Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Wounds, Stab: Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Surgical Wound Dehiscence: Pathologic process consisting of a partial or complete disruption of the layers of a surgical wound.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Granulation Tissue: A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy: The application of a vacuum across the surface of a wound through a foam dressing cut to fit the wound. This removes wound exudates, reduces build-up of inflammatory mediators, and increases the flow of nutrients to the wound thus promoting healing.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Abbreviated Injury Scale: Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Vascular System Injuries: Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Mice, Inbred C57BLSkin Care: Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.Occlusive Dressings: Material, usually gauze or absorbent cotton, used to cover and protect wounds, to seal them from contact with air or bacteria. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Head Injuries, Penetrating: Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Electric Injuries: Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.AccidentsCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Skin UlcerRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Bites and StingsImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Pressure Ulcer: An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stays in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Accidents, HomeCornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Maxillofacial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the face and jaw (either upper, lower, or both).Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Lacerations: Torn, ragged, mangled wounds.Re-Epithelialization: Reconstitution of eroded or injured EPITHELIUM by proliferation and migration of EPITHELIAL CELLS from below or adjacent to the damaged site.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Leg Ulcer: Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Prenatal Injuries: Damages to the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN or the FETUS before BIRTH. Damages can be caused by any factors including biological, chemical, or physical.Skin, Artificial: Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Trauma Centers: Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.Hip Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the hip.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Burns, ChemicalNeutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Varicose Ulcer: Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Sternum: A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Bandages, Hydrocolloid: Dressings comprised of a self-adhesive matrix to which hydrophilic absorbent particles are embedded. The particles consist of CELLULOSE derivatives; calcium ALGINATES; PECTINS; or GELS. The utility is based on providing a moist environment for WOUND HEALING.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Biological Dressings: Human or animal tissue used as temporary wound coverings.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Trauma, Nervous System: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Hyperbaric Oxygenation: The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Musculoskeletal System: The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Silver Sulfadiazine: Antibacterial used topically in burn therapy.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Sternotomy: Making an incision in the STERNUM.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.DislocationsRupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Hypoglossal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Motorcycles: Two-wheeled, engine-driven vehicles.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Skin Physiological Processes: Biological activities and functions of the SKIN.

Non-fatal injuries sustained by seatbelt wearers: a comparative study. (1/5118)

The injuries sustained by 969 drivers and front-seat passengers in road-traffic accidents were studied. Altogether 196 (20-2%) of the drivers and passengers were wearing seat belts and 773 (79-8%) were not. The injuries among the two groups differed greatly in both severity and distribution. A total of 54 (27-6%) of the seatbelt wearers sustained one or more fractures compared with 300 (38-8%) of the non-wearers, and 18 (9-2%) of the seatbelt wearers were severely injured compared with 300 (38-8%) of the non-wearers. Soft-tissue injuries to the face were sustained by only 29 (14-8%) of the seatbelt wearers compared with 425 (55%) of the non-wearers. Since wearing seatbelts may become compulsory, the type and pattern of injuries to be expected in wearers should be appreciated.  (+info)

HLA-DR expression and soluble HLA-DR levels in septic patients after trauma. (2/5118)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if cellular and soluble HLA-DR molecules may be relevant in severely injured patients for the development of gram-positive or gram-negative sepsis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: HLA-DR molecules play a central role in the specific immune response to infection. The reduced HLA-DR expression on monocytes is considered to correlate with infectious complications and the development of sepsis. Data on the role of HLA-DR expression on T cells and soluble HLA-DR molecules are rare. METHODS: HLA-DR expression on monocytes and T cells was measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of soluble HLA-DR were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: HLA-DR expression on circulating T cells, calculated as mean fluorescence intensity in channels, was reduced at day 1 after admission in 20 patients with subsequent severe sepsis compared with 46 patients without sepsis. The septic patients immediately after trauma had significantly lower soluble HLA-DR plasma levels than the nonseptic patients. At day 2 after admission, HLA-DR expression on monocytes was significantly lower in the severe sepsis group than in the patients without sepsis, and lasted until day 14 after injury. CONCLUSIONS: In severely injured patients, decreased levels of cellular and soluble HLA-DR appear as early indicators of an immune deviation associated with the development of severe sepsis. Moreover, immune alterations of different cell types may promote distinct kinds of septicemia.  (+info)

Bioelectrical impedance plethysmographic analysis of body composition in critically injured and healthy subjects. (3/5118)

BACKGROUND: Determination of body composition during critical illness is complex because of various patient-related and technical factors. Bioelectrical impedance is a promising technique for the analysis of body composition; however, its clinical utility in critically injured patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare bioelectrical impedance with metabolic activity in healthy and critically injured patients. If bioelectrical impedance accurately determines body composition during critical illness, the slope between body-composition variables and oxygen consumption would be the same in critically injured and healthy subjects. DESIGN: There is a strong linear relation between body composition and metabolic activity. In the present study, body composition (fat-free mass and body cell mass) was determined by using bioelectrical impedance and resting metabolic activity (metabolic rate and oxygen consumption) by using gas exchange analysis in a group of healthy and critically injured subjects. The relation between these variables was compared by using linear regression to a similar relation established by hydrostatic weighing in a large historical control group. RESULTS: The slope of the line relating fat-free mass to resting metabolic rate was the same in the healthy and critically ill groups (P = 0.62) and each was similar to the slope of the line for the control group. However, in 37% of the critically injured group, overhydration contributed to an increase in fat-free mass, disturbing the relation with resting metabolic rate. The slope of the line relating body cell mass to oxygen consumption in our healthy and critically ill groups was almost identical. CONCLUSION: These results support the use of bioelectrical impedance to determine body cell mass in healthy and critically ill subjects.  (+info)

Ten-year trend in survival and resource utilization at a level I trauma center. (4/5118)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of increasing trauma center experience over time on survival and resource utilization. METHODS: The authors studied a retrospective cohort at a single level I trauma center over a 10-year period, from 1986 to 1995. Patients included all hospital admissions and emergency department deaths. The main outcome measures were the case-fatality rate adjusted for injury severity, hospital length of stay, and costs. RESULTS: A total of 25,979 patients were admitted or died. The number of patients per year increased, from 2063 in 1986 to 3313 in 1995. The proportion of patients transferred from another institution increased from 16.2% to 34.4%. Although mean length of stay declined by 28.4%, from 9.5 to 6.8 days, costs increased by 16.7%, from $14,174 to $16,547. The use of specific radiologic investigations increased; the frequency of operative procedures either remained unchanged (craniotomy, fracture fixation) or decreased (celiotomy). After adjusting for injury severity and demographic factors, the mortality rate decreased over 10 years. The improvement in survival was confined to patients with an injury severity score > or =16. CONCLUSION: Over a 10-year period, the case-fatality rate declined in patients with severe injuries. Overall acute care costs increased, partially because of the increased use of radiologic investigations. Even in otherwise established trauma centers, increasing cumulative experience results in improved survival rates in the most severely injured patients. These data suggest that experience contributes to a decrease in mortality rate after severe trauma and that developing trauma systems should consider this factor and limit the number of designated centers to maximize cumulative experience at individual centers.  (+info)

Dependence of explicit and implicit memory on hypnotic state in trauma patients. (5/5118)

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear whether memory of intraoperative events results entirely from moments of inadequate anesthesia. The current study was designed to determine whether the probability of memory declines with increasing depth of the hypnotic state. METHOD: A list of words was played via headphones during surgery to patients who had suffered acute trauma. Several commonly used indicators of anesthetic effect, including the bispectral index, were recorded during word presentation. First, these indicators served as predictors of the memory performance in a postoperative word stem completion test. Second, general memory performance observed in the first part was separated into explicit and implicit memory using the process dissociation procedure, and then two models of memory were compared: One model assumed that the probability of explicit and implicit memory decreases with increasing depth of hypnotic state (individual differences model), whereas the other assumed equal memory performance for all patients regardless of their level of hypnotic state. RESULTS: General memory performance declined with decreasing bispectral index values. None of the other indicators of hypnotic state were related to general memory performance. Memory was still significant at bispectral index levels between 60 and 40. A comparison of the two models of memory resulted in a better fit of the individual differences model, thus providing evidence of a dependence of explicit and implicit memory on the hypnotic state. Quantification of explicit and implicit memory revealed a significant implicit but no reliable explicit memory performance. CONCLUSIONS: This study clearly indicates that memory is related to the depth of hypnosis. The observed memory performance should be interpreted in terms of implicit memory. Auditory information processing occurred at bispectral index levels between 60 and 40.  (+info)

Early growth response factor-1 induction by injury is triggered by release and paracrine activation by fibroblast growth factor-2. (6/5118)

Cell migration and proliferation that follows injury to the artery wall is preceded by signaling and transcriptional events that converge at the promoters of multiple genes whose products can influence formation of the neointima. Transcription factors, such as early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1), with nucleotide recognition elements in the promoters of many pathophysiologically relevant genes, are expressed at the endothelial wound edge within minutes of injury. The mechanisms underlying the inducible expression of Egr-1 in this setting are not clear. Understanding this process would provide important mechanistic insights into the earliest events in the response to injury. In this report, we demonstrate that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is released by injury and that antibodies to FGF-2 almost completely abrogate the activation and nuclear accumulation of Egr-1. FGF-2-inducible egr-1-promoter-dependent expression is blocked by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 (MEK-1/2), as well as by dominant negative mutants of ERK-1/2. Inducible ERK phosphorylation after injury is dependent on release and stimulation by endogenous FGF-2. Antisense oligonucleotides directed at egr-1 mRNA suggest that Egr-1 plays a necessary role in endothelial repair after denudation of the monolayer. These findings demonstrate that inducible Egr-1 expression after injury is contingent on the release and paracrine action of FGF-2.  (+info)

Evaluation of the quality of an injury surveillance system. (7/5118)

The sensitivity, positive predictive value, and representativeness of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) were assessed. Sensitivity was estimated at four centers in June through August 1992, by matching independently identified injuries with those in the CHIRPP database. The positive predictive value was determined by reviewing all "injuries" in the database (at Montreal Children's Hospital) that could not be matched. Representativeness was assessed by comparing missed with captured injuries (at Montreal Children's Hospital) on demographic, social, and clinical factors. Sensitivity ranged from 30% to 91%, and the positive predictive value was 99.9% (i.e., the frequency of false-positive capture was negligible). The representativeness study compared 277 missed injuries with 2,746 captured injuries. The groups were similar on age, sex, socioeconomic status, delay before presentation, month, and day of presentation. Injuries resulting in admissions, poisonings, and those presenting overnight were, however, more likely to be missed. The adjusted odds ratio of being missed by CHIRPP for admitted injuries (compared with those treated and released) was 13.07 (95% confidence interval 7.82-21.82); for poisonings (compared with all other injuries), it was 9.91 (95% confidence interval 5.39-18.20); and for injuries presenting overnight (compared with those presenting during the day or evening), it was 4.11 (95% confidence interval 3.11-5.44). These injuries were probably missed because of inadequate education of participants in the system. The authors conclude that CHIRPP data are of relatively high quality and may be used, with caution, for research and public health policy.  (+info)

Particle-mediated gene transfer of PDGF isoforms promotes wound repair. (8/5118)

Several techniques for cutaneous gene transfer have been investigated for either in vitro or in vivo applications. In the present study, we investigated whether the direct delivery of platelet-derived growth factor cDNA into skin results in improvement in tissue repair. Cutaneous transfections were carried out in rats using a particle-bombardment device (Accell). As revealed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, transgene expression in vivo was transient, with low level expression by day 5. When compared with wounds transfected with a control cytomegalovirus-luciferase plasmid, wounds transfected with platelet-derived growth factor A or B in the MFG vector showed a significant increase in wound tensile strength 7 and 14 d after transfection. At both time points platelet-derived growth factor A transfected wounds exhibited the highest increase in tensile strength over controls, resulting in a 3.5-fold increase at day 7 and a 1.5-fold increase at day 14. The degree of stimulation was not remarkably different between wounds transfected with platelet-derived growth factor B, which is predominantly cell associated, or a truncation mutant, platelet-derived growth factor B211, which is predominantly secreted. These findings demonstrate that in vivo gene transfer by particle bombardment can be used to improve the tissue repair response. This approach provides a robust tool to assess the biologic activity of various proteins and will aid in the development of therapeutic cutaneous gene delivery.  (+info)

  • Survivors often suffered not just grievous physical wounds but also concussions that, along with psychological trauma, became known as the invisible wounds of war. (click2houston.com)
  • A few of these common presentations include burns, lacerations, trauma to the hand, and wounds, some of which do not require an evaluation by a specialist and can be managed outpatient by primary care clinicians. (jabfm.org)
  • Associated trauma from falls and blasts resulting in spinal fractures and head injuries can occur. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Introduction Among the factors related to survival among individuals with gun shot wounds (GSW) is distance to trauma care. (bmj.com)
  • Similarly, in a model of internal trauma and repair (murine air pouch model), endogenously produced adenosine released into areas of internal tissue injury stimulates angiogenesis because there was a marked reduction in blood vessels in the walls of healing air pouches of A(2A) receptor knockout mice compared to their wild-type controls. (nih.gov)
  • 4,8,9 Wound care specialists must be educated on phytophotodermatitis, which unfortunately has been misdiagnosed as nonaccidental trauma and can provoke a potentially embarrassing situation to the unsuspecting parent or adult caregiver who cannot recall any reasons precipitating such injuries. (woundsresearch.com)
  • The Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pub.L. 113-152) is a bill that would amend the Public Health Service Act, with respect to trauma care and research programs, to include in the definition of "trauma" an injury resulting from extrinsic agents other than mechanical force, including those that are thermal, electrical, chemical, or radioactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major trauma is injury that can potentially lead to serious outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Improving Trauma Care Act of 2014 would amend the Public Health Service Act, with respect to trauma care and research programs, to include in the definition of "trauma" an injury resulting from extrinsic agents other than mechanical force, including those that are thermal, electrical, chemical, or radioactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under current law, the definition of trauma means an injury resulting from exposure to a mechanical force. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bill would expand the definition of trauma to also include an injury resulting from exposure to an extrinsic agent that is thermal, electrical, chemical, or radioactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the organizations, the existing definition of "trauma" is too narrow and "excludes burn centers from participating in federal programs designed to support emergency medical care for those suffering from traumatic injuries or to compete for federal research support targeting trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major trauma and the injury severity score--where should we set the bar? (wikipedia.org)
  • Meaning they no longer reimburse for pressure ulcer and pressure injury care unless the condition is present on admission. (3m.com)
  • Wound care dressings: an important part of pressure ulcer/pressure injury prevention programs. (3m.com)
  • Download this free guide to learn about the five different types of wounds and basic equine wound care. (thehorse.com)
  • Veterinarians weigh in on the do's and don'ts of wound care, from discovery to recovery. (thehorse.com)
  • Tweets from the Kester News Hour and sessions on wound management, neonatal care, rehabilitation, and more. (thehorse.com)
  • Wound care is one of those many horse issues where there are as many opinions as there are horse owners. (thehorse.com)
  • Wound irrigation to remove debris and lessen bacterial contamination is an essential component of open fracture care. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Given the number of wounded vets reporting they could not get the mental health care they sought, the Wounded Warrior Project will begin a new program next year called Warrior Care Network. (military.com)
  • The group says it's a "first-of-its-kind medical care network" to connect wounded vets and their families with world-class, personalized mental health care. (military.com)
  • Despite Karsh's relative luck, having successfully received medical care, life has been difficult for him and his family since the injury. (palestinemonitor.org)
  • Very serious injuries pose significant challenges for the surgeons, and will require months or even years of care. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • But in the patients we treat in our postoperative care clinics, the exit wound gives an indication of the unusual destruction of soft tissues and bones inside the wound. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Advances in Skin & Wound Care. (lww.com)
  • When COVID-19 became a global pandemic, the world was suddenly confronted with adapting and modifying health delivery systems to provide care during physical distancing, as well as issues specifically relevant in skin and wound care such as preventing facial skin injuries from personal protective equipment among healthcare workers. (lww.com)
  • Because crush injuries can affect any area of the body and can impact bones, muscles, organs and other tissues, this type of injury requires expert care from a variety of specialists. (osu.edu)
  • Experts in wound care, surgeons, pain management specialists, physical therapists and doctors from various specialties work together to create a care plan that addresses all your healthcare needs. (osu.edu)
  • Burns, lacerations, and wounds are commonly encountered by primary care clinicians. (jabfm.org)
  • Health care providers see presentations that may involve hand burns, trigger finger, hand lacerations, and wound complications. (jabfm.org)
  • As we move up to more serious injuries, again knowing what to do first is important, even if follow-up care must be done by a medic or hospital emergency room. (sharecare.com)
  • 4. Keep jewelry clean or remove it during wound care. (sharecare.com)
  • For larger painful wounds, consider seeking the attention of a qualified physician experienced with wound care and management. (sharecare.com)
  • ore serious injuries, again knowing what to do first is important, even if follow-up care must be done by a medic or hospital emergency room. (sharecare.com)
  • This includes a thorough initial assessment and diagnosis, timely resuscitation, knowledge of appropriate transfer criteria, early surgical care and wound coverage, rehabilitation, and continuous reassessment. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Surgery's earliest known document describing the care of wounds, The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus , is dated about 1700 B.C. It describes the treatment of difficult wounds encountered on the battlefields of Egypt. (americanfarriers.com)
  • To manage and treat skin tears properly, many aspects of patient care must be considered, including coexisting factors, nutrition, pain management, local wounds, and the optimal dressing. (woundsource.com)
  • Advances in Wound Care is a bimonthly online journal that reports the latest scientific discoveries, translational research, and clinical developments in acute and chronic wound care. (healthcanal.com)
  • Each issue provides a digest of the latest research findings, innovative wound care strategies, industry product pipeline, and developments in biomaterials and skin and tissue regeneration to optimize patient outcomes. (healthcanal.com)
  • Twenty-eight full-thickness HAPIs occurred in fiscal year 2015 (FY15), and that trend continued into FY16 with 14 injuries on multiple units throughout a tertiary acute care center with 400 beds. (woundsresearch.com)
  • Pressure injuries (PIs) are costly to patients, health care institutions, and health care consumers. (woundsresearch.com)
  • This descriptive study was conducted to review the impact of a multidisciplinary pressure injury prevention (PIP) team designed to provide a diverse perspective of patient care and to operate as a vehicle for institution-wide implementation of best practice and data dissemination for HAPI reduction. (woundsresearch.com)
  • Previous work around PIP had focused on the creation of a best practice bundle, support surfaces, improving documentation, standardizing products, and building a team of certified wound care nurses. (woundsresearch.com)
  • To overcome veterans' reluctance to seek help for moral injury, Maguen incorporates mental health care into routine clinical visits. (heraldtribune.com)
  • Limit your exposure to the bitter temperatures, and if you are concerned about an open wound resulting from a frostbite injury, please call Baptist Health Hardin Wound Care at 270.706.1010. (hmh.net)
  • She was admitted to the authors' burn center for wound care and pain control. (woundsresearch.com)
  • Meticulous wound care and pain control for the treatment of these burn-like lesions are essential as is the need for the wound care specialist to be well versed on this topic to quickly identify the etiology of the injury, thereby avoiding misdiagnosing the patient with nonaccidental traumatic injuries. (woundsresearch.com)
  • their unfortunate combination presents annually to health care wound specialists, dermatologists, and burn surgeons. (woundsresearch.com)
  • Preventing injuries and managing chronic conditions are top priorities when making care decisions for your equine partner. (horseillustrated.com)
  • ICD-9 code 862.3 for Injury to other specified intrathoracic organs with open wound into cavity is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range -INTERNAL INJURY OF THORAX, ABDOMEN, AND PELVIS (860-869). (aapc.com)
  • These were very disabling injuries in that the blast caused a lot of soft tissue injury. (wbur.org)
  • Here we highlight advances in our understanding of PPAR action during tissue repair and discuss the potential for these nuclear receptors as therapeutic targets for tissue injury. (jci.org)
  • The Deep Tissue Injury pressure ulcer is one pressure ulcer type that can have a huge impact on your case because it tends to be incorrectly assessed, documented and/or treated. (medleague.com)
  • A deep tissue injury is a full-thickness pressure ulcer (injury down to deeper structures under the skin) although it initially appears as a superficial purple/maroon discoloration over a bony prominence or a blood-filled blister. (medleague.com)
  • The sooner the deep tissue injury is properly assessed the sooner the correct treatment plan can be implemented. (medleague.com)
  • The deep tissue injury evolves into a full thickness ulcer of a stage 3 or stage 4. (medleague.com)
  • However, the deep tissue injury should be added to the policy as a reportable event. (medleague.com)
  • Any area of purple discoloration should be documented as a deep tissue injury upon admission. (medleague.com)
  • As the deep tissue injury begins to open and deepen, the institution can look like the hero when properly treating a full-thickness pressure ulcer that had its beginnings before admission. (medleague.com)
  • Careful analysis of the medical record by a legal nurse consultant will determine when the deep tissue injury signs first appeared, and when the skin initially began to open and the ulcer worsened. (medleague.com)
  • Mary's attorney chose to file the lawsuit related to the negligently mounted dryer and did not file a claim against the hospital for the stage 3 pressure sore that evolved from the deep tissue injury. (medleague.com)
  • However, tabular statements are now available not only for histopathological wound age determination but also for the determination of fracture age. (springer.com)
  • ICD-9 code 854.13 for Intracranial injury of other and unspecified nature with open intracranial wound with moderate (1-24 hours) loss of consciousness is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range -INTRACRANIAL INJURY, EXCLUDING THOSE WITH SKULL FRACTURE (850-854). (aapc.com)
  • There were multiple blunt force injuries of the head consisting of varying sized lacerations of the scalp and face, extensive skull fractures and intracranial injuries," according to her autopsy report. (wilsontimes.com)
  • The majority of the wounded, those whose bones, joints, nerves and arteries have been hit by bullets, will have certain side effects and conditions as a result of these injuries for the rest of their lives. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Add this abstract with record is bright: Examining literary and filmic representations of the open wound, this dissertation reveals injury to be an essential esthetic principle in the work of seven exemplary authors and two filmmakers from the French and German-language canons: Charles Baudelaire, Franz Kafka, Georges Bataille, Jean Genet, Hélène Cixous, Ingeborg Bachmann and Elfriede Jelinek, as well as Werner Schroeter and Michael Haneke. (harvard.edu)
  • PITTSBURGH (AP) -- Authorities say a car passenger who was shot and wounded during a drive-by shooting in Pittsburgh earlier this month has died from his injuries. (pennlive.com)
  • Police say one gunman was killed, and other is in custody, seventeen other people were shot and wounded . (stackexchange.com)
  • And like those wounded troops, doctors say, many of those injured in the blasts Monday will require a lot of rehabilitation - both physical and mental. (wbur.org)
  • The study discussed in this monograph focuses on post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, and traumatic brain injury, not only because of current high-level policy interest but also because, unlike the physical wounds of war, these conditions are often invisible to the eye, remaining invisible to other servicemembers, family members, and society in general. (rand.org)
  • The Ohio State Comprehensive Wound Center draws from the expertise and resources of a leading academic medical center, including advanced diagnostic techniques, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, minimally invasive vascular techniques and complex surgical reconstruction. (osu.edu)
  • This issue has been investigated particularly intensively in the detection of vital skin wounds and in the histopathological determination of skin wound age. (springer.com)
  • However, critical voices highlight methodological problems such as the number of samples per skin wound, the undetermined effects caused by air and circulatory status, as well as environmental conditions (airflow, temperature, etc. (springer.com)
  • Bai R, Wan L, Shi M (2008) The time-dependent expressions of IL-1β, COX-2, MCP-1 mRNA in skin wounds of rabbits. (springer.com)
  • Berg S (1972) The timing of skin wounds. (springer.com)
  • The innovative solutions include a method to protect frontline workers from N95 mask facial skin damage and the use of telemedicine to manage patients with wounds during the health crisis. (lww.com)
  • Fibroblasts (red) invading a wound (blood clot, in blue) in mouse skin. (laboratoryequipment.com)
  • The time of day you sustain a skin wound may influence how quickly it heals, according to a new study. (laboratoryequipment.com)
  • A protein known as actin triggers fibroblasts to invade the area of a wound, where they produce restorative proteins like collagen to repair the damage and grow new skin. (laboratoryequipment.com)
  • Wounds were produced at different times of the day, and the researchers noted the rate at which skin cells migrated to the vulnerable area. (laboratoryequipment.com)
  • However, the findings were reversed in nocturnal mice, where skin cells moved more quickly and wounds healed faster when injuries occurred at night as the mice were most active. (laboratoryequipment.com)
  • 5. Use hypoallergenic lotions with antibacterial agents on skin surrounding the wound to maintain moisture and prevent irritation. (sharecare.com)
  • We show that pDCs also have the ability to sense host-derived nucleic acids released in common skin wounds. (rupress.org)
  • Cathelicidin peptides, which facilitate immune recognition of released nucleic acids by promoting their access to intracellular TLR compartments, were rapidly induced in skin wounds and were sufficient but not necessary to stimulate pDC activation and type I IFN production. (rupress.org)
  • These data uncover a new role of pDCs in sensing tissue damage and promoting wound repair at skin surfaces. (rupress.org)
  • However, whether skin injury is associated with pDC infiltration and activation to produce IFN-α/β is not known. (rupress.org)
  • In this paper, we found that skin injury induces an early and short-lived infiltration of pDCs into skin wounds. (rupress.org)
  • These pDCs were activated to produce IFN-α/β through TLR7 and TLR9, indicating that they recognize self-nucleic acids released by damaged cells in skin wounds. (rupress.org)
  • Depletion of pDCs or inhibition of IFN-α/β receptor signaling significantly impaired the acute inflammatory cytokine response and delayed reepithelization of skin wounds. (rupress.org)
  • 2 Maintenance of skin integrity can be challenging because increased secretions, perspiration, drooling, short neck, voluminous skin folds, and immobility contribute to increased moisture- and friction-related injuries. (o-wm.com)
  • Foam dressings such as Mepilex Lite or Mepilex Ag (Mölnlycke, Gothenburg, Sweden), moisture-wicking fabric, gauze, hydrofiber, and skin protectants are often used as the initial preventive product as well as treatment if injury develops. (o-wm.com)
  • Moisture-associated skin injury , such as perineal dermatitis, diaper rash, and incontinence-associated dermatitis are caused by long-term, repetitive moisture that disrupts the normal pH of skin. (woundsource.com)
  • Use skin cleanser to clean the wound. (woundsource.com)
  • Skin tears are "wounds caused by shear, friction, and/or blunt force resulting in separation of skin layers. (woundsource.com)
  • 2 The mechanical force created in these conditions will eventually lead to a wound, such as a skin tear. (woundsource.com)
  • A type 1 tear has no skin loss, with a linear or flap tear that can be positioned to cover the wound bed. (woundsource.com)
  • Type 2 involves partial skin loss, with a partial flap that cannot fully cover the wound. (woundsource.com)
  • Other risk factors include impaired mobility, falls or other accidental injuries, previous skin tears, cognitive deficit or dementia, and dependence in transfers. (woundsource.com)
  • Risk factors for pressure injuries are the same as for skin tears. (woundsource.com)
  • Also like skin tears, these injuries can be prevented when proper practices and technologies are in place that provide turning and repositioning strategies at an interval based on the patient's individual tissue tolerance, ideally every two hours or less. (woundsource.com)
  • I would expect a wound to involve the skin being cut or grazed, whereas an injury might be a broken bone or an internal injury of some sort. (linguism.co.uk)
  • In law, a wound breaks the skin. (linguism.co.uk)
  • The injury can present as intact skin or an open ulcer and may be painful. (o-wm.com)
  • Mary's attorney received the case because of the head injury, but then also studied the rapid progression of skin breakdown, and wondered if he had a nursing malpractice case as well. (medleague.com)
  • Wound: a damage area of the body such as a cut or hole in the skin or flesh body by a weapon. (stackexchange.com)
  • When used literally, wound is specifically the cut or hole in the skin or organ, as your dictionary search demonstrates. (stackexchange.com)
  • If the integrity of the skin has been violated, or if the thing needs to be dressed, it's a wound. (stackexchange.com)
  • While a wound is a form of injury that involves a break to the skin, it is possible to have a wound that was not caused by a weapon or by intent. (stackexchange.com)
  • First, the risk of complications, especially infections, is very high for these types of injuries. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • The wound can progress and complications mount and so do the litigation dollars. (medleague.com)
  • Some of the possible complications caused by a TMGSW are: damage to great vessels such as the vena cava, aorta, pulmonary arteries damage to cardiac muscle massive hemorrhage cardiac tamponade hemomediastinum pneumomediastinum neurologic injury In many cases there is pneumothorax or hemothorax due to the proximity of the lungs to the mediastinum. (wikipedia.org)
  • A group of mental health experts is giving a name to the guilt and remorse troops feel when they see or do bad things during war: moral injury. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • Moral injury is not now officially recognized as a mental health malady. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • The principal author of the moral injury paper, Dr. Brett Litz, said he and his colleagues are calling for wide-scale research into the issue to validate its existence and how it may lead to post-traumatic stress. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • Moral injury can occur from what you witness or what you do," said Litz, a clinical psychologist, professor and counselor for the Department of Veterans Affairs. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • That is moral injury. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • Litz and his collaborators specifically define a moral injury experience as "perpetrating, failing to prevent, bearing witness to or learning about acts that transgress deeply held moral beliefs and expectations. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • Treating troops with moral injury, they say, requires a deeply caring and respectful therapeutic relationship and a dialogue with a "benevolent moral authority. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • The presentation at the U.S. Naval Center's Combat Operational Stress Control conference represents the first official unveiling of moral injury as a war wound. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • The highlighting of moral injury comes after thousands of locally based Marines have deployed to Afghanistan, where civilian casualties are rising as that nearly 9-year-old war shows few signs of being resolved. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • Global Ethics Corner: Can Moral Injury Be a Wound of War? (carnegiecouncil.org)
  • As the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq wind on, there is a new idea about the damages of war: moral injury. (carnegiecouncil.org)
  • Everyone copes with moral injury. (carnegiecouncil.org)
  • Or, is moral injury to soldiers simply a more extreme extension of the moral issues faced by everyone? (carnegiecouncil.org)
  • Mark Walker, ' Military: 'Moral injury' as a wound of war ,' May 8, 2010. (carnegiecouncil.org)
  • It has a name: moral injury. (heraldtribune.com)
  • Unlike a better known casualty of war, post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, moral injury is not yet a recognized psychiatric diagnosis, although the harm it inflicts is as bad if not worse. (heraldtribune.com)
  • The film depicts the emotional agony and self-destructive aftermath of moral injury and follows two sufferers along a path that alleviates their psychic distress and offers hope for eventual recovery. (heraldtribune.com)
  • Therapists both within and outside the Department of Veterans Affairs increasingly recognize moral injury as the reason so many returning vets are self-destructive and are not helped, or only partly helped, by established treatments for PTSD. (heraldtribune.com)
  • Moral injury has some of the symptoms of PTSD, especially anger, depression, anxiety, nightmares, insomnia and self-medication with drugs or alcohol. (heraldtribune.com)
  • But moral injury has an added burden of guilt, grief, shame, regret, sorrow and alienation that requires a very different approach to reach the core of a sufferer's psyche. (heraldtribune.com)
  • But the therapeutic community is only now becoming aware of the dimensions of moral injury and how it can be treated. (heraldtribune.com)
  • A lot of vets won't seek help because what's haunting them are not heroic acts, or they were betrayed, or they can't live with themselves because they made a mistake," said Brett Litz, a mental health specialist with the VA Boston Healthcare System and a leading expert on moral injury. (heraldtribune.com)
  • Therapists who study and treat moral injury have found that no amount of medication can relieve the pain of trying to live with an unbearable moral burden. (heraldtribune.com)
  • They say those suffering from moral injury contribute significantly to the horrific toll of suicide among returning vets - estimated as high as 18 to 22 a day in the United States, more than the number lost in combat. (heraldtribune.com)
  • Shira Maguen, a research psychologist and clinician at the San Francisco VA Medical Center, who studies and treats vets suffering from moral injury, said, "We have a big focus on self-forgiveness. (heraldtribune.com)
  • Note added in Proof: Note the difference in glial cell reactivity when stab wound injury is performed through the skull (as recently published in März et al. (wiley.com)
  • A-C. Histograms depicting the number of different cell types proliferating in the neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish telencephalon (A) and brain parenchyma (B) in non-injured control brains and after stab wound injury. (wiley.com)
  • C) Histogram depicting proliferation of different cell types in comparison to the total population of proliferating cells (black bars) following stab wound injury. (wiley.com)
  • Despite recent innovations and improvements in medicine, the three principles still stand, and may assist even surgeons with minimal experience in treating gunshot wounds to achieve reliable results. (koreamed.org)
  • Animal and clinical studies of the use of antiseptics in contaminated wounds have yielded conflicting outcomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antibiotic irrigation has been effective in experimental studies in some types of animal wounds, but human clinical data are unconvincing due to poor study design. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There are few animal or clinical studies of musculoskeletal wounds. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Spinal cord injury (SCI) elicits a complex cascade of events that further promote tissue destruction and ultimately results in poor clinical prognosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Two (2) Masters' prepared nurses - a certified wound ostomy continence (WOC) nurse and a clinical nurse specialist certified nurse (CNS-BC) - led the transition to implement the terminology change. (o-wm.com)
  • More than 75 percent of wounded veterans are dealing with post-traumatic stress disorder , according to the latest annual survey sponsored by the Wounded Warrior Project. (military.com)
  • Steve Nardizzi, chief executive officer for the organization, said more than 23,000 veterans registered as members of Wounded Warrior Project completed the survey , making it the largest collection of data on the post-9/11 generation of wounded vets yet collected. (military.com)
  • Diana Keel also suffered from "multiple sharp injuries" consisting of "large incised wounds" on the left side of her face and neck, the report indicates. (wilsontimes.com)
  • Early evidence suggests that the psychological toll of these deployments - many involving prolonged exposure to combat-related stress over multiple rotations - may be disproportionately high compared with the physical injuries of combat. (rand.org)
  • psychological wounds. (qualityhealth.com)
  • The anatomy of pressure ulcer/pressure injury risk. (3m.com)
  • Request a free pressure ulcer/injury staging card and wound measuring guide. (3m.com)
  • Learn proper preparation and placement techniques for pressure ulcer/pressure injury management. (3m.com)
  • ³National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance. (3m.com)
  • The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) 1 has proposed a new term - pressure injury - as well as a new Pressure Injury Staging System to more accurately describe pressure phenomena. (o-wm.com)