Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Myocardial Bridging: A malformation that is characterized by a muscle bridge over a segment of the CORONARY ARTERIES. Systolic contractions of the muscle bridge can lead to narrowing of coronary artery; coronary compression; MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Denture, Partial, Fixed: A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.Structure Collapse: Failure in built environment with loss of functional integrity.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Denture Design: The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Denture, Partial: A denture replacing one or more (but not all) natural teeth. It is supported and retained by underlying tissue and some or all of the remaining teeth.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectDimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Scorpions: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Poetry as Topic: Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Spinal Cord Regeneration: Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Denture, Partial, Fixed, Resin-Bonded: A commonly used prosthesis that results in a strong, permanent restoration. It consists of an electrolytically etched cast-metal retainer that is cemented (bonded), using resins, to adjacent teeth whose enamel was previously acid-treated (acid-etched). This type of bridgework is sometimes referred to as a Maryland bridge.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Bacterial: The large subunit of the eubacterial 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 37 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.PeptidoglycanConserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Trypsin Inhibitors: Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Cardiovascular Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Crystallography: The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.MercaptoethanolEscherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.Heart, Artificial: A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Lysostaphin: A 25-kDa peptidase produced by Staphylococcus simulans which cleaves a glycine-glcyine bond unique to an inter-peptide cross-bridge of the STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS cell wall. EC 3.4.24.75.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Physical Conditioning, Human: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Bacterial: The small subunit of eubacterial RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 23 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Iodoacetamide: An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.Hydrangeaceae: A plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Dithionitrobenzoic Acid: A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.Indole-3-Glycerol-Phosphate Synthase: An enzyme in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway. EC 4.1.1.48.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Malate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Shock, Cardiogenic: Shock resulting from diminution of cardiac output in heart disease.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Dental Abutments: Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Sulfhydryl Reagents: Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Coronary Vessel Anomalies: Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.Assisted Circulation: Pumping that aids the natural activity of the heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).PhenanthrolinesCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Temporary steel and wooden bridges carried surface traffic above the construction. The 7,700 workers who built the original ... The thirty original stations as part of the ESI would be rebuilt for $881 million, the two Penn Station stops would be rebuilt ... They were the 23rd Street and the Brooklyn Bridge-City Hall stations. The Help Points at the Brooklyn Bridge-City Hall station ... This will require new rolling stock to be built for the subway system, as only newer trains can use CBTC systems. Trains using ...
A bridge was built across the river in Caledonia and Seneca in 1842. These wooden bridges lasted around 19 years before they ... The Seneca bridge was never rebuilt. As of 2011, the Grand River Bridge built in 1927 serves Caledonia's traffic. In 1844, ... The toll house was there when the original iron bridge collapsed and the new concrete one (still used today) was built. Hockey ... Completed in 1840, the dams made water power available. Mills sprung up all over Seneca village, and five mills were built in ...
... and the building of railway and tram lines. In 1869-1872 the north-eastern fortifications were rebuilt to allow the building of ... In 1875-1877 wooden bridges were mostly replaced with steel, and the gates in the fortifications were also strengthened. Ritter ... Große Schleuse ("Great Lock"), a weir also serving as a bridge, built on the main branch of the Warta in 1829-1832, just to the ... South of Fort III a weir was built on the Cybina. A peacetime powder store was built on the Warsaw road near Fort IIIa, as well ...
In 1970 a new bridge was built on the site of the old wooden bridge to cater for heavier traffic on the Hamilton Highway, the ... It was again rebuilt in wood in 1848, and was damaged by flood in 1852 and later repaired. A bluestone bridge was built in 1859 ... The river features several historic bridges, many built in colonial bluestone. Batesford was originally the site of a ford over ... The first wooden bridge was built downriver from the ford by the Shire of Corio and Shire of Bannockburn in 1854, and was ...
The Reussbrücke at Bremgarten was first built c. 1270, first mentioned 1281 (wooden bridge rebuilt 1953-1957). From Bremgarten ... Notable bridges in Lucerne are the Kapellbrücke, first built 1333, rebuilt 1993 and Spreuerbrücke, built 1408. A needle dam ... and only one new bridge was built, commissioned by Zug, at Sins (1640). New bridges were built only after the collapse of the ... Because ferries and bridges were a source of income, the construction of new crossings was opposed during the early modern ...
The bridge was originally made of wood and completed by the middle of December 1870, but was rebuilt between 1880 and 1881, ... This prompted the railroad to coat its rail ties with tin while replacing its wooden bridges with ones made of stone. The ... Originally made of wood, the bridge was accidentally set on fire in 1880 by ashes or sparks from a passing train. ... bridge's original abutments were made of Shawangunk conglomerate. It was rebuilt in 1912, and crosses the Plattekill Creek at a ...
This covered bridge included a pedestrian sidewalk on the southeast side. 1925 - Construction of new wooden covered bridge on ... In 1912, PN Chaillez of Saint-Stanislas has built a first toll bridge on the Batiscan River. 1923 - Arrival of electricity. The ... It was erected on the rue de la Chapelle, then was rebuilt on Main Street. 1929 - Founding of the People's Fund. 1937 - The ... In the story, on the west bank a small village formed around covered bridges spanning the Batiscan River and Pierre-Paul River ...
The Port Deposit Bridge, a wooden covered bridge, was built just north of Port Deposit between 1817 and 1818. Put into service ... for bridges. The general area had been the site for granite quarrying before the bridge was constructed as there was use of ... Rebuilt after a span burned in 1823, it remained in service until 1857. An 4 acres (16,000 m2) site at the north end of Port ... The first attempts to bridge the Susquehanna in Maryland were made by the Port Deposit Bridge Company, incorporated in 1808. ...
... is a wooden bridge in central Stockholm, Sweden, connecting the two islands Djurgården and Beckholmen. Originally built in 1848 ... List of bridges in Stockholm Djurgårdsbron Djurgårdsbrunnsbron Lilla Sjötullsbron Steffner, Lena (2006-02-22). "Detaljplan för ... It was repaired several times before the Royal Djurgården Administration had it rebuilt in 1992. The Stockholm City Museum have ... The current name was made official in 1961. After its completion in 1862 the bridge gradually started to rot and was finally ...
The wooden bridge of 1252 was swept away in a flood seven years later and was rebuilt in stone; this structure was in turn ... Stone arch bridges. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. TCI Firenze e Dintorni, eo. loc. "Tramvia comes to Florence. Florence builds ... A Bailey bridge was built for temporary use by the Royal engineers. The bridge was reconstructed in 1958 with original stones ... The two neighbouring bridges are the Ponte Vecchio, to the east, and the Ponte alla Carraia to the west. The bridge was ...
Thereafter the structure was known as Benning's Bridge (or Benning Bridge). The wooden bridge was rebuilt several times after ... In 1805, local landowner Benjamin Stoddert built a wooden bridge over the Anacostia River at the present site of Benning Bridge ... This included construction of a steel bridge in 1892. The construction of Benning and other bridges and the diversion of ... of marsh north of Benning Bridge and 7 acres (2.8 ha) of marsh between Benning Bridge and East Capitol Street Bridge. Work on ...
Thereafter the structure was known as Benning's Bridge (or Benning Bridge). The wooden bridge was rebuilt several times after ... local landowner Benjamin Stoddert built a wooden bridge over the Anacostia River at the present site of Ethel Kennedy Bridge. ... This included construction of a steel bridge in 1892. The construction of Benning and other bridges and the diversion of ... 4 (4 acres (1.6 ha) in size). In 1934, Benning Bridge was rebuilt as a beam bridge on concrete piers. That same year, the Corps ...
Clarence Avenue/Heath Street bridge with railway running beneath the bridge over the ravine. This wooden bridge was condemned ... Wooden bridges had deteriorated. Adjacent home-owners had extended their back yards onto the right-of-way. There were municipal ... The railway never made a profit. There were a number of reasons for this - the fare prices were too high at the time (5 cents ... switch connecting the spur to the unloading siding was removed when the Mount Pleasant bridge over the Belt Line was rebuilt in ...
... where an enormous bridge had to be built. The first wooden bridge failed when the Chagres rose by over 40 feet (12 m) in a day ... Over 300 bridges and culverts needed to be built along the route. It was built and financed by private companies from the ... Many of the early locomotives were built by the Portland Company. All were five foot gauge. In the 2001 rebuild, most rolling ... Nearly all this equipment was built by new, extensive machine-building technology developed and made in the United States by ...
It was built in 2009 and located at Chen Bei Bridge. The park includes the rebuilt wooden gate outpost on top of the original ... The garden was built in 1924 with stone foot paths and bridges bordering and crossing over the lake system. A variety of ... At the 2010 census, its population was 2,893,542 inhabitants, of whom 757,165 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of ... It was built in 2009. The park is open every day. A popular destination for local residents after dinner, the lengthy route ...
A strong wind allowed the fire to spread from building to building, and the wooden bridges allowed the fire to cross the river ... and the money was used to build a stone bridge across the river. The remains of this bridge can still be seen beneath the river ... Following the fire the city was rebuilt. After the fire the rules that had required that there be no new stone buildings were ... and the desperate need for houses created an abundance of new wooden buildings. The buildings had to be built of wood as the ...
... was constructed as a wooden swing bridge in 1892 by Pierce County. The wooden bridge was replaced in 1905 after the timber ... Historic Highway Bridges of the Evergreen State, Washington State University Press, ISBN 0-87422-281-8 Washington State ... pilings collapsed and rebuilt in 1920 to include a steel swing span. The current two-lane hollow box girder span was opened on ... 170-171, retrieved February 12, 2013 Lawrence, Michael (August 1993), Purdy Bridge (Purdy Spit Bridge) - HAER No. WA-101 (PDF ...
Historically, the bridge was a simple wooden bridge crossing a clogged canal. When the canal was rebuilt in 1864, a 34.5-metre- ... steel swing bridge replaced the old bridge. A 12-metre-wide (39 ft) concrete bridge resting on concrete arches built in 1956 ... ISBN 91-38-08725-1. List of bridges in Stockholm Sankt Eriksbron Barnhusbron Essingeleden Coordinates: 59°20′26.60″N 18°00′ ... Ekelundsbron (Swedish: "The Ekelund Bridge") is a bridge in Stockholm, Sweden. Passing over the canal Karlbergskanalen, it ...
Seton also built an arched and stone built bridge that survived the flood and replaced the Wooden bridges that had been rebuilt ... The bridge, now only used by walkers, helped make possible, or so it was reported an excellent line of road, from Shian Ferry ... Eventually 32 were built with 41 Manses built. Thomas Telford, the Scottish civil engineer, architect and stonemason, and a ... Retaining walls and embankments were constructed at a cost of around £150. They were so robustly built, that they remained in ...
The first 360- arched stone bridge built between 1424-1427 wasn't found satisfactory, thereby destructed and rebuilt by Murad ... against Gallipoli because of the flood caused by the heavy rain at that time and collapse of the temporary wooden bridges ... building to a museum by a restoration. The museum building which is a historical artifact on its own, was constructed as a ... The mosque was built with one minaret with a balcony and a wooden porch inside as a conclusion of the tradition and the ...
The wooden bridges that cross the river have existed since 1817. The first was a cadet bridge, which was originally located ... The Zhdanovsky bridge number 2 was built in 1939 for the passage to the sports center in place. Zhdanovsky bridge number 1 was ... this segment was rebuilt with a high granite wall. The project engineer was G.S. Yakovleva, and the architect was L.A. Noskov. ... A wooden wall in ruins on the left bank preserves the lower Little Petrovsky Bridge. The first section of shore protection was ...
During the Civil War further defences were constructed by the royalists consisting of a wooden barricade mounted on the bridge ... The current lines were constructed between 1858 and 1871. They included special fortified bridges for road and rail access. A ... It was rebuilt in 1688 and again in 1746. ... In 1938 a bridge was built across the boating lake section of ... The Parliamentarians then constructed their own defences of at the site of the bridge consisting of two mounds on which a total ...
... the town's mill and wooden bridge. The river was diverted and the town rebuilt on higher ground. Congleton became notorious in ... The United Reformed Church (Independent/ Congregationalist) was built in 1790 on Mill Street, and then rebuilt in 1876 on ... The canal is renowned for its elegant roving bridges, locally known as 'Snaily Bridges'. Congleton is one of few places in ... the Primitive Methodist Chapel was built in 1821 on Lawton Street, and rebuilt in 1890 on Kinsey Street; the Countess of ...
... was built on the island. From early times wooden bridges linked the island to the riverbanks on either side, the Grand Pont ( ... The first bridge rebuilt in stone (in 1378) was at the site of the present Pont Saint-Michel, but ice floes carried it away ... Floods destroyed the bridge at intervals, the last houses being removed in 1809, and the present bridge was constructed in 1857 ... The oldest surviving bridge is the Pont Neuf ('New Bridge'), which lies at the western end of the island. The island has one ...
Tuckton Bridge, first opened in 1883 as a wooden structure, had to be rebuilt in 1905 to take the weight of the trams, and the ... The latter being built into the bridge. In advance of the northern line of defences, stood a lone, brick built pillbox which ... the only land approaches to the town were across two bridges, and one of these was frequently out of use. The other could ... and pillboxes were built on islands near the town bridge, covering the Avon and near Tuckton bridge covering the Stour. The ...
BridgesEdit. *Vietnam Veterans Memorial Bridge: Built in 1973 to commemorate the veterans of the Vietnam War. It connects ... Michael Little built a large wooden sawmill next to the falls. Burned in 1814 by an arsonist, it was later rebuilt. In 1836, ... In the mini-series, the hospital is built on the site of a textile mill which made military uniforms during the Civil War, ... Modula - System Logistics: An engineering and manufacturing company which designs and builds automated storage equipment used ...
The western arch was eventually rebuilt in 1780, making it round-headed. An early 19th-century engraving shows that although ... the bridge was of stone it had no parapets; only wooden railings. In 1886 the bridge was widened on its downstream (south) side ... ISBN 978-0-19722-728-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Jervoise, Edwyn (1932). The Ancient Bridges of Mid and ... The earliest record of the bridge is of work carried out on it in 1312. It is not clear whether it was built at this time, or ...
This 137-metre-long suspension bridge draws hundreds of thousands of visitors each year and is one of Vancouvers most popular ... Due to its height, people with vertigo may want to skip the opportunity to walk over this narrow bridge. ... The Capilano Suspension Bridge sways 70 metres above the Capilano River. ... To connect the two sides, he built a suspension bridge with hemp rope and wooden planks. The materials were transported to the ...
Bridges . Sturdy wooden bridges had been built from the earliest days of the colonies. But wooden bridges could span narrow ... For example, because a destroyed bridge might block a vital harbor mouth, bridges were not built over strategic harbor ... where winter ice would destroy the supports, and bridges were constantly being rebuilt. ... constructed, repaired or improved 124,031 bridges; erected 125,110 public buildings; created 8,192 parks; built or improved 853 ...
The bridge connects the two banks of the Dahan River and is located just below the Zhongzheng Park in the Daxi district of ... Live PTZ webcam shows different views of the Daxi Bridge and its surroundings in real time. ... Initially, the bridge was bamboo-wooden, but then it was rebuilt twice due to damage caused by typhoons. The last repair was ... The bridge was built in 1934 in the Baroque style, similar to the buildings on the Daxi Old Street. ...
... where an enormous bridge had to be built. The first wooden bridge failed when the Chagres rose by over 40 feet (12 m) in a day ... 1904-12 rebuild: Panama Canal building and afterward[edit]. In 1904 the United States took over the license to build and ... They now had the job of making things permanent and upgrading the railway. Hastily erected wooden bridges that quickly rotted ... Nearly all this equipment was built by new, extensive machine-building technology developed and made in the United States by ...
The bridge was rebuilt in 1991.[112] Betchworth Bridge. 495TQ212495. Road. Single track bridge built in 1842 and refurbished in ... Original wooden Victorian bridge replaced by a stone parapet bridge in 1907 and the present concrete bridge dates from 1965.[98 ... There are three listed bridges in Leatherhead of which the 14 arch Leatherhead Town Bridge is the oldest.[87] The first bridge ... Young Street Bridge. 552TQ164552. Road. A246. Concrete girder bridge.[104] Pressforward Bridge. 544TQ168544. Road. Built c. ...
... giving the bridge its name. Later the bridge was rebuilt in stone a number of times before the current bridge was constructed ... The first wooden bridge was built in 1617 with an overlooking fort on the site of Malone House. The fort and possibly the ... Passing under the new and old bridges, follow the riverside path past the three meadows back to Minnowburn Bridge. Cross the ... From the brown wooden Gilchrist Bridge the village can be reached by continuing past the bridge and taking the path off to the ...
9) The toll bridge, still of timber, was rebuilt in 1969. (fn. 10) For a time in the 19th century there was a ferry for foot ... The vestry, also on the north side, was rebuilt in 1866. (fn. 131) A gallery across the west end of the church was built by the ... 7) It was replaced by a wooden toll bridge in 1792, and in the following year the Selby to Market Weighton road was turnpiked. ... By 1841 there were three terraces of cottages facing the river near the bridges; (fn. 21) they had been demolished by 1973. ...
Houkeng bridge, 2006. China, Zhejiang province, Qingyuan county. First built before 1671; rebuilt 2002 ... Ronald Knapps article centres on the mysterious architecture of the wooden `rainbow bridge in the famous Song dynasty ... painting Qingming shanghe tu, and presents examples of recently discovered bridges in southeast China that reveal a similar ... Was Carved Lacquer Ever Manufactured at Guoyuanchang? An Examination of Textual and Material Sources ...
... progress in European bridge building slowed considerably until the Renaissance. Fine bridges sporadically appeared, however. ... Medieval bridges served many purposes. Chapels and shops were commonly built on them, and many were fortified with towers and ... The most famous bridge of that age was Old London Bridge, begun in the late 12th ... Medieval bridges are particularly noted for the ogival, or pointed arch. With the pointed arch the tendency to sag at the crown ...
In fact, one bridge 800 feet long over Knik River must be rebuilt this year and another bridge 640 feet long over Matanuska ... A considerable number of wooden bridges have been replaced with steel bridges, and a great number of the approaches and ... The need is to get these resources started to produce, and any appropriation that is made for that purpose will be money well ... 185, 591 Estimated capital expenditures, 1938-Roadway and structures and equipment Replace wooden Howe truss bridge over Knik ...
... while dozens of bridges have been either improved or rebuilt. In round figures 6,000 feet of wooden bridges havo been-replaced ... and lathe Constructs a bridge of size. - ���������New York Sun. One. thing utout the dentist makes Us mad as all creation; He ... It is made of solid brass, nickel-plated, Itiscusy to lii-rht, easy to clean, ensy to rewfclc. At dealers everywhere, Made in ... Hell tako a great pile of five and ten and twenty dollar bills and make his Sogers fly just like ligiitning, and never make a ...
He replaced early foot logs and crude bridges across the South Fork with an open pony-truss wooden bridge in 1868; though ... Following a flood in 1862, Mariposa Countians subscribed $300 for trail maintenance, and Clark himself rebuilt two bridges the ... In 1856, he built a horse trail from the Manns route into the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias.4 To attract more visitors to ... Relocation of the road also necessitated construction of a new bridge to replace the wooden covered bridge over the South Fork ...
Building the Alaska Highway. There is also a model replica of the Kiskatinaw Bridge, the longest curved wooden bridge in North ... It collapsed in 1957 and was rebuilt in 1959. In 1957, Canadas first natural gas pipeline was constructed from Taylor to the ... Canyon Creek Bridge at km 1579.5 is a replica of one of the original bridges ... The bridge over the Teslin River is the third longest on the Alaska Highway. It was built almost 100ft above the river to allow ...
Collapsing wooden bridges, rickety railroads, and exploding steamboat boilers were common. Though American inventions at the ... Now in the 1980s, Mikhail Gorbachev, as determined as Lenin once was to rebuild the Soviet Union as a modern nation based on ... It could be a bridge for a lasting creative dialogue between two nations of builders. ... They built a complex of canals around the falls and dam that made possible unbroken navigation on the Dnieper from northern ...
But, at some point, shed made the choice to rebuild herself as the perfect weapon-the way people will in law and finance who ... The train would go over the half-broken wooden bridge and the old man would cover his mouth in worry. ... There were four bridges: two of wood, two of rusted iron. And the river that ran beneath them went all over the landscape, ... "Ha ha ha, I make joke," I said, letting B-flat-minor roll up two octaves and back down, playing legato, making sure each note ...
The word bridge in this communitys name comes from the corridors and bridges that connect the seven buildings. ... She wasnt very successful, however, as the wooden door that connected the two rooms was made of very thick wood. ... The two buildings will be connected by an underground rail link and the tubular passageways, one of which will be rebuilt to ... In 1958, for example, there was universal praise for the building of the Mackinac Bridge which connects the lower and upper ...
The boy knelt gracefully atop a floating wooden door like a surfer poised to catch a wave. But this was no blue ocean.He was ... It was approaching eviction day at the place known as the C-4 bridge. The 13 families who have long made their wooden homes in ... There, they will be allowed to rebuild.. "Its grim work, uprooting these lives," said Gordon, who will move hundreds of ... For years, officials have waged periodic efforts to clear the bridges. But the spans always fill with new residents. ...
Not far from Xewtown a bridge of five arches, known as " Sir Thomass Bridge," spans the Suir. It was built by Sir Thomas ... the Suir is crossed by a remarkably long wooden bridge, -which rests upon an island in the middle of the river. This bridge ... The Fitzgeralds built a castle upon this island in the twelfth century. It has been rebuilt and restored by the present owner, ... " ("The Bountiful"), was long remembered as a Builder of Bridges, as well as a giver of feasts, in the fifteenth century. In ...
And its not exactly brand-new; this 3/4-mile-long teak bridge was built more than 200 years ago. More than 1,000 wooden posts ... However, due to its draw as a popular adventure-travel activity, the bridge is likely to be rebuilt. ... Trift Suspension Bridge, Switzerland One of the Alps longest and highest pedestrian suspension bridges, Trift was built in ... Stats: These bridges are built by hand by local residents and vary from town to town. Newer ones are made of concrete. ...
The Avenue was crossed at the far end by a wooden bridge over a wide dyke on which several swans and sometimes cygnets swam ... alterations have been made to the interior to make it suitable for a school of 300 boys. The boys can make the three-mile ... The first mention of a bridge was in1265, and later constructions were in 1437, 1653 and 1884. The early bridges were probably ... Some years ago the old farmhouse had burnt down and Bell was slowly rebuilding it. In February 1939 he purchased the farm for ...
But by 1889 four iron bridges had been built near that town and another at Hochheim; the Thomaston iron bridge was erected in ... The railroad from Victoria to Indianola was destroyed in 1863, but was rebuilt by the federal government in 1866. This line, ... a wooden truss near Cuero. ... A courthouse was constructed at Cameron, but in the next four ... Germans made up almost 86 percent of the total foreign nativity. But the amount of land under cultivation had dropped to 22,884 ...
Bridge as a Transition to a New Life (Part 2) Bridge as a Place of Connections Between People (Part 3) Bridge as a Place of ... Death (Part 4) Bridge as a Place of Danger (Part 5) Bridge as Transition to D... ... The Bridge in Cinema By Chale Nafus Table of Contents Introduction (Part 1) ... In the French version, at one point, the trucks must be backed up onto an incomplete wooden bridge in order to make a sharp ...
Osaka Castle is another of the citys landmarks, built in the 16th century by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. A modern museum now waits ... Dotombori Bridge bathes in the multicoloured, jewel-like lights of signage-plastered buildings, and the neon lights dance on ... The Togetsukyo Bridge (lit. Moon Crossing Bridge) is Arashiyamas most iconic landmark. It was originally built during the ... and the temple building itself is the largest existing wooden structure in the world. The present temple building was ...
Historic covered bridges in the eastern states, have burned and been rebuilt. 7. What will it cost to restore Dewey Bridge?. ... The bridge was the longest suspension bridge in Utah until the fire in April 2008. The design featured an all wooden deck ... When it was built, Dewey Bridge was the second longest suspension bridge west of the Mississippi River exceeded only by the 600 ... 2. Why is Dewey Bridge important to southeastern Utah and western Colorado?. Built in 1916, Dewey Bridge connected a then still ...
  • For years, these soulless concrete girders and the wooden shacks beneath them have provided a roof and an iota of comfort, protecting the residents from predators, the glaring sun and the pounding tropical rains. (latimes.com)
  • the wooden shacks of course burnt to the ground. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The tower is named after a powerful commander who rebuilt the monastery in the 14th century, and was to have been used for storage, imprisonment, and / or as an asylum. (matadornetwork.com)
  • The toll bridge, still of timber, was rebuilt in 1969. (british-history.ac.uk)
  • In London the young Swiss engineer Charles Labelye, entrusted with the building of the first bridge at Westminster , evolved a novel and ingenious method of sinking the foundations, employing huge timber caissons that were filled with masonry after they had been floated into position for each pier. (britannica.com)
  • To make matters worse, the timber bridge located at Mile 5 from Kampung Entilibon had caved in following the prolonged downpour last month. (blogspot.com)
  • This was preceded by a succession of timber bridges, the first of which was built by the Roman founders of London. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around 55 AD, the temporary bridge over the Thames was replaced by a permanent timber piled bridge , maintained and guarded by a small garrison. (wikipedia.org)
  • But her deteriorating condition was a reminder that the climate of Ireland and the seas around us can be merciless to a wooden vessel unless - whether deliberately or by happy accident - the boat is stored in a timber-friendly sheltered environment which is not too hot or cold, nor excessively wet or dry. (afloat.ie)
  • The increase in tourist travel will be offset by loss of passenger traffic to automobile travel over the recently constructed Anchorage Matanuska highway, and to airplane travel and the passenger revenues for 1937 and 1938 are estimated as approximately the same as for 1936, namely $231,000. (google.ca)
  • From 1930 until the closure of the building in January 1938 splendid work was done by the Household Management Committee. (foxearth.org.uk)
  • Like the Old London Bridge before it and Italy's Ponte Vecchio , the fairy tale-like Krämerbrücke, or Merchant's Bridge, is a bit of European history preserved in the modern day. (travelandleisure.com)
  • Rain pounds down, and sometimes, when typhoons hit, the swollen river rises to flood their rickety wooden huts, which are moored a few feet above the river water and stuck to the side of the bridge's concrete like barnacles. (latimes.com)
  • They were known locally as "Newfies" They lived at first in the village hall then built Camp No 1 - Newfy-style log huts built of unfinished treetrunks of young trees, with gaps stopped up with moss. (carrbridge.com)
  • Today, demolition crews from the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority are scheduled to dismantle what is left of the makeshift bridge community in an effort to help clean the river and move residents to more sanitary housing. (latimes.com)
  • The corrugated roofs now on the ground become makeshift bridges across puddles left by the fire-fighters. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The portions consumed or damaged by the fire, the wooden decking and timbers, and the cable hangers and rods will be fabricated following the original plans. (grandcountyutah.net)
  • One of these-the trading-house proper - was especially constructed (quite frequently of hewn timbers, and loop-holed) with the view of securing as safely as possible the stock in store, besides affording a place of refuge and defense in case of sudden attack. (pa-roots.com)
  • Designed by Henry Hutchison, it was built in 1831 as a second river crossing and to connect Third Court and New Court. (blogspot.ca)
  • The Bridge of Sighs in Cambridge belongs to St. John's College, but is now a public thoroughfare. (blogspot.ca)
  • Like its Cambridge counterpart, this structure bears only the most superficial resemblance to the original Bridge of Sighs in Venice. (blogspot.ca)
  • Designed by Antonio Contino , the Bridge of Sighs was built in the early seventeenth century and crossed the Rio Palazzio to connect two prisons, the old and the new. (blogspot.ca)
  • One says that it refers to the sighs of couples, who are traditionally believed to enjoy eternal love if they share a kiss while passing under the bridge in a gondola. (blogspot.ca)
  • The darker version is associated with the lines of the poet Lord Byron in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage , "I stood in Venice on the Bridge of Sighs, a palace and a prison on each hand. (blogspot.ca)
  • The fort and possibly the bridge were destroyed in 1641 and an engineer in Cromwell's army, Captain Shaw, rebuilt it in oak in 1655, giving the bridge it's name. (nationaltrust.org.uk)
  • From commencement to completion, the bridge engineer advising the Grand County Historic Preservation Commission estimates that it will take a five-person crew five months to restore the bridge once the steel rods and fasteners are custom built and the lumber is milled and delivered. (grandcountyutah.net)
  • The bridge connects the two banks of the Dahan River and is located just below the Zhongzheng Park in the Daxi district of Taoyuan city in Taiwan Province of China. (geocam.ru)
  • New parts are housed in three blocks organized in a semi-circle around a node that connects with the existing building. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Also called the Hertford Bridge, this overhead walkway crosses New College Lane and connects the Old and New Quadrangles of Hertford College . (blogspot.ca)
  • The first bridge was probably a Roman military pontoon type , giving a rapid overland shortcut to Camulodunum from the southern and Kentish ports, along the Roman roads of Stane Street and Watling Street (now the A2 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • So instead of a China-heavy list of bridges, we've focused on a variety of categories, from covered bridges to pontoon floaters, to bring you a diverse cross section of the longest. (travelandleisure.com)
  • The most famous bridge of that age was Old London Bridge , begun in the late 12th century under the direction of a priest, Peter of Colechurch, and completed in 1209, four years after his death. (britannica.com)
  • At the tips of the U, the two storied, brick-built doms dormitory houses were raised one in 1971 and the other nine years later. (crowsnest-highway.ca)
  • Not to be confused with Tower Bridge . (wikipedia.org)
  • The crossing also delineates an area along the southern bank of the River Thames, between London Bridge and Tower Bridge , that has been designated as a business improvement district . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the Lloyd's building, the London Eye, Nelson's Column, Piccadilly Circus, 30 St Mary Axe (The Gherkin), St Paul's Cathedral and Tower Bridge. (blogspot.com)
  • They built a 1422 mile road through muskeg, forests and the high mountain passes of Canada and Alaska in only nine months. (issuu.com)
  • The boys can make the three-mile journey from Beccles comfortably by bus and cycle. (foxearth.org.uk)
  • Their misery turned uglier when the wooden bridge at Mile 2 in Kampung Entilibon had tale tell signs that it would follow suit soon. (blogspot.com)
  • Cropredy Bridge is a bridge in north Oxfordshire that carries the minor road between Cropredy and the hamlet of Williamscot. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Spanish improved what they called the Camino Real (royal road), and later the Las Cruces trail, built and maintained for transportation of cargo and passengers across the Isthmus of Panama . (wikipedia.org)
  • At Shaw's Bridge, follow the brown signs down the Ballylesson Road to Minnowburn car park. (nationaltrust.org.uk)
  • It was replaced by a wooden toll bridge in 1792, and in the following year the Selby to Market Weighton road was turnpiked. (british-history.ac.uk)
  • Colonel Ohlson, will you give us a general statement and any comments that you wish to make, particularly on the physical condition of the road, or any suggestions as to freight and passenger rates, tourist travel, and so forth? (google.ca)
  • This work consists of ditching, bank widening, grade raising, ballasting, filling in of wooden trestles, replacing wooden culverts with concrete pipe, placing rock to protect road bed against erosion from rivers and streams and making line changes to eliminate snow sheds. (google.ca)
  • Documentation of the Wawona Road is part of the Yosemite National Park Roads and Bridges Recording Project, undertaken in summer 1991 by the Historic American Engineering Record. (wikisource.org)
  • Besides, the Village Security and Development Committee Chairman had also approached the Government's concessionaire, Kekal Mewah Sdn Bhd, to inquire as to when maintenance would be carried out on the road and the collapsed bridge rebuilt. (blogspot.com)
  • We are also urging the Government to upgrade the gravel road to asphalt and to replace the dilapidated bridges to concrete ones," he said. (blogspot.com)
  • The first London Bridge was built by the Romans as part of their road-building programme, to help consolidate their conquest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upstream fords and ferries remained in use but the bridge offered uninterrupted, mass movement of foot, horse, and wheeled traffic across the Thames, linking four major arterial road systems north of the Thames with four to the south. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1791 a new toll bridge built for wheeled transport, bore first the Kinveachy to Dulsie Bridge military road and from 1803, the Perth - Inverness road as well. (carrbridge.com)
  • The high quality replacement path built by Network Rail mostly runs alongside the railway between Plains and Bathgate, with a few short sections on minor road through settlements. (sustrans.org.uk)
  • This takes you all the way to Plains, where there are a variety of shops, and then on to Ford Bridge, where a new wooden footbridge takes you directly onto the traffic-free path, avoiding the narrow crossing on the road bridge. (sustrans.org.uk)
  • To go into the centre of the town, carry straight on, cross the wooden footbridge near the supermarket and follow shared-use paths to a roundabout and go straight up Whitburn Road (B7002). (sustrans.org.uk)
  • The American engineers, architects, and industrialists who helped build the productive base of communist Russia swept the record under the rug. (americanheritage.com)
  • No doubt some romantic couples kiss beneath the bridge here too, for luck, just as they do in Venice. (blogspot.ca)
  • As well as the year, the capstone bears a pair of initials, which could be either "SS" or "J.J.". The bridge had two arches, and it seems to be the larger, western one that was repaired after the Civil War. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another medieval bridge of note is Monnow Bridge in Wales, which featured three separate ribs of stone under the arches. (britannica.com)
  • Jean-Rodolphe Perronet , builder of some of the finest bridges of his day, developed very flat arches supported on slender piers. (britannica.com)
  • Also in London, John Rennie , engaged by private enterprise in 1811, built the first Waterloo Bridge , whose level-topped masonry arches were described by the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova as "the noblest bridge in the world. (britannica.com)
  • Connecting Ile Ste Helene and Montreal with Longueil on the south shore, pont Jacques-Cartier opened in 1930 as the Harbour Bridge. (blogspot.ca)
  • The modern bridge is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates , an independent charity of medieval origin overseen by the City of London Corporation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of copper, the Canadian companies, Frobisher and Falconbridge of Africa decided to construct offices, workshops, housing estates and other infrastructure within this vast Nyamwamba valley while they carried out economic mining at Kilembe Mines Ltd. (newvision.co.ug)
  • Much building has taken place in the 20th century, both before and after the Second World War, especially to the east and north of the village. (british-history.ac.uk)
  • Due to its height, people with vertigo may want to skip the opportunity to walk over this narrow bridge. (klm.com)
  • Built in 1916, Dewey Bridge connected a then still remote and isolated southeastern Utah with Grand Junction, the region's largest city and distribution center. (grandcountyutah.net)
  • This time estimate was developed in consultation with a Grand Junction construction firm with experience in both modern bridge construction (e.g., the new Highway 128 bridge over Castle Creek) and historic bridge restoration including a project now underway near Fruita. (grandcountyutah.net)
  • The 'T' junction at the new bridge was seen as a "settlement-site-in waiting. (carrbridge.com)
  • Yet others, including the various methods of subway construction, do not directly impact the passenger interface, but are used to make subway operations efficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principal incentive for the United States to build the rail line was the vast increase in passenger and freight traffic to California following the 1849 California Gold Rush . (wikipedia.org)
  • On 23 October 1642 King Charles I and part of his Royalist army crossed the bridge en route from Edgcote, Northamptonshire to Edge Hill, Warwickshire to confront a Parliamentarian force led by Earl of Essex in the Battle of Edgehill. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the website of Queens' College , the Mathematical Bridge was designed by William Etheridge, and built by James Essex the Younger in 1749. (blogspot.ca)
  • www.AlcanHighway.org A celebration and historical look back on the people and places that make the Alaska Highway. (issuu.com)
  • It is only a half a kilometre or so from the Kinnaird Bridge eastward to the partial cloverleaf which peels the alternative 3A away from Crowsnest Highway, No.3, leaving the latter free to climb up the flank of Grassy Mountain and on over the Bombi Summit. (crowsnest-highway.ca)
  • Before the bridge existed it was the fording point for the route from the north to the south of Ireland. (nationaltrust.org.uk)
  • Our property links to National Cycle Network Route 9 at Shaw's Bridge. (nationaltrust.org.uk)
  • Use of the trail was never heavy, and in 1860 the Manns sold their route to Mariposa County, which made it a free trail. (wikisource.org)
  • The bridges along the route to Colombia 's National Archeological Park of Tierradentro are a good example. (travelandleisure.com)
  • For those who put a high priority on getting away from it all, there are plenty of less-developed routes, of course, and simply going out of season or taking a side-route off the main trail makes a huge difference. (roughguides.com)
  • A note on the website denies rumours that Sir Isaac Newton designed it to illustrate mathematical principles and states that the bridge was never meant to stand without nails. (blogspot.ca)
  • Rebuilding a love I thought was dead as nails, Blessing the death and the baptism by fire. (tweetspeakpoetry.com)
  • Lodges on the main trails - some as sophisticated as ski chalets, these days - make it possible to go without carrying a lot of gear or learning Nepali, and without spending too much money, either. (roughguides.com)