Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)SmokePlant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Fraxinus: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.Wool: The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Pinus sylvestris: A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.PolandNobel PrizeScientific Integrity ReviewContraceptives, Postcoital: Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Music Therapy: The use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.Erwinia amylovora: A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the genus ERWINIA, causing a necrotic disease of plants.Viscum album: A plant species of the family VISCACEAE, order Santalales, subclass Rosidae. This is the traditional mistletoe of literature and Christmas. Members contain viscotoxin (5 kDa basic polypeptides related to thionins), beta-galactoside- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin II (60 kDa), and polysaccharides. Mistletoe lectin I is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein. Commercial extracts include Plenosol, Eurixor, Helixor Isorel, Iscador, and NSC 635089 (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, PHYTOGENIC).Chenopodium album: A plant species in the CHENOPODIUM genus known for edible greens.Los AngelesDeath Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.CaliforniaQuackery: The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Hospices: Facilities or services which are especially devoted to providing palliative and supportive care to the patient with a terminal illness and to the patient's family.RussiaLakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.EuropeGreat Lakes Region: The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Russia (Pre-1917)Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.United StatesResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.NewsNewspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.Thermal Conductivity: The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gold Alloys: Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.

Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study. (1/933)

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

Effects of 2 low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines on serum cholesterol concentrations as part of a low-fat diet in hypercholesterolemic subjects. (2/933)

BACKGROUND: Full-fat sitostanol ester-containing margarine reduces serum total and LDL cholesterol, but the effect of plant stanol ester-containing margarine as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the cholesterol-lowering effects of 2 novel, low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines as part of a low-fat diet recommended for hypercholesterolemic subjects. DESIGN: In a parallel, double-blind study, 55 hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly assigned after a 4-wk high-fat diet (baseline) to 3 low-fat margarine groups: wood stanol ester-containing margarine (WSEM), vegetable oil stanol ester-containing margarine (VOSEM), and control margarine (no stanol esters). The groups consumed the margarines for 8 wk as part of a diet resembling that of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Step II diet. The daily mean total stanol intake was 2.31 and 2.16 g in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively. RESULTS: During the experimental period, the reduction in serum total cholesterol was 10.6% (P < 0.001) and 8.1% (P < 0.05) greater and in LDL cholesterol was 13.7% (P < 0.01) and 8.6% (P = 0.072) greater in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively, than in the control group. Serum campesterol concentrations decreased 34.5% and 41.3% (P < 0.001) in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively. Serum HDL cholesterol, sitostanol, campestanol, beta-carotene, and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations did not change significantly from baseline. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the low-fat, plant stanol ester-containing margarines are effective cholesterol-lowering products in hypercholesterolemic subjects when used as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. They offer an additional, clinically significant reduction in serum cholesterol concentrations to that obtained with a low-fat diet alone.  (+info)

Toxicity of combustion products from burning polymers: development and evaluation of methods. (3/933)

Laboratory and room-scale experiments were conducted with natural and synthetic polymers: cotton, paper, wood, wool, acetate, acrylic, nylon, and urethane. Smoke and off-gases from single materials were generated in a dual-compartment 110-liter exposure chamber. Multicomponent, composite fuel loads were burned within a 100 m(3) facility subdivided into rooms. In chamber experiments, mortality depended on the amount of material burned, i.e., fuel consumption (FC). Conventional dose (FC)/mortality curves were obtained, and the amount of fuel required to produce 50% mortality (FC(50)) was calculated. With simple flame ignition, cotton was the only material that produced smoke concentrations lethal to rats; FC(50) values for cotton ranged from 2 g to 9 g, depending on the configuration of the cotton sample burned. When supplemental conductive heat was added to flame ignition, the following FC(50) values were obtained; nylon, 7 g; acrylic, 8 g; newsprint, 9 g; cotton, 10 g; and wood, 11 g. Mortality resulting from any given material depended upon the specific conditions employed for its thermal decomposition. Toxicity of off-gasses from pyrolysis of phosphorus-containing trimethylol propane-polyurethane foams was markedly decreased by addition of a flame ignition source. Further studies are needed to determine the possible relevance of single-material laboratory scale smoke toxicity experiments. Room-scale burns were conducted to assess the relative contributions of single materials to toxicity of smoke produced by a multicomponent self-perpetuating fire. Preliminary results suggest that this approach permits a realistic evaluation of the contribution of single materials to the toxicity of smoke from residential fires.  (+info)

Determinants of exposure to inhalable particulate, wood dust, resin acids, and monoterpenes in a lumber mill environment. (4/933)

In a lumber mill in the northern inland region of British Columbia, Canada, we measured inhalable particulate, resin acid, and monoterpene exposures, and estimated wood dust exposures. Potential determinants of exposure were documented concurrently, including weather conditions, tree species, wood conditions, jobs, tasks, equipment used, and certain control measures. Over 220 personal samples were taken for each contaminant. Geometric mean concentrations were 0.98 mg/m3 for inhalable particulate, 0.49 mg/m3 for estimated wood dust, 8.04 micrograms/m3 for total resin acids, and 1.11 mg/m3 for total monoterpenes. Multiple regression models for all contaminants indicated that spruce and pine produced higher exposures than alpine fir or mixed tree species, cleaning up sawdust increased exposures, and personnel enclosure was an effective means of reducing exposures. Sawing wood in the primary breakdown areas of the mill was the main contributor to monoterpene exposures, so exposures were highest for the barker operator, the head rig operator, the canter operator, the board edgers, and a roving utility worker in the sawmill, and lowest in the planer mills (after kiln drying of the lumber) and yard. Cleaning up sawdust, planing kiln-dried lumber, and driving mobile equipment in the yard substantially increased exposures to both inhalable particulate and estimated wood dust. Jobs at the front end of the sawmill where primary breakdown of the logs takes place had lower exposures. Resin acid exposures followed a similar pattern, except that yard driving jobs did not increase exposures.  (+info)

Biomass cooking fuels and prevalence of tuberculosis in India. (5/933)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation between use of biomass cooking fuels (wood or dung) and prevalence of active tuberculosis in India. METHODS: The analysis is based on 260,162 persons age 20 and over in India's 1992-93 National Family Health Survey. Logistic regression is used to estimate the effects of biomass fuel use on prevalence of active tuberculosis, as reported by household heads, after controlling for a number of potentially confounding variables. RESULTS: Persons living in households that primarily use biomass for cooking fuel have substantially higher prevalence of active tuberculosis than persons living in households that use cleaner fuels (odds ratio [OR] = 3.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.82-4. 50). This effect is reduced somewhat when availability of a separate kitchen, house type, indoor crowding, age, gender, urban or rural residence, education, religion, caste or tribe, and geographic region are statistically controlled (OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.98-3.37). Fuel type also has a large effect when the analysis is done separately for men (OR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.79-3.39) and women (OR = 2. 74; 95% CI = 1.86-4.05) and separately for urban areas (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.61-3.23) and rural areas (OR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.74-4.03). The analysis also indicates that, among persons age 20 years and over, 51% of the prevalence of active tuberculosis is attributable to cooking smoke. CONCLUSIONS: Results strongly suggest that use of biomass fuels for cooking substantially increases the risk of tuberculosis in India.  (+info)

A field comparison of inhalable and thoracic size selective sampling techniques. (6/933)

We measured inhalable, thoracic, and so-called "total" wood dust exposure in British Columbia lumber mill workers. Particle-size selective sampling was conducted using the GSP and Seven hole inhalable samplers, the PEM thoracic sampler and the 37-mm closed-face cassette "total" sampler. All measurements were full-shift personal samples, obtained from randomly selected workers. We obtained intersampler comparison data for the following pairs of instruments: GSP and 37-mm sampler; GSP and seven-hole sampler (SHS); and PEM and 37-mm sampler. The intersampler measurement ratios were estimated as: GSP/37-mm sampler = 4.2; GSP/SHS = 1.7; and PEM/37-mm sampler = 1.6. The GSP/37-mm sampler ratio is consistent with previously reported findings, while PEM/37-mm sampler and GSP/SHS ratios were both larger than expected. We found that in all comparisons, the measurement ratio had significant variability that was greatest at low ambient dust concentrations. Although it was not possible to attribute the source of the variability to specific sampler types, we concluded that the GSP sampler might be susceptible to "projectile" particles not normally aspirated, and may be vulnerable to direct aspiration of dust from accidentally contacted surfaces. The PEM was designed for environmental monitoring, and it is possible that it is unsuited to the higher particulate concentrations found in some occupational settings. Disparities among inhalable sampling techniques such as that between GSP and SHS should be investigated further in light of the proposed adoption of the inhalable method as an industrial standard.  (+info)

Spectroscopic properties of oxidation species generated in the lignin of wood fibers by a laccase catalyzed treatment: electronic hole state migration and stabilization in the lignin matrix. (7/933)

A laccase catalyzed oxidative treatment of wood pulp fibers has been found to induce unusual modifications of these fibers that are qualitatively different from those encountered when more severely degraded fibers are subjected to similar enzymatically catalyzed oxidative treatments. These results suggest that the physical/conformational state of the lignin of wood fibers determines which oxidation pathways dominate in a given oxidative treatment, leading to different lignin modifications depending on both the chemical and the physical structure of the lignin polymer. Spectroscopic measurements (ESR, IR, UV-Vis and fluorescence) show that the laccase treatment results in the formation of two different species in the dried fibers: one is interpreted as chemically transformed (via oxygen) lignin products, and the other as initial oxidation radicals which have gained stabilization against transformation into the first mentioned products via a migration mechanism. It is argued that these initial radicals may likely be cation radical (or hole state) parts in lignin. The migration mechanism is identified with site-to-site transfer or 'hopping' via electron transfer and it is postulated that this mechanism 'carries' cation radical parts of the lignin, produced at the surface of the fiber, into parts of the lignin where chemical transformation pathways are suppressed due to the lignin conformational state. The possible existence of such a migration mechanism, the relative dominance of which should depend sensitively on the polymer conformational state, may have implications for the biogeneration and biodegradation of lignin as well as for oxidative treatments of non-natural conjugated polymers.  (+info)

Neuroimaging of a wooden foreign body retained for 5 months in the temporalis muscle following penetrating trauma with a chopstick--case report. (8/933)

A 48-year-old female was stabbed by her husband with a chopstick made of wood in the left temporal region during a quarrel. She suffered laceration of the left temporal scalp. At initial examination, she concealed the assault with a chopstick. Radiography showed no abnormality, so the wound was sutured. One month after the injury, a painless subcutaneous mass appeared in the left temporal region which grew rapidly for 3 months. She was then admitted to our department. Computed tomography (CT) on admission showed a hyperdense area at the center of the mass. This area was hypointense on both T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Temporalis muscle tumor with accompanying central necrosis, old hematoma, and inflammatory granuloma was considered. The mass was totally resected for cosmetic purposes and was found to be wooden foreign body granuloma. High density on CT and hypointensity on both T1- and T2-weighted MR images are characteristic of a chronically retained wooden foreign body in the living body and are useful for detecting wooden foreign bodies in the chronic granulomatous phase.  (+info)

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Abstract: Wood specific gravity (WSG) is an important biometric variable for aboveground biomass calculations in tropical forests. Sampling a sufficient number of trees in remote tropical forests to represent the species and size distribution of a forest to generate information on WSG can be logistically challenging. Several thousands of wood samples exist in xylaria around the world that are easily accessible to researchers. We propose the use of wood samples held in xylaria as a valid and overlooked option. Due to the nature of xylarium samples, determining wood volume to calculate WSG presents several challenges. A description and assessment is provided of five different methods to measure wood sample volume: two solid displacement methods and three liquid displacement methods (hydrostatic methods). Two methods were specifically developed for this paper: the use of laboratory parafilm to wrap the wood samples for the hydrostatic method and two glass microbeads devices for the solid displacement
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Smoke from residential wood heaters contains fine particle pollution, also known as fine particulate matter or PM2.5, along with other pollutants including carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), black carbon, and air toxics, such as benzene. Residential wood smoke can increase particle pollution to levels that pose serious health concerns, and in some areas constitutes a significant portion of the fine particle pollution problem.. The fine particles in smoke - also called fine particle pollution or PM2.5 - can get deep into the lungs, harming the lungs, blood vessels and heart. People with heart, vascular or lung disease, older adults and children are the most at risk. Learn more about the health effects of PM2.5. Top of Page. ...
OBJECTIVE To identify and characterize alterations seen on HRCT scans in nonsmoking females with COPD due to wood smoke exposure. METHODS We evaluated 42 nonsmoking females diagnosed with wood smoke-related COPD and 31 nonsmoking controls with no history of wood smoke exposure or pulmonary disease. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding demographic data, symptoms, and environmental exposure. All of the participants underwent spirometry and HRCT of the chest. The COPD and control groups were adjusted for age (23 patients each). RESULTS Most of the patients in the study group were diagnosed with mild to moderate COPD (83.3%). The most common findings on HRCT scans in the COPD group were bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis, mosaic perfusion pattern, parenchymal bands, tree-in-bud pattern, and laminar atelectasis (p | 0.001 vs. the control group for all). The alterations were generally mild and not extensive. There was a positive association between bronchial wall thickening and hour
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermal, crystallization, and dynamic rheological behavior of wood particle/HDPE composites. T2 - Effect of removal of wood cell wall composition. AU - Ou, Rongxian. AU - Xie, Yanjun. AU - Wang, Qingwen. AU - Sui, Shujuan. AU - Wolcott, Michael P. PY - 2014/6/5. Y1 - 2014/6/5. N2 - This study investigated the effect of removal of wood cell wall composition on thermal, crystallization, and dynamic rheological behavior of the resulting high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. Four types of wood particle (WP) with different compositions: native wood flour (WF), hemicellulose-removed wood particle (HR), lignin-removed wood particle (holocellulose, HC), and both hemicellulose and lignin removed particle (α-cellulose, αC) were prepared and compounded with HDPE using extruder, both with and without maleated polyethylene (MAPE). Results show that removal of the hemicellulose improved the thermal stability of composites, while removal of the lignin facilitated thermal decomposition. ...
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The Canadian boreal forest is largely represented by mixed wood forests of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx). In this study, a total of 300 trees originating from three sites composed of trembling aspen and white spruce with varying compositions were investigated for wood quality traits: one site was composed mainly of aspen, one mainly of spruce and a third was a mixed site. Four wood quality traits were examined: wood density, microfibril angle (MFA), fibre characteristics, and cell wall chemistry. Social classes were also determined for each site in an attempt to provide a more in-depth comparison. Wood density showed little variation among sites for both species, with only significant differences occurring between social classes. The aspen site showed statistically lower MFAs than the aspen from the mixed site, however, no differences were observed when comparing spruce. Fibre characteristics were higher in the pure species sites for both
A large amount of poplar plywood is now being imported into Japan from China, and as a result, formaldehyde emitted from this plywood represents an undesirable chemical that must be controlled using a chemical catching agent. The aim of this study is to find an approach to reduce the formaldehyde emission of poplar plywood using thermal treatment without employing any chemicals. The experimental results obtained show that heating veneer sheets in the temperature range of 150 °C to 170 °C effectively reduced the formaldehyde emission of plywood, without diminishing the mechanical properties of the veneer. By applying Langmuirs theory and Hailwood-Horrobin theory to the adsorption isotherm obtained in this study, the relationship between the formaldehyde emission of plywood and the adsorption properties of veneer as a material is discussed. When veneer sheets were heated in the temperature range of 150 °C to 170 °C, the amount of hydrated water (monomolecular layer) decreased slightly and that of
Organic gases emitted during the flaming phase of residential wood combustion are characterized individually and by functionality using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The evolution of the organic gases is monitored during photochemical aging. Primary gaseous emissions are dominated by oxygenated species (e.g., acetic acid, acetaldehyde, phenol and methanol), many of which have deleterious health effects and play an important role in atmospheric processes such as secondary organic aerosol formation and ozone production. Residential wood combustion emissions differ considerably from open biomass burning in both absolute magnitude and relative composition. Ratios of acetonitrile, a potential biomass burning marker, to CO are considerably lower (∼ 0.09 pptv ppbv-1) than those observed in air masses influenced by open burning (∼ 1-2 pptv ppbv-1), which may make differentiation from background levels difficult, even in regions heavily impacted by residential wood ...
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Estimating impacts of wood combustion on ambient levels of PAHs is challenging. In this study effect of residential wood combustion on the benzo[a]pyrene concentrations in the air of Helsinki metropolitan area was studied, using ambient air measurements, emission estimates and dispersion modeling. Combining all this information enabled a quantitative characterization of the influence of residential wood combustion, which was found to be the main local source and more important than for PM2.5 ...
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The three main components of wood, namely, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, can be used in various areas. However, since lignin covalently crosslinks with wood polysaccharides creating networks that is an obstacle for extraction, direct extraction of different wood components in high yield is not an easy matter. One potential approach to overcome such obstacles is to treat the wood with specific enzymes that degrade the networks by specific catalysis. However, the structure of wood is so compact that the penetration of the wood fibers by large enzyme molecules is hindered. Thus, the pretreatment of wood prior to the application of enzymes is necessary, for "opening" the structure.. One pretreatment method that was performed in this thesis is based on kraft pulping, which is a well-established and industrialized technique. For untreated wood, the wood fibers cannot be attacked by the enzymes. A relatively mild pretreatment was sufficient for wood polysaccharides hydrolyzed by a culture ...
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys final amended formaldehyde rules are now official. Structural plywood, oriented strand board (OSB) and other structural engineered wood products remain exempt from the EPA TSCA Title VI rules on formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products. The exemption includes all structural wood products manufactured with moisture resistant adhesives for construction and industrial applications, such as structural plywood, OSB, wood I-joists, laminated veneer lumber and glued-laminated timber. These products are manufactured using low emitting, moisture-resistant adhesives, per the applicable product standards and building codes that govern them.. Products marked with the APA Mark of Quality are exempt from the regulation because the APA trademark is used only on structural engineered wood products and not on particleboard, medium density fiberboard (MDF) or decorative hardwood plywood regulated by the EPA rules. In instances where unmarked structural ...
A wood enhancement agent treated engineered wood product. The wood enhancement agent typically includes at least one of a preservative, a water repellant, a fungicide, an insecticide, a stabilizing agent, wax, an ultra-violet light inhibitor, and combinations thereof, and may also include an antioxidant. The wood enhancement agent is incorporated into the engineered wood product during a billet making process or after forming the billet. The wood enhancement agent may be applied simultaneously with a bonding agent or at a later time, for example applied to a scrim log mat during a pre-press process or inside a steam press chamber. Alternatively, the wood enhancement agent may be applied to a warm billet after steam press, or to a reheated billet, by dipping, spraying, or flood coating the billet, or by diffusion, vacuum impregnation, pressure, or a combination thereof.
Pressure-treated wood impregnated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) - often with a greenish tint - was widely used for decks and porches prior to its being discontinued for residential use in 2003-2004. Since treated wood has a long lifespan, there is still plenty of CCA pressure-treated wood surrounding residences, prompting caution due to its arsenic content. Pressure-treated wood impregnated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) - often with a greenish tint - was widely used for decks and porches prior to its being discontinued for residential use in 2003-2004. Since treated wood has a long lifespan, there is still plenty of CCA pressure-treated wood surrounding residences, prompting caution due to its arsenic content.
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WOODWEB provides information for the wood industry including woodworking, cabinets, components, woodworking software, wood finishing, cabinet hardware, lumber, plywood, woodworking machinery, suppliers, and tooling
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High tropical forests deforestation for solid wood furniture industry is among of climate change contributing agents. This pressure indirectly is caused by furniture joints failure due to poor gluing technology based on improper use of different glues to different wood species which lead to low quality and weak wood-glue joints. This study was carried in order to run performance tests of wood glues on different wood species used in wood workshops: Morogoro Tanzania whereby three popular wood species of C. lusitanica, T. glandis and E. maidenii were tested against five glues of Woodfix, Bullbond, Ponal, Fevicol and Coral found in the market. The findings were necessary on developing a guideline for proper glue selection for a particular wood species joining. Random sampling was employed to interview carpenters while conducting a survey on the background of carpenters like their education level and to determine factors that influence their glues choice. Monsanto Tensiometer was used to determine ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Wood and Fiber-Based Composites. T2 - Surface Properties and Adhesion. AU - Gardner, Douglas. AU - Oporto, Gloria. AU - Tze, William. PY - 2016/5/17. Y1 - 2016/5/17. N2 - Summary: This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction: Practical Significance of Surface Properties and Adhesion Adhesion Theories and Mechanisms Interfacial Phenomena in Wood and Fiber Adhesion Adhesion Interactions as a Function of Length Scale Wood Bonding Considerations Wood and Fiber Surface Properties Wood Surface Modification Analytical Techniques to Measure Wood and Fiber Surface Properties. AB - Summary: This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction: Practical Significance of Surface Properties and Adhesion Adhesion Theories and Mechanisms Interfacial Phenomena in Wood and Fiber Adhesion Adhesion Interactions as a Function of Length Scale Wood Bonding Considerations Wood and Fiber Surface Properties Wood Surface Modification Analytical Techniques to Measure Wood and Fiber Surface ...
The United States International Trade Commission (USITC) today determined that a U.S. industry is materially injured by reason of imports of hardwood plywood from China that the U.S. Department of Commerce (Commerce) has determined are sold in the United States at less than fair value and subsidized by the government of China.. Chairman Rhonda K. Schmidtlein, Vice Chairman David S. Johanson, and Commissioners Irving A. Williamson and Meredith M. Broadbent voted in the affirmative. As a result of the USITCs affirmative determinations, Commerce will issue antidumping and countervailing duty orders on imports of this product from China.. The Commission also made a negative finding concerning critical circumstances with regard to imports of this product. As a result, imports of hardwood plywood from China will not be subject to retroactive antidumping or countervailing duties.. The Commissions public report Hardwood Plywood from China (Investigation Nos. 701-TA-565 and 731-TA-1341 (Final), USITC ...
A Guide to Occupational Exposure to Wood, Wood Dust and Combustible Dust Hazards Bobby R. Davis Series Editor N. C. Department of Labor Division of Occupational Safety and Health 1101 Mail Service Center Raleigh, NC 27699- 1101 Cherie K. Berry Commissioner of Labor N. C. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Program Cherie K. Berry Commissioner of Labor OSHA State Plan Designee Allen McNeely Deputy Commissioner for Safety and Health Kevin Beauregard Assistant Deputy Commissioner for Safety and Health Acknowledgments A Guide to Wood Dust was originally prepared by Health and Hygiene Inc., whose president, Harold Imbus, M. D., Sc. D., conducted studies about how wood dust affects workers. Dr. Imbuss studies were cited by OSHA in its final rule regarding wood dust. This edition was revised and updated June 2005, incorporating material from several addi-tional sources referenced within the guide. This guide is intended to be consistent with all existing OSHA standards; therefore, if an ...
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Impulse-cyclone Drying Treatment of Poplar Wood Fibers and its Effect on Composite Materials Properties. Feng Chen,a,b Qingde Li,a Xun Gao,a Guangping Han a and Wanli Cheng,a,*. The fiber quality after a conventional drying treatment used for wood-plastic composites (WPCs) cannot be ascertained prior to use. Through the application of scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, the effect of an impulse-cyclone drying (ICD) treatment on the quality of poplar wood fiber was first investigated. Subsequently, the effect of ICD conditions, such as inlet temperature, inlet wind velocity, and feed rate on the mechanical properties of WPCs and fiber dispersibility was considered. Also, the quality of fibers and WPCs was compared to those treated via an oven-drying method. Poplar wood fibers with a moisture content of 12.4% were pre-treated at different drying conditions by ICD. The obtained fibers were compounded with high-density polypropylene. The ...
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Q: I dont have a fireplace, but Id like to save on my heating bill this winter by installing a wood stove. How difficult would it be to install one? Any tips on what kind I should get?. A: Believe it or not, installing a wood stove system in your house is fairly simple. In fact, you dont even have to have a brick masonry chimney to have a wood stove- it can be placed almost anywhere. If you do have an existing fireplace, there are free standing stoves that can be easily connected to your flu, as well as fireplace/stove hybrids that fit right into the fireplace opening. Depending on the size you choose, wood stoves can heat anywhere between 600 square feet and 3,000 square feet of space. While some people might want a larger stove to heat the entire house, others might want a smaller stove to keep a few rooms warm and keep their heat pump from kicking on. In choosing a stove, there are several things to consider. Heat quality depends on the quality of the stove. Cast iron and soapstone stoves ...
Preface to the Sixth Edition. Preface to the First Edition.. Introduction.. 1. Structural Uses of Wood.. 1.1 Sources of Wood.. 1.2 Tree Growth.. 1.3 Density of Wood.. 1.4 Defects in Lumber.. 1.5 Seasoning of Wood.. 1.6 Nominal and Dressed Sizes.. 1.7 Use Classification of Structural Lumber.. 1.8 Grading of Structural Lumber.. 1.9 Fabricated Wood Products.. 2. Design Issues and Methods.. 2.1 Design Goals.. 2.2 Methods of Investigation and Design.. 2.3 Choice of Design Method.. 3. Structural Investigation.. 3.1 General Concerns.. 3.2 Forces and Loads.. 3.3 Direct Stress.. 3.4 Kinds of Stress.. 3.5 Deformation.. 3.6 Elastic Response and Limit.. 3.7 Inelastic Behavior and Ultimate Strength.. 3.8 Modulus of Elasticity.. 3.9 Permissible Values for Design.. 4. Design Data and Criteria.. 4.1 General Concerns.. 4.2 Reference Design Values for Allowable Stress Design (ASD).. 4.3 Adjustment of Design Values.. 4.3 Modification for Loading with Relation to Grain Direction.. 4.4 Design Controls for ...
Wood cell walls represent highly complex biocomposites that consists of repertoires of polysaccharides and lignins integrated into a three-dimensional conglomerate [1, 2]. At the microstructural level, wood cell walls are composed of both primary- and dominating secondary cell wall layers in which the major (cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses) and minor (pectins, proteins) chemical components are heterogeneously dispersed and integrated. Understanding the cell walls complexity is of great interest both for plant biology and for plant processing in food and pulp industry.. One of the key main challenges for an improved understanding of wood cell wall structure especially, in relation to properties, is an ability to specifically localise and visualised the spatial distribution of the major polysaccharide components (cellulose and hemicelluloses) in vivo. In lignified cell walls this is quite challenging since the hemicelluloses interface between the cellulose and lignin forming a heterogeneous ...
Coyne, Joshua G., Scott L. Summers, Brady Williams, and David a. Wood. 2010. "Accounting Program Research Rankings by Topical ...
Liikanen's Classical Guitar Knee Support: made in Finland, wood. Suction Support: Made in Canada, wood. Suction cup style ... Wood or plastic models. Dynarette: Made in Sweden. Cushion. 2 sizes available. Guitar Efel: Made in Czech Republic. endorsed by ... Wood. Cumberland Acoustic Armrest for Guitar QT armrest (Qualey-Traudt Armrest), made in Germany. Liikanen Classical Guitar ... Armrest, made in Finland John Pearse wood armrests, made in the USA Rasgueo-Rest: Ergonomically designed, adjustable Guitar arm ...
70; Wood. El. Juris, 103; Morgan's Vade Mecum, Pref. 10; 3 Co. Lit. note, 96, 17, a; 6 N. A. Rev. 74; 3 T.R. 51, 64, 631; ...
Wood. This was a popular material during the Georgian and Victorian era, and almost certainly before, in Great Britain and ...
"Negro Head, before 1927." Wood. Collections. RISD Museum. Access Date 8 July 2014 Nancy Elizabeth Prophet at Find a Grave ...
It only occasionally applied to the high vowels /i/ and /u/: Old English wudu > Middle English /woːd/ > "wood"; Old English ...
Julian MW, Shao G, Schlesinger LS, Huang Q, Cosmar DG, Bhatt NY, Culver DA, Baughman RP, Wood KL, Crouser ED; Shao; Schlesinger ... Huang; Cosmar; Bhatt; Culver; Baughman; Wood; Crouser (1 February 2013). "Nicotine treatment improves Toll-like receptor 2 and ...
The symbols would represent either fire, wood or water and could be used in a rock, paper, scissors type game-fire beat wood, ... The fire/wood/water battling mechanism was replaced by a dice launcher which enables a dice battle game between figures. The ... It was impossible to tell which figure had a rub of fire, wood, or water until the package was opened. That came in handy with ... Each base had a unique symbol theme that matched the "Fire, Wood, Water" concept that the line was based on. Each base could ...
Wood, John, A Note on George Henry Fox and O. G. Mason. Accessed April 4, 2007. NYU School of Medicine: Frederick L. Ehrman ... Wood. For a more complete bibliography of his published medical images vide: Mason. Rowley. Photographic Illustrations. ... by John Wood. A Morning's Work, by Stanley Burns, M. D. The first photograph of blood transfusion, by Paul J. Schmidt, M. D. ...
11 concert with international recording artist Mark Wood ... Wood ... will work with Maine South and middle school students ... Wood owns and operates Wood Violins [dead link] Baseball Reference.com's entry on Dave Bergman being drafted from Maine South ... In 2009 and 2011, violinist Mark Wood taught a series of workshops to the members of the school orchestra in preparation for a ...
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Hagger M.S., Wood C., Stiff C., Chatzisarantis N.L.; Wood; Stiff; Chatzisarantis ...
Wood. 2010. "Accounting Program Research Rankings by Topical Area and Methodology." Issues in Accounting Education 25 (4) ( ...
Wood. Retrieved 2017-02-23. London Medical Gazette: Or, Journal of Practical Medicine. 48. 1851. Retrieved 2017-02-23. " ...
Wood. The memorial consists of two upright stones, one bearing a round plate inscribed 'In memory of J Litt who died March 9, ...
In 2003, Poren Huang was invited to display his iron sculptures in the Sanyi Wood Sculpture Museum,Miaoli Wood Sculpture Museum ... As a major wood carving factory in Taiwan, the factory employed more than 100 craftsmen to produce wood handicrafts during peak ... Taiwan 2003 Iron Wood Forest - Solo exhibition at Sanyi Wood Sculpture Museum, Miaoli, Taiwan Iron sculpture included in the ... 2015 "Poren Huang-Iron Wood Forest and The Dog's Notes" By Powen Lee, Artco no.269, p156-p157, Published by Art & Collection ...
Wood; Light Years (Ravel Remembered)), flute, violin, viola, cello, 1/2 percussion, 1973 Appalachian Echoes, harp, 1975 Yankee ...
"See the wood for the trees: Robin Wood and Barn the Spoon do dinner at Craft". Wallpaper. Time Inc. Retrieved 22 April 2017. ... "Wood". Stepney City Farm. Retrieved 22 February 2017. "Spon A Guide to Spoon Carving and the New Wood Culture". Penguin books. ... He is also founder of the Green Wood Guild, a collective of green wood carvers who run carving workshops and owns a spoon shop ... In 2016 Carder and Robin Wood joined Stevie Parle during London Craft Week to explore wood-fired cooking and how dining from ...
Wood. p. 121. John S. Purcell, "A Veteran Artist: Mr. William Shakespeare Burton," The English Illustrated Magazine, Vol. 35 ( ... His wife Mina Elizabeth Burton was the author of a novel titled Ruling the Planets (1891). Christopher Wood, Victorian Painting ...
It only occasionally applied to the high vowels /i/ and /u/, e.g. OE wudu > ME /woːd/ > wood; OE wicu > ME /weːk/ > week. Most ...
A woolly jumper; Stones; Wood; Clay; Paper. Buses; A letter; Boxes; Sewage; Cleaning; Rubbish; Water Crisps; Eggs; A carton ...
Wood, Malcolm, ed. (2004). "A farewell to Sir Alan Stewart, Vice-Chancellor" (PDF). Massey (17): 41. Retrieved 20 September ... Wood. London Gazette (supplement), No. 45556, 1 January 1972. Retrieved 25 May 2013. London Gazette (supplement), No. 48641, 13 ...
Wood. Downloadable at sheetmusicfox.com Cover at Amazon.com Bibliography This list was chiefly compiled from the following ... According to his own introduction in Pitt's biography, Henry Wood gave the first performances of most of Pitt's major works ... Performed at Queen's Hall Proms, Thursday 26 September 1929, Pitt conducting the Henry Wood SO. Chamier 1938, p. 226. Chamier ...
Wood. New York Times, August 5, 1933. American Art Directory, 1933. Family account. Family account, corroborated by Torchia. R. ... Wood, Christopher et al. (eds.): Dictionary of Victorian painters (Dictionary of British Artists, vol IV), Woodbridge, 1991. An ... Bernard E. Ward founded, together with A. A. Calderon (1847-1911), London´s St John's Wood Art School. After a lawsuit had cost ...
Wood. 1883. Retrieved 21 July 2013. An Atlas of the Differential Diagnosis of the Diseases of the Nervous Systems. 1913. ...
Wood; Horne, Keith; Berriman, Graham; Wade, Richard A. (1989). "Eclipse studies of the dwarf nova OY Carinae in quiescence". ...
42 reviews plus photos and pricing for Willow Wood Assisted Living in Fort Lauderdale, FL. Find and compare nearby assisted ... About Willow Wood Willow Wood provides a full range of choices for todays seniors. Choosing a senior living community ... Come visit with us and see why over 300 residents call Willow Wood "home". Map of Willow Wood ... I like the Willow Wood the best, but the other facility was closer to my mom. In my opinion, I thought the Willow Wood had the ...
... "wood wool diapers" or "sanitary wood wool sheets". European "wood wool" was known in America in the late nineteenth century as ... Wood wool, known primarily as excelsior in North America,[1] is a product made of wood slivers cut from logs. It is mainly used ... A different product was once known as "wood wool," as well as "pine needle-wool," or "pine wood-wool."[31] According to E. ... In the beginning of the 20th century wood wool was used as a raw material for producing wood wool panels in Europe, especially ...
... primary forest and wood products (e.g. furniture) and secondary products like wood pulp for the pulp and paper industry. Some ... The wood industry or lumber industry is a-usually private-economic sector concerned with forestry, logging, timber trade, and ... Main article: Wood production. After logging, which is now typically done using large harvesters, the trunks of the felled ... In the narrow sense of the terms, wood, forest, forestry and timber/lumber industry appear to point to different sectors, in ...
Wood Puzzler». Загрузите и используйте «Wood Puzzler» на Apple TV. ... Wood Puzzler is great for preschoolers in their early learning, cognitive abilities, motor skills and brain development. It ... Do you want your children to learn the alphabet and have fun? Wood Puzzler focuses on the alphabet using spelling, ... pronunciation and vocabulary with beautiful original artwork, all in a series of cheerful wood puzzle games. FEATURES:. · Its ...
My colleague Susan F. Wood had an excellent op-ed in the Washington Post over the weekend about the Obama administrations ...
wood, botanically, the xylem tissue that forms the bulk of the stem of a woody plant. Xylem conducts sap upward from the roots ... 6:14), cedar wood (Ezra 3:7; et al.), acacia wood (Ex. 38:1, et al.), juniper wood (בְּרוֹשׁ; i Kings 6:34), almug wood (i ... out of the wood (or woods) out of danger or difficulty.get wood vulgar slang have an erection. knock on wood said in order to ... Wood. See also 319. PLANTS ; 401. TREES hylephobia an intense dislike for wood.. hylomania a mania for wood.. joinery the skill ...
Bill short, or of moderate length, rather slender, somewhat conical, considerably broader than high at the base, gradually compressed toward the end; upper mandible with its dorsal outline straight until near the end, the point very narrow, the notches very slight; lower mandible with the angle rather short and narrow, the dorsal line straight, the edges somewhat involute, the tip acute. Head moderate, ovate; neck short; body rather slender. Feet of moderate length; tarsus longer than the middle toe, slender, much compressed, with eight anterior scutella, of which the upper are blended; toes rather small, or of moderate size, hind toe proportionally stout, outer adherent for a short way at the base; claws moderate, much compressed, arched, acute. Plumage generally soft and blended. Wings of moderate length. Tail of moderate length, of twelve feathers. Tongue of moderate length, sagittate, tapering. OEsophagus of moderate width, without dilatation; proventriculus bulbiform; stomach of moderate ...
The Wynn Wood Homeowners Association Community Website serves the Wynn Wood residents with information about their community. ... Copyright © 2008-2012 - Wynn Wood Homeowners Association - All rights reserved. @. MEMBER OF PROJECT HONEY POT. Spam Harvester ...
Listen to songs and albums by Nick Wood, including Doowop (Bonus Track) [feat. Nick Wood]. Free with Apple Music subscription ... Listen to songs and albums by Nick Wood, including Doowop (Bonus Track) [feat. Nick Wood]. Free with Apple Music subscription ...
Authorities amended Woods death certificate on Aug. 1, 2012 to reflect some of the lingering questions about how the actress ... A new report shows coroners officials amended Natalie Woods death certificate based on unanswered questions about bruises on ... This photo released by the Los Angeles County Registrar/County Clerk shows page 2 of actress Natalie Woods death certificate. ... to how Wood ended up in the water while on a yacht with husband Robert Wagner and actor and co-star Christopher Walken. (AP ...
... opening up the possibility of applications in engineering for which natural wood is too weak. ... An improved method for compressing wood substantially increases its strength and stiffness, ... Figure 1 , A process for densifying wood. Natural wood contains pores formed from the remains of parallel, tube-like cells, the ... By making wood porous, trees partially sacrifice the materials strength. One answer is that wood is multifunctional, and so ...
Wood Under Pressure. The shady Japanese Cedar, or Sugi, has long been a symbol of that islands cultural and religious ... Because of the woods softness however, Sugi has never been considered suitable for construction or furniture. This has led to ... This leads to stronger wood with denser grain patterns, a unique material that Mari used to create a set of furniture that ... After Japanese furniture company Hida Sangyo developed a compression process for Sugi wood, Mari was asked to design a set of ...
Russia traditional wood_structures1 * 1. Lake Onega is the second largest lake in Europe, it covers 3,757 square miles and has ... 6. The two 18th-century woodenchurches, and an octagonal clocktower, also in wood and built in1862 are unusual constructions,in ... PowerPoint byThe churches are made of wood Jack Crosswithout a single nail ...
... (NWFPs) are goods of biological origin other than wood, derived from forests, other wooded land and ... Russia has since banned logging of Korean pines and for the most part stopped the loss of good quality pine wood to China. But ... Enrico Vidale is an international consultant on the NWFP Supply Chain and affiliated with the "Not Only Wood" Studio. For more ... Responses ranged from the mundane ("I really enjoy being in the woods") to reverence ("the closest thing Ive ever experienced ...
Non-Wood News is compiled by Laura Russo and Tina Etherington, Wood and Non-Wood Products Utilization Branch (FOPW) of the FAO ... Non-wood forest products (NWFP) are goods of biological origin other than wood, derived from forests, other wooded land and ... NON-WOOD NEWS - FOPW. FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla. 00100 Rome, Italy. E-mail: non-wood[email protected] www.fao.org/ ... Non-Wood News 7 AN INFORMATION BULLETIN ON NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS. March 2000. EDITORIAL ...
Olive wood is hard, heavy and strong with a high overall density. It has a straight grain with a fine texture, says the Wood ... Olive wood is not easy to dry. The wood is oily and dense, and material obtained from the trees branches is prone to warping. ... The wood contains brown streaks that contrast attractively with the lighter yellow streaks of the sapwood. Olive wood takes ... According to The Wood Explorer website, general carving requires sharp cutting edges, and the wood should be well seasoned ...
Kerry Wood, wife Sarah and children Justin and Katie stop for a picture on the red carpet for the Organic School Project ... Kerry Wood, wife Sarah and children Justin and Katie stop for a picture on the red carpet for the Organic School Project ... Kerry Wood, wife Sarah and children Justin and Katie stop for a picture on the red carpet for the Organic School Project ... Kerry Wood, wife Sarah and children Justin and Katie stop for a picture on the red carpet for the Organic School Project ...
... of the UKs waste wood is getting recycled. This figure, along with the number of companies involved, is expected to rise. ... The Wood Recyclers Association (WRA) has calculated that almost 2.8 million tonnes (60%) ... Exposure to wood dust. Wood recycling involves loading waste wood into a chipping machine by shovel or grabber then ... The wood recycling industry. The Wood Recyclers Association (WRA) has calculated that almost 2.8 million tonnes (60%) of the ...
Use hot glue and wood dowels to make a fruit basket in just a few hours. ... Wood Dowel Fruit Basket. Hold fruit or kitchen-counter items in this easy-to-make basket. Use hot glue and wood dowels to make ...
Termites originated from wood-feeding cockroaches and are dominant members of the saproxylic insect community in many tropical ... Ulyshen MD (2016) Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates. Biol Rev 91:70-85PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Wood TG, Sands WA (1978) The role of termites in ecosystems. In: Brian MV (ed) Production ecology of ants and termites. ... Wood TG (1976) The role of termites (Isoptera) in decomposition processes. In: Anderson JM, MacFadyen A (eds) The role of ...
... is registered to provide personal care and support to people with a learning disability or autistic spectrum ...
Wood, T.M., Wherry, S.A., Carter, J.L., Kuwabara, J.S., Simon, N.S., and Rounds, S.A., 2013, Technical evaluation of a total ... Wood, T.M. and Rounds, S.A., 1998, Using CE-QUAL-W2 to assess the effect of reduced phosphorus loads on chlorophyll a and ... Wherry, Susan A.; Wood, Tamara M.; Moritz, Hans R.; Duffy, Keith B. Attribution: Oregon Water Science Center, Water Resources ... Wherry, S.A., Wood, T.M., Moritz, H.R., and Duffy, K.B., 2019, Assessment of Columbia and Willamette River flood stage on the ...
allowable load allowable stresses angle of load ASTM bending bolt clear wood CN CN column compression parallel connection ... books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Wood_engineering.html?id=vu1RAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareWood ... strength properties stringers Table tensile tensile stress tests thickness Timber tion trusses values vertical width wood beams ... 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Wood_engineering.html?id=vu1RAAAAMAAJ ...
Inf., 560 Wood, E. A., 152 Wood, F. J., 434 Wood, George, 560 Wood, J. D. G., 495 Wood, J. H., 434 Wood, Joseph, 434 Wood, L. L ... 563 Wood, M. B., 563 Wood, Moses, 434 Wood, N. G., 434 Wood, Pliny, 489 Wood, S. P., 434 Wood, Simeon, 561 Wood, Thomas, 434 ... Wood, David, 21. Wood, Hepzibah (Billings), 88. Wood, John, 88. Wood, Deacon, John, 88. Wood, Joseph, 88. Wood, Mary (Blaney), ... 560 Wood, A. W., 560 Wood, Albert, 434 Wood, C. W., 560 Wood, Charles, 23d Mass. Inf., 488 Wood, Charles, 85th Mass. ...
Hall MP, Woodroofe CC, Wood MG, Que I, Vant Root M, Ridwan Y, Shi C, Kirkland TA, Encell LP, Wood KV, Löwik C, Mezzanotte L. ... Friedman Ohana R, Levin S, Wood MG, Zimmerman K, Dart ML, Schwinn MK, Kirkland TA, Hurst R, Uyeda HT, Encell LP, Wood KV. ... Binkowski BF, Butler BL, Stecha PF, Eggers CT, Otto P, Zimmerman K, Vidugiris G, Wood MG, Encell LP, Fan F, Wood KV. ... Frings D, Wood KV, Lionetti N, Albery IP.. Addict Behav. 2019 Jun;93:204-211. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.02.004. Epub 2019 Feb ...
  • I november 2017 ble Norwegian Wood Company AS slått konkurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • "Ølgründeren" Henning Thoresen sier til Aftenposten i desember 2017 at han vil prøve seg i festivalbransjen og redde Norwegian Wood og "samle gode krefter for å skape feelgood-stemning i Frognerbadet» 14. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lumping Blaney, who competed in 2017 for the Wood Brothers, with Penske drivers Logano and Keselowski made sense given the team's status as a satellite third team. (yahoo.com)
  • The wood of different species of trees varies considerably in weight, strength, and appearance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • NWFPs and similar terms such as "minor", "secondary" and "non-timber" forest products (NTFPs) have emerged as umbrella expressions for the vast array of both animal and plant products other than wood derived from forests or forest tree species. (fao.org)
  • the carrier species is the wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni , which is widely distributed in the adult form on large mammals, particularly cattle and sheep. (britannica.com)
  • The cedar wood wasps, represented in North America by the species Syntexis libocedrii, are found in the Pacific coastal states. (britannica.com)
  • For Western red cedar, a highly allergenic species of soft wood, the Agency is establishing an 8-hour TWA limit of 2.5 mg/m 3 . (cdc.gov)
  • Hard woods derive from the deciduous broad-leaved flowering species of trees, and soft woods include the coniferous species that do not shed their leaves in the winter. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the majority of previous reports suggest that many wood-feeding insects overcome the lignin barrier by feeding on predegraded wood ( 11 ) or through exosymbiotic relationships with wood-degrading fungi ( 12 , 13 ), there are species of insects that feed on the inner wood of living, healthy trees. (pnas.org)
  • 1. Wood filler composition which provides exceptional performance on soft and hard species of wood, which is easily spreadable, resists shrinking on drying and cracking, stains superbly, is highly water resistant, can be sanded easily and which has excellent adhesion to wood, metal and paint, said composition having a viscosity of 120,000 to 250,000 cps. (google.com)
  • Instead, the scientists found that biotic or living factors, like interactions between different species of fungi, were critical in predicting the rate of wood decay. (yaledailynews.com)
  • In the Big Wood River and on the Soldier Creek Stapp Preserve (TNC), this species occurred mainly in riffles and, to a lesser extent in the latter site, beaver dam pools, where the fishes may have been trapped in unfavourable habitat (Merkley and Griffith 1992). (iucnredlist.org)
  • This also depends on wood species. (iom3.org)
  • Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in some species by dendrochronology to determine when a wooden object was created. (wikipedia.org)
  • In November 2015, Dynegy said it plans to retire the Wood River Power Station in mid-2016. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The Blacker-Wood Library of Biology was formed in 1988 with the merger of the Blacker-Wood Library of Zoology and the Botany-Genetics Library. (mcgill.ca)
  • During 1987-1988 Wood held the Individual Artist Fellowship in Composition from the Tennessee Arts Commission, with a matching grant from the Joan Harrell Schaeffer Foundation. (apsu.edu)
  • Twice nominated for the Distinguished Professor Award, Wood was awarded the Richard M. Hawkins Award for scholarship and creativity in 1988. (apsu.edu)
  • Wood Adhesives in 1985: Status and Needs. (springer.com)
  • Before 1985, OSHA regulated wood dust under its nuisance dust standard of 15 mg/m 3 (29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-3). (cdc.gov)
  • However, in a 1985 enforcement proceeding before the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission, wood dust was held not to be covered by the nuisance dust standard. (cdc.gov)
  • Two studies examined the effect of exposing Syrian golden hamsters to beech wood dust by inhalation, with or without concurrent administration of the known carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) (Wilhelmsson, Hellquist, Olofsson, and Klintenberg 1985/Ex. (cdc.gov)
  • For his Sonata for Violoncello and Piano , commissioned by the Music Teacher's National Association, Wood was named Distinguished Composer of the Year in 1985. (apsu.edu)
  • It can be discarded similarly as wood, through decomposition or incineration. (brighthub.com)
  • By contrast, scientists have overlooked dead wood decomposition because it is harder to analyze. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Research shows that wood does not respond in the same way soil does, as the decomposition rate does not necessarily increase as temperature increases. (yaledailynews.com)
  • The purpose of the research, Maynard said, is to inquire into why there is more variability of decomposition in wood. (yaledailynews.com)
  • The researchers found that abiotic factors largely had no effect on the wood decomposition rate. (yaledailynews.com)
  • The fungi's primary concern is surviving against the overgrowth of their neighbors, so the interactions between fungi are much more effective in predicting wood decomposition than the small changes in the climate the researchers applied. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Covey referred to previous research that concluded that climate fails to predict the wood decomposition rate and said the correlation between the two in other research may be a statistical artifact - an example of the ecological fallacy, in which a person arrives at completely different conclusions when data are aggregated on the wrong scale. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Whereas, if the only carbon emissions humans sent to the atmosphere were derived through decomposition or burning of wood and vegetation, sure we would always have some tenants, but they would be naturally cycling into new vegetation growth and not permanently controlling the dial of our thermostat, like the fossil fuel squatters. (fed.us)
  • Natural wood contains pores formed from the remains of parallel, tube-like cells, the walls of which contain cellulose, along with biopolymers known as lignin and hemicelluloses. (nature.com)
  • 2 treated natural wood with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfite, which partly removed the lignin and hemicelluloses. (nature.com)
  • These walls also contain lignin and hemicelluloses, and form hollow wood fibres. (nature.com)
  • Liquid wood is a tough, thermoplastic substance that is prepared from a mix of natural fibers and lignin known by the trade name of Arboform. (brighthub.com)
  • The ingredients of wood, namely lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose are separated during the manufacturing process of paper. (brighthub.com)
  • These results transform our understanding of lignin degradation by wood-feeding insects. (pnas.org)
  • Herein, we show chemical changes in lignin upon passage of undegraded wood through two wood-feeding insect gut systems, one that naturally feeds on living healthy trees and a second that typically feeds on dead wood. (pnas.org)
  • In undegraded wood, the predominant products from TMAH thermochemolysis are typically 3,4-dimethoxybenzldehyde (G4) from guaiacyl (G) lignin ( Fig. 1 ) and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde (S4) from syringyl (S) lignin. (pnas.org)
  • This leads to stronger wood with denser grain patterns, a unique material that Mari used to create a set of furniture that plays with traditional Japanese furniture techniques. (treehugger.com)
  • It has a straight grain with a fine texture, says the Wood Zone website. (ehow.com)
  • The high density and interlocked grain of olive wood makes it difficult to cut. (ehow.com)
  • This will help even out the wood grain and make it easier for the tools to glide across it. (wikihow.com)
  • Do all of the lines that run perpendicular to the wood grain first, then do the lines that run parallel to the grain. (wikihow.com)
  • Sand the wood along the grain to avoid scratching it. (wikihow.com)
  • Knots affect the technical properties of the wood, usually reducing the local strength and increasing the tendency for splitting along the wood grain,[citation needed] but may be exploited for visual effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a longitudinally sawn plank, a knot will appear as a roughly circular "solid" (usually darker) piece of wood around which the grain of the rest of the wood "flows" (parts and rejoins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Within a knot, the direction of the wood (grain direction) is up to 90 degrees different from the grain direction of the regular wood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wood industry or lumber industry is a-usually private - economic sector concerned with forestry , logging , timber trade , and the production of forest products , timber /lumber, primary forest and wood products (e.g. furniture ) and secondary products like wood pulp for the pulp and paper industry . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pressure-treated wood is lumber that has had a preservative forced into it under pressure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The small size of olive trees makes olive wood lumber rare and expensive. (ehow.com)
  • According to the Architecturals website, olive wood is rarely sold or available as lumber. (ehow.com)
  • When it is sold, olive wood lumber is normally very expensive and cut into small pieces. (ehow.com)
  • More recent attempts (during the past 5 years) carried out in the United States to develop cold-setting wood adhesives for end-jointing and laminating lumber for structural applications requiring exterior glueline quality indicate substantial promise for the use of conifer tree barks as partial substitutes for resorcinol. (springer.com)
  • Past efforts aimed at replacing the phenolic material in wood adhesives by tannins of various origins have been extensive throughout the world, with research activity normally paralleling the price of phenol. (springer.com)
  • With the exception of the use of "wattle" tannins for both thermosetting and cold-setting wood adhesives primarily in South Africa, success has been limited. (springer.com)
  • Wood Adhesives: Chemistry and Technology. (springer.com)
  • Kreibich, R.E. High-speed adhesives for the wood gluing industry. (springer.com)
  • Kreibich, R.E. Condensed tannin-resorcinol adducts and their use in wood-laminating adhesives: an exploratory study. (springer.com)
  • Problems and prospects for their extended use in wood adhesives. (springer.com)
  • Hemingway, R.W. Condensed tannin-sulfonate derivatives in cold-setting wood-laminating adhesives. (springer.com)
  • In these cases wood science is required in the use of adhesives, consolidants and finishers. (iom3.org)
  • Naturally-occurring wood chemicals can also be used as possible wood preservatives, drugs for fighting cancer and for the manufacture of adhesives. (iom3.org)
  • Wood chemists are also very active in improving paper, paint, adhesives and coatings for wood products. (iom3.org)
  • Wood adhesives as a term can encompass many products for a variety of applications, but essentially these products are polymers designed for the joining of timber elements through application to the timber surfaces and binding them through either a chemical reaction or physical interlocking. (iom3.org)
  • Many of the wood adhesives (especially those used in industrial applications) contain formaldehyde, a known carcinogen. (iom3.org)
  • The resulting material was about 3 times as dense as natural wood, and about 11 times as stiff and strong - making it potentially useful for high-strength engineering applications. (nature.com)
  • The resulting stable material is too dense to float on water, but the authors report that its stiffness and strength have both increased impressively, by a factor of about 11 compared with untreated wood. (nature.com)
  • The wood is oily and dense, and material obtained from the tree's branches is prone to warping. (ehow.com)
  • Hours after the fire, Bill Turben's sister and other relatives stood near the charred home, which is a few miles from Sulphur, a village of about a dozen homes surrounded by rolling hills, tracts of fields and dense woods. (yahoo.com)
  • Residential wood heaters, which include wood and pellet stoves, hydronic heaters and forced-air furnaces, can contribute significantly to particulate air pollution which may pose serious health concerns. (epa.gov)
  • our posts on wood and pellet stoves continue to be among the most popular we have ever published. (treehugger.com)
  • Wood was named a winner in the 1995 Young American's Art Song Competition sponsored by G. Schirmer/Associated Music Publishers, which resulted in the inclusion of his song "The Rear-Guard" from the cycle MCMXIV in "The Art Song Collection" published in 1996. (apsu.edu)
  • Come watch the Wood Ducks play with your group of 20 or more! (milb.com)
  • Located along the Ouachita River at the Louisiana-Arkansas border, the Upper Ouachita NWR provides a seasonal haven for tens of thousands of migratory ducks and geese, including mallards, pintails, wood ducks and snow geese, which visit the refuge every year for resting, foraging and breeding. (fws.gov)
  • Wood ducks are common year-round in the Southeastern United States and during summer and autumn throughout the Eastern United States and Canada. (fws.gov)
  • Wood ducks breed in most states east of the Rocky Mountains and throughout the Pacific Northwest, but they migrate from northern states and provinces to southern areas during early fall. (fws.gov)
  • Not listed, low concern - Although breeding population estimates are not available for wood ducks based on breeding surveys, perhaps as many as 3 million breeding pairs exist across North America. (fws.gov)
  • Wood ducks nest primarily in tree cavities, which are hollow areas in living and dead trees. (fws.gov)
  • Wood ducks in a tree at Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge. (fws.gov)
  • During summer and fall, wood ducks feed on a variety of seeds, invertebrates, and plants in shallow areas of lakes and wetlands. (fws.gov)
  • Wood ducks at Lake Isom National Wildlife Refuge. (fws.gov)
  • April 2, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- CertainTeed Corporation today announced that it has purchased Norton Industries' wood ceilings business. (prnewswire.com)
  • The authors' method starts by treating wood blocks with sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfite, a chemical process similar to the method used to pulp wood to make paper. (nature.com)
  • It is mainly used in packaging, for cooling pads in home evaporative cooling systems known as swamp coolers , for erosion control mats, and as a raw material for the production of other products such as bonded wood wool boards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, wood wool can be dyed to produce a variety of colored products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-wood forest products (NWFPs) are goods of biological origin other than wood, derived from forests, other wooded land and trees outside forests. (fao.org)
  • Non-Wood N ews is compiled by Laura Russo and Tina Etherington , Wood and Non-Wood Products Utilization Branch (FOPW) of the FAO Forest Products Division. (fao.org)
  • Non-wood forest products (NWFP) are goods of biological origin other than wood, derived from forests, other wooded land and trees outside forests. (fao.org)
  • Non-timber forest products (NTFP), another term frequently used to cover this vast array of animal and plant products, also includes small wood and fuelwood. (fao.org)
  • There have been a number of serious fires that have occurred at sites involved in the storage, treatment and handling of wood and wood based products. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Wood education provides training in designing wood based products. (excite.com)
  • Wood education covers both the technical skills required to cut and design wood, as well as the artistic skills needed to develop aesthetically pleasing products. (excite.com)
  • The Norton acquisition enhances our wood ceilings and walls portfolio with a strong lineup of products that complement our custom wood designs from Decoustics,' said Seth Walton , General Manager, CertainTeed Specialties and Vice President, Commercial Markets. (prnewswire.com)
  • Wood stains are products used for wood finishing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Liquid wood is not prepared from the trees, but it is produced from the paper industry waste products. (brighthub.com)
  • To better understand how trees and wood products store and cycle carbon, let's pretend we are the atmosphere - the landlord - and carbon emissions are our tenants. (fed.us)
  • When people use wood-based products in place of fossil fuel-intensive products - like steel, concrete, or plastic - there is a permanent benefit to our atmospheric home. (fed.us)
  • Simply put, by building with wood, we're opting to store additional carbon in everyday products and buildings. (fed.us)
  • Using renewable wood products is like choosing a few clean, respectful tenants who stay for the duration of the lease, instead of hundreds of unwelcome tenants who never move out. (fed.us)
  • Scientists have tried to devise processes that make wood denser, to obtain materials suitable for high-strength applications, but with limited success. (nature.com)
  • In addition to this technical exposure, wood education will give you practice in developing designs for every occasion. (excite.com)
  • Our study did not show a link between either colon or stomach cancer and wood dust exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to wood dust has long been associated with a variety of adverse health effects, including dermatitis, allergic respiratory effects, mucosal and nonallergic respiratory effects, and cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • That began when Clayton Ferrell into their midst and selected one Aix sponsa -- a wood duck. (fws.gov)
  • Wood wool fibers can be compressed and when the pressure is removed they resume their initial volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • The width of wood wool fibers varies from 1.5 to 20 mm, while their length is usually around 500 mm (depending on the production process). (wikipedia.org)
  • When these fibers are bonded with cement or magnesite , bonded wood wool boards are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newly gained expertise has considerably improved the sealing of wood fibers, and the unpleasant odours have been eliminated significantly. (brighthub.com)
  • Groups of male guinea pigs were injected intratracheally with suspensions containing 75 mg of sheesham or mango wood dust or of hemp or bagasse fibers, or 20 mg of jute fiber (Bhattacharjee, Dogra, Lal, and Zaidi 1979/Ex. (cdc.gov)
  • In the UK there are specifications for dimensions, pH, moisture content and freedom from dust and small pieces, set by British Standard BS 2548 for wood wool for general packaging purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found no link between colon cancer and how long men had worked as model makers, or how much wood dust they had been exposed to. (cdc.gov)
  • Consequently, OSHA had no PEL for wood dust when this generic rulemaking was undertaken. (cdc.gov)
  • The ACGIH has a TLV-TWA of 1 mg/m 3 for hard wood dust, and a TLV-TWA of 5 mg/m 3 and STEL of 10 mg/m 3 for soft wood dust. (cdc.gov)
  • OSHA proposed a 1 mg/m 3 8-hour TWA for hard wood dust and a 5 mg/m 3 8-hour TWA for soft wood dust. (cdc.gov)
  • Wood dust is defined as any wood particles arising from the processing or handling of woods. (cdc.gov)
  • The discussion below first describes some of the relevant toxicological studies and then presents the record evidence on wood dust. (cdc.gov)
  • Two groups were exposed to fresh beech wood dust (a hard wood dust) at a mean total dust concentration of 15 mg/m 3 for six hours/day, five days/week for 36 weeks, and one of these groups was also given 1.5 mg of DEN once a week for the first 12 weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • Two groups of animals were exposed to fresh beech wood dust at a mean total dust concentration of 30 mg/m 3 for six hours/day, five days/week for 40 weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • After Japanese furniture company Hida Sangyo developed a compression process for Sugi wood, Mari was asked to design a set of furniture made from the wood. (treehugger.com)
  • When we choose wood, we keep our home clean, support forests, and invest in long-term climate solutions. (fed.us)
  • However, the lower content of sulfur in liquid wood makes it safer for use. (brighthub.com)
  • The content below has been tagged with the term "Wood Duck. (fws.gov)
  • Wood in service must be dried to a moisture content suitable to the environment in which it will be installed. (iom3.org)
  • It is fair to say that more problems in the utilisation of wood are attributed to moisture content that any other. (iom3.org)
  • In parallel with wood drying, there is much interest in the measurement of moisture content. (iom3.org)
  • It is becoming harder for us to keep Non-Wood News to a reasonable size while still trying to report on some of the main developments (events, publications of interest, new projects, emerging research topics) as well as giving our readers an opportunity to see their contributions included and shared - that "networking" role which we consider so important. (fao.org)
  • Due to its rich color and appearance, olive wood is a particularly sought-after material for use in decorative items. (ehow.com)
  • Items made from olive wood will generally retain this faint aroma for many years. (ehow.com)
  • Wood (sixty years of age) cried out: For God's sake, men, you are not going to shoot us! (tufts.edu)
  • Wood toys designed for kids from 3 to 6 years old with small white details from the monolithic era. (behance.net)
  • The soft, white grubs eat their way through the wood, taking between 2 and 10 or more years to complete their development (see Box 1 for more details of the life history). (newscientist.com)
  • We have noted for years that wood stoves are hot, but are they green enough to merit subsidies and tax credits like solar panels and other renewable energy technologies? (treehugger.com)
  • Wood joined Willis in October 2006 he has more than 19 years experience in banking, finance and public accounting. (insurancejournal.com)
  • In November, it will be 37 years since Wood, the Hollywood child star-turned-Oscar-nominated actress, died in a mysterious drowning off the coast of Santa Catalina, the popular pleasure island in the Pacific, 49 miles southwest of Los Angeles. (usatoday.com)
  • If a wood house stands for 150 years, it will store carbon until it decays or is replaced. (fed.us)
  • the site has been continuously wooded for at least 400 years). (southampton.gov.uk)
  • Nationwide over the past years, Wood Badge courses have increased more than 30 percent. (meritbadge.org)
  • This led to the first Wood Badge training course for Scoutmasters, held eight years later at Gilwell Park near London. (meritbadge.org)
  • Wood has been used for thousands of years for fuel, as a construction material, for making tools and weapons, furniture and paper, and as a feedstock for the production of purified cellulose and its derivatives, such as cellophane and cellulose acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2011 discovery in the Canadian province of New Brunswick yielded the earliest known plants to have grown wood, approximately 395 to 400 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • People have used wood for thousands of years for many purposes, including as a fuel or as a construction material for making houses, tools, weapons, furniture, packaging, artworks, and paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Known Constructions using wood date back ten thousand years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high natural durability of olive wood makes it ideal for furniture construction. (ehow.com)
  • For example, by acetylating wood, the density and durability can be increased and swelling and shrinkage be almost eliminated. (iom3.org)
  • Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees, and other woody plants. (dbpedia.org)
  • Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. (dbpedia.org)
  • A. glabripennis is a wood-feeding cerambycid beetle that develops in the inner wood of a wide range of hardwood trees ( 14 ), feeding on living intact wood. (pnas.org)
  • Wood, in the strict sense, is yielded by trees, which increase in diameter by the formation, between the existing wood and the inner bark, of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem, living branches, and roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • a material used in the production of cement-bonded wood wool boards . (wikipedia.org)
  • Plywood , made of thin layers of wood glued so that the grains alternate in direction, makes an especially strong construction material. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Natural wood contains a multitude of parallel, tube-like cells, the walls of which constitute the major part of the material. (nature.com)
  • I'll always prefer working with wood over metal and plastic, because wood is such a forgiving material. (core77.com)
  • Wood may also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. (dbpedia.org)
  • Due to its high volume and large surface area, wood wool can be used for applications where water or moisture retention is necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wood-wool processing may involve drying to reduce moisture in compliance with local requirements, as in the UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • This inner wood (the heartwood, as opposed to the functional sapwood) is valued for outdoor construction because of its resistance to moisture and to decay-producing organisms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Freshly cut wood contains much moisture and tends to warp and split as it dries. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many problems remain such as how to measure moisture in modified wood. (iom3.org)
  • Although synthetic materials have supplanted wood in many of its former uses, it is still widely employed for furniture, floors, railway ties, paper manufacture, and innumerable other purposes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thereafter, manufacturers may obtain an EPA Certificate of Compliance for each of their wood heaters to enable the manufacturer to manufacture, offer for sale, advertise, or import a wood heater into the United States. (epa.gov)
  • Now 87 and a recurring guest star on CBS' NCIS , he was a charming man-about-Hollywood when he married Wood in 1957, when she was in her late teens and he was in his mid-20s. (usatoday.com)
  • During the 1957 FA Cup Final against Aston Villa, Wood was the victim of what was then a perfectly legal shoulder charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • In December 1957, United signed Harry Gregg from Doncaster Rovers for £23,500 - the world record fee for a goalkeeper at the time - and Wood found his first-team opportunities limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Raymond Ernest "Ray" Wood (11 June 1931 - 7 July 2002) was an English professional footballer who played as a goalkeeper. (wikipedia.org)
  • NIOSH studied the health effects of wood model making. (cdc.gov)
  • The NIOSH study also looked at other causes of death among wood model makers. (cdc.gov)
  • The wood contains brown streaks that contrast attractively with the lighter yellow streaks of the sapwood. (ehow.com)
  • charcoal is made by burning or heating wood in insufficient air to consume it. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus it can be injected into molds through nozzles, and any item that can be produced from plastic can also be made by the liquid wood. (brighthub.com)
  • During research into how this creature digests wood, discoveries have been made that show the potential for using wood as alternative bio-fuels. (iom3.org)
  • Termites originated from wood-feeding cockroaches and are dominant members of the saproxylic insect community in many tropical and subtropical biomes. (springer.com)
  • If treated correctly and protected against parasites, olive wood furniture should last a long time. (ehow.com)
  • The wood is often used to make small items, such as ornamental knife handles and jewelry boxes. (ehow.com)
  • Use hot glue and wood dowels to make a fruit basket in just a few hours. (lowes.com)
  • Brush away the wood slither, then make the next cut to complete the V-shape. (wikihow.com)
  • Unless you have experience with traditional boatbuilding or making traditional Japanese sake cups, you may not realize you can join two pieces of wood together--with no glue or sealant--in such a way as to make the joint watertight. (core77.com)
  • Make sure the wood feels smooth to the touch before you try burning it. (wikihow.com)
  • In 2015, EPA strengthened the clean air standards for residential wood heaters to make heaters significantly cleaner and improve air quality in communities where people burn wood for heat. (epa.gov)
  • How can we help you Make Wood Work? (woodcraft.com)
  • Wood started his career as an amateur with Newcastle United, though he failed to make a first team appearance and moved to Darlington in 1949. (wikipedia.org)
  • Found occurrences of Gen Wood in 2 documents in the collection. (tufts.edu)
  • 2008) found that Wood River Sculpin presence increased as stream width:depth ratio and percent cobble/boulder substrate increased and stream gradient decreased. (iucnredlist.org)
  • Not only can useful wood chemicals be produced for other industries, but also new ways can be found of improving the performance of wood. (iom3.org)
  • Various prehistoric, Roman, Neolithic, Bronze Age and Palaeolithic items have been found around Bassett Wood including coins and flint tools. (southampton.gov.uk)
  • A recent collaboration by researchers at Yale and other institutions sheds light on how fungi decay wood. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Contrary to the traditional scientific understanding, researchers discovered that the mere knowledge of abiotic, or nonliving, conditions is insufficient to predict how fungi will decay wood. (yaledailynews.com)
  • 6. The two 18th-century woodenchurches, and an octagonal clocktower, also in wood and built in1862 are unusual constructions,in which carpenters created abold visionary architecture,perpetuate an ancient model ofparish space and are in harmonywith the surrounding landscape. (slideshare.net)
  • Now 74, the Oscar-winning character actor ( The Deer Hunter , 1978) was co-starring with Wood in a film and was a guest of the Wagners on the yacht that night. (usatoday.com)
  • In 1978, an evaluation of the Boy Scout Leader Wood Badge course revealed a need for greater emphasis on the practical aspects of good troop operation. (meritbadge.org)
  • The changes include altering her cause of death to "Drowning and other undetermined factors" and adding the statement "Circumstances not clearly established" to how Wood ended up in the water while on a yacht with husband Robert Wagner and actor and co-star Christopher Walken. (yahoo.com)
  • The densified wood is still lighter than metallic materials, so its stiffness and strength open up the potential for many engineering applications. (nature.com)
  • Wood conservation can simply be related to old buildings which draws in the skills of building experts, wood preservation, damp control, carpenters, wood carvers and more. (iom3.org)
  • A barytes-containing wood filler is prepared from essential ingredients including, on weight percent basis, 6-14% acrylic resin, 3-10% platy talc, 3-10% barytes filler, 3-12% clay filler, 40-65% calcium carbonate filler and 13-35% water. (google.com)
  • A barytes-free wood filler is prepared from the same proportions of acrylic resin, calcium carbonate filler and water, together with 5-18% platy talc and 0-15% clay filler. (google.com)
  • Wood Duck", an acrylic rendition by 13 year-old Amber Dong, was chosen as the Best of Show in the 2015 Georgia Junior Duck Stamp Contest. (fws.gov)
  • Five judges unanimously selected her acrylic rendition of a wood duck out of 532 total entries as the Georgia Best of Show. (fws.gov)