Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
All deaths reported in a given population.
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Female parents, human or animal.
Size and composition of the family.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
A condition of involuntary weight loss of greater then 10% of baseline body weight. It is characterized by atrophy of muscles and depletion of lean body mass. Wasting is a sign of MALNUTRITION as a result of inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, or hypermetabolism.
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The status of health in rural populations.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.
A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
The status of health in urban populations.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
Deaths that occur before LIFE EXPECTANCY is reached within a given population.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.
Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.
Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
The interactions between parent and child.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
"Child mortality". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2020-08-14. "Huge malnutrition toll on Yemen children". 21 November 2018 - via ... In 1950, the child mortality rate in Yemen was 370 children per 1000 births. Yemen then made significant progress, with the ... Malnutrition is one of the leading causes of child mortality. By 2018, about two million Yemeni children suffered from acute ... According to the World Health Organization, more than 1.8 million children under the age of five are suffering from acute ...
The infant mortality rate was approximately 30.42 deaths per 1,000 children in 2018. In 2014, there were 2.1 physicians per ... "Highest Dams (World and U.S.)". ICOLD World Register of Dams. 1998. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 8 ... "Child Mortality - Tajikistan". "Physicians (per 1,000 people) - Tajikistan, Low income , Data". Retrieved ... "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Retrieved 3 February 2019. Human Development Report 2020 ...
"Life expectancy". Our World in Data. Retrieved 5 September 2020. "Child mortality rate". Our World in Data. Retrieved 5 ... "GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Indonesia". World Bank. Retrieved 15 April 2021. Human Development Report 2020 The Next ... "Share of people living in urban areas, 2017". Our World in Data. 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2020. "Demographia World Urban ... and declining child mortality (from 84 deaths per 1,000 births in 1990 to 25.4 deaths in 2017), challenges remain, including ...
"Child and Infant Mortality". Our World In Data. Retrieved 13 January 2021. Elahi, Ebby, ed. (2021). Insights in Global Health, ... The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 172 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 26. In ... As of 2010[update], the country had the 4th highest maternal mortality rate in the world. The total fertility rate in 2014 was ... "Country Comparison :: Maternal mortality rate". The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 16 ...
"Child and Infant Mortality". Our World in Data. "Infant mortality rate". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2020-10-01. "Mortality ... child mortality rate in Europe was 10.92%, while in the world it was on average 22.54%. In 2015, only 0.28% of all the children ... According to the World Bank income level classification, Portugal is considered to be a high income country. Its population was ... born in Portugal died before the age of 5 (0.58% in Europe and 4.5% in the world). Similarly, infant mortality rate in the ...
Reduce Child Mortality". Archived from the original on 2013-10-21. Retrieved 2013-05-16. "Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 ... United Nations World Food Programme (WFP)(2007). World Hunger Series 2007 : Hunger and Health, Table 6a. The World Food ... in order to decrease the infant/child mortality rates. Some of the most common diseases that these young children are facing ... "The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". "Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live ...
Infant mortality is at 1.9% to 4% and child mortality is at 4.3%. Mongolia has the highest rate of liver cancer in the world by ... "UBPost: Child Mortality Rate Has Decreased, UNICEF Says". Archived from the original on April 5, 2008. ... "Goal 4 - Reduce Child Mortality". National Statistical Office of Mongolia. July 11, 2004. Archived from the original on October ... Since 1990, key health indicators in Mongolia like life expectancy and infant and child mortality have steadily improved, both ...
... male child mortality rates have shown to be higher than female child mortality rates most years from 1970 to 2000. In a study ... Women tend to be more highly targeted by traffickers due to the fact that they are seeking opportunity in an area of the world ... Since 1970, overall child mortality rates have declined. However, contrary to nearby countries such as India and China, ... Project of Children Statistics, 1989. Profiles of Children and Women zn Vietnam (Nhung van de ve tre em va phu nu Viet Nam) ( ...
... their infant and childhood mortality rates are among the lowest in the Arab world. The causes of neonatal mortality among ... Lead poisoning is an important health issue for children all around the world. The prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (i. ... Madi, Haifa H (July 2000). "Infant and child mortality rates among Palestinian refugee populations". The Lancet. 356 (9226): ... 2006). Neonatal and perinatal mortality : country, regional and global estimates. Åhman, Elisabeth., World Health Organization ...
Studies have shown points of use treatment to reduce diarrhea mortality in children under 5 by 29%. Home water treatment ... The 2019 UN World Water Development report noted that about four billion people, representing nearly two-thirds of the world ... doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-809330-6.00001-5. "WHO , Estimating child mortality due to diarrhoea in developing countries". WHO. ... World Health Organization, UN-Water. 2010. ISBN 978-92-4-159935-1. "Central Asia Water & Energy Program". World Bank. " ...
"Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) - Cambodia". World Bank. 7 June 2020. "National Child Mortality and Malnutrition ... The fertility rate was 4.0 children in 2000. Women in urban areas have 2.2 children on average, compared with 3.3 children per ... online "The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". Retrieved 10 July 2018. "Geography of Cambodia - World ... Education has also suffered setbacks from child labour, A study by Kim (2011) reports that most employed children in Cambodia ...
"National Child Mortality and Malnutrition (Food Insecurity Outcome) Maps". United Nations World Food Programme. Accessed 2008- ... "Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990-2015" (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved 2019-07-24. "The State Of The World's ... Rattanakiri has Cambodia's highest rates of maternal and child mortality, with 22.9% of children dying before the age of five. ... The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 90 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 34. In ...
Sierra Leone has the largest child mortality in the world. In March 2007, Axelle spoke at the FIFDH (International Film ... Since 1997, Axelle has been an ambassador for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) standing up for the rights of ... with Youssou N'Dour at the opening ceremony of the Football World Cup in the Stade de France outside Paris, before a television ... to increase the budget for the development of the Third World countries. 2006 saw the release of Jardin Secret, Axelle's fifth ...
It took months or years for a village to start listening, and it was the dramatic decrease in both infant and child mortality ... The work of CRHP has been recognized by the WHO and UNICEF, as well as being introduced to 178 countries across the world. Drs ... Crandall, A. (2003, November). Morbidity and mortality among children under five in Jamkhed, India. In The 131st Annual Meeting ... Infant and maternal mortality, along with many other diseases, increased because of such beliefs. To villagers in the Jamkhed ...
In 1907 he formed an association to combat child mortality. Serving as president, the association saw success, and soon ... it was the first children's hospital in Bavaria. From the onset of the First World War, Pittinger served as a medical officer ... Their slogan was, "First the Homeland, then the World!" Much of Pittinger's popularity with the organization came from his ... In 1910 Pittinger founded the children's hospital and milk kitchen in Regensburg; ...
... and National Estimates of Rotavirus Mortality in Children". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 62 Suppl 2: S96-S105. doi:10.1093/cid ... Tate, Jacqueline E.; Burton, Anthony H.; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Parashar, Umesh D.; World Health Organization-Coordinated ... Sapovirus most commonly occurs in children and infants and therefore is often spread in nurseries and daycares; however, it has ... Rotavirus, however, is much more lethal, causing 37% of deaths in children with diarrhea and 215,000 deaths worldwide. ...
Infant and child mortality is in the range of 40%. The Onge's net reproductive index is 0.91. The net reproductive index among ... The Onge are one of the least fertile people in the world. About 40% of the married couples are sterile. Onge women rarely ... 2013). "Öñge". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (17th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Archived from the original on 9 ... of the decline in Onge population is the changes in their food habits brought about by their contact with the outside world. ...
According to the World Health Organization, malnutrition is named as the biggest contributor to child mortality with 36 million ... "The effects of malnutrition on child mortality in developing countries". Bull. World Health Organ. 73 (4): 443-48. PMC 2486780 ... World Health Organization, "The top 10 causes of death" GBD 2017 Causes of Death Collaborators. "Global, regional, and national ... Top causes of death, according to the World Health Organization report for the calendar year 2001: With an average of 123.6 ...
Infant and child mortality is in the range of 40%. The Onge's net reproductive index is 0.91. The net reproductive index among ... The Onge are one of the least fertile people in the world. About 40% of the married couples are sterile. Onge women rarely ...
Child mortality has decreased in every developing region of the world. The proportion of the world's population living in ... "Levels and Trends in Child Mortality" (PDF). UNICEF, World Health Organization, The World Bank and UN Population Division. 2011 ... UNICEF estimates half the world's children (or 1.1 billion) live in poverty. The World Bank forecasted in 2015 that 702.1 ... There are over 100 million street children worldwide. Most of the children living in institutions around the world have a ...
Child mortality has decreased in every developing region of the world. The proportion of the world's population living in ... Life expectancy has greatly increased in the developing world since World War II and is starting to close the gap to the ... The World Bank defines poverty in absolute terms. The bank defines extreme poverty as living on less than US$1.90 per day. (PPP ... The percentage of children not in the labor force has also risen to over 90% in 2000 from 76% in 1960. There are similar trends ...
"Inequality of child mortality among ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 78 (1): 30 ... The study described the presence of significant ethnic parities in the child mortality rates among children younger than 5 ... young children are not capable of maintaining good health on their own. In addition, these children have higher mortality rates ... The 2012 World Development Report (WDR) noted that women in developing nations experience greater mortality rates than men in ...
World Education News and Reviews. 13 (3): 5-6.. *^ Project of Children Statistics, 1989. Profiles of Children and Women zn ... male child mortality rates have shown to be higher than female child mortality rates most years from 1970-2000. In a study done ... Female mortalityEdit. Since 1970, overall child mortality rates have declined. However, contrary to nearby countries such as ... The trafficking of women and children from Vietnam. Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre in association with the ...
These actions reduced child mortality by half, to 40 deaths per thousand. By 1982, the World Health Organization deemed ... Sandinista Youth paramilitaries, armed and paid by Ortega's party, drive around in pickup trucks attacking protesters. Gangs of ... "World Report 2019. Nicaragua Events of 2018". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 16 July 2020. Burbach, Roger (1 March 2009). "The ... They moved to Costa Rica with her three children from a previous marriage. Ortega remarried Murillo in 2005 in order to have ...
"The effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on mortality of Gambian children". Lancet. 337 (8756): 1499-502. doi:10.1016/0140- ... 6736(91)93194-e. World Health Organization (2015). World Malaria Report. Geneva: WHO. Aponte JJ, Aide P, Renom M, Mandomando I ... They have three children, Yara, Miguel and Sofía. "Message from Pedro Alonso, Director GMP: Welcoming Dr Fred Binka to WHO , ... Since 2014, he serves as the Director of the Global Malaria Programme at the World Health Organization. After obtaining his ...
He is an advisor to the World Health Organization on child mortality. Saugstad has been cited over 23,000 times in scientific ... and neuroscientist noted for his research on resuscitation of newborn children and his contribution to reduce child mortality. ... He is a "world renowned expert in neonatal medicine," particularly on hypoxia and purine metabolism, hypoxia-reoxygenation ... It is estimated that his discovery can save the lives of 200,000 children each year. He has published more than 500 articles ...
Though child marriages are four times higher among the poorest than the wealthiest in the world, most countries need to ... Child marriage is directly related with maternal mortality and pregnancy related complications. A record of 143 countries ... Cultural belief of child marriage is the foundation in many cases of child marriage that need to be changed. ... United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), UN Women, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), World Health Organisation ...
ISBN 978-0-06-097333-9. Collison, D.; Dey, C.; Hannah, G.; Stevenson, L. (June 2007). "Income inequality and child mortality in ... After World War II, New York emerged as a center of the art world. Painting in the United States today covers a vast range of ... State law provides for child support where children are involved, and sometimes for alimony. "Married adults now divorce two- ... Overall the U.S. labor force is one of the most productive in the world, largely due to its workers working more than those in ...
... and their colleagues at SEARCH conducted world-class research on practical approaches to reduce mortality of young children in ... of India Chairman, Child Mortality Evaluation Committee, Govt. of Maharashtra Member, National ASHA Mentoring Group, Ministry ... In May 2017, the High Court of Bombay invited Abhay Bang to provide suggestions about how to reduce child mortality and ... Infant and child mortality, Elizabeth Day - The Observer, Sunday 20 March 2011 Dr Abhay Bang: the revolutionary pediatrician ( ...
Maternal & Child Mortality and Total Fertility Rates (PDF) (Report). India: Office of Registrar General. 7 July 2011. Retrieved ... The Western Ghats is one of the eight hottest biodiversity hotspots in the world and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Important ... Tamil Nadu achieved the goals related to improvement of maternal health and of reducing infant mortality and child mortality by ... Kerala is also home to one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, who are supposed to have arrived on the Malabar coast ...
... of the world's population.[11] Diabetes is common both in the developed and the developing world.[10] It remains uncommon, ... and long-term mortality is decreased.[122] There however is some short-term mortality risk of less than 1% from the surgery.[ ... type 2 diabetes is increasingly diagnosed in children in parallel with rising obesity rates.[10] Type 2 diabetes is now ... "Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 91 (9): 671-682D. doi:10.2471/BLT.12.113415. PMC 3790213. PMID 24101783.. ...
Learning to eat is a messy process for children, and children often do not master neatness or eating etiquette until they are 5 ... 2001). Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife (1st ed.). DK Publishing. pp. 86-89. ISBN 978-0-7894-7764-4 ... "Ability to sit and rise from the floor as a predictor of all-cause mortality". European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 21 ... Eating positions vary according to the different regions of the world, as culture influences the way people eat their meals. ...
"Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect" (PDF). Child Welfare Information Gateway. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 ... Sagan, C. (1996). The Demon-Haunted World: Science As a Candle in the Dark. New York: Random House. ISBN 9780394535128. .. ... "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 53 (26): 582-84. PMC 2768057. PMID 15241300.. ... World Health Organization. *. General Guidelines for Methodologies on Research and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine (PDF). ...
"World Peace Foundation. 7 August 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2019.. *^ Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of ... In summer 1935, Sâr went to live with his brother Suong and the latter's wife and child.[14] That year he began an education at ... Mortality Crises: The Case of Cambodia, 1970-1979". Forced Migration and Mortality. National Academies Press. p. 124. ISBN 978- ... During the Second World War, Nazi Germany invaded France and in 1945 the Japanese ousted the French from Cambodia, with ...
Then He Watched The World Forget". HuffPost. Retrieved 5 November 2019.. *^ Piot P, Marshall R (2012). No time to lose: a life ... "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 44 (19): 381-2. PMID 7739512. Archived from the original on 25 June 2017.. ... Researchers traced the outbreak to a one-year-old child who died in December 2013.[181][182] The disease rapidly spread to the ... Ebola virus disease (Report). World Health Organization. Retrieved 6 June 2019.. *^ a b "CDC urges all US residents to avoid ...
After World War II ended, National Volunteer Week declined in popularity until the 1960s when it revived and eventually began ... Provincial awards are also presented to youth volunteers.[10] In the United States, the President's Volunteer Service Award is ... and decreased mortality.[14] ... "A Regent Park Advcocate Given Ontario's Highest Youth Honour". ... Young adults may earn the award with 250 hours of service while children may earn it with 100 hours.[11] ...
Infant Mortality: From 97.70 to 29.40 in 2015. Child malnutrition: Stunting 37%, wasting 11%, and underweight 30% among child ... "World Development Indicators [online database]. Washington DC: The World Bank; 2015". World Development Indicators [online ... to reduce child mortality) and #5A (to reduce maternal mortality). This review provided an opportunity for the MoHP and other ... Children in the lowest wealth quintile are more stunted (49%) and underweight (33%) than children in the highest quintile (17% ...
Mortality for allogeneic stem cell transplantation can be estimated using the prediction model created by Sorror et al.,[41] ... Cord blood can be harvested from the umbilical cord of a child being born after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for ... In 2014, according to the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA), stem cell products provided for unrelated transplantation ... HSCT is associated with a high treatment-related mortality in the recipient (38 percent or higher),[32] which limits its use to ...
In many parts of the world, raising a child is a very difficult task for a single (unmarried) mother. ... Grimes DA (1994). "The morbidity and mortality of pregnancy: still risky business". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 170 (5 Pt 2): 1489- ... Different opinions around the world[change , change source]. A number of opinion polls have been carried out around the world. ... 1990) A Child is Born.. *↑ Rodeck, Charles; Whittle, Martin. Fetal Medicine: Basic Science and Clinical Practice (Elsevier ...
... with emphasis on reduction of child mortality, and political-institutional reorganization of the sector, with a view to ... Technical cooperation projects are carried out with different countries, as well as with the World Bank and UNESCO among many ... Brazil is among the greatest consumers markets for drugs, accounting for 3.5% share of the world market. To expand the access ... With US 600 million dollars from a World Bank loan, efforts are being made to improve the operational infrastructure, training ...
Children[edit]. Levothyroxine is safe and effective for children with hypothyroidism; the goal of treatment for children with ... World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.. ... As it is a medical emergency with a high mortality rate, it should be treated in the intensive care unit[11] with thyroid ... Levothyroxine was first made in 1927.[4] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most ...
"World Health Organization. Retrieved 17 June 2009.. *^ "Smoking bans cut premature births and child asthma attacks". Reuters. ... "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 53 (44): 1038-1041. PMID 15538318.. *^ "Study Finds That New Jersey Bars and Restaurants ... World Health Organization. Retrieved 14 March 2014.. *^ Tucker, Todd. "Brazil's flavored cigarette ban now targeted". citizen. ... youth. houses,. kindergartens High. schools Gymnasiums,. indoor. pools Museums,. theatres,. cinemas etc. Discos Restaurants and ...
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 56 (23): 573-6. PMID 17568368. Archived from the original on 19 November 2012.. ... or in children's hair, ear, or neck.[23][2] Most people who get infected do not remember seeing a tick or the bite. The rash ... "This just shows how irrational the world can be ... There was no scientific justification for the first OspA vaccine LYMErix ... In children, partial loss of vision may also occur.[30] Cranial neuritis is an inflammation of cranial nerves. When due to Lyme ...
Miniature and Toy varieties tend to have less patience with young children and might find certain children's antics too much to ... Litter size at birth, stillborn, early neonatal mortality for poodles in the Norwegian Kennel Club[88][89]. Size. Average ... "Boca Raton celebrity poodle London goes for world title". Retrieved 4 March 2019.. ... "Poodle Dogs and Children - Poodle Savvy". Poodle Savvy. Archived from the original on 25 July 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014. ...
... and there was no coincident jump in mortality. The central nervous system cancer survival rate in children is approximately 60 ... "Chapter 5.16". World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. ISBN 9283204298. Archived from the original on 19 ... World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 1.3. ISBN 9283204298.. ... In the UK, 429 children aged 14 and under are diagnosed with a brain tumour on average each year, and 563 children and young ...
World Health Organization. pp. 157-. ISBN 978-92-832-1291-1.. *^ Coss CC, Jones A, Parke DN, Narayanan R, Barrett CM, Kearbey ... J.M. Sreenan; M.G. Diskin (6 December 2012). Embryonic Mortality in Farm Animals. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 172-. ... Vance SR, Ehrensaft D, Rosenthal SM (2014). "Psychological and medical care of gender nonconforming youth". Pediatrics. 134 (6 ... Spencer A. Rathus; Jeffrey S. Nevid; Lois Fichner-Rathus (2005). Human sexuality in a world of diversity. Pearson Allyn and ...
... overall in Bengal it was adults and older children who suffered the highest proportional mortality rises.[212] However, this ... Mukerjee, Madhusree (2010). Churchill's Secret War: The British Empire and the Ravaging of India During World War II. New York ... Lines of small children begging stretched for miles outside cities; at night, children could be heard "crying bitterly and ... Arguments for a Better World: Essays in Honor of Amartya Sen: Volume II: Society, Institutions, and Development. Oxford: Oxford ...
2012). Differential associations of job control components with mortality: A cohort study, 1986-2005. American Journal of ... Combined effects of job strain and social isolation on cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in a random sample of the ...
... child mortality, secondary sex ratio, selection intensity, and genetic load: a cross-sectional study from Northern India". ... When by choice, the rate of consanguinity is highly dependent on religion and culture.[65] In the Western world some Anabaptist ... Children of parent-child or sibling-sibling unions are at an increased risk compared to cousin-cousin unions.[25]:3 Inbreeding ... The general negative outlook and eschewal of inbreeding that is prevalent in the Western world today has roots from over 2000 ...
"The magnitude of mortality from acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years in developing countries". World Health ... organization, World health (2005). Pocket book of hospital care for children : guidelines for the management of common ... organization, World health (2005). Pocket book of hospital care for children : guidelines for the management of common ... "World Pneumonia Day Official Website". World Pneumonia Day Official Website. Fiinex. Nakuha noong 13 August 2011.. ...
Often parents of children with a developmental disability want to know more about their child's conditions before choosing to ... are stored in various laboratories around the world. The artificial chromosomes (BAC) can be grown, extracted, and labeled, in ... "IFITM3 restricts the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza". Nature. 484 (7395): 519-23. Bibcode:2012Natur.484.. ... These concerns can be addressed by analysis of the parents' and child's DNA. In cases where the child's developmental ...
"World Health Assembly approves monitoring framework for maternal and child nutrition". Geneva: World Health Organization. 21 ... In her role as global patron of The White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood, and chair of the Maternal Mortality Campaign, ... World Health Organization.. *^ "Election of officers of the Seventy-second World Health Assembly" (PDF). World Health ... World Health Organization. 1 April 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2020.. *^ "Seventy-third World Health Assembly". World Health ...
World War I: 1917-1920[edit]. The Hospitals were closed to immigrants for two years during World War I because immigration had ... It's mortality rate was on par or better than most comparable hospitals. The PHS used advanced methods in medicine as they ... Island 2 had a maternity ward to deliver the 350 children born at Ellis Island. The maternity/obstetric facilities moved as the ... In 1996, the World Monuments Fund listed the hospital as one of the world's 100 Most Endangered Properties, a warning echoed by ...
"China one-child policy leads to forced abortions, mothers' deaths". Los Angeles Times. June 15, 2012. Retrieved August 29, 2012 ... A number of factors contributed to this increase, including the lessening of the mortality rate in many countries by improved ... World Health Organization. 2016. p. 110. Retrieved August 3, 2018.. *^ a b c d e "World Demographics Profile 2011". Index Mundi ... See also: World population estimates and History of the world. Estimates of world population by their nature are an aspect of ...
Motherhood mortality: about 73.1 deaths per 100,000 born children in 2002.. *Mortality by non-transmissible illness: 151.7 ... The World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]. The following demographic statistics are from The World Factbook, unless ... The highest rate was in Acre, with 2.35 children per woman Other regions with high fertility include Amapá, with 2.28 children ... Among the less educated, 16.3% had no children, while among the more educated 54.5% had no children. The proportion of women ...
... has the 27th-highest maternal mortality rate in the world.[104] The HIV/AIDS rate was 19th-highest in the world, ... Child slavery issues[edit]. A major study of the issue in 2016, published in Fortune Magazine in the U.S., concluded that ... "Country Comparison :: Maternal Mortality Rate". The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. ... It is actually a basilica, but is listed in the Guinness World Records as the largest "church" in the world. ...
... is thought to be the world's oldest timber trackway and was once thought to be the world's oldest engineered roadway.[7] The ... West Somerset is also the district where poor children do much worse than wealthier children at school, with some of the worst ... with mortality rates perhaps as high as 50% in places. The resulting labour shortage led to changes in feudal practices. Crafts ... Sunseeker International is a main motor yacht manufacturer; it made the boat in the opening sequence of The World Is Not Enough ...
World Health Organization. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. World Health Organization: 1-2. 2000 [2014-02- ... Clinical obesity in adults and children: In Adults and Children. Blackwell Publishing. 2005: 12-28. ISBN 1-4051-1672-2.. ... Body weight and mortality among women. N. Engl. J. Med. 1995, 333 (11): 677-85. PMID 7637744. doi:10.1056/NEJM199509143331101. ... Clinical obesity in adults and children: In Adults and Children. Blackwell Publishing. 2005: 324. ISBN 1-4051-1672-2.. ...
Western Regional Council on Educating Black Children, and Youth and College Division of the NAACP. ... An article entitled "The pros and cons of cages" published in the World's Poultry Science Journal in 2001 concludes that cages ... higher hen laying mortality, higher direct housing costs, and higher labor costs. The study also estimated that almost the ... "Farm Animal Welfare Bill Killed in Legislature". Omaha World Daily. 2008-02-17.. ...
Garrett, Laurie (1994). The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World Out of Balance. New York: Farrar, Straus and ... Baptized a child. Announced that I could not be with the corpses, that the sick should be reported to me in the morning so that ... As the mortality rate increased, they had to hire men to get anyone to deal with the sick and dying. They recounted that ... Smith, Billy G. (2013). Ship of Death: A Voyage That Changed the Atlantic World. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. ...
... weekly dose of zinc has substantially reduced the risk of illness or death for young poverty-stricken urban children in ... In children ages three months to 12 months, an oral dose of 70 mg of zinc per week reduced mortality by 85% compared with ... which likely caused the increased morbidity and mortality of children in the study, Dr. Black said. Zinc has been primarily ... 23-A weekly dose of zinc has substantially reduced the risk of illness or death for young poverty-stricken urban children in ...
In the world now, child mortality rates are falling but 22.6 million children still lack access to basic vaccines and an ever ... The highest rates of child mortality are in sub-Saharan Africa, where, in 2008, one in seven children died before their fifth ... Development Cooperation Handbook/Goal 4: Reduce child mortality. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... The MDG 4 aims at lowering child mortality rates through expanding health care services and addressing determinants of child ...
Across the globe, many countries have made significant progress in reducing child mortality. For example, child mortality in ... October 2014) The child mortality rate is the number of deaths of children under 5 per 1,000 live births. The United Nations ... Aging and Health in China: What Can We Learn From the Worlds Largest Population of Older People?. ... Bangladesh declined from 144 child deaths per 1,000 live births to 41, a reduction of 72 percent. The global rate in 2012 was ...
Some developing countries are doing surprisingly well, but rates in the US and Britain are not good by developed world ... The number of children under five dying has declined substantially in the past 20 years and the rate of decline is speeding up ... Child mortality drops around the world but some rich countries lag Child mortality drops around the world but some rich ... Flavia Bustreo, director of the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, a group administered by the World Health ...
... and changes in child and maternal mortality is examined. Results from five multivariate studies estimate the changes in ... The third study, Holland (1983) also uses hazard models to assess the effect of breastfeeding on infant mortality in Malaysia. ... on mortality in Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Both studies find significant effects of these two ... mortality that might occur from altering maternal age, birth order, and birth spacing distributions of live births. The first ...
53 groundbreaking ideas to save women and children after birth in poor communities around the world. These are the finalists of ... 53 groundbreaking ideas to save women and children after birth in poor communities around the world. These are the finalists of ... 53 promising ideas to defeat mortality were shared in the final stage of the this years Saving Lives at Birth Grand Challenge ... 100 women who changed the world. Time magazines 100 Women of the Year project sheds light on influential womens stories, from ...
UNICEF and the World Health Organisation say in a new report. ... Child mortality rate drops from 12 million to 7.6 million in ... "The news that the rate of child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is declining twice as fast as it was a decade ago shows that we ... Anthony Lake, UNICEF Executive Director: The news that the rate of child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is declining twice as ... The biggest companies in the world in 2015 The Fortune Global 500 has been released - the annual ranking of the largest ...
It began in 2016 and its goal is to contribute to the reduction of maternal and child mortality in the Karaga and Mamprugu/ ... Another intervention that is significantly contributing to the reduction maternal and child mortality in the country is the ... maternal and child mortality.. Testimonies from health staff. Miss Rashida Salifu, Community Health Nurse at Namoo CHPS ... newborns and children.. Added to these are the quality, availability and utilization of maternal, neonatal and child health ...
... some 15 children die around the world, from poverty, easily preventable diseases, illnesses, and related causes. This rarely ... Why is child mortality important to understand?. UNICEF summarizes the importance of child mortality:. The under-five mortality ... Cautious optimism in reducing child mortality. UNICEF also notes that the global child mortality rate declined by over a third ... Some more numbers on the state of the worlds children. From UNICEF, the worlds premier childrens organization, part of the ...
The Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation or IGME was formed in 2004 to share data on child mortality, harmonise ... Children born in Angola, which has the highest under-five mortality rate in the world (167 deaths per 1000 live births), are 84 ... The World celebrates a fall in Child Mortality Rate. by hr September 26, 2014. ... The Levels and Trends in Child Mortality 2014 report is developed annually by the United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child ...
Levels and trends in Child Mortality Report 2018 The 2018 Report, launched on 18 September, provides levels and trends in child ... The Worlds Cities in 2018. A new data booklet, The Worlds Cities in 2018, based on the 2018 Revision of World Urbanization ... The Worlds Cities in 2018 A new data booklet based on the 2018 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects has been launched in ... Data booklet , World Cities Day , Data , Policies on Spatial Distribution and Urbanization , Building Sustainable and Resilient ...
... the share of children who die before their 5th birthday) to below 25 deaths per 1,000 live births. ... Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433 ... License: All of Our World in Data is completely open access and all work is licensed under the Creative Commons BY license. You ...
... children under 5 years old) rates by two-thirds from 1990 to 2015. The global target was therefore a reduction to 30 deaths per ... Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433 ... License: All of Our World in Data is completely open access and all work is licensed under the Creative Commons BY license. You ... 4.A was to reduce global child mortality ( ... Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone.. Help us ...
UNICEF says Pakistan has worlds highest neonatal mortality rate; 46 out of every 1,000 children born in Pakistan die ... Increasing number of children killed by flu epidemic The CDC has an update showing an increase in the number of children who ... A wealthy Japanese man who has won sole legal custody of his 13 children born from surrogates in Thailand is virtually ... Federal panel says its OK for doctors to start using a kid-friendly nasal spray flu vaccine again ...
... the world will need to produce about 70 percent more food annually by 2050 to meet global demands. That is a big task, and even ... new population growth projections show that the world is set to reach nearly 9.6 billion by 2050. This growth holds serious ... Reduce infant and child mortality. Reducing infant and child mortality assures parents that they do not need to conceive a high ... Sub-Saharan Africa Has Highest Child Mortality Rates. Botswanas experience showcases the impact of reducing child mortality ...
Perinatal disease was the most common cause of mortality, with hyaline membrane disease the primary cause. Younger children, ... Children in western Jamaica are most affected by diseases of prematurity. These children experience disease burden similar to ... that of children in other developing countries, but fewer neonatal sepsis and insect-borne infections, and more hematologic ... The objectives of our study were to describe the epidemiology of child-health indicator diseases in western Jamaica, examine ...
The estimated annual mortality rate for children ,5 years old was 28.6 per 1,000 and 85.8 per 1,000 for infants; 51.6% of ... An enteric pathogen was identified in 58% of diarrheal children's stools and 48% of stools of well children. A ... During the survey, stool specimens were collected from 133 children with current diarrhea and 117 control children to study the ... and other bacterial enteropathogens did not differ significantly between children with diarrhea and control children. ...
World Health Organization. The WHO child growth standards: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-height and body ... All-cause mortality among all age groups (crude mortality) and among children aged ,5 years (under-five mortality) was above ... All-cause mortality among all age groups (crude mortality) and among children aged ,5 years (under-five mortality) were above ... Mortality rate among all age groups from all causes.. ¶ Mortality rate among children aged 0-59 months.. ** Rates reported as ...
In the world now, child mortality rates are falling but 22.6 million children still lack access to basic vaccines and an ever ... The highest rates of child mortality are in sub-Saharan Africa, where, in 2008, one in seven children died before their fifth ... The MDG 4 aims at lowering child mortality rates through expanding health care services and addressing determinants of child ... Among 67 countries defined as having high child mortality rates, only 10 are currently on track to meet the MDG target; ...
FEX: HIV and Child Mortality. Summary of published research1 HIV contributes substantially to child mortality, but factors ... World Health Organisation Admits Targets on AIDS Drugs May be Unrealistic. In its World Health report 2004, the World Health ... World Health Organisation Admits Targets on AIDS Drugs May be Unrealistic. Field Exchange 23, November 2004. p12. www.ennonline ... Summary of published research1 A HIV infected mother and HIV infected child receive a voucher that entitles her to a months ...
... if you look for it.With the internet and social media we learn about every bad thing that happens throughout the entire world ... Child mortality (before age 5) way down. *The number of hungry people is down (though with some setbacks due to conflict and ... Yes our generations children are headed for a world with nature and wonder in it - and their children too ... Our world is greening due to a CO2 fertilization effect. Only a small part of the world, less than 4%, show a browning effect. ...
India continues to record high child mortality rate due to diarrhoea: Study. 1 min read . 02 Jun 2017 ... Worlds blind population to triple by 2050: study. 1 min read . 03 Aug 2017 ...
Factors associated with trends in infant and child mortality in developing countries during the 1990s. Bull World Health Organ ... World Health Organization. World health statistics 2005. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2005:9-13. ... UNICEF, World Health Organization. Pneumonia: the forgotten killer of children. New York: UNICEF, 2006: 4. ... As mortality risk is age dependent, and as the objective of this analysis is to compare children that died from ALRIs with all ...
The Youth-Nominated Support Team intervention invites adolescents to select adults in their life to receive training on how to ... Now, as a science writer, he tries to provide the layperson with a view into the sometimes inscrutable world of psychiatric ... Youth-Nominated Social Support Reduces Mortality for Suicidal Adolescents. The Youth-Nominated Support Team intervention ... So "allowing" youth to select adults whom THEY find supportive leads to better results than forcing them to do "therapy" with a ...
New data released today by the United Nations show that under-five mortality rates have dropped by 49 per cent between 1990 and ... Children born in Angola, which has the highest under-five mortality rate in the world (167 deaths per 1,000 live births), are ... The Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation or IGME was formed in 2004 to share data on child mortality, harmonise ... New estimates in Levels and Trends in Child Mortality 2014 show that in 2013, 6.3 million children under five died from mostly ...
World Health Organization. . Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings; guidelines for a public health ... mortality was higher in children with P carinii pneumonia or HIV encephalopathy compared with mortality in children with other ... Mortality. From 1997 onwards we have seen reductions of around 80% in mortality and 50% in progression to AIDS among children ... Decline in mortality,.... *Decline in mortality, AIDS, and hospital admissions in perinatally HIV-1 infected children in the ...
Ethiopia has more than halved its mortality rates for children under the age of five years during the last two decades, new UN ... World. *. .css-6v54e1-StyledLink{color:#3F3F42;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;display:block;padding:0.5rem 0 ... Ethiopia has more than halved its mortality rates for children under the age of five years during the last two decades, new UN ... is one of the few African countries on the path to realising the millennium development goal of reducing child mortality rates ...
Its scary to think about their own childs mortality. Experiencing anothers pain and sorrow is diffcult and they may not know ... The world may "think" that we should be over our intense grief much sooner than we are. Friends and family want you to feel ... Children are not suppose to die. We expect them to follow us in death. Frequently, we lament, "If only it had been me. My child ... You may need to memorialize your child or carry something of your childs at all times. As a man, you may appear withdrawn, ...
Nigerias mortality rates for women and children are among the worlds highest. The ratio of 576 maternal deaths per 100,000 ... UNICEF calls for leaders to re-commit to child survival and development on International World Childrens Day ... Nigeria has the worlds second highest number of deaths in children under five, losing around 2,700 every day from a ratio of ... The opportunities for children to access diagnosis and care is limited. Approximately 260,000 children aged 0-14 years were ...
Doing so, they help build a world where women and men live under the rule of law, have equal access to quality public services ... aims to reduce child mortality among children of under five in Senegal and Mali. ... Djobi, a m-health application, is being tested in Senegal and Mali to reduce child mortality thanks to health data collection ... Djobi : A Mobile Application to Help Fight Maternal and Child Mortality. The m-health initiative called Djobi, which has been ...
  • Because many immune system functions are affected by zinc, a deficiency often results in compromised immune function and subsequent infections, which likely caused the increased morbidity and mortality of children in the study, Dr. Black said. (
  • Early neonatal morbidity and mortality pattern in hospitalized children. (
  • Pediatric morbidity and mortality at the Eldoret District Hospital, Kenya. (
  • Without efforts to scale up multisectoral interventions targeted at reducing malnutrition and morbidity among children throughout accessible regions of northeast Nigeria, limited impact on mortality can be expected. (
  • To monitor rates of mortality, acute malnutrition among children, infectious disease morbidity, and humanitarian interventions after the emergency declaration, a series of cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in fall 2016 and winter 2017 in the northeastern states of Borno and Yobe using a cluster methodology. (
  • 1 This implies that improved living conditions play a critical role in reducing ALRI morbidity and mortality. (
  • Studies from the Bandim Health Project in Guinea-Bissau, and elsewhere, have revealed, that the live measles and oral polio vaccines have beneficial non-specific effects, i.e. effects on child morbidity and mortality unrelated to prevention of the targeted diseases. (
  • We will conduct the first cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of measles and oral polio campaigns on general child morbidity and mortality via the Bandim Health Project. (
  • RECAMP-MV: Measles vaccination campaign in Guinea-Bissau reduce morbidity and mortality among children between 9 and 59 months of age by 80% during the subsequent 18 months in a context of limited measles infection. (
  • RECAMP-OPV: Oral polio vaccination campaigns in Guinea-Bissau reduce morbidity and mortality among children between 0 and 8 months of age by 25% during the subsequent 12 months in a context with no polio infection. (
  • In order to avoid pertussis-related infant morbidity and mortality, pertussis surveillance data are used to guide pertussis control measures. (
  • CONCLUSIONS The negative effect of diabetes on morbidity and mortality is greatest for those diagnosed at a young age compared with T2DM of usual onset. (
  • Type 2 diabetes is well recognized to be a heterogeneous disorder, and its effect on morbidity and mortality may not be identical within this diagnosis. (
  • 5 Malaria, which is endemic in Liberia, is a major cause of morbidity and an important contributor to under-five mortality. (
  • 9 The preventive and curative interventions in the basic package of health services target the disease burden in the country, particularly infectious disease and the high maternal and child morbidity and mortality (Box 1). (
  • Basic packages of health services implemented with support from international and national NGOs have been used to jump-start the rebuilding of the health system in other post-conflict countries such as Afghanistan and Sierra Leone, where they have been credited with increasing the utilization of health services and reducing mortality and morbidity. (
  • Impact of fetal growth restriction on mortality and morbidity in a very preterm birth cohort. (
  • The 2018 Report, launched on 18 September, provides levels and trends in child mortality. (
  • New estimates in Levels and Trends in Child Mortality 2014 show that in 2013, 6.3 million children under five died from mostly preventable causes, around 200,000 fewer than in 2012, but still equal to nearly 17,000 child deaths each day. (
  • New estimates in Levels and Trends in Child Mortality Report 2015 released by UNICEF, the World Health Organization, the World Bank Group, and the Population Division of UNDESA, indicate that although the global progress has been substantial, 16,000 children under five still die every day. (
  • October 2014) The child mortality rate is the number of deaths of children under 5 per 1,000 live births. (
  • For example, child mortality in Bangladesh declined from 144 child deaths per 1,000 live births to 41, a reduction of 72 percent. (
  • Results from five multivariate studies estimate the changes in mortality that might occur from altering maternal age, birth order, and birth spacing distributions of live births. (
  • The child mortality rate, also under-five mortality rate, refers to the probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age expressed per 1,000 live births. (
  • Target 3.2 is "by 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce … under‑5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births. (
  • Child mortality refers to number of child deaths under the age of 5 per 1000 live births. (
  • Chad infant mortality is about 96 per 1,000 live births, compared to only 2.2 per 1,000 live births in Japan. (
  • Eight of the 60 countries identified as 'high mortality countries' - with at least 40 under-five deaths for every 1,000 live births - have already reached or surpassed the MDG target (67 per cent reduction). (
  • While Sub-Saharan Africa has cut under-five mortality rates by 48 per cent since 1990, it still has the world's highest rate - 92 deaths per 1,000 live births - nearly 15 times the average in high-income countries. (
  • Children born in Angola, which has the highest under-five mortality rate in the world (167 deaths per 1,000 live births), are 84 times more likely to die before the age of five than children born in Luxembourg, with the lowest rate (2). (
  • October 2014: Article Globally, the maternal mortality ratio dropped from 380 deaths to 210 deaths per 100,000 live births between 1990 and 2013. (
  • This statistic depicts the child mortality worldwide among children under five years of age in 2018, by region and per 1,000 live births. (
  • In that year, Africa had the highest child mortality rate, with some 76 deaths per one thousand live births. (
  • The under-five mortality rate is defined as the probability of dying by age 5 expressed as the total number of such deaths per 1,000 live births. (
  • According to the report by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA), Nigeria has maternal mortality rate of 560/100,000 live births, which means 33,000 women die each year and one in nine maternal deaths worldwide is a Nigerian. (
  • Infant mortality rate is 75/1,000 live births, which is eight per cent of the global total, and an estimated 70 per cent of these deaths are preventable. (
  • China leads the pack and has shown remarkable progress such as reduction in under-5 child mortality by 74 percent from 54 per 1000 live births to 14 per 1000 live births in 2012. (
  • Maternal mortality has fallen by 67 percent from 97 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1991 to 32 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2013. (
  • Child mortality refers to the number of children who die before their fifth birthday, and is measured per 1,000 live births. (
  • 1 2 National governments have committed to ambitious goals of reducing under 5 mortality to 25 or fewer per 1000 live births and newborn mortality to 12 or fewer per 1000 by 2030 in all countries (box, target 3.2). (
  • The UNICEF report said the death rate of children under five years was 24 per 1,000 live births in 2006, down from 45 per 1,000 in 1990. (
  • Although advances in medicine and public health in the western industrialized world over the course of the 20th century produced major reductions in aggregate infant mortality rates (IMR), the United States (USA) ranks poorly compared to most other high income economies [ 2 , 3 ], with an IMR of 6.7 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2008 [ 2 ]. (
  • In 2019, the country was number 16 comparing other countries in Infant Mortality Rate with 51.3 Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Live Births. (
  • At 7.4 Units (Deaths) Per Thousand Live Births in 2019, the country was number 128 comparing other countries in Infant Mortality Rate. (
  • With infant mortality as high as 150 to 200 per 1,000 live births in many parts of Asia, Latin America , and Africa, UNICEF soon turned its attention to the urgent health issues of children and mothers. (
  • The under-five mortality rate was 110 per 1000 live births and the maternal mortality ratio was 994 deaths per 100 000 live births, with the latter figure representing a 71% increase from the 2000 estimate of 550. (
  • Although child mortality has decreased dramatically since 1990, still more than 40 children per 1,000 live births died before their fifth birthday in 2016 (United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (U.N. IGME) 2017 ). (
  • Infant mortality 69 per 1,000 live births (Pakistan 95, Britain 6). (
  • New estimates of child mortality were released today by the UN Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME), and show the global child (under-five) mortality rate has dropped 47 percent since 1990 - from 90 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990, to 48 in 2012. (
  • The United Nations set a target for Millennium Development Goal 4: to reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-5 mortality rate. (
  • The number of boys and girls under 5 who die annually has dropped from 12 million in 1990 to 7.6 million in 2010, UNICEF and the World Health Organisation say in a new report. (
  • But while the numbers are positive, the agencies say more must be done for the world's nations to reach U.N. development goals that call for lowering the under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds from its 1990 levels by 2015. (
  • Rapid progress has resulted in a significant decline in preventable child deaths since 1990, with the global under-5 mortality rate declining by over half between 1990 and 2016. (
  • While in 1990, 12.6 million children under age five died, in 2016 that number fell to 5.6 million children. (
  • NEW YORK, 16 September 2014 - New data released today by the United Nations show that under-five mortality rates have dropped by 49 per cent between 1990 and 2013. (
  • Eastern Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean and Northern Africa, have already reduced the under-five mortality rate by more than two-thirds since 1990. (
  • Ethiopia has cut the number of child deaths to 68 per 1,000 births from more than 200 in 1990. (
  • If we phase out measles and oral polio campaigns after eradicating their target infections without considering the impact on child survival, the drastic decline in child mortality since 1990 could change direction. (
  • Hot off the presses from UNICEF and Co. "Child mortality rates have plummeted to less than half of what they were in 1990, according to a new report released today. (
  • And the 53 per cent drop in under-five mortality is not enough to meet the Millennium Development Goal of a two-thirds reduction between 1990 and 2015. (
  • Progress for Children ranks countries on their average annual rate of progress since 1990, which is the baseline year for the global goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015 - a goal agreed to by all governments as part of the UN's Millennium Development Goals. (
  • The regional tables in the report provide comparisons of how quickly or slowly nations have made progress on child mortality between 1990 and 2002. (
  • In several countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Commonwealth of Independent States, children are less likely to make it to their fifth birthdays than they were in 1990. (
  • In 2011, 6.9 million children under five died, down from 7.6 million in 2010, 8.1 million in 2009, and 12.4 million in 1990. (
  • However, under five mortality remains a prominent concern of global health even though Millennium Development Goal 4 was universally adopted to reduce child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. (
  • Murray, C.J.L. and Lopez, A.D. (1996) The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability Form Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020. (
  • Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. (
  • The average decline in rates was just 1.2 percent per year between 1990 and 1995, but between 2005 and 2012 there has been average annual reduction in child mortality rates of 3.9 percent. (
  • In less developed countries, malnutrition is the main cause of child mortality. (
  • A public health emergency was declared in northeastern Nigeria in June 2016, as rapid assessments conducted in areas newly liberated from Boko Haram control suggested rates of mortality and prevalence of acute malnutrition exceeded emergency levels. (
  • Increased prevalence of acute malnutrition and high rates of mortality are often observed in complex humanitarian emergencies. (
  • Results from population-representative surveys examining acute malnutrition and mortality conducted in accessible areas in Borno and Yobe states suggest that, although the coverage of major public health interventions, including measles vaccinations, has improved, it remain below targeted levels. (
  • After the emergency declarations, the Nigerian National Bureau of Statistics, in coordination with the National Population Commission, the Federal Ministry of Health, United Nations Children's Fund, and CDC collaborated to conduct a series of two-stage cluster surveys to assess mortality, malnutrition, and access to and receipt of essential public health services. (
  • World Health Organisation (WHO), Management of Severe Malnutrition: A manual for physicians and other senior health workers. (
  • And it's hanging above kids dying of malnutrition. (
  • So, what I have been seeing in the last few days, kids dying of malaria, of severe malnutrition, that's the better half of Angolan health care? (
  • The 1960s saw UNICEF working with the WHO and many governments in extending rural health services, and with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in fighting child malnutrition. (
  • Among children under five years of age, 70 percent of deaths are caused by infections compounded by malnutrition. (
  • The WHO has made formal recommendations for the use of oral antibiotics for children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition, not requiring to be admitted and who are managed as outpatients. (
  • [ 32 , 33 ] However, a double-blind, placebo controlled study of more than 2600 Malawian children concluded that the addition of antibiotics to therapeutic regimens for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition was associated with a significant improvement in recovery and mortality rates. (
  • The effects of malnutrition on child mortality in developing countries. (
  • Filiz, E., Pynar, O., Gonca, A. and Erdal, B.E. (2007) Nutritional Status and Risk Factors of Chronic Malnutrition in Children under Five Years of Age in Aydyn, a Western City of Turkey. (
  • Odunayo, S.I. and Oyewole, A.O. (2006) Risk Factors for Malnutrition among Rural Nigerian Children. (
  • World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (2009) WHO Child Growth Standards and the Identification of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Infants and Children. (
  • Cryptosporidium is a protozoan that causes diarrhea and malnutrition in young children in developing countries, and is associated with diarrhea cases and outbreaks in developed countries. (
  • ACF International has launched an emergency response to treat more than 600 young children who have been diagnosed with severe acute malnutrition in the Moyamba district of southern Sierra Leone. (
  • WFP's nutrition programmes aim to treat and prevent acute malnutrition in young children, pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers. (
  • But the latest Unicef figures show Ethiopia is one of the few African countries on the path to realising the millennium development goal of reducing child mortality rates, he says. (
  • UNICEF is committed to doing all it can to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in partnership with governments, civil society, business, academia and the United Nations family - and especially children and young people. (
  • UNICEF uses innovative approaches to solve problems and improve the lives of children around the world. (
  • NEW YORK, 7 October 2004 - New country-by-country data reveals alarmingly slow progress on reducing child deaths despite the availability of proven, low-cost interventions, a UNICEF survey revealed today. (
  • UNICEF said that while 90 countries are on track to meet the target of reducing child deaths by two-thirds by 2015, 98 countries are considerably off track, and globally the pace of progress is far too slow. (
  • A child's right to survive is the first measure of equality, possibility, and freedom," UNICEF Executive Director Carol Bellamy said, launching Progress for Children in New York. (
  • UNICEF considers child mortality rates the basic measure of a country's advancement. (
  • He was speaking at the launch of an annual report by the UN's Children's Fund (UNICEF) on the state of the world's children which said the problem was improving worldwide including in China. (
  • However, the paper quoted a UNICEF China official as saying child mortality in remote and rural parts of the country remained two to five times higher than urban areas. (
  • No precise figures were immediately available from WHO or UNICEF on mortality rates for China's migrants or rural poor. (
  • With its focus on the needs and rights of the child, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) devotes as much as 80 percent of its funds to programs that can be classified under the broad umbrella of public health. (
  • Working in partnership with governments as well as health-related organizations, notably the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF is active in programs ranging from immunization and oral rehydration campaigns to water and sanitation projects, and from the fight against acute respiratory infections to the elimination of polio and micronutrient deficiencies. (
  • In the early 1950s, infectious diseases were rampant in many parts of the world, and UNICEF became heavily involved in campaigns against those diseases that could be prevented or for which there was a ready treatment. (
  • In its efforts to reduce infant mortality, UNICEF also promoted the training of traditional birth attendants and provided equipment, medicine, and transport for maternal and child health services. (
  • By the early 1970s, UNICEF shifted its emphasis to the provision of basic services for children (including education), while it maintained a predominance of its fund allocations to health programs. (
  • In 1974, in response to the global economic, food, and energy crises, UNICEF declared a child emergency and launched a special program to meet the urgent needs that existed. (
  • In addition to these national programs and policies, various regions also implemented different intervention programs, for example, the Kybele program in the Greater Accra region, Accelerated Child Survival and Development (ACSD) sponsored by United Nation Children and Education Fund (UNICEF) in the Northern, Upper East, and Upper West regions, and Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) which commenced in six regions in 2007. (
  • UNICEF Data: Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women. (
  • UNICEF (2007) State of the World's Children 2008. (
  • UNICEF (2004) The State of World's Children. (
  • Funding will continue to support UNICEF as a long-standing partner of the New Zealand Aid Programme with considerable child health expertise in the Pacific and globally. (
  • New Zealand has been providing support to UNICEF under the Pacific Maternal Newborn and Child Health Initiative since 2014, working closely to develop areas of focus, countries to target and interventions to be supported. (
  • It encompasses neonatal mortality and infant mortality (the probability of death in the first year of life). (
  • In order to achieve SDG targets, progress must be accelerated in more than 1/4 of all countries (most of which are in sub-Saharan Africa) in order to achieve targets for under-5 mortality, and in 60 countries (many in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia) to achieve targets for neonatal mortality. (
  • Also, several 'calls for action' to reduce neonatal mortality have been made and in response, both governmental and non-governmental institutions have contributed considerable resources to this global health challenge. (
  • however, neonatal mortality has remained stagnant. (
  • The MDG 4 aims at lowering child mortality rates through expanding health care services and addressing determinants of child health. (
  • Shockingly, researchers discovered "DTP was associated with fivefold higher mortality than being unvaccinated. (
  • But we cannot for a moment forget the chilling fact of around 21,000 children dying everyday from preventable causes. (
  • Of the portion of children under the age of 5 alone, an estimated 5.6 million children die each year mostly from such preventable causes. (
  • The preventable burden of pneumococcal disease in the developing world. (
  • "The global community is poised to end preventable maternal, newborn and child deaths within a generation," said Dr Flavia Bustreo, Assistant Director General at WHO . (
  • Assessment of progress made so far is of utmost importance to inform policy makers and healthcare planners tasked to realize the newly adopted Sustainable Development Goals that seeks to end preventable deaths of newborns and under-five children by 2030. (
  • Pneumonia has been rated as a prime cause of children under five years mortality in Ghana, with an annual death of 4,300 children and 72,000 cases though it is vaccine preventable. (
  • The overall aim of this meeting was to help to define practical community approaches which could deliver a rapid reduction in this preventable mortality. (
  • Nigeria's mortality rates for women and children are among the world's highest. (
  • Nigeria has the world's second highest number of deaths in children under five, losing around 2,700 every day from a ratio of 120 per 1,000 in 2016, although it has declined since 2003 down from more than 200 per 1,000. (
  • India accounts for more than a fifth of the world's child death that occurs due to diarrhoea. (
  • Despite a slight improvement, Sierra Leone continues to have the world's highest rate of child mortality, with more than one in four children dying before age five (284 deaths per 1,000 births annually). (
  • But for millions of the world's poorest children, clean water simply doesn't exist. (
  • India houses nearly half of the world's malnourished children - 47 per cent to be precise. (
  • However, palpably ignored in this praiseworthy activism are the horrible and massive realities that women and children represent three quarters of the barely subsisting 2 million inmates of Apartheid Israel's Gaza Concentration Camp, three quarters of the world's 70 million displaced persons, and three quarters of the 15 million people who die avoidably from poverty and deprivation each year. (
  • At the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, Egypt in 1994, the United States led the world - and joined leaders in health, science, medicine, women's rights and the environment - in committing to provide the funding and support needed to meet the world's reproductive health needs. (
  • 7) Somalia has one of the world's lowest enrolment rates for primary school‐aged children - 42 percent of children are in school. (
  • The Pacific has some of the world's worst child mortality rates. (
  • Countries that are in the second or third stage of the Demographic Transition Mode (DTM) have higher rates of child mortality than countries in the fourth or fifth stage. (
  • Sierra Leone has among the highest rates of child mortality in the world. (
  • Our findings suggest that among young children zinc has a substantial protective effect against pneumonia, severe pneumonia, suppurative otitis media, and most importantly, mortality secondary to pneumonia," the researchers concluded. (
  • Child survival interventions are designed to address the most common causes of child deaths that occur, which include diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and neonatal conditions. (
  • Pneumonia alone causes about 1.58 million deaths annually of children under five, which is more than the deaths caused by HIV/AIDS, malaria and measles put together. (
  • Although the past 15 years have seen a decline in child mortality due to pneumonia, it remains a very important cause of death in developing countries. (
  • In Africa in particular, pneumonia and malaria are by far the most important causes of death for children under 5. (
  • Especially encouraging are accelerated declines in sub-Saharan Africa over the past 10 years, particularly where governments have focused on child survival and primary care. (
  • Reducing infant and child mortality assures parents that they do not need to conceive a high number of children in order to assure survival of a desired number. (
  • Child survival is a field of public health concerned with reducing child mortality. (
  • The child survival strategies and interventions are in line with the fourth Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which focused on reducing child mortality by 2/3 of children under five before the year 2015. (
  • Survival analysis was used to examine the impact of different cooking-related parameters on ALRI mortality, defined as cough accompanied by rapid breathing or chest indrawing based on maternal recall of symptoms prior to death. (
  • this has translated into better sanitation - all these have direct or indirect impact on the survival of children,' he told BBC Africa. (
  • This might do more harm than good for child survival in low-income countries. (
  • It is incredible that in an age of technological and medical marvels, child survival is so tenuous in so many places, especially for the poor and marginalized. (
  • There is much to do: progress on improving child survival must be accelerated in 52 countries to meet these targets. (
  • Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival, Monrovia, Liberia. (
  • Similarly, the IMCI targeted to improve child survival through the provision of clinical guidelines for management of childhood illnesses, health system strengthening, and improving community health practices. (
  • The FANC pursues improvement in maternal and child survival through individualized antenatal care that entails a comprehensive assessment of pregnant women in terms of their socio-cultural beliefs, lifestyle, and medical characteristics to improve early detection and treatment of illness and pregnancy complications. (
  • Child survival is a key indicator of social development and remains a serious challenge for developing countries. (
  • 2013) Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed. (
  • The Survival Project: One Child At A Time. (
  • Black/African American (AA) infants have been persistently observed with survival disadvantage compared to White infants in the USA, implying excess mortality. (
  • Except for neoplasm, and the initial study period (1968-1978) for congenital anomalies, Black/AA infants indicated survival disadvantage, implying excess mortality ratio relative to their White counterparts. (
  • Blinded field research assistants assessed the health of the children and monitored compliance weekly for about one year. (
  • Each year, millions of children die due to lack of hygiene and exclusion from health care services. (
  • From Neonatal Intuitive Feeding Technology for infants who have difficulties breastfeeding to Projecting Health India , a video education project, every corner of the world was involved in finding solutions which could soon be nominated for the transition-to-scale category which will be announced later this year. (
  • They said there are many reasons for the improved under-5 mortality rate, including better access to health care and preventive measures such as immunisation. (
  • Stories are told of instances where pregnant women suffered complications and or even died through child birth because the husbands to sanction any decision to send them to the facilities were either not at home when the women were in labour or simply refused to give their consent to delivery at a health facility. (
  • According to the Northern Regional Health Directorate, maternal mortality in the region reduced from 115 in 2007 to as low as 19 deaths by December, 2014. (
  • Another intervention that is significantly contributing to the reduction maternal and child mortality in the country is the Strengthening Health Outcomes for Women and Children (SHOW) Project. (
  • The SHOW project is a 53-month gender focused maternal, neonatal and child health intervention being implemented by NORSAAC, a non-governmental organization, with funding from Global Affairs Canada. (
  • It is improving the utilization of essential health services by women of child bearing age, adolescent girls, newborns and children. (
  • Added to these are the quality, availability and utilization of maternal, neonatal and child health services through health system strengthening, accountability and the promotion of gender equality in the districts. (
  • The Dads' Support Clubs are composed of men and they are taught to assist their wives to undertake household activities, help them during pregnancy by following them to health centres for ante-natal care, during child delivery and post-natal care. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) found that 53 percent of women in Africa who wish to control their fertility lack access to birth control, compared with 21-22 percent in Asia and Latin America. (
  • Reducing infant and child mortality comes from better health care, sanitation, and food. (
  • The objectives of our study were to describe the epidemiology of child-health indicator diseases in western Jamaica, examine differences in indicator diseases between sex and age, and generate hypotheses about causes of disease burden. (
  • World Health Organization. (
  • 5 years (under-five mortality) were above emergency thresholds in 2017 and significantly increased from 2016, despite evidence of increased preventive public health interventions, including measles vaccination. (
  • In its World Health report 2004, the World Health Organisation (WHO) said that AIDS was the leading single cause of death among adults aged 15-59 around the world and that in 2003, three million people died of AIDS related diseases and five million became infected with HIV. (
  • This study aims to quantify the impact of fuel type and cooking practices on childhood ALRI mortality in Africa, and to explore implications for public health interventions. (
  • Early-release World Health Survey data for the year 2003 were pooled for 16 African countries. (
  • Their health records were followed for 11-14 years to determine mortality rates. (
  • Educate and empower women to make more informed decisions about the health of their children. (
  • Djobi, a m-health application, is being tested in Senegal and Mali to reduce child mortality thanks to health data collection by community workers employed by community health insurances. (
  • The m-health initiative called Djobi, which has been financed by the Fond Francophone des Inforoutes and set up by RAES (Réseau Africain d'Educationpour la Santé), an NGO, in partnership with Gaston Berger University and Orange, aims to reduce child mortality among children of under five in Senegal and Mali. (
  • These - nearly exclusively female - community workers regularly visit families in rural areas who have subscribed to a health insurance for their child. (
  • Equipped with a mobile phone, they gather health data on the mothers and children thanks to Djobi, a special mobile application, and can refer them to national health centers for a follow-up visit. (
  • this specialist can decide to send an SMS to the health insurance community worker in order to have the child visit a health centre. (
  • Bandim Health Project runs a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Guinea-Bissau since 1978 and assesses child health interventions' real-life effects, via continuous registration of all interventions given to all children, and follow-up of individuals. (
  • August 2014: Datasheet The 2014 World Population Data Sheet offers up-to-date demographic, health, and environment data on 16 indicators for more than 200 countries. (
  • We use a competing risk model to analyze environmental determinants of child mortality using the 1992 China National Health Survey, which collects information on cause of death. (
  • The effects of improved nutrition, sanitation, and water quality on child health in high-mortality populations ," Journal of Econometrics , Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 209-235, March. (
  • Maternal Health and Child Mortality in Rural India ," ASARC Working Papers 2009-12, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre. (
  • Bull World Health Organ. (
  • Reaching measles control and elimination goals will require addressing policy and practice gaps that prevent reaching larger numbers of children with measles vaccination, increasing visibility of measles elimination efforts, assuring funding as polio funding decreases, and ensuring adequate resources for strengthening health systems. (
  • In 2012, WHA endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan † with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. (
  • A health visitor holding a small child, promoting a campaign against tuberculosis and infant mortality. (
  • The top cause of death in wealthy countries is coronary heart disease (CHD), according to 2008 data from the World Health Organization . (
  • The World Health Organization estimates that ≈2 million children die each year from acute respiratory tract infection (ARI), and most live in developing countries ( 1 ). (
  • The team investigated the effect on mortality of maternal health, infant HIV infection, feeding practices, and age at acquisition of infection on mortality. (
  • The Minister of Health, Professor Isaac Adewole, explained that the documents would provide policy direction for stakeholders on reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health service delivery. (
  • Government at all levels should prioritise the health of Nigerians, especially the highly vulnerable persons such as children and mothers. (
  • Till a few years back, many of the developing and under-developed countries figured dismally when it came to health and mortality of poor women and children. (
  • These countries are charting their own destiny," said Shyama Kuruvilla, lead researcher for the success factors studies at the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health, in a statement . (
  • The findings of the Success Factors studies are an important addition to the findings and recommendations of the Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health launched in November last year, which reported that with the right investments toward women's and children's health, benefits of up to nine times the value can be generated in social and economic terms," said Flavia Bustreo from the World Health Organization. (
  • The sustainable development goal for health (SDG 3) and the targets established in the Global Strategy for Women's, Children's, and Adolescents' Health reflect the priority of increasing efforts to improve child health. (
  • and hundreds of studies have shown inadequate health worker performance in low and middle income countries (LMICs), where the majority of child deaths occur. (
  • While the shortage of health workers deserves attention and action, the way forward has been well described in publications by the World Health Organization, including a global strategy, 10 a code of practice on international recruitment, 11 a high level commission that developed 10 key recommendations, 12 and the SDG 3 target (box, target 3c). (
  • WHO = World Health Organization. (
  • Significant progress has been made in preventing child deaths, despite a lack of health care workers and infrastructure. (
  • Fewer than half of women deliver their babies with the assistance of trained health care personnel, which contributes to Angola's high maternal mortality rate. (
  • Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. (
  • Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world. (
  • Infant mortality (IM), an important health outcome during the first year of life, is unequally distributed across countries at a global level [ 1 ]. (
  • How does Mozambique perform in the Child Health industry? (
  • How does Kazakhstan perform in the Child Health industry? (
  • This is the deadliest country in the world for kids, and yet the government has just cut the health budget by 30 percent. (
  • Its contribution to international public health, particularly for children and mothers, has been significant and extensive. (
  • 1 In addition to violence-related mortality, disruption in the delivery of basic services, including electricity, water and health care raises death rates among non-combatants during conflict and after it has ended. (
  • The collapse of health systems, which suffer from flight of health workers, looting and physical destruction of facilities, exacerbates this indirect mortality. (
  • Similar to other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), post-adoption of MDG 4 in Ghana observed construction and implementation of maternal and child health policies and intervention programs towards objectifying MDG 4. (
  • The SMP aims to secure safe delivery for women and improve child health services while the LSS seeks to sharpen the clinical skills of midwives. (
  • According to a World Health Organization report (WHO), Ghana however has made phenomenal progress over the years in immunization coverage, from a national coverage of four per cent in 1985 to 90 per cent in 2012. (
  • Lawn, J.E., Manandhar, A., Haws, R.A. and Darmstadt, G.L. (2007) Reducing One Million Child Deaths from Birth Asphyxia-A Survey of Health Systems Gaps and Priorities. (
  • World Health Organization (2005) World Health Report. (
  • World Health Organization (1997) Basic Newborn Resuscitation: A Practical Guide. (
  • I.World Health Organization. (
  • [email protected]). The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. (
  • The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. (
  • In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. (
  • Although IMCI stresses the promotion of care-seeking by families with sick children, in general, the clinical management of such children is offered at the first level health facility. (
  • The importance of providing care without delay for children with malaria has led to the development and introduction, so far on a small scale, of interventions based in the community, either through a community health worker or directly by families, who are provided with packs of antimalarials. (
  • Children with respiratory infections requiring antibiotic treatment at home or referral care can be recognised using signs (rapid respiration and lower chest indrawing) that can be learned and used by health workers with limited clinical training and no capacity for laboratory investigation or radiology. (
  • These findings are suggestive of the pressing needs to examine the cause of these disparities namely social determinants of health and social inequity for specific risk-adapted intervention in achieving health equity in US infant mortality. (
  • It also presents a systematic and comprehensive approach to scaling-up IMCI interventions and information on quality of child health services, using programme data from supervision and surveys. (
  • For assessment of programme activities, we used information from the central IMCI data base, annual progress reports, follow-up after training visits and four studies on quality of child care in public health facilities. (
  • IMCI implementation also led to marked improvements in the quality of child health services. (
  • This mortality impact is plausible, since substantial improvements occurred in quality of care provided to sick children in health facilities implementing IMCI. (
  • Describes the effect of IMCI on quality of child health services, using programme data from supervision and surveys. (
  • Increasing education levels for women and girls and providing access to maternal and child health care and advancing women's economic opportunities would be the best mothers day present of all. (
  • Access to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services can solve many of these grave challenges, and for many decades, the United States has supported the provision of such services for women and men in the developing world. (
  • While far-reaching in scope, the core of the ICPD was recognition that a sustainable world was not about numbers, but about people, and that all people, particularly women, must have access to reproductive health. (
  • 2008) Maternal and Child Undernutrition: Global and Regional Exposures and Health Consequences. (
  • World Health Organization (2010) Country Cooperation Strategy for WHO and Egypt 2010-2014. (
  • Action Against Hunger, in collaboration with District Health Authorities, is setting up two Stabilization Centers to treat the most severely malnourished children and is supporting seven outpatient treatment units in regional health centers. (
  • Future researchers should not only address these gaps in current knowledge but also take steps to translate their research into public health policy changes that would affect the lives of children with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries. (
  • In 2014, Somalia came bottom of the global rankings in terms of maternal health, child mortality, education and levels of women's income and political status. (
  • The World Health Organization has stated that "vaccine hesitancy" is one of the top 10 global public health threats. (
  • The few independent scientists who have attempted such an investigation have little comfort to give to those who believe vaccines are essential for health, and mandatory use of vaccines by all children is the only way to protect society from disease. (
  • and stronger health promotion at a community level to increase awareness of, and improve practices that pose risks to child health," Mr Peters says. (
  • Funding will help the Solomon Islands, Kiribati and Vanuatu as countries with some of the worst child health indicators. (
  • What's worse, no one is tracking the health outcomes of children who adhere to the federally recommended childhood vaccine schedule and state mandatory vaccination programs. (
  • China will continue to send medical teams and cataract surgeons to Africa and will deepen cooperation and health personnel training in maternal and child health care, Xi said," the news service continues (8/16). (
  • Investigating the relationship between health personnel and mortality at the local level during this period, we find a large and robust effect of midwives on reduced maternal mortality. (
  • No clear effect is found for other types of health personnel or on infant mortality. (
  • The interventions found to be most effective-broad preconception care, frequent prenatal care, doula support, and home visiting-aim to improve the health of the mother and result in lower mortality risk for the infant, especially when initiated before or early in pregnancy. (
  • Providers of health care and community-based social services can use the models with their patients or clients at high risk of infant mortality to tailor intervention options to their needs. (
  • For years, health care and community-based social services have delivered interventions designed to improve outcomes, but the interventions do not work equally well for all women and their children. (
  • Infant mortality rates-indicators of population health-typically vary by level of economic development. (
  • [4] [5] In 2016, the World Health Organisation reported the average life expectancy at birth for Cubans as being 77 years for males and 81 for females, which is higher than that of the United States. (
  • [12] According to the World Health Organization, the island had the lowest infant mortality rate of Latin America. (
  • While there have been drops of 31 per cent and 26 per cent in under-five and infant mortality rates, respectively, over the last 15 years, the decline in deaths of newborns over the same period is just 20 per cent highlighting an urgent need to scale up interventions targeting the youngest in the country. (
  • [1] However, despite the economic wealth of the United States overall, the infant mortality rates of some U.S. communities rival those of nations with less developed economies. (
  • Zinc deficiency is rare in children of developed countries, but may be associated with vegetarian diets or other diets lacking a source of animal protein, said Robert E. Black, Ph.D., of Johns Hopkins, a senior investigator of the Bangladeshi study, in an interview. (
  • The number of children dying in the poorest countries is nearly 20 times higher than those dying in developed countries. (
  • Almost one third of the 49 least developed countries have managed to reduce their underfive mortality rates by 40 per cent or more over the past 20 years. (
  • In 2010, there was a global estimate of 7.6 million child deaths with most occurring in less developed countries. (
  • Most people in developed countries know of poliomyelitis as a disease that used to paralyse lots of children. (
  • Almost half of global child deaths due to acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where three-quarters of the population cook with solid fuels. (
  • 3 Sub-Saharan Africa, home to 46% of global ALRI deaths among children, is the most affected world region. (
  • Mortality of infected and uninfected infants born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a pooled analysis. (
  • HIV/AIDS remains one of the chief underlying causes affecting child mortality trends, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • About half of child deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • Child Mortality Rate is the highest in low-income countries, especially countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • Most under-5 mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa, which has experienced a slower reduction in child mortality and currently has the highest under-5 mortality rate in the world (79 per 1,000 in 2016) (U.N. IGME 2017 ). (
  • Astoundingly, we have delivered some of these advances to millions of the poorest and sickest people in the world - in Africa, in Haiti, in the remotest corners of Asia. (
  • A recent study found that armed conflict substantially and persistently increases infant mortality in Africa (Wagner et al. (
  • Without accelerated progress, 60 million children under age 5 will die between 2017 and 2030, about half of which would be newborns. (
  • World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2017 data, published in 2018). (
  • The United Nations' new population growth projections show that the world is set to reach nearly 9.6 billion by 2050. (
  • Reduction of child mortality is reflected in several of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. (
  • Adopted in 2000, United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 set a target to reduce child mortality by two thirds by 2015, with measles vaccination coverage as one of the progress indicators. (
  • According to United Nations projections, the number will rise to 9.3 billion by 2050 - the equivalent of adding another India and China to the world. (
  • The United Nations General Assembly created the UN International Children's Emergency Fund as a temporary agency on December 11, 1946, to provide urgent relief aid to children in countries ravaged by World War II in Europe and Asia . (
  • Reduction of child mortality was the fourth of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals. (
  • The World Bank, United Nations. (
  • Two countries, India (21 per cent) and Nigeria (13 per cent), together account for more than one-third of deaths among children below 5 years of age. (
  • The report stated that India accounts for one out of five child deaths due to the two diseases. (
  • This means that 4,000 children are dying, of which 20 per cent are from India. (
  • [7] As of November 2018, the largest recipients of world bank loans were India ($859 million in 2018) and China ($370 million in 2018), through loans from IBRD. (
  • In India, a country of 1.2 billion people, women have an average of 2.5 children each, and the birthrate is projected to fall to 2.1 by 2030. (
  • The India kaleidoscope has charmed the world for centuries. (
  • India is the twelfth largest industrial power in the world, with its own nuclear industry, arms industry and even its own space satellites. (
  • India has more women professionals than any other country in the world. (
  • However, the child mortality could be simplified into more specific terms such as prenatal, perinatal, Neonatal, infancy and under 5. (
  • Prenatal: child death before the birth, Perinatal: child death before one week of birth, Neonatal: child death before 28 days of birth, Infancy: child death before 1st birthday, and child mortality under 5 refer to any deaths from birth to the 5th birthday. (
  • Perinatal disease was the most common cause of mortality, with hyaline membrane disease the primary cause. (
  • Draper ES, Kurinczuk JJ, Abrams KR, Clarke M. Assessment of separate contributions to perinatal mortality of infertility history and treatment: a case-control analysis. (
  • and certain perinatal causes (38.65%) indicated upward trends in infant mortality Black/AA and White risk ratio. (
  • This plan says that if the world supplies the necessary funds, political commitment, and resolve, we will certify the eradication of polio by 2018. (
  • Mortality rate was expressed per 1000 child-years. (
  • Conclusion Our data revealed a higher mortality in offspring of fathers aged 45 years or more that lasted into adulthood. (
  • The proportion of children presenting who were born abroad increased from 20% in 1994-5 to 60% during 2000-2. (
  • and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • However, about a decade after independence from France in 1962, the total fertility rate fell dramatically from 7 children per woman in the 1970s to about 2.4 in 2000, slowing Algeria's population growth rate by the late 1980s. (
  • Objectives This retrospective analysis, using routinely available data from vital registration, aimed to assess the impact of IMCI implementation between 2000 and 2006 on child mortality. (
  • Mortality data were obtained from the National Bureau for Statistics for 254 districts for the years 2000-2006, 41 districts of which were excluded. (
  • Assessing the Effect of Schooling on Earnings Using a Social Experiment ," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0670, Econometric Society. (
  • In 2016, a total of 130 maternal deaths were seen with 426 children aged from zero to 11 months old also dying during same period. (
  • It began in 2016 and its goal is to contribute to the reduction of maternal and child mortality in the Karaga and Mamprugu/Moaduri Districts. (
  • this was an increase in the mortality observed during October-November 2016. (
  • [ 34 ] An even more recent 2016 meta-analysis concluded Amoxicillin should remain recommended in children with uncomplicated SAM. (
  • Nearly 1,700 children under five years of age died in the Pacific in 2016. (
  • One in every eight Nigerian children dies before their fifth birthday, and nearly 10 per cent of newborn deaths occur in Nigeria. (
  • Foreign Affairs Minister Winston Peters announced today that New Zealand will contribute a further NZ$7 million to improve newborn mortality rates in the Pacific. (
  • Without accurate data on child deaths, we cannot fully discover and combat the greatest risks to a child's life. (
  • You may need to memorialize your child or carry something of your child's at all times. (
  • It's scary to think about their own child's mortality. (
  • Result: The factors found to be associated with birth asphyxia mortality in Matiari District of Sindh Province, Pakistan are maternal education, history of stillbirths, pregnancy complications (including smelly or excessive vaginal discharge and anemia), intrapartum complications (including fever, prolong or difficult labour, breech delivery, cord around child's neck, premature delivery, large baby size) and failure to establish spontaneous respiration after birth. (
  • The historical rates of decline in rates of under-five, maternal, tuberculosis, and noncommunicable disease (NCD) mortality for 109 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are studied in this chapter, providing a graphical overview of findings by country income group and identifying countries with the best and worst performance and regions in which performance had changed rapidly, either improving or deteriorating. (
  • Deaths attributed to AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria have dropped even more sharply, as have all deaths registered among children under five. (
  • Skin test results for tuberculosis are often negative in children who are undernourished with tuberculosis or those previously vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. (
  • The world is set on eradicating measles and polio infections in the coming decade. (
  • 6 - 8 Reductions in mortality and AIDS during the era of dual therapy were reported, 9 10 and substantial declines attributed to therapy with three or four drugs were reported in a US paediatric cohort. (
  • During an outbreak of severe acute respiratory infections in 2 orphanages, Vietnam, 7/12 hospitalized children died. (
  • In the United States, acute gastroenteritis accounts for 1.5 million office visits, 200,000 hospitalizations, and 300 deaths in children each year. (
  • Evaluation of a child with acute gastroenteritis should include a recent history of fluid intake and output. (
  • Handwashing, breastfeeding, and rotavirus vaccination reduce the incidence of acute gastroenteritis in young children. (
  • Oral rehydration therapy is recommended for children with mild to moderate dehydration from acute gastroenteritis. (
  • Breastfeeding reduces the incidence of acute gastroenteritis and hospitalization from diarrheal disease in young children. (
  • Review of the management of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children. (
  • UN Inter-Agency Group (2013) Levels & Trends in Child Mortality. (
  • We aimed in this study to examine the infant mortality risk differences by temporal trends and to provide an ecologic and non-concurrent explanation for the persisted variability. (
  • We also estimated the percent change for mortality trends. (
  • There were temporal trends in IM between 1968 and 2015 with excess IM among Black/AA children. (
  • And look at changes in total fertility, infant mortality, and life expectancy since 1970. (
  • Other campaigns included a program to reduce the infant mortality rate in 1970 directed at maternal and prenatal care. (
  • Environmental determinants of child mortality in rural china : A competing risks approach ," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3241, The World Bank. (
  • More than a decade after the end of Angola's 27-year civil war, the country still faces a variety of socioeconomic problems, including poverty, high maternal and child mortality, and illiteracy. (
  • The Potential Impact of Changes in Fertility on Infant, Child, and Maternal Mortality. (
  • The relationship between changes in the timing and quantity of fertility, such as those that might result from an effective family planning program in developing countries, and changes in child and maternal mortality is examined. (
  • The fifth study, Cleland and Sathar (1983) use a sample of births occurring between one and fifteen years prior to the Pakistan Fertility Survey to explore the relation between birth spacing and infant and child mortality. (
  • Its total fertility rate was 5.4 children per woman during the 2005-2010 period―double the fertility rate of any other region. (
  • In most countries with total fertility rates of 2.1 children per woman or fewer (Map 1), between 80 to 100 percent of women of childbearing age have attained at least a lower secondary education level―that is, some high school (Map 2). (
  • Methods From the Danish Fertility Database (1980-1996), we identified 102,879 couples and their firstborn singleton children. (
  • Liberia's high fertility rate of nearly 5 children per woman and large youth cohort - more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25 - will sustain a high dependency ratio for many years to come. (
  • The lower fertility rate was mainly the result of women's rising age at first marriage (virtually all Algerian children being born in wedlock) and to a lesser extent the wider use of contraceptives. (
  • The youthful population - about 45% are under the age of 15 - is expected to continue growing rapidly with a fertility rate of more than 5 children per woman and a low rate of contraceptive use. (
  • So many people are now in their prime reproductive years - the result of unchecked fertility in decades past, coupled with reduced child mortality - that even modest rates of childbearing yield huge increases. (
  • In some of the poorest parts of the world, fertility rates remain high, driven by tradition, religion, the inferior status of women and limited access to contraception. (
  • DR. SANJAY GUPTA, CNN CHIEF MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT: The second biggest killer of children around the world, behind malaria, is dirty drinking water. (
  • The second biggest killer of children around the world behind malaria again, is, dirty water. (
  • He also tagged the country the fourth place with the worst maternal mortality rate, coming after Sierra Leone, Central African Republic and Chad. (
  • Although, we do not find significant differences between estimates obtained from the competing risk model and those from simpler hazard models, we do find evidence supporting the causal interpretations of the effect of access to safe water on child mortality. (
  • Almost no correlation exists between number of deaths and rate of decline in mortality, which suggests rates of change augment the information conveyed by mortality estimates but cannot replace the examination of number of deaths, particularly with regard to capturing the underlying intensity of country-level mortality. (
  • Our study provides the first IV estimates of the maternal education and under-5 mortality relationship while taking into account right-censoring. (
  • Estimates Developed by the UN Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. (
  • Association of the youth-nominated support team intervention for suicidal adolescents with 11- to 14-year mortality outcomes: Secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. (
  • Public Policy and Anthropometric Outcomes in Cote d'Ivoire ," Papers 89, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement. (
  • In the world now, child mortality rates are falling but 22.6 million children still lack access to basic vaccines and an ever increasing number of poor children die before reaching their fifth birthday. (
  • This population offered the rare opportunity to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated children due to the way the vaccines were rolled out in the West African country. (
  • In the U.S., the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now recommends that children receive 69 doses of 16 vaccines by the time they're 18 years old, with 50 doses of 14 vaccines given before the age of 6. (
  • In contrast, European countries with similar levels of GDP per capita-such countries as Germany and the Netherlands-have much lower rates of infant mortality, around 3.2 per 1,000 births. (
  • In some neighborhoods of Allegheny County in southwest Pennsylvania, for instance, the rate of infant mortality is more than 20 per 1,000 births, on par with such developing countries as Nicaragua and the Philippines. (
  • DHAKA, Bangladesh, Aug. 23-A weekly dose of zinc has substantially reduced the risk of illness or death for young poverty-stricken urban children in Bangladesh. (
  • The number of children under five dying has declined substantially in the past 20 years and the rate of decline is speeding up, according to a report in The Lancet medical journal. (
  • Conclusion In children with HIV infection, mortality, AIDS, and hospital admission rates have declined substantially since the introduction of three or four drug antiretroviral therapy in 1997. (
  • HIV contributes substantially to child mortality, but factors underlying these deaths are inadequately described. (
  • However, a deeper look at certain places and among some groups shows that some U.S. communities have substantially higher rates of infant mortality. (
  • The results suggest that education has a causal impact on mortality, and that this effect is perhaps larger than has been previously estimated in the literature. (
  • The rates of decline in mortality prove useful in testing the feasibility of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with a particular focus on the 2030 targets. (
  • How many people know that life expectancy worldwide is increasing, hunger decreasing, access to drinking water and clean water for sanitation increasing poverty decreasing, literacy increasing, access to internet increasing, child mortality decreasing and all those things? (
  • Life expectancy at birth gone up hugely (including a major reduction in mortality for young children). (
  • Cuba has historically - both before and during Communist rule - performed better than other countries in the region on infant mortality and life expectancy. (
  • Over five years the partners aim to invest at least 50 million dollars in groundbreaking and sustainable projects in the areas of technology development, service delivery and demand creation with the potential of having a transformative effect on the lives of pregnant women and their babies in the hardest to reach corners of the world. (
  • Among 32 620 children born during the last 10 years, 1455 (4.46%) were reported to have died prior to their fifth birthday. (
  • 18 A systematic review by Smith et al 19 concluded that there is strong support for a causal link with ALRIs in children under 5 years. (
  • Ethiopia has more than halved its mortality rates for children under the age of five years during the last two decades, new UN statistics show. (
  • Approximately 260,000 children aged 0-14 years were living with HIV in Nigeria in 2015, with 41,000 new infections occurring among children, and only 17 per cent of children living with HIV having access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). (
  • Results We observed a U-shaped association between paternal age and the overall mortality rate in children up to 18 years of age. (
  • Compared with children of fathers aged between 25 and 29 years, the adjusted MRR was 1.77 (95% confidence interval 1.28-2.45) for children of fathers aged between 45 and 49 years and 1.59 (1.03-2.46) for children of fathers aged 50 years or more. (
  • The cause-specific MRRs were highest for congenital malformations [2.35 (1.42-3.88)] and injury or poisoning [3.43 (1.49-7.92)] for children of fathers aged 45 years or more. (
  • By one year of age, an estimated 35.2% infected and 4.9% of uninfected children will have died and by 2 years of age, 52.5% and 7.6% will have died, respectively. (
  • Over the years, Nigeria has been regarded as one of the most dangerous places on earth for pregnant women, nursing mothers and their children. (
  • Unfortunately, Nigeria has made no progress in maternal mortality for 29 years. (
  • At least 39 countries must now reduce mortality by more than 8 per cent per year, on average, during the remaining years to 2015 in order to reach the goal. (
  • In the years following independence, low-skilled Algerian workers and Algerians who had supported the French (known as Harkis) emigrated en masse to France. (
  • If the world delivers, then we will eradicate polio within six years. (
  • 3 AIDS is now the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, and maternal mortality is the leading killer of women aged 15-19 years throughout the world. (
  • And by which rate did a country like Norway reduce its child mortality the last 100 years? (
  • Annual Cryptosporidium -attributable MSD incidence was 3.48 (95% CI, 2.27-4.67) and 3.18 (95% CI, 1.85-4.52) per 100 child-years in African and Asian infants, respectively, and 1.41 (95% CI, 0.73-2.08) and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.66-2.05) per 100 child-years in toddlers. (
  • Corresponding Cryptosporidium -attributable LSD incidences per 100 child-years were 2.52 (95% CI, 0.33-5.01) and 4.88 (95% CI, 0.82-8.92) in infants and 4.04 (95% CI, 0.56-7.51) and 4.71 (95% CI, 0.24-9.18) in toddlers. (
  • Seven years after Sierra Leone's protracted civil war ended, much of the country has not yet been rebuilt, and it remains one of the poorest nations in the world, ranking 180 out of 182 on the UNDP Human Development Index. (
  • 7 Thus, the importance of child development has been increasingly recognized in recent years. (
  • During the next 34 years, Norwegian maternal mortality was halved and infant mortality fell by 40 percent. (
  • Eliminating fourth and higher births would reduce infant and child mortality by about eight percent and the maternal mortality ratio by about four percent. (
  • Absent other effective measures to control dietary shifts and reduce food loss and waste , the world will need to produce about 70 percent more food annually by 2050 to meet global demands. (
  • Reduce infant and child mortality. (
  • With 189 member countries, staff from more than 170 countries, and offices in over 130 locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries. (
  • All children should receive an oral live, attenuated rotavirus vaccine to reduce the incidence of hospitalization, severe gastroenteritis, and death from rotavirus infection. (
  • The research team designed and implemented machine learning algorithms and causal inference models to predict which women and their children were at highest risk of infant mortality, the interventions that women were most likely to use, and which interventions would most effectively reduce the risks for each woman and child. (
  • Could an individualized approach of predicting risk and offering personalized intervention recommendations reduce the rate of infant mortality? (
  • Child mortality, which is also known as under-5 mortality, refers to the death of infants and children under the age of five. (
  • However in our still overwhelmingly patriarchal post-Agrarian Revolution societies, mothers are tightly linked to care of infants and children [2, 3], and in the high birth rate societies of the Developing World that are subject to deadly impoverishment children are roughly 50% of the population, females about 50%, women about 25%, and women and children about 75% of the population [4, 5]. (
  • See more in the 2014 World Population Data Sheet . (
  • World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 698 and Population and Development Series No. 23. (
  • These interactive graphics reflects data from PRB's 2014 World Population Data Sheet. (
  • We examined the association between paternal age and mortality in children in a large population-based cohort taking maternal age and socioeconomic factors into account. (
  • The West African nation of Angola is a land of contrasts, where the gap between the very rich and the desperately poor is so great, that its most vulnerable population, children, are dying every day. (
  • Now they say world population will continue growing into the next century. (
  • In contrast, mortality for older-onset groups approximates that of the background population. (
  • In 2006, one-third of the population had at least one episode of the disease and an estimated 6000 children died from its complications. (
  • A population explosion juxtaposed with high child and maternal mortality. (