Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Medicine, Kampo: System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.History of MedicineClinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Medicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.Complementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.Integrative Medicine: The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Environmental Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.Medicine, Korean Traditional: Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people of KOREA.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Social Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.Work Capacity Evaluation: Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Sleep Medicine Specialty: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.United StatesQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Return to Work: Resumption of normal work routine following a hiatus or period of absence due to injury, disability, or other reasons.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.Philosophy, MedicalDefensive Medicine: The alterations of modes of medical practice, induced by the threat of liability, for the principal purposes of forestalling lawsuits by patients as well as providing good legal defense in the event that such lawsuits are instituted.Oral Medicine: A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Disaster Medicine: Branch of medicine involved with management and organization of public health response to disasters and major events including the special health and medical needs of a community in a disaster.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of nuclear medicine services.Homeopathy: A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Medicine in ArtPharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Behavioral Medicine: The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Medicine, Arabic: Traditional Arabic methods used in medicine in the ARAB WORLD.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Nobel PrizePhysician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Great BritainCanada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Venereology: A branch of medicine which deals with sexually transmitted disease.Herb-Drug Interactions: The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Naturopathy: A drugless system of therapy, making use of physical forces such as air, light, water, heat, massage. Treatments are often diet- and nutrition-oriented with attention given to the patient's personal history and lifestyle. (From Cassileth, Alternative Medicine Handbook, 1998, p329)Molecular Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with understanding the biochemical basis of health and disease and involved in developing diagnostic and therapeutic methods that utilize MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Spiritual Therapies: Mystical, religious, or spiritual practices performed for health benefit.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Qi: The vital life force in the body, supposedly able to be regulated by acupuncture. It corresponds roughly to the Greek pneuma, the Latin spiritus, and the ancient Indian prana. The concept of life-breath or vital energy was formulated as an indication of the awareness of man, originally directed externally toward nature or society but later turned inward to the self or life within. (From Comparison between Concepts of Life-Breath in East and West, 15th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - East and West, August 26-September 3, 1990, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. ix-x)Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Rehabilitation: Restoration of human functions to the maximum degree possible in a person or persons suffering from disease or injury.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Acupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Physician Executives: Physicians who serve in a medical and administrative capacity as head of an organized medical staff and who also may serve as liaison for the medical staff with the administration and governing board.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Medicine, Tibetan Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Tibetan culture.Yin-Yang: In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Hospitalists: Physicians who are employed to work exclusively in hospital settings, primarily for managed care organizations. They are the attending or primary responsible physician for the patient during hospitalization.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Western World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Travel Medicine: Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.Licensure, Medical: The granting of a license to practice medicine.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Mind-Body Relations, Metaphysical: The relation between the mind and the body in a religious, social, spiritual, behavioral, and metaphysical context. This concept is significant in the field of alternative medicine. It differs from the relationship between physiologic processes and behavior where the emphasis is on the body's physiology ( = PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Organotherapy: Historically, the treatment of disease by the administration of animal organs or their extracts (after Brown-Sequard). At present synthetic preparations substitute for the extracts of a gland. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Libraries, MedicalMedical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
This article deals with Childbirth in Japan, and the specific details of childbirth exclusive to Japan in relation to beliefs, attitudes and healthcare. Legend attributes the creation of Japan to a sun goddess from whom the original emperors are said to be descended beginning in 660 BC. Japan was, for the next one thousand years, a largely heterogeneous culture with diverse regional social patterns. Contact with Korea and China during this time brought aspects of both cultures to Japan, including rules of rank and etiquette, the Chinese calendar, astronomy, and a healing system based on traditional Chinese medicine. Military dictators, or shoguns, ruled for roughly the next seven hundred years, culminating in military reunification, and widespread implementation of civil order consistent with the ethos of the samurai class, e.g. rules of loyalty, social hierarchy, and filial piety. Western attempts at trade with Japan were largely unsuccessful until 1853 when an American fleet led by ...
Traces of therapeutic activities in China date from the Shang dynasty (14th-11th centuries BCE).[17] Though the Shang did not have a concept of "medicine" as distinct from other fields,[17] their oracular inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells refer to illnesses that affected the Shang royal family: eye disorders, toothaches, bloated abdomen, etc.,[17][18] which Shang elites usually attributed to curses sent by their ancestors.[17] There is no evidence that the Shang nobility used herbal remedies.[17] According to a 2006 overview, the "Documentation of Chinese materia medica (CMM) dates back to around 1,100 BCE when only dozens of drugs were first described. By the end of the 16th century, the number of drugs documented had reached close to 1,900. And by the end of the last century, published records of CMM had reached 12,800 drugs."[19]. Stone and bone needles found in ancient tombs led Joseph Needham to speculate that acupuncture might have been carried out in the Shang dynasty.[20][21] ...
... is a species of tree in the family Rutaceae, commonly called the Amur cork tree. It is a major source of huáng bò (Chinese: 黄柏 or 黄檗), one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine. The Ainu people used this plant, called shikerebe-ni, as a painkiller. Native to eastern Asia; northern China, northeast China, Korea, Ussuri, Amur, and Japan, the Amur cork tree is considered invasive in many parts of North America. The State of Massachusetts lists it as a noxious weed. It has been used as a Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of meningitis, bacillary dysentery, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and liver cirrhosis. Used orally to treat abdominal pain, diarrhoea, gastroenteritis and urinary tract infections. Berberine has been shown to be effective for the treatment of bacterially-induced diarrhoea and ocular trachoma. and cutaneous leishmaniasis Phellodendron amurense may protect cartilage against osteoarthritis progression. It may prove to ...
... (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine as "the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness". In some Asian and African countries, up to 80% of the population relies on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. When adopted outside its traditional culture, traditional medicine is often called alternative medicine. Practices known as traditional medicines include Ayurveda, Siddha medicine, Unani, ancient ...
... is a term found in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), as part of the modelling of the workings of the human body attempted by early Chinese medical writers. References to it can be found in the oldest Chinese medical texts available, including the Huangdi Neijing. The identification of disease according to the Three Burners was first described in the Qing dynasty by Wu Jutong (吳鞠通, 1758-1836) in his book A Systematic Identification of Febrile Diseases.[citation needed].. This system is used within the practice of Chinese herbal medicine, in conjunction with acupuncture and other Chinese medicine (TCM) modalities.[citation needed] Note that the San Jiao theory differs slightly from the San Jiao organ, or channel [(Shou Shao Yang, san jiao jing)]; referred to additionally as "Triple Heater", San Jiao, and "Triple Burner". Viewed by Chinese Medicine as the passage of heat and fluid throughout the body, Elementary ...
... , the shrubby sophora, is a species of plant in the genus Sophora a genus of the Fabaceae family, that contains about 52 species, nineteen varieties, and seven forms that are widely distributed in Asia, Oceanica, and the Pacific islands.About fifteen species in this genus have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicines. The root is known as Ku shen and is a commonly-used traditional Chinese medicine. Sophora flavescens is an evergreen slow growing shrub growing to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) by 1 m (3.3 ft). It is hardy to 0-10 °F (−18 - −12 °C) and to US zone 6. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil. Like many other species in the Fabaceae family, this species can fix nitrogen.[citation needed] Sophorae injection can reduce the toxicity and adverse effects caused by chemotherapy [non-primary ...
From the earliest records regarding the use of medicinals to today, the toxicity of certain substances has been described in all Chinese materia medica.[31] Since TCM has become more popular in the Western world, there are increasing concerns about the potential toxicity of many traditional Chinese medicinals including plants, animal parts and minerals.[6] For most medicinals, efficacy and toxicity testing are based on traditional knowledge rather than laboratory analysis.[6] The toxicity in some cases could be confirmed by modern research (i.e., in scorpion); in some cases it could not (i.e., in Curculigo).[32] Further, ingredients may have different names in different locales or in historical texts, and different preparations may have similar names for the same reason, which can create inconsistencies and confusion in the creation of medicinals,[33] with the possible danger of poisoning.[34][35][36] Edzard Ernst "concluded that adverse effects of herbal medicines are an important albeit ...
Strictly speaking, enthalpy is a function of both temperature and density. However, invoking the common assumption of a calorically perfect gas, enthalpy can be converted directly into temperature as given above, which enables one to define a stagnation temperature in terms of the more fundamental property, stagnation enthalpy. Stagnation properties (e.g. stagnation temperature, stagnation pressure) are useful in jet engine performance calculations. In engine operations, stagnation temperature is often called total air temperature. A bimetallic thermocouple is often used to measure stagnation temperature, but allowances for thermal radiation must be made. ...
... , or chemical genomics, is the systematic screening of targeted chemical libraries of small molecules against individual drug target families (e.g., GPCRs, nuclear receptors, kinases, proteases, etc.) with the ultimate goal of identification of novel drugs and drug targets. Typically some members of a target library have been well characterized where both the function has been determined and compounds that modulate the function of those targets (ligands in the case of receptors, inhibitors of enzymes, or blockers of ion channels) have been identified. Other members of the target family may have unknown function with no known ligands and hence are classified as orphan receptors. By identifying screening hits that modulate the activity of the less well characterized members of the target family, the function of these novel targets can be elucidated. Furthermore, the hits for these targets can be used as a starting point for drug discovery. The completion of the human genome project ...
... status (SHS), or subhealth or sub-health(Chinese: 亚健康), can be defined as a state characterized by some disturbances in psychological behaviors or physical characteristics, or in some indices of medical examination, with no typical pathologic features. It is considered as a therapeutic working concept which defines an intermediate stage between health and disease, which is not quite either status. Human persons who are sub-healthy have any of a range of uncomfortable symptoms but without any obvious and diagnosable illnesses which can be identified through standard medical observation methods. This concept was first presented as "the third state" by the scholar of former Soviet Union, Berkman, in the mid-1980s. It is also interpreted as different terms like "intermediate state", "grey state" or "a general malaise". Sub-health is a term which is widely used by Chinese people, or in connection with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Some feel that the notion of SHS has ...
... (born 11 May 1931), also known as Xiwen (Chinese: 席文), is an American author, scholar, sinologist, historian, essayist, and currently professor emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania. He resides in Philadelphia with his wife, the artist Carole Sivin. The major areas of study and focus in Nathan Sivin's career and written publications have been in the history of science and technology in China, Traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese philosophy, and Chinese religious beliefs. He speaks four different foreign languages and has traveled abroad to many countries, on four continents, numerous times since the 1960s. In his written works he has also collaborated with many other prominent scholars, such as G.E.R. Lloyd, A.C. Graham and Joseph Needham. From 1954 until 1956, Sivin was enrolled in an 18-month language program for Chinese at the U.S. Army Language School. He then went on to receive his Bachelor of Science degree in humanities with a chemistry minor at the ...
A pressure point (Chinese: 穴位; Japanese: kyūsho 急所 "vital point, tender spot";[1] Sinhala: නිල/මර්ම ස්ථාන Nila/Marma Sthana (in Angampora); Telugu: మర్మ స్థానం Marma Sthanam; Malayalam: മര്‍മ്മം marmam; Tamil: வர்மம் varmam) derives from the meridian points in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Indian Ayurveda and Siddha medicine, and the field of martial arts, and refers to an area on the human body that may produce significant pain or other effects when manipulated in a specific manner.[2] The concept of pressure points spread through the Tamil martial art called Varma kalai, which is a martial art that concentrates on the body's pressure points.[3][4] The concept of pressure points is also present in the old school Japanese martial arts; in a 1942 article in the Shin Budo magazine, Takuma Hisa asserted the existence of a tradition attributing the first development of pressure-point attacks to Shinra Saburō ...
The meridian network is typically divided into 2 categories, the jingmai (經脈) or meridian channels and the luomai (絡脈) or associated vessels (sometimes called "collaterals"). The jingmai contain the 12 tendinomuscular meridians, the 12 divergent meridians, the 12 principal meridians, the 8 extraordinary vessels as well as the Huato channel, a set of bilateral points on the lower back whose discovery is attributed to the ancient physician Hua Tuo. The collaterals contain 15 major arteries that connect the 12 principal meridians in various ways, in addition to the interaction with their associated internal organs and other related internal structures. The collateral system also incorporates a branching expanse of capillary-like vessels which spread throughout the body, namely in the 12 cutaneous regions as well as emanating from each point on the principal meridians. If one counts the number of unique points on each meridian, the total comes to 361, which matches the number of days in a ...

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