Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Elbow: Replacement of the ELBOW JOINT.Elbow Prosthesis: Replacement for an elbow joint.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Carpal Bones: The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.DislocationsSupination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Collateral Ligaments: A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Ulnar Nerve Compression Syndromes: Ulnar neuropathies caused by mechanical compression of the nerve at any location from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its terminations in the hand. Common sites of compression include the retroepicondylar groove, cubital tunnel at the elbow (CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME), and Guyon's canal at the wrist. Clinical features depend on the site of injury, but may include weakness or paralysis of wrist flexion, finger flexion, and ulnar innervated intrinsic hand muscles, and impaired sensation over the ulnar aspect of the hand, fifth finger, and ulnar half of the ring finger. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p43)Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Lunate Bone: A moon-shaped carpal bone which is located between the SCAPHOID BONE and TRIQUETRUM BONE.Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pronation: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Humeral FracturesTenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Ulnar Neuropathies: Disease involving the ULNAR NERVE from its origin in the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical manifestations may include PARESIS or PARALYSIS of wrist flexion, finger flexion, thumb adduction, finger abduction, and finger adduction. Sensation over the medial palm, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger may also be impaired. Common sites of injury include the AXILLA, cubital tunnel at the ELBOW, and Guyon's canal at the wrist. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51 pp43-5)Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: Compression of the ULNAR NERVE in the cubital tunnel, which is formed by the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, humeral-ulnar aponeurosis, and medial ligaments of the elbow. This condition may follow trauma or occur in association with processes which produce nerve enlargement or narrowing of the canal. Manifestations include elbow pain and PARESTHESIA radiating distally, weakness of ulnar innervated intrinsic hand muscles, and loss of sensation over the hypothenar region, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p43)Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Carpal Joints: The articulations between the various CARPAL BONES. This does not include the WRIST JOINT which consists of the articulations between the RADIUS; ULNA; and proximal CARPAL BONES.Ankylosis: Fixation and immobility of a joint.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Radius FracturesFracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Joint DiseasesArthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carpus, Animal: The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Finger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Baseball: A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Triangular Fibrocartilage: Fibrocartilage that makes up the triangular fibrocartilage complex which is found in the WRIST JOINT.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Tennis: A game played by two or four players with rackets and an elastic ball on a level court divided by a low net.Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive: Movement of a body part initiated and maintained by a mechanical or electrical device to restore normal range of motion to joints, muscles, or tendons after surgery, prosthesis implantation, contracture flexion, or long immobilization.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Joint Deformities, Acquired: Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Triquetrum Bone: A carpal bone which is located between the LUNATE BONE and HAMATE BONE.Crutches: Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)Synovial Cyst: Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.Golf: A game whose object is to sink a ball into each of 9 or 18 successive holes on a golf course using as few strokes as possible.Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.De Quervain Disease: Stenosing tenosynovitis of the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons in the first dorsal wrist compartment. The presenting symptoms are usually pain and tenderness at the radial styloid. The cause is almost always related to OVERUSE INJURY or is associated with RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Osteochondritis Dissecans: A type of osteochondritis in which articular cartilage and associated bone becomes partially or totally detached to form joint loose bodies. Affects mainly the knee, ankle, and elbow joints.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Median Neuropathy: Disease involving the median nerve, from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical features include weakness of wrist and finger flexion, forearm pronation, thenar abduction, and loss of sensation over the lateral palm, first three fingers, and radial half of the ring finger. Common sites of injury include the elbow, where the nerve passes through the two heads of the pronator teres muscle (pronator syndrome) and in the carpal tunnel (CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME).Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Electrodiagnosis: Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.Hemarthrosis: Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Manipulation, Orthopedic: The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Actigraphy: The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.Hand Deformities, Acquired: Deformities of the hand, or a part of the hand, acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease.Osteochondromatosis: A condition marked by the presence of multiple osteochondromas. (Dorland, 27th ed)Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Nerve Transfer: Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Lorisidae: A family of Primates of the suborder Strepsirhini containing six genera. The family is distributed in parts of Africa, India, Asia, and the Philippines. The six genera are: Arctocebus (golden potto), GALAGO (bush babies), Loris (slender loris), Nycticebus (slow loris), and Perodicticus (potto). Lorises and pottos are relatively common except for Arctocebus, the golden potto. All are arboreal and nocturnal.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Capitate Bone: A carpal bone with a rounded head located between the TRAPEZOID BONE and the HAMATE BONE.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Debridement: The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fractures, Ununited: A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Pisiform Bone: A pea-shaped carpal bone that actually sits in the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle.Fractures, Malunited: Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Osteonecrosis: Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Arthrometry, Articular: Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hip Dysplasia, Canine: A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.Word Processing: Text editing and storage functions using computer software.Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.Fractures, Closed: Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Elbow/wrist strains. Cracked or broken ribs, usually the result of bouncing the bar off of the chest to add momentum to the ... this variation is best performed with arms in a near-vertical position to reduce strain placed upon the wrists, elbows and ... They push the weight upwards until their arms are extended, not allowing the elbows to lock. They then lower the weight to ... It also uses predominantly triceps brachii and anconeous to extend the elbows. Wider hand spacing places a greater emphasis on ...
Hiji ate uchi: Elbow strike. Koken uchi: Bent wrist-hand strike. Mae geri: Front (forward & return) kick. Oi geri: Stepping ( ... Kosa uke: "X" block (wrists crossed). Hijisasae uke: Augmented (inside-middle) elbow block. Osae uke: Pressing down block. ... Te Kubi Sasae uke: Augmented (supported) wrist block. Sukui uke: Scoop block. Shuto uke: "Knife-hand" block. ...
"Have functional elbow flexors and wrist dorsi-flexors. May have elbow extensors (up to power 3) but usually do not have wrist ... C5 is associated with elbow flexors. C6 is associated with wrist flexors. Disabled Sports USA defined the anatomical definition ... People with C6 can have a weak grasp with their wrist. They can roll over in bed. They have some independence in that they can ... These S1 swimmers have no hand or wrist flexion so are unable to catch water. Because of a lack of trunk control, they are ...
Standing 8 (1998) Split w/ This Robot Kills (?) Wrist Towards Elbow (2000) I Blast Off! (2000) The Experiment Vol. 2: Casino ...
Sufficient bone is resected to at least be able to put the wrist in a neutral position. If the wrist is also ulnarly deviated, ... elbow (extension and pronation) and foot (clubfoot). Range of motion can be different between joints because of the different ... Van Heest, Ann E.; Rodriguez, Rudy (2013). "Dorsal Carpal Wedge Osteotomy in the Arthrogrypotic Wrist". The Journal of Hand ... Children with the amyoplasia type of arthrogryposis usually have flexed and ulnarly deviated wrists. Dorsal carpal wedge ...
... tennis elbow); Common wrist flexors - Medial epicondylitis (thrower's elbow, golfer's elbow, little league elbow) As of 2016 ... Elbow. 5 (4): 256-265. doi:10.1111/sae.12028. ISSN 1758-5740. http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/tendon-injury-tendinopathy- ...
Transverse section across the wrist and digits. The palmar aponeurosis. Diagram of the anastomosis around the elbow-joint. ... reaches the ulnar side of the forearm at a point about midway between the elbow and the wrist. It then runs along the ulnar ... At the wrist the ulnar artery is covered by the integument and the volar carpal ligament, and lies upon the Flexor retinaculum ... below the elbow, but more frequently higher, the brachial being more often the source of origin than the axillary. Variations ...
The most common site of ulnar nerve entrapment is at the elbow, followed by the wrist. Causes or structures which have been ... Pressing the elbows upon the arms of a chair while typing. Resting or bracing the elbow on the arm rest of a vehicle. Bench ... Intense exercising and strain involving the elbow. Ulnar nerve impingement along an anatomical space in the wrist called ... Miller TT, Reinus WR (September 2010). "Nerve entrapment syndromes of the elbow, forearm, and wrist". Am J Roentgenology. 195 ( ...
... shoulder depression applied simultaneously with elbow flexion and wrist flexion and ulnar deviation wrist extension; and ... wrist extension) is simultaneously counterbalanced by a decrease in nerve bed length at an adjacent joint (e.g., elbow flexion ... and wrist flexion (which decreases tension on the median nerve) movement with the combination of elbow flexion (decreasing ... The CMC1 joint is a synovial joint between the trapezium bone of the wrist and the metacarpal bone at the base of the thumb. ...
In the article he talks about one of his toughest cases an Elbow to Wrist reconstruction. (22 July 1869 - 10 November 1920) was ... "ONE OF MY TOUGHEST CASES: Elbow to Wrist Reconstruction". New Orleans Magazine. August 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015. http ...
The elbow is flexed, and the wrist is extended. The obliques, rectus abdominis and psoas minor work eccentrically to stabilize ... "Om Shanti: A Yoga Blog: Chaturanga Dandasana: Wrist and Elbow Killer". Retrieved 2012-03-17. "AshtangaYoga.info: Surya ... Elbows should be at the sides, even to the point of touching ribs. Keep from rotating the arms externally (pointing the inside ... It looks much like a push up, but with the hands quite low (just above the pelvis), and the elbows kept in along the sides of ...
Hip, shoulder, wrist, or elbow joints are less commonly affected. Spine, sternoclavicular, and sacroiliac joints can also be ...
She was in an accident in November 2005; her injuries included a broken right wrist and left elbow. It took her eight months ... She had wrist and hip surgeries and went through extensive rehabilitation. Upon her return to competitive tennis in October ...
Pads: Knee and elbow pads are the most widely used. They help to prevent injury in case of a fall. Wrist guards are also ...
Digits moderately long, with smooth lamellae, 13 or 14 beneath the fourth toe; the hind-limb reaches to the wrist or the elbow ...
... s end anywhere from the elbow to the wrist. Flared sleeves ending at the upper bicep are similarly shaped, but are ...
The elbow and wrist is wrapped with the same strip. For the king's gown, yellow facing is used and 5 cm-wide brocade is ... The same strip is also attached to elbows and wrists. The gown itself is adapted from ceremonial attire called suea khrui and ... The sleeves are as long as wrist and cylindrical in shape for all degrees and statuses. The colours apply only to the strip, ... Instead, three stripes are added to the arms or elbows of PhD gown, just like three velvet stripes on American doctoral gown. ...
These include elbows, knees, ankles, and wrists. They tend to complicate fracture management because they interfere with ...
... the wrist, lower arm, elbow, upper arm, and shoulder (6-10); the side of the neck, ear, and left eye (11-13); the nose (14); ...
... elbow, hip, knee, ankle, and wrist or hand. The curvature of the pouch enables the user to completely cover these joints, ...
This is mapped onto the body by counting each of the following: the left pinky to the left thumb (1-5); the wrist, lower arm, ... elbow, upper arm, and shoulder (6-10); the side of the neck, ear, and left eye (11-13); the nose (14); and similarly on the ...
The sleeves of the tunic were to the wrist or longer. From the elbow to the shoulder, the sleeve was tight fitting.Tunics were ... The sleeves of the tunic were to the wrist or longer. From the elbow to the shoulder, the sleeve was tight fitting. The ...
... elbow/wrist/hand and/or nerve conduction studies and EMG. Wartenberg's sign is not a feature of, and should not be confused ... "Compressive neuropathies of the ulnar nerve at the elbow and wrist". Instructional Course Lectures. 49: 305-317. ISSN 0065-6895 ... The later involves compression at the wrist of the superficial sensory branch of the radial nerve which does not innervate hand ... most commonly around the cubital tunnel at the elbow where the nerve is exposed to tension, friction and compression). This ...
Chan 纏: entanglement with rotation around the wrist, elbow and shoulder. Footwork in baji quan has three special features: Zhen ... The "six big ways of opening" (liu da kai 六大開) are: Ding 頂: using the fist, elbow or shoulder to push forward and upward. Bao 抱 ... The major features of baji include elbow strikes, arm/fist punches, hip checks and strikes with the shoulder. All techniques ... short-range power and is famous for its elbow and shoulder strikes. It originated in the Hebei Province in Northern China,[self ...
He fractured both elbows and the right wrist. In 2008 he signed a contract with Caisse d'Epargne and went on to finish second ...
It also weakly flexes the elbow, or assists in flexion at the elbow when there is strong resistance. ... Pronator teres syndrome is one cause of wrist pain. It is a type of neurogenic pain. ... If the elbow is flexed to a right angle, then pronator teres will turn the hand so that the palm faces inferiorly. It is ... to extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon to restore wrist extension.[3] ...
Accumulated fatigue in the wrist can lead to an inflammation of muscles in and around the wrist just like the elbow. This in ... Elbow tendonitis or golfers elbow. Elbow tendonitis is caused by the inflammation of the muscles of the forearm. These are the ... This will save you from golfers elbow or elbow tendonitis.. *Exercises what activities that focuses more on the pectoral as ... The inflammation affect the tendons and other supporting tissues present at the elbow. Tiny tears may occur in the tendon as a ...
... gets pinched behind the inside part of the elbow. This syndrome occurs from prolonged pressure on the nerve. If youre ... Check movement in neck, shoulder, elbow, and wrist to see if different positions instigate symptoms. ... repeatedly bending the elbow or keeping your elbow bent for long periods can aggravate symptoms of ulnar nerve compression. ... It travels through a tunnel of tissue called the cubital tunnel, which runs under a bump of bone at the inside of the elbow, ...
... and five cases of numbness at the medial elbow). Outcomes after the ulnar nerve stability-based approach and anterior ... Early movement of the fingers, wrist, forearm, elbow, and shoulder was encouraged. ... Minimal-incision in situ ulnar nerve decompression at the elbow. Hand Clin. 2014;30:63-70.PubMed CentralPubMedView Article ... J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 1997;6(2):89-96.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar. ...
... elbows and wrists. Lack of flexibility contributes to many repetitive motion injuries in the joints. Chiropractic care attempts ...
Depending upon where it occurs, this pressure on the nerve can cause numbness or pain in your elbow, hand, wrist, or fingers. ... Dislocated Elbow When the joint surfaces of an elbow are separated, the elbow is dislocated. Elbow dislocations can be complete ... Elbow Dislocations and Fracture-Dislocations When the joint surfaces of an elbow are separated, the elbow is dislocated. Elbow ... Elbow Arthroscopy. The elbow is the joint that connects the upper arm bone and the forearm bones. Elbow joint helps in movement ...
You may have a wrist splint fitted and your arm put in a sling. You will need to rest until the effects of the sedative have ... A small cut (2cm long) is made in your forearm just above the wrist or in the palm of your hand. A narrow, tube-like telescopic ... Anatomy similar to that of the wrist and hand exists in the ankle and foot. Tarsal is a word from Latin which means ankle. When ... This completely blocks feeling from your wrist and palm area, but you will stay awake. You may be offered a sedative to help ...
... Traumatic and degenerative pain of the wrist and elbow often can be addressed by arthroscopic surgery ... A small camera and miniature-sized instruments are introduced into the wrist and elbow joint via two or three tiny incisions to ... A fiberoptic camera is inserted through a small incision, or portal, in the wrist or elbow. The camera lens magnifies and ...
... Sprains and strains are among the most common injuries in sports. A sprain is a stretch and/or tear ... Our hand and upper extremity orthopedists treat a variety of hand, wrist, and eblow sprains, including:. *General Hand & Wrist ...
Elbow and arm stretching exercises are usually most important when rehabilitating an elbow or wrist injury and include wrist ... Wrist extensor stretch. Stretching the wrist extensors can be an effective treatment for tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis. ... Wrist flexor stretch. Stretching the wrist flexor muscles can be difficult, but using a wall to apply pressure and increase the ... Tennis Elbow stretch. Tennis elbow (also known as lateral epicondylitis) is caused by degenerative changes in one or more of ...
Elbow, Knee, Wrist) Skateboarding Protective Gear. Shop with confidence on eBay! ... Kids Knee Pads, Elbow Pads and Wrist Guards (Set of 6 Pads) - available in S/M/L ... Kids Knee Pads, Elbow Pads and Wrist Guards (Set of 6 Pads) Protective Pad Kids ... Elbow Knee Wrist Protective Guard Safety Gear pads skate bicycle kids and Teens ...
... wrist, elbow and shoulder concerns from Cleveland Clinic orthopaedic experts. ... Elbow Pain Elbow Pain. Elbow pain is extremely common - whether due to aging, overuse, trauma or a sports injury. When elbow ... Hand & Wrist Pain Hand & Wrist Pain. With how much we rely on our hands, theres no wonder hand and wrist pain can be so ... Elbow & Shoulder Surgery Hand, Wrist, Elbow & Shoulder Surgery ... Elbow Pain Treatment Guide. *Hand & Wrist Pain Treatment Guide ...
... used options and get the best deals for Outdoor Sport Stretch Arm Sleeves Elbow Wrist Wrap Brace Support Basketball at the best ... Details about Outdoor Sport Stretch Arm Sleeves Elbow Wrist Wrap Brace Support Basketball. See original listing ...
It is not the intention of the Amputee Coalition to provide specific medical or legal advice but rather to provide consumers with information to better understand their health and healthcare issues. The Amputee Coalition does not endorse any specific treatment, technology, company, service or device. Consumers are urged to consult with their healthcare providers for specific medical advice or before making any purchasing decisions involving their care. ...
The Hyper Gold Inline pad set is designed for performance. 1-year limited warranty. The ergonomic shape gives you full range of motion while keeping you protected and the Hyper-cool lining keeps you cool.
Ruch is a Durham orthopaedic hand surgeon at Duke, specializing in forearm and wrist surgery, wrist neuroplasty, and finger ... Wrist neuroplasty Wrist neuroplasty surgery decompresses a pinched nerve in the wrist, often caused by carpal tunnel syndrome. ... Forearm and wrist surgery Forearm and wrist surgery relieves forearm and wrist pain caused by carpal tunnel syndrome, ... Wrist neuroplasty Wrist neuroplasty surgery decompresses a pinched nerve in the wrist, often caused by carpal tunnel syndrome. ...
Ruch is a Durham orthopaedic hand surgeon at Duke, specializing in forearm and wrist surgery, wrist neuroplasty, and finger ... Although we are referred to as "hand surgeons," I treat many people with wrist and elbow conditions. Because the hand is so ... I am widely published on a variety of research topics, including new treatments for wrist and elbow fractures. I am also very ...
Wrist and elbow joint pain can be caused by traumatic or overuse injury to multiple structures or by medical conditions such as ... Bone fractures can affect the elbow and wrist. The radius bone on the thumb side of your wrist is frequently fractured -- most ... Tendinitis is a common cause of elbow pain in particular. Tennis elbow and golfers elbow describe tendon injuries that may ... Wrist and elbow joint pain can be caused by traumatic or overuse injury to multiple structures or by medical conditions such as ...
Barista Elbow (Barista Wrist). "Barista elbow" is an affliction defined in 2008 as a result from "the motion of yanking the ... Barista elbow?! June 11, 2008 7:23 PM Help! I am a barista and my elbow hurts! What should I do? My elbow started aching after ... The "barista wrist/elbow" was quite common in my coffeeshops until we learned this trick. Please memail me if this was not at ... Im not too sure about Baristas Elbow, but I know that I am suffering from Baristas Wrist. As hard as it was for me, that ...
... s Wrist Arthroscopy has expanded its scope to include arthroscopy techniques of the elbow in addition to the wrist. This ... Wrist and elbow arthroscopy : a practical surgical guide to techniques. [William Geissler;] -- This fully revised and updated ... Wrist--surgery a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Wrist--surgery"@en ;. schema:name "Wrist--Surgery"@en ;. . ... s Wrist Arthroscopy has expanded its scope to include arthroscopy techniques of the elbow in addition to the wrist. This ...
Treatment of the Stiff Elbow (5). Stiff Elbow Classifications. Alessandro Marinelli, MD, ITALY. Arthroscopic Treatment of Elbow ... Elbow / Wrist / Hand Bones Tendon Nerve Tears Basic Science Sport Specific Injuries Repair / Reconstruction Median Nerve Ulnar ... Elbow / Wrist / Hand Stiff Joints Repair / Reconstruction Elderly Adult Bones Osteoarthritis Arthritis Physical Examination MRI ... Elbow / Wrist / Hand Bones Capsuloligamentous Complex Nerve Ligaments Dislocation Trauma Instability Physical Examination MRI ...
Arm, Wrist & Hand Message Board HealthBoards , Bone Joint Muscle , Arm, Wrist & Hand > Elbow surgery at 19 ... Elbow surgery at 19 Hey guys so I went to a Sports Specialist Orthopedic at University of Florida. I am getting anthroscopic ... So I am not going to be in an elbow support or whatever. I should be lifting weight normally within weeks!. Will I be in pain ... And give me 2 cortisone shots for my tennis elbows. I forgot the name of the joint he is going to shave. Olecranon Fossa? I ...
... wrist. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests. ... Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Goniometry Elbow & ... Gonmtry Elbow/wrist. Goniometry Elbow & wrist. Action. ROM. ... Wrist Flexion. 90. supported forearm. ulna. triquetrium. aligned with 5th metacarpal. wrist extension. 85. supported forearm. ... Elbow Pronation. 90. elbow flexed to 90. parallel to humeral midline. lateral to ulnar styloid. dorsal forearm. ...
Learn more about the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand conditions we treat and treatment options available to you. In some cases ... Hand & Wrist Pain. The torment of joint pain in our hand and wrist can be debilitating for even the smallest of tasks. ... Elbow Pain. Elbow pain can be the result of overextending one of the bodys most active parts. Common injuries contributing to ... elbow, wrist and hand. Working in close collaboration with the departments of Plastic Surgery, Neurology, Rheumatology and ...
Wrist and Elbow Care at SEBMF. Learn more about our services and how we partner with you to create personalized care. ... SEBMF Hand, Wrist and Elbow Care. The hand and wrist is a complex system of 27 bones. When you suffer a hand, wrist or elbow ... If you need more complex surgical solutions, such as finger, thumb joint (CMC), wrist or elbow replacement or elbow ... Hand, Wrist and Elbow within the Sutter Health network. The Sutter Health network has doctors and services in more than 100 ...
K Elbow & wrist. OIAN. Term. Definition. triceps O. long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula / lateral head: inferior to ... not a prime mover in any jt action, assists in elbow ext. ... wrist ext. extensor carpi radialis brevis N. radial nerve C6, ...
  • However, there were fewer operation-related complications in group A (one revision surgery) than in group B (one superficial infection, two painful scars, and five cases of numbness at the medial elbow). (biomedcentral.com)
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