Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Memory, Episodic: Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Proactive Inhibition: The state or process hypothesized to account for poorer learning rate for elements later in a series as compared to the learning rate for elements coming earlier in a series.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Paired-Associate Learning: Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.Amnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Scopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Guanfacine: A centrally acting antihypertensive agent with specificity towards ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.ReadingAssociation: A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Theta Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.Probability Learning: Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Aptitude: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Repetition Priming: A type of procedural memory manifested as a change in the ability to identify an item as a result of a previous encounter with the item or stimuli.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Mice, Inbred C57BLRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Signal Detection, Psychological: Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Sensory Gating: The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Mediodorsal Thalamic Nucleus: The largest of the medial nuclei of the thalamus. It makes extensive connections with most of the other thalamic nuclei.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Feedback, Psychological: A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Psycholinguistics: A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Generalization (Psychology): The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Imagination: A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.CA1 Region, Hippocampal: One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Attentional Blink: Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Amnesia, Retrograde: Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Word Association Tests: Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Working Memory and Severe Learning Difficulties. Hove, East Sussex, U.K.: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1992. Also published in ... The Development of Memory in Childhood. Hove, East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press, 1997. Hulme, Charles, and Margaret J. Snowling ... Developmental Disorders of Language Learning and Cognition. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Snowling, Margaret J., and ...
"A Comparison of Working Memory Profiles and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Moderate Learning ... Working Memory in Dyslexia". In Tracy Packiam Alloway; Susan E. Gathercole. Working Memory and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. ... As a result of this working memory impairment, students with developmental coordination disorder have learning deficits as well ... This means that for students with developmental coordination disorder their working memory abilities determine their learning ...
Minimize working memory load. Provide immediate feedback on errors. Adjust the grain size of instruction with learning. ... If the student is not learning the domain language than it becomes more difficult to gain a deeper understanding, to work ... However, given a current shift towards blended learning models, recent work on ITSs has begun focusing on ways these systems ... Educational data mining Educational technology Learning objects Serious games Smart learning Joseph Psotka, Sharon A. Mutter ( ...
"Binding facilitates attention switching within working memory" (PDF). Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and ... Lee, D.; Chun, M. M. (2001). "What are the units of visual short-term memory, objects or spatial locations?" (PDF). Perception ... the binding of different information to a single object improves the manipulation of that information within working memory, ... Consideration is then given to the enhancing effect of object-based attention on memory, and its inhibitory effect during ...
Prefrontal cortex basal ganglia working memory (PBWM). PBWM uses PVLV to train prefrontal cortex working memory updating system ... It is a model of learning which is a balance between Hebbian and error-driven learning with other network-derived ... Error-driven learning is performed using GeneRec, which is a generalization of the recirculation algorithm, and approximates ... Although emergent has a graphical user interface, it is very complex and has a steep learning curve. If you want to understand ...
Working Memory: Short term memory Episodic Memory: Long term memory of specific events. Implicit Memory: means by which we ... The child learns an abstract emotion word such as 'joy' because it shows JOY-expressing action schemas, which language-teaching ... "Total Memory." The "Improvisational" group had more "Gist" memories than any other group and had more "Total Memory" than both ... Similar patterns were also found in working memory tasks, with the ability to remember movements being greatly disrupted by a ...
... aspects of information processing theory to emphasize the inherent limitations of concurrent working memory load on learning ... effort being used in the working memory. In cognitive psychology, cognitive load refers to the used amount of working memory ... working memory. Working memory, however, is extremely limited in both capacity and duration. These limitations will, under some ... In his classic paper,[7] Miller was perhaps the first to suggest our working memory capacity has inherent limits. His ...
Healy, A. F., & McNamara, D. S. (1996). Verbal Learning and memory: Does the modal model still work? Annual Review of ... Foreign Language Learning: Psycholinguistic Studies on Training and Retention, and Learning and Memory of Knowledge and Skills ... Learning and memory of knowledge and skills : durability and specificity. Healy, Alice F., Bourne, Lyle Eugene, 1932-. Thousand ... Healy, A. F. (1974). Separating item from order information in short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal ...
... working memory, and thinking. Monographs of the Society of Research in Child Development, 67, Serial Number 268. Demetriou, A ... Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 181-194. Demetriou, A., Christou, C., Spanoudis, G., & Platsidou, M. (2002). The ... working memory, and thinking. Monographs of the Society of Research in Child Development, 67, Serial Number 268. Demetriou, A ... Cycles in speed-working memory-G relations: Towards a developmental-differential theory of mind. Intelligence, 41, 34-50 ...
A person can do this by saying aloud or thinking of material repeatably until it becomes a part of the working memory. However ... This is a common form of rote learning. Rote learning is learning or memorization by repetition, often without an understanding ... This entails connecting new material learned, with already existing long term memories. In this type of rehearsal repetitive ... the material may fade from the working memory quickly. An example of this is looking up a phone number but forgetting it before ...
Effects on learning; some evidence indicates it improves working memory, while impairing other complex functions ... In work that earned him a Nobel Prize in 2000, Swedish scientist Arvid Carlsson first showed in the 1950s that administering L- ... Knowles for his work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions, the most noted example of which was used for the synthesis ...
... incidental or informal learning (media resources, family/friend interactions, work interactions) purposeful learning (self- ... Ashcraft, M. H.; Kirk, E. P. (2001). "The relationships among working memory, math anxiety and performance". Journal of ... The learning process is consciously learning and inputting the language being learned. However, this goes as far as to state ... Some learners learn quickly and reach a near-native level of competence, but others learn slowly and get stuck at relatively ...
Simple and complex word spans as measures of working memory capacity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and ... Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and ... The reading span task (RST) is a common memory span task widely cited in, and adapted for, investigations of working memory, ... Whitney, P., Ritchie, B.G., & Clark, M.B. (1991). Working memory capacity and the use of inferences in text comprehension. ...
"Peripheral delivery of a ROCK inhibitor improves learning and working memory". Behavioral Neuroscience. 123 (1): 218-23. doi: ... It was demonstrated in February 2009 that fasudil could improve memory in normal mice, identifying the drug as a possible ... treatment for age related or neurodegenerative memory loss. It is approved for use in Japan and China, but has not been ...
The selected attention is then passed into working memory, the set of mechanisms that underlies short-term memory and ... J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn. 21 (1): 255-60. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.21.1.255. PMID 7876773. Conway AR, Cowan N, Bunting MF ( ... Dalton, Polly; Santangelo, Valerio; Spence, Charles (2009). "The role of working memory in auditory selective attention". The ... information in the unattended stream is not processed all the way into working memory, as Treisman's model would imply. Instead ...
"Prefrontal cortex and hippocampus subserve different components of working memory in rats". Learning and Memory. 15 (3): 97-105 ... It opens the gate between two areas in the cortex, allowing for the influence of stimuli in working memory. The thalamus, ... McNab, F; Klingberg, T (2008). "Prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia control access to working memory". Nature Neuroscience. 11 ... Moreover, it is possibly why individuals on Ritalin have a "need" and "desire" to learn as it acts as a positive reinforcer in ...
He also works in computational neuroscience focusing on understanding memory and learning. Valiant's 2013 book is Probably ... model of machine learning that has helped the field of computational learning theory grow, and the concept of holographic ... His earlier work in automata theory includes an algorithm for context-free parsing, which is (as of 2010) still the ... Valiant is world-renowned for his work in theoretical computer science. Among his many contributions to complexity theory, he ...
His last work was aimed at understanding the mechanisms of learning and memory. 1954 Olds, J., and P. Milner. Positive ... Following his Ph.D., Olds went on to do postdoctoral work at McGill University under Donald Olding Hebb, where he made his most ... 1972 Olds, J., Disterhoft, J. F., Segal, M., Kornblith, C. L., and Hirsh, R.: "Learning centres of rat brain mapped by ...
MA: The MIT Press Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (1974). Working memory. In G. A. Bower (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and ... working memory, memory by affordances, long-term working memory, and the H-CogAff architecture. The LIDA cognitive cycle can be ... What memory is for. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20:1-19 Ericsson, K. A., and W. Kintsch. 1995. Long-term working memory. ... The LIDA (Learning IDA) architecture was originally spawned from IDA by the addition of several styles and modes of learning, ...
His work has done much to provide a neural explanation for learning and memory. Studying the hippocampus - the memory centre of ... His work with Terje Lømo in Per Andersen's laboratory at the University of Oslo in the late 1960s established the phenomenon of ... properties of LTP and its relation to memory was conducted at London's National Institute for Medical Research where he worked ... ISBN 978-0-19-510027-3 Bliss, T. V. P.; Collingridge, G. L. (1993). "A synaptic model of memory: Long-term potentiation in the ...
Train one's memory by learning as many written works as possible (ediscendum ad verbum). One should also read the poets, know ... He then declares that memory is important to the orator because "only those with a powerful memory know what they are going to ... Instead, he works on every feeling and thought, driving them so that he need not to discuss philosophers' questions. We need a ... Students must also learn to understand human emotion so as to appeal to their audience. This means that the student must, ...
... which refers to the ability to recall what has been learned over time. Typically memory is moved from sensory memory to working ... Specific learning disability[edit]. Main article: Specific learning disability. A specific learning disability is a ... A specific learning disability cannot be cured or fixed, but the effects can be mitigated by the use of different learning ... Special Education Support Service General Learning Disabilities. *^ Kaufman, Alan S. (2009). IQ Testing 101. New York: Springer ...
"Individual differences in the fan effect and working memory capacity". Journal of Memory and Language. 51 (4): 604-621. doi: ... Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 17 (5): 940-953. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.17.5.940. Anderson and Reder, John and Lynne (June 1999 ... In the brain, memory stores information in a network of nodes that are linked together. When a memory is retrieved, activation ... Human Learning and Memory. 5 (2): 125-134. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.5.2.125. ...
McGeoch's work primarily focused on human learning and memory. Harvey Carr significantly influenced McGeoch's work, and ... McGeoch is recognized as a pioneer in the field of human learning and memory. He changed the way researchers understand human ... Considered a modern functionalist, his interests focused on human learning and memory. He was the chair of the department of ... McGeoch was considered to be one of the "most productive and influential investigators of human learning and memory during the ...
Rule-based tasks are learned via hypothesis-testing dependent on working memory. Information-integration tasks are ones wherein ... It is known that the caudate and working memories are part of this system. Therefore, it was confirmed that the putamen is ... the putamen also affects reinforcement learning and implicit learning. Reinforcement learning is interacting with the ... Packard MG; Knowlton BJ (2002). "Learning and memory functions of the Basal Ganglia". Annu Rev Neurosci. 25 (1): 563-93. doi: ...
"Interactions between frontal cortex and basal ganglia in working memory: A computational model" (PDF). link.springer.com. doi: ... Earlier models of memory are primarily based on the postulates of Hebbian learning. Biologically relevant models such as ... Models of working memory, relying on theories of network oscillations and persistent activity, have been built to capture some ... Durstewitz D, Seamans JK, Sejnowski TJ (2000). "Neurocomputational models of working memory". Nat. Neurosci. 3 (Suppl): 1184-91 ...
... learn a second language, access new referents from long-term memory or given referents from working memory, decide ... LISO participants explore a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches that can be brought to bear in working with ... Experts may be writing faculty or faculty in other disciplines who deliberately analyze writing as a learning activity. For ... Thus, experts in Writing Studies also work with writers to develop writing, reading, and critical analysis strategies necessary ...
... a specially designed experiment and computational models to distinguish the roles of working memory and reinforcement learning. ... Trouble with working memory makes a distinct contribution to the difficulty people with schizophrenia sometimes have in ... learning, according to a new study. The researchers employed ... That confirmed that working memory uniquely affected learning ... to measure the effects of working memory and reinforcement in learning by applying these methods. They found that only working ...
Learning, multi-tasking, pay-attention, special-needs, teaching, think, thinking, Working-memory, working-memory-training ... Try Thinking and Learning Without Working Memory. May 25, 2008. by Dr. Bill Klemm 6 Comments ... Work-ing Mem-o-ry Load Affects Pay-ing Atten-tion. Pay-ing atten-tion is pre-req-ui-site to learn-ing. The abil-i-ty to pay ... Train-ing Work-ing Mem-o-ry and IQ. Stud-ies have shown that it is pos-si-ble to train ADHD chil-dren to have bet-ter work-ing ...
THE ROLES OF PHONOLOGICAL SHORT-TERM MEMORY AND WORKING MEMORY IN L2 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY LEARNING - Volume 34 Issue 3 - ... 2007). Linking working memory and long-term memory: A computational model of the learning of new words. Developmental Science, ... THE ROLES OF PHONOLOGICAL SHORT-TERM MEMORY AND WORKING MEMORY IN L2 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY LEARNING. * Katherine I. Martin (a1 ... Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In Bower, G. A. (Ed.), Recent advances in learning and motivation (Vol. 8 ...
... working memory, instrumental learning, and corticolimbic dopamine release. MPEP, at 10 mg/kg, but not 3 mg/kg, impaired working ... Functional Interaction Between NMDA and mGlu5 Receptors: Effects on Working Memory, Instrumental Learning, Motor Behaviors, and ... appear to play a major role in regulating NMDA receptor-dependent cognitive functions such as learning and working memory. By ... memory and instrumental learning, transiently increased dopamine release in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, and ...
Working Memory Training in College Students With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder/Learning Disabilities. The safety and ... The Cogmed Working Memory Training Program will be used as the experimental program because of preliminary evidence indicating ... The overall objective of the current study is to determine whether computerized Working Memory (WM) training will enhance WM ... Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (auditory verbal working memory measure) [ Time Frame: within 120 days ]. ...
In contrast to the association between binding potential and drug effects on reversal learning, for the spatial working memory ... Cognitive effects of methylphenidate were assessed with two tasks, reversal learning and spatial working memory. Tasks were ... Methylphenidate produced significantly different effects on reversal learning and spatial working memory tasks within ... are implicated in working memory, cognitive flexibility, and reinforcement learning. The striatums importance in human ...
... had a learning difficulty with working memory deficit. The odds ratio of comorbid working memory deficit (in the face of a ... the prevalence of learning difficulties and learning difficulties co-morbid with working memory deficits. Methods: Subjects (N= ... Learning Difficulties and Working Memory Deficits among Primary School Students in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Learning difficulties and working memory deficits among primary school students in Jakarta, Indonesia. Clinical ...
Methods: Ninety-seven children (age 6 to 10) completed a working memory task and an operant learning task, in which children ... These disorders have been shown to be associated with working memory impairments. BPT is based on operant learning principles, ... Potential implications for BPT are that decreasing working memory load may enhance the chance of optimally learning through ... Potential implications for BPT are that decreasing working memory load may enhance the chance of optimally learning through ...
Bayesian analyses showed possible short term effects of JM on near transfer measures of verbal working memory, but none on ... Bayesian analyses showed possible short term effects of JM on near transfer measures of verbal working memory, but none on ... It is argued that JM might not train the components of working memory involved in mathematics sufficiently. Another possible ... It is argued that JM might not train the components of working memory involved in mathematics sufficiently. Another possible ...
The purpose was to examine the relative contributions of working memory capacity (WMC), first language (L1) comprehension, and ... The purpose was to examine the relative contributions of working memory capacity (WMC), first language (L1) comprehension, and ... Does Domain Experience Compensate for Working Memory Capacity in Second Language Reading Comprehension? ... Descriptors: Reading Comprehension, Second Languages, Short Term Memory, Vocabulary, Grammar, Spanish, Predictor Variables ...
... measuring their working memory capacity. Our study indicates that phonological short-term memory capacity plays a different ... role in the case of beginners and pre-intermediate students in intensive language learning. The backward digit span test ... In our research we addressed the question what the relationship is between phonological short-term and working memory capacity ... Phonological Short-Term Memory, Working Memory and Foreign Language Performance in Intensive Language Learning ...
... but not spatial working memory, in female rats, Neuropharmacology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly ... signaling in the prefrontal cortex modulates cued fear learning, ... The role of working memory and declarative memory in trace ... We found that cued fear learning, but not spatial working memory, was impaired by administration of a PAC1R antagonist directly ... We found that cued fear learning, but not spatial working memory, was impaired by administration of a PAC1R antagonist directly ...
Emerging research now reveals more about its role in learning processes. ... Working memory vs. long-term memory. With short intervals of waiting time between the animals attempts, the scientists noticed ... the mice employed their working memory, or the type of short-term memory that leads to adaptive decision-making based on ... Can scientists learn to remove bad memories?. New research in human participants explores a novel intervention that aims to ...
Improved learning and working memory.. Napping isnt going to make you the next Einstein, but it can help improve your memory ... Work-Life Balance. The Secret to Googles and Facebooks Success Is This 20-Minute Perk (and Employees Love It) ... In another study, 29 percent of workers reported falling asleep or coming close to it while at work. According to a report from ... Your hippocampus is the area of the brain responsible for putting your memories into long-term storage, where you can call on ...
Learning and memory tasks. Passive avoidance learning.. Passive avoidance learning was assessed in a two-compartment box with a ... Working memory defects. The moving platform water maze and radial arm maze protocols are used to assess working memory in ... 2004) observed deficits in spatial working memory in mGluR7−/− mice, whereas their long-term memory performance was unaltered ... Berman DE, Dudai Y (2001) Memory extinction, learning anew, and learning the new: dissociations in the molecular machinery of ...
Medial prefrontal lesions in mice impair sustained attention but spare maintenance of information in working memory. Learn Mem ... Spatial working memory in the Y-maze. Working memory is a special short-term memory buffer used to hold relevant information ... 80 or learning and memory functions81,82. Recent work has also shown that axon guidance molecules contribute to brain ... Jones, M. W. A comparative review of rodent prefrontal cortex and working memory. Curr Mol Med 2, 639-647 (2002). ...
Memory Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis : Its Relation to Working Memory, Semantic Encoding, and Implicit Learning. In: ... Memory Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis: Its Relation to Working Memory, Semantic Encoding, and Implicit Learning. ... Memory Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis : Its Relation to Working Memory, Semantic Encoding, and Implicit Learning. / Rao, ... title = "Memory Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis: Its Relation to Working Memory, Semantic Encoding, and Implicit Learning", ...
Auditory working memory weakness can cause problems in the classroom. Here are my top 10 strategies for managing these ... Auditory working memory is not the ONLY memory we have. There are lots of memories to use as back up. Visual memory, motor ... My Top 10 Auditory Working Memory Strategies (for students). Try not to forget. Auditory working memory is the memory used to ... Learning a foreign language (yeesh) can be a real struggle to those with a poor auditory working memory. Here comes this long ...
Spatial Learning and Memory Are Facilitated by Overexpression of KIF17.. To investigate whether memory was enhanced in other ... Working Memory Is Improved with Overexpression of KIF17.. Working memory is an immediate and rapidly decaying memory thought to ... the improved performance in spatial learning and working memory tasks in GFPKIF17 mice cannot be due to improvements in ... declarative memories (41, 42) The rodent hippocampus is critically involved in the formation of spatial working memory (27, 43 ...
... or rule based categorization relies on executive function and working memory while implicit, or information integration ... The purpose of this pilot study was to further provide evidence for the existence of multiple systems of category learning. In ... has emerged as the only neuropsychological theory for the existence of multiple brain systems for category learning. COVIS ... Ercolino, Ashley, "Taxing Working Memory: The Effects on Category Learning" (2015). HIM 1990-2015. 1864. http://stars.library. ...
The Working Memory Model. by Anthropophobia. 0. *. Cognitive Psychology. AS Psychology: The Multi-Store Model of Memory. by ...
Working memory. *Learning and processing new information. *They may also find it difficult to concentrate for longer periods of ... Students with learning difficulties have academic attainments which are significantly below those of their peers due to a ... They may have Specific Learning Difficulty such as Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, Dyscalculia *Children may have diagnoses such as ... slower rate of learning. They will have difficulty acquiring and applying basic literacy, numeracy and language skills. ...
A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF THE INTRINSIC MOTIVATION AND WORKING MEMORY IN SCHOLASTIC PERFORMANCE at IATED Digital Library ... DOES HIGH MOTIVATION HELP TO LEARN BETTER? A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF THE INTRINSIC MOTIVATION AND WORKING MEMORY IN SCHOLASTIC ... title = {DOES HIGH MOTIVATION HELP TO LEARN BETTER? A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF THE INTRINSIC MOTIVATION AND WORKING MEMORY IN ... TI - DOES HIGH MOTIVATION HELP TO LEARN BETTER? A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF THE INTRINSIC MOTIVATION AND WORKING MEMORY IN ...
Learning,*,Lesion analysis,*,MRI,*,Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),*,Memory,*,Multiunit recording,*,Neocortex,*,Networks,*, ... Working memory ... Neural basis of spatial cognition, memory and goal-directed ... Fellowship to learn single unit recording at UCL. He now employs cognitive and behavioural neuroscience techniques to study the ... Spatial learning,*,Synaptic plasticity,*,Temporal lobes,*,Tetrode recording,*,Traumatic brain injury,*,Virtual reality,*,Visual ...
  • The researchers will mainly work on new metal oxide materials that buzz electronically at the nanoscale to emulate the way human neural networks buzz with electric potential on a cellular level. (ecnmag.com)
  • neural network theory is about how neurons work "together" to process information. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Part I explains the fundamental theory of neural networks and how neural network models work. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Part II covers the principles of network functioning and how computer simulations of neural networks have profound consequences for our understanding of how the brain works. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Princeton University researchers have used a novel virtual reality and brain imaging system to detect a form of neural activity underlying how the brain forms short-term memories that are used in making decisions. (princeton.edu)
  • Studies such as this one are aimed at understanding the basic principles of neural activity during working memory in the normal brain. (princeton.edu)
  • Using a virtual reality maze and brain imaging system, Princeton researchers have detected a form of neural activity the formation of short-term memories used in decision-making. (princeton.edu)
  • Recent studies investigating the neural correlates of working memory interference by emotional distraction have provided evidence that interactions between these two systems can also occur transiently, in response to on-going task irrelevant emotional distracters. (nanohub.org)
  • These issues have been addressed in two experiments part of an on-going investigation of the neural circuitries linking the enhancing and impairing effects of emotion on memory. (nanohub.org)
  • Reinforcement learning is an "under-the-hood" process in which people gradually learn which actions to take by processing rewards and punishments at the neural level, and then choosing the one that works best on average -- even if the person is not aware of it. (eurekalert.org)
  • But we show that the two work together, with neural signals underlying working memory helping to guide those that support reinforcement learning. (eurekalert.org)
  • That too traded off with the neural marker of reinforcement learning. (eurekalert.org)
  • For the past five years BrainCanDo has worked with researchers in educational neuroscience to develop practical teaching and learning strategies that have a strong neuroscientific evidence base. (eventbrite.co.uk)
  • Join us for a one-day CPD-accredited conference where you will hear from leading figures in the field as they share their expertise on the value of neuroscience to education and be given the opportunity to develop your teaching and learning toolkit. (eventbrite.co.uk)
  • Previously, I worked for Dr. Tom Smulders and Prof Melissa Bateson at the Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University on a DEFRA funding grant exploring the effects of food restriction (stress) on hippocampal neurogenesis in broiler breeder chickens. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Understanding the basic cognitive function of human memory is critical in a wide variety of fields, such as clinical psychology, developmental psychology, education, neuroscience, and gerontology, and studying memory has become particularly urgent in recent years due to the prominence of a number of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's. (routledge.com)
  • Working memory is a theoretical concept central to cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, and neuroscience. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain training has become a multi-million-dollar business, with companies like Lumosity, Jungle Memory, and CogniFit offering their own versions of neuroscience-you-can-use, and providing ambitious parents with new assignments for overworked but otherwise healthy children. (newyorker.com)
  • Declarative, or explicit, memory is the conscious storage and recollection of data. (wikipedia.org)
  • I have over fifteen years of experience in neuropsychological testing with a special focus in working with children and adolescents with learning disorders, attention related problems, anxiety/mood challenges, and head injury. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Those working in other fields, such as anxiety and depression, will find sufficient reason to pay attention to the role of working memory in these areas. (oup.com)
  • We show how performance on a standardized math achievement test varies as a function of math anxiety, and that math anxiety compromises the functioning of working memory. (springer.com)
  • High math anxiety works much like a dual task setting: Preoccupation with one's math fears and anxieties functions like a resource-demanding secondary task. (springer.com)
  • We comment on developmental and educational factors related to math and working memory, and on factors that may contribute to the development of math anxiety. (springer.com)
  • Propranolol works by calming those nervous responses, which is why some people benefit from taking the drug to reduce anxiety. (scienceblog.com)
  • People with an Autism Spectrum Disorder who are already being prescribed propranolol for a different reason, such as anxiety, might also see an improvement in working memory," said Christ, an associate professor in the Department of Psychological Sciences in the MU College of Arts and Science. (scienceblog.com)
  • Recently these disorders have often been combined with the new term, learning and language impaired. (springer.com)
  • Is there an increased familial prevalence of psychopathology in children with nonverbal learning disorders? (springer.com)
  • Thus, these results indicate that memory reconsolidation involved a G protein-independent β-arrestin2 pathway and suggest that this pathway may have therapeutic potential for treating memory-related disorders. (sciencemag.org)
  • Drugs targeting β-arrestin-biased signaling by β-adrenergic receptors may be helpful in memory-related disorders. (sciencemag.org)
  • Learn more in our Circadian Rhythms Disorders Health Topic . (nih.gov)
  • Propranolol increased working memory performance in a sample of 14 young adult patients of the MU Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders but had little to no effect on a group of 13 study participants who do not have autism. (scienceblog.com)
  • Ninety-seven children (age 6-10) completed a working memory task and an operant learning task, in which children acquired a response-sequence rule under either continuous or PRF (120 trials), followed by an extinction phase (80 trials). (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, some of the fundamental principles of BPT interventions have hardly been studied experimentally through basic operant learning paradigms in children. (frontiersin.org)
  • This comprehensive volume provides teachers, researchers and education professionals with cutting edge knowledge developed in the last decades by the educational, behavioural and neurosciences, integrating cognitive, developmental and socioeconomic approaches to deal with the problems children face in learning mathematics. (springer.com)
  • Working at UFMG since 1995, he heads the Laboratory for Developmental Neuropsychology and Número, a clinic for math learning difficuties. (springer.com)
  • It is also seen as distinct from more long-term memory stores not just on the basis of its duration but also on its ability to be actively terminated on task shifting ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Germane cognitive load is the mental effort required to process the task's information, make sense of it, and access and/or store it in long-term memory (for example, seeing a math problem, identifying the values and operations involved, and understanding that your task is to solve the math problem). (wikipedia.org)
  • Consolidation refers to the processing of memory traces during which "the traces may be reactivated, analysed and gradually incorporated into long-term memory" ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Information may only be stored in long term memory after first being attended to, and processed by, working memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, parts of long-term memory effectively function as working memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a similar vein, Cowan does not regard working memory as a separate system from long-term memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Representations in working memory are a subset of representations in long-term memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first consists of long-term memory representations that are activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • There can be many of these-there is theoretically no limit to the activation of representations in long-term memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-term memory, sleep, and the spacing effect. (yorku.ca)
  • Finally, the function of long-term memory is to store data through various categorical models or systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • A controlled trial of the efficacy of Cogmed, a five-week program designed to improve working memory, conducted at Ohio State University found that the software helped with some of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). (additudemag.com)
  • Illustration of atypical WM development in ADHD Control Working Memory ADHD 95 85 75 65 Correct 55 45 35 25 15 5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 12.5 13.5 14.5 15.5 Age WM development in childhood for individuals with ADHD from Westerberg et al. (slideshare.net)
  • Beginning with cognitive load theory as their motivating scientific premise, researchers such as Richard E. Mayer, John Sweller, and Roxana Moreno established within the scientific literature a set of multimedia instructional design principles that promote effective learning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, the multi-modal materials reduce the cognitive load imposed on working memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fundamental tenet of cognitive load theory is that the quality of instructional design will be raised if greater consideration is given to the role and limitations of working memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The history of cognitive load theory can be traced to the beginning of cognitive science in the 1950s and the work of G.A. Miller . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cognitive load theory provides a general framework and has broad implications for instructional design , by allowing instructional designers to control the conditions of learning within an environment or, more generally, within most instructional materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, it provides empirically-based guidelines that help instructional designers decrease extraneous cognitive load during learning and thus refocus the learner's attention toward germane materials, thereby increasing germane (schema related) cognitive load. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cognitive load while learning to use a computer program. (springer.com)
  • Working memory is known to be affected in the millions of people - about 1 percent of the population - who have schizophrenia, but it has been unclear whether that has a specific role in making learning more difficult, said study lead author and Brown University postdoctoral researcher Anne Collins. (eurekalert.org)
  • What the researchers found was that for both people with schizophrenia and for controls, the larger the image set size, the more trials it took to learn to press the correct button consistently for each image and the longer it took to react to each stimulus. (eurekalert.org)
  • EEG features derived by SVM are consistent with literature reports of gamma's role in memory encoding, engagement of theta during memory retention, and elevated resting low-frequency activity in schizophrenia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A recent study, not explic-it-ly con-cern-ing mem-o-ry, sheds some impor-tant light both on how we think and on the role of work-ing mem-o-ry in thought. (sharpbrains.com)
  • In one study, sub-jects were giv-en infor-ma-tion about the attrib-ut-es of four hypo-thet-i-cal cars, and they were to decide which was the best car, based on the attrib-ut-es assigned to each car. (sharpbrains.com)
  • To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some previous study papers have linked it with memory and neuroplasticity , or the brain's ability to continuously adapt throughout a person's life so as to preserve health and cognitive function. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The study found that serotonin enhances the speed of learning," explains study co-author Zachary Mainen, from the CCU. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In another study, 29 percent of workers reported falling asleep or coming close to it while at work. (inc.com)
  • The purpose of this pilot study was to further provide evidence for the existence of multiple systems of category learning. (ucf.edu)
  • This study showed that a one-semester mindfulness meditation course was able to improve learning effectiveness and both attention and memory aspects of cognitive performance among Taiwanese university students. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to explore the effects of a mindfulness meditation course on learning and cognitive performance among Taiwanese university students. (hindawi.com)
  • This study evaluated a new Integrated Science Learning Environment (ISLE) that bridged the gaps between the traditionally separate classroom, field trip, and information technology milieus. (edu.au)
  • As more is understood about memory in general, current theories are likely to be refined, and possibly joined by other theories that take the study of working memory into completely new directions. (wisegeek.com)
  • A neuristor itself is comprised in part of devices called memristors inspired by the way human neurons work. (ecnmag.com)
  • More specifically, it appears to contribute to the speed at which we learn new information, as the researchers explain in a paper now published in the journal Nature Communications . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The Handbook of Research Methods in Human Memory presents a collection of chapters on methodology used by researchers in investigating human memory. (routledge.com)
  • Researchers at Children's Hospital Boston and around the world are working to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind NF1 in order to develop more effective treatments and a cure. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Those findings, the researchers say, suggest that the two systems aren't working independently. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers do not recommend that doctors prescribe propranolol solely to improve working memory in individuals with an ASD, but patients who already take the prescription drug might benefit. (scienceblog.com)
  • The alignment of the dissertation and the CE in terms of preparing students as researchers in today?s environment or for innovative work outside the academy is in question. (mitacs.ca)
  • Mice with a global knockout of β-arrestin2 exhibited impaired memory reconsolidation in ORM, Morris water maze, and cocaine-conditioned place preference experiments. (sciencemag.org)
  • The experiments by Klingberg and others suggested that working memory could be markedly increased through training, the same way that sit-ups create stronger abs-and, more importantly, that the training could bring broad benefits, the way weight training can make a person a better all-around athlete. (newyorker.com)
  • If so, it might be a matter of a great importance to supplement the motivational methods of an educational support with a kind of working memory training (which appeared to be efficient according to many scientific reports published in the last ten years). (iated.org)
  • Apart from bringing the theoretical discussions to educational settings, the volume presents a wide range of methods for early detection of children with risks in mathematics learning and strategies to develop effective interventions based on innovative cognitive test instruments. (springer.com)
  • This book explores the methods that are currently available in various areas of human memory research and serves as a reference manual to help guide readers' own research. (routledge.com)
  • The invention is directed to methods for increasing learning and memory in a subject with a neuropathological condition, specifically a condition related to elevated beta-amyloid deposition, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound capable of increasing the. (google.com)