)
  • It consists in scanning a focused x-ray beam on a specimen and measuring the transmitted intensity at each raster point. (sciencemag.org)
  • To demonstrate this method experimentally, we imaged a buried nanostructure by using a focused hard x-ray beam. (sciencemag.org)
  • X-ray Diffraction (XRD) is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystalline material, in which the crystalline structure causes a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions. (icdd.com)
  • Attach the Kapton loop to the gonoimeter head, centering the crystal with respect to the X-ray beam. (jove.com)
  • The diffraction signal is generally weak and it is superimposed on a low but continually fluctuating background signal, originating from photon noise in the beam line and electronic noise from the detector. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this equation, n is an integer, λ is the characteristic wavelength of the X-rays impinging on the crystallize sample, d is the interplanar spacing between rows of atoms, and θ is the angle of the X-ray beam with respect to these planes. (rigaku.com)
  • Scheme of the used X-ray optics set-up, with (top) pumping beam on (spot size focused down to 40-50 um), and (bottom) pumping beam blanked. (psi.ch)
  • When a powder with randomly oriented crystallites is placed in an X-ray beam, the beam will see all possible interatomic planes. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Directly related is single-crystal refinement, where the data generated from the X-ray analysis is interpreted and refined to obtain the crystal structure. (carleton.edu)
  • X-ray diffraction on inorganic and organic solids is an increasingly important technique for characterisation, the interpretation of the physical and chemical properties of materials in terms of their ideal or defective atomic structure and the transfer of the acquired crystal chemical knowledge to the engineering of solid-state compounds with novel technological properties in qualitative and quantitative analysis. (oreilly.com)
  • B.L. Henke and E.S. Ebisu, in: Advances in X-Ray Analysis (C.L. Grant, C.S. Barrett, J.B. Newkirk, and C.O. Ruud, eds. (springer.com)
  • J. Kirz, D. Sayre, and J. Dilger, Comparative analysis of x-ray emission microscopies for biological specimens, Ann. (springer.com)
  • Our Institute has two X-ray powder diffractometers for rapid analysis of materials. (uno.edu)
  • The powder diffraction facilities offer a range of capabilities from simple phase identification through to complex materials analysis. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Influence of micro-stress on x-ray residual stress analysis (T. Hanabusa and H. Fujiwara). (elsevier.com)
  • Method for the x-ray analysis of multiaxial stress in materials with a steep stress gradient (T. Sasaki, Y. Yoshioka and M. Kuramoto). (elsevier.com)
  • X-ray strain analysis and elastic anisotropy of textured metals (K. Honda, T. Sarai and M. Omori). (elsevier.com)
  • Fracture analysis of a power generating machine part by x-ray fractography (M. Hayashi). (elsevier.com)
  • Other topics covered include synchrotron X-ray radiation and the analysis of X-ray data by the Guassian curve method. (elsevier.com)
  • Chapters are included on X-ray fractography, a powerful technique for failure analysis, which is applied to the brittle fracture of ceramics and to the fatigue fracture of steels under various service conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • The description of the processing of measured signals and their results is also covered, as are recent developments relating to quantitative microstructural analysis of powders or epitaxial thin films on the basis of X-ray diffraction. (wiley.com)
  • X-ray analysis was performed with nickel filtered copper radiation using line scanning from 4 to 70 degrees 2 theta. (cdc.gov)
  • This is a General Electric Model CA-2 tube designed for x-ray diffraction analysis. (orau.org)
  • Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (harvard.edu)
  • Here, we describe methods based on rapid image analysis combined with ion Time-of-Flight (ToF) spectroscopy of the fragments to achieve an efficient, automated and unsupervised sorting of diffraction data. (diva-portal.org)
  • The elemental make-up of the materials has been measured using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. (cambridge.org)
  • X-ray diffraction techniques are used for the identification of crystalline phases of various materials and the quantitative phase analysis subsequent to the identification. (rigaku.com)
  • For more information, see Introduction to X-ray analysis using the diffraction method by Hideo Toraya. (rigaku.com)
  • To address the pressing issue of processing big data sets in serial X-ray diffraction we have developed a set of data analysis tools for serial imaging, specifically designed with the task of processing large data sets in mind. (iucr.org)
  • TEM and x-ray analysis of samples annealed above the glass transition temperature exhibit the formation of. (ebscohost.com)
  • The molecular model is then made progressively more sophisticated as additional diffraction information is included in the analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese import/export. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • In this book, the author describes the development of the experimental diffraction setup and structural analysis of non-crystalline particles from material science and biology. (springer.com)
  • A nonuniform strain amounting to 0.66%, along the [1 -1 0] direction and 0.54%, along the [1 1 0] direction is demonstrated from x-ray line profile analysis. (hu-berlin.de)
  • By changing the geometry of the incident rays, the orientation of the centered crystal and the detector, all possible diffraction directions of the lattice should be attained. (carleton.edu)
  • By scanning the sample through a range of 2 θ angles, all possible diffraction directions of the lattice should be attained due to the random orientation of the powdered material. (carleton.edu)
  • This book is a very concise presentation of the theory of scattering and diffraction and the determination of crystal structures. (springer.com)
  • Brown GM, Levy HA (1963) Sucrose: precise determination of crystal and molecular structure by neutron diffraction. (springer.com)
  • Single X-ray diffraction identifies the atoms in a crystal and their locations, as well as electron densities, bond lengths, and angles. (jove.com)
  • X-ray diffractometers consist of three basic elements, an X-ray tube, a sample holder, and an X-ray detector. (carleton.edu)
  • A detector records and processes this X-ray signal and converts the signal to a count rate which is then output to a device such as a printer or computer monitor. (carleton.edu)
  • the angles between the incident ray, the detector and the sample. (carleton.edu)
  • These circles refer to the four angles (2 θ , χ , φ , and Ω ) that define the relationship between the crystal lattice, the incident ray and detector. (carleton.edu)
  • The sample and the detector are then rotated in opposite directions, until the angles of X-ray intensity are determined. (jove.com)
  • Rigaku - a key sponsor of the event - is showing the new Rigaku HyPix-Arc 150° curved Hybrid Photon Counting (HPC) X-ray detector for single crystal diffraction applications. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The first hard X-ray laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), produces 120 shots per second. (diva-portal.org)
  • The illustrations complement the text and there are many tables of real diffraction data and calculations of structures. (springer.com)
  • With our 2020 release of the Powder Diffraction File TM (PDF®), you are able to view 1,004,568 unique material data sets. (icdd.com)
  • Each data set contains diffraction, crystallographic and bibliographic data, as well as experimental, instrument and sampling conditions, and select physical properties in a common standardized format. (icdd.com)
  • Open the X-ray crystallography software and run a short data collection sequence that establishes the structure of the unit cell. (jove.com)
  • The emerging technique of serial X-ray diffraction, in which diffraction data are collected from samples flowing across a pulsed X-ray source at repetition rates of 100 Hz or higher, has necessitated the development of new software in order to handle the large data volumes produced. (iucr.org)
  • Analysing such large data sets is challenging, especially for small research groups, necessitating the development of new `big data' paradigms in X-ray diffraction data processing. (iucr.org)
  • Practical aspects of data acquisition and interpretation using x-ray diffraction and reflectivity will be discussed. (nanohub.org)
  • X-ray diffraction data also supports the complex formation and symmetry of complex and various parameters like particle size, porosity, volume of unit cell, and density have been calculated. (hindawi.com)
  • Using ultrafast, time-resolved, 1.54 angstrom x-ray diffraction, thermal and ultrafast nonthermal melting of germanium, involving passage through nonequilibrium extreme states of matter, was observed. (sciencemag.org)
  • Time-resolved X-ray diffraction can serve as an ultrafast calorimeter in addition to being a sensitive structural probe. (esrf.eu)
  • The development of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has opened the possibility to investigate the ultrafast dynamics of biomacromolecules using X-ray diffraction. (psi.ch)
  • These X-rays are generated by a cathode ray tube, filtered to produce monochromatic radiation, collimated to concentrate, and directed toward the sample. (carleton.edu)
  • This law relates the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation to the diffraction angle and the lattice spacing in a crystalline sample. (carleton.edu)
  • It was recognized that the central spot of these diagrams contains the entire spectrum of the incident radiation and that, referred to the same spectral range that is contained in the secondary ray, this and the primary ray are of similar intensity. (iucr.org)
  • The X-ray Diffraction Facility (XRDF) of the Chemistry Department is a shared facility housed both in the Chemistry Department and in the Nanoscience Center. (jyu.fi)
  • Southampton Diffraction Centre (SDC) brings together world leading facilities and staff to offer a wide range of high-end services to academia through local small research facilities (SRF) and the National Crystallography Service (NCS) and to industry as part of Southampton Chemistry Analytical Solutions (SCAS). (southampton.ac.uk)
  • X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for obtaining molecular information regarding bond lengths, bond angles, hydrogen bond interactions, and torsion angles, which are necessary elements for understanding the conformation of glycosides. (springer.com)
  • Molecular dynamics simulations show that the Coulomb explosion due to intense X-ray ionization could provide information pertaining to the original orientation. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, more insight into the dynamics of molecular structure in solution can be obtained using time-resolved X-ray diffraction. (esrf.eu)
  • Above the transition threshold, clear evidence for the hcp phase can be seen in the diffraction images, and via a mechanism that is also consistent with recent multi-million atom molecular dynamics simulations that use the Voter-Chen potential. (unt.edu)
  • This shows that the reflected intensity is proportional to the thickness or volume of the crystal, - a result that is true only as long as the crystal is so thin that the reflection leaves the incident, and transmitted, ray at practically its full strength. (iucr.org)
  • X-ray diffraction or reflection? (physicsforums.com)
  • The diffraction of X rays incident on a crystal surface under grazing angles under conditions of total external reflection has been investigated. (osti.gov)
  • X‐ray reflection (both specular and off‐specular) and grazing incidence diffraction (GID) have been used to study the structure of alkylsiloxane monolayers (\(n‐C_{18}H_{37}SiO_{1.5}\)) formed by self‐assembly from solution on silicon wafers. (harvard.edu)
  • 2.15 micrometer sarcomere length) by determining both the intensity of the third order myosin meridional X-ray reflection (IM3) and the stiffness (e) of a selected population of sarcomeres within the fibre. (nih.gov)
  • X-ray diffraction is now a common technique for the study of crystal structures and atomic spacing. (carleton.edu)
  • Filtering, by foils or crystal monochrometers, is required to produce monochromatic X-rays needed for diffraction. (carleton.edu)
  • Typically, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an average of randomly oriented microcrystals that should equally represent all crystal orientation if a large enough sample is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • By putting together the information on various sets of reflecting planes, obtained in this way with the X-ray spectrometer, the first crystal structure determinations were made. (iucr.org)
  • Using equipment available for laboratories, we have succeeded to evaluate the lattice constant distribution inside self-assembled QD and its crystal orientation dependence by the grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) measurement. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • here the crystal acts as a no-pass filter to the incident ray. (iucr.org)
  • An approach is proposed in which exact solutions to the dynamic problem of grazing-incidence diffraction in an ideal crystal are used as initial functions to calculate the diffuse component of diffraction in a crystal with defects. (osti.gov)
  • The diffuse component of diffraction is calculated for a crystal with surface defects of a dilatation-center type. (osti.gov)
  • High X-ray intensity corresponds to constructive interference by a crystallographic plane in both single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. (jove.com)
  • Rigaku will also be hosting an afternoon users' meeting featuring talks on both single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction topics, the latter presented by Scientific and Medical Products, Ltd. ( SciMed ). (bio-medicine.org)
  • The meeting will start at 2pm on Thursday, April 18th in Meeting Room 5, following the conclusion of the main BCA meeting, and will cover the latest developments at Rigaku in single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, providing an opportunity to discuss users' research, experiences, and issues. (bio-medicine.org)
  • ROD was formed as the global single crystal business unit of Rigaku Corporation after the acquisition of the former Oxford Diffraction organization from Agilent Technologies in 2015. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Crystal structures exhibiting point diffraction which are aperiodic. (ebscohost.com)
  • X-ray scattering techniques are a family of non-destructive analytical techniques which reveal information about the crystallographic structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials and thin films. (wikimedia.org)
  • The fixed scattering angle also allows for measurement of the diffraction vector directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr Mark Light is an X-ray diffraction and scattering specialist, with 20+ years' experience in materials characterisation. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • On the assumption of the kinematical theory, however, the strength of the primary ray is not affected by the scattering, so that energy is not withdrawn from that source. (iucr.org)
  • X-ray diffraction and scattering on a single multipurpose X-ray platform have been used to probe the structure, composition, and thermal behavior of TiO 2 nanoparticles ranging in size from 1 to 10 nm. (cambridge.org)
  • CBO and automatic alignment combine for the ultimate in functionality for: micro-crystalline diffraction, thin-film diffraction, small angle scattering, and in-plane scattering. (rigaku.com)
  • When measuring the x-ray diffraction of clays, d is constant and λ is the known wavelength from the x-ray source, so the distance from one 00l peak to another is equal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The samples were found to consist of from 1% to 99% talc in combination with 23 minerals which are listed along with their X-ray diffraction peak assignments and alternative minerals having similar peak assignments. (cdc.gov)
  • Why is the [001] diffraction peak not observed in XRD but [004] peak is observed. (physicsforums.com)
  • In place of the normal diffraction peak they observed a distinct array of diffraction speckles, as can be seen in the zoomed part of the picture. (phys.org)
  • At higher temperatures deviations from linear behavior are seen in the first sharp diffraction peak width, height and area at around 1750(50) K, which coincides with the reported density maximum around 1.2 T g . (rsc.org)
  • The book is a collection of principles and methods stressing X-ray diffraction rather than metallurgy. (google.com)
  • A one day workshop exploring principles and applications of x-ray diffraction of archaeological ceramics and clay will be held at the Institute on 6 November. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Spatiotemporal reaction kinetics determined by time-resolved X-ray diffraction. (esrf.eu)
  • Even if there are some limitations, time-resolved X-ray diffraction has matured sufficiently to provide the structure of the intermediates, correlation with solvent environment, and bulk properties of the solvent molecules in solution with unprecedented spatial and time resolution. (esrf.eu)
  • The success of this work should stimulate future research using such outstanding capabilities for unravelling the structural dynamics of nanomaterials and proteins in the solution phase using time-resolved X-ray diffraction. (esrf.eu)
  • Powder X-ray diffraction determines the phases and purity of a crystalline species. (jove.com)
  • It differs from conventional X-ray diffraction by using polychromatic photons as the source and is usually operated at a fixed angle. (wikipedia.org)
  • X-ray lasers generate pulses with a stochastic temporal distribution of photons, affecting the achievable resolution on a pulse-to-pulse basis. (diva-portal.org)
  • X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a rapid analytical technique primarily used for phase identification of a crystalline material and can provide information on unit cell dimensions. (carleton.edu)
  • Energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) is an analytical technique for characterizing materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • The X-ray fluorescence technology has become a mature analytical tool for routine quality controls in various industries and research laboratories, owing to its ease of automation, speed and economy, and the possibility to directly analyze solid samples. (prnewswire.com)
  • Over the past 10 years, Dr. Sardela has been a Senior Research Scientist and manager of the x-ray analytical facilities at the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (nanohub.org)
  • Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of a two-domain laccase from Streptomyces griseoflavus. (nih.gov)
  • Thirty years of magnetic neutron diffraction at pulsed neutron sources. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The X-ray Diffraction Laboratory provides a broad variety of measurement techniques that use a combination of modern XRD software and hardware. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • X-Ray Stress Measurement. (elsevier.com)
  • X-ray stress measurement of alumina/zirconia composites (K. Tanaka). (elsevier.com)
  • Evaluation of thermal stresses in continuous alumina fiber-reinforced aluminum composites by X-ray stress measurement (Y. Ikeuchi, T. Hanabusa and H. Fujiwara). (elsevier.com)
  • X-ray stress measurement by the Gaussian Curve method (M. Kurita). (elsevier.com)
  • The first part of the volume deals with fundamental problems in the methods for X-ray stress measurement. (elsevier.com)
  • His research activities are the study of materials using X-ray diffraction at the SPCTS International Laboratory in France. (wiley.com)
  • On the use of laboratory X-ray diffraction equipment for Pair Distribution Function (PDF) studies ," Z. Kristallogr. (cambridge.org)
  • X-ray crystallography has been a workhorse for chemists since the 1940s and 50s, revealing the 3D structure of complex biological molecules such as haemoglobin, DNA and insulin. (slashdot.org)
  • As the X-ray pulse interacts with injected single molecules, their spatial orientation is generally unknown. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the case of oxygen molecules, diffraction peak's tended to reflect cristobalite structure. (ieice.org)
  • A key component of all diffraction is the angle between the incident and diffracted rays. (carleton.edu)
  • Using a modified Franks's type of small-angle camera 5,6 and a Hilger microfocus X-ray generator, it has been possible for the first time to record equatorial and meridional X-ray reflexions from striated muscle during contraction as well as during rest. (nature.com)
  • The structural alterations in vertebrate skeletal muscles undergoing contraction by synchrotron X‐ray diffraction are outlined by putting a lot of weight on the thin filament as the locus of actomyosin interaction. (els.net)
  • X-ray diffraction is based on constructive interference of monochromatic X-rays and a crystalline sample. (carleton.edu)
  • The ICDD is pleased to present the second symposium on Pharmaceutical Powder X-ray Diffraction, December 9-12, 2002 in Concordville, PA, U.S.A. PPXRD-2 focused on topics of interest to scientists and engineers in the pharmaceutical industry using powder x-ray diffraction. (icdd.com)
  • Common core structure of amyloid fibrils by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. (nih.gov)
  • The structure of the fabrics was analysed by FTIR and X-ray diffraction. (csir.co.za)
  • X-ray diffraction techniques are superior in elucidating the three-dimensional atomic structure of crystalline solids. (rigaku.com)
  • X-ray diffraction (XRD) relies on the dual wave/particle nature of X-rays to obtain information about the structure of crystalline materials. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • The evolution of the X-ray structure factor and corresponding pair distribution function of SiO 2 has been measured upon cooling from the melt using high energy X-ray diffraction combined with aerodynamic levitation. (rsc.org)
  • FOR some time X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to study living muscle in the resting state 1-4 . (nature.com)
  • X-ray study of the relationship between strength and residual stress in cemented carbides coated with TiN (K. Kamachi and T. Yamamoto). (elsevier.com)
  • Applications and problems in an X-Ray fractographic study of fatigue fracture surfaces (Y. Miyoshi and K. Ogura). (elsevier.com)
  • The results of a Monte Carlo study of a hard X-ray concentrator for space astronomy are presented. (spie.org)
  • The 'Global and Chinese X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Industry, 2012-2022 Market Research Report' is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global X-ray Diffraction (XRD) industry with a focus on the Chinese market. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • X-ray diffraction study of acid-degradable glasses. (ugent.be)
  • DE MAEYER E, Verbeeck R. X-ray diffraction study of acid-degradable glasses. (ugent.be)