Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Premenstrual Syndrome: A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyGonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Ovarian Function Tests: Methods used for assessment of ovarian function.Ovulation Prediction: Predicting the time of OVULATION can be achieved by measuring the preovulatory elevation of ESTRADIOL; LUTEINIZING HORMONE or other hormones in BLOOD or URINE. Accuracy of ovulation prediction depends on the completeness of the hormone profiles, and the ability to determine the preovulatory LH peak.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Ovulation Detection: Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Cloprostenol: A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Follicular Atresia: The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Luteolysis: Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Battered Women: Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Menotropins: Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.Trenbolone Acetate: An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Cervix Mucus: A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)Buserelin: A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Ovarian Cysts: General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Anestrus: A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human: A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Theca Cells: The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Hirsutism: A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.Callithrix: A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Triptorelin Pamoate: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Premenopausal women. Early follicular phase (days 1-4). Mid follicular phase (days 5-9). Late follicular phase (days 10-14). ... Adult female (follicular. phase, day 5). 70. 95% PI (standard). 500. 95% PI. pmol/L ... early follicular phase) and from 80 to 300 pg/ml during the 2nd week (mid- and late follicular phase including periovulatory ... Female reproductive system. In the female, estradiol acts as a growth hormone for tissue of the reproductive organs, ...
It should be done in the follicular phase of the cycle. It is contraindicated in pregnancy. It is useful to diagnose uterine ... HSG should NEVER be performed on pregnant women. Complications of the procedure include infection, allergic reactions to the ... tubal occlusion and pelvic inflammatory disease and used extensively in the work-up of infertile women. It has been claimed ... "Oil-Based or Water-Based Contrast for Hysterosalpingography in Infertile Women". New England Journal of Medicine. 376 (21): ...
Adult women Follicular phase. 1.3. 1.36. 66.0. 2.26. 30.4 Luteal phase. 1.3. 1.37. 65.7. 2.20. 30.7 ... FemalesEdit. Androgens may modulate the physiology of vaginal tissue and contribute to female genital sexual arousal. ... In women, mean levels of total testosterone have been reported to be 32.6 ng/dL. In women with hyperandrogenism, mean ... whereas female fetuses have α-fetoprotein, which binds the estrogen so that female brains are not affected. ...
This effect is not found for women on the pill. Also, during the late follicular and ovulatory phases, women prefer the scent ... particularly during the fertile phase. During the late follicular phase, women demonstrate a preference for mates with a ... However, when women are in the luteal (non-fertile) phase, they prefer men (and females) with more feminine faces. A preference ... female's voices are rated as significantly more attractive. This effect is not found with women on the pill. Women's preference ...
The BBT of men is comparable to the BBT of women in their follicular phase. The higher levels of estrogen present during the ... naturally cycling women and women taking hormonal contraceptives". The Journal of Physiology. 530 (3): 565-574. doi:10.1111/j. ... In women, ovulation causes a sustained increase of at least 0.2 °C (0.4 °F) in BBT. Monitoring BBTs is one way of estimating ... About 24% of women who use any type of fertility awareness program become pregnant during the first year, compared to about 85 ...
... during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase. Various studies have shown that during the luteal phase woman ... Follicular phase. Main article: Follicular phase. The follicular phase is the first part of the ovarian cycle. During ... Women in the follicular stage showed higher emotion recognition accuracy than their midluteal phase counterparts. Women were ... Luteal phase. Main article: Luteal phase. The luteal phase is the final phase of the ovarian cycle and it corresponds to ...
Plasma protein binding in women (follicular phase) RBA (%). K (106 M−1). Total (nM). Unbound (%). SHBG (%). CBG (%). Albumin ... In pregnant women in the last two thirds of pregnancy the SHBG level escalates to five to ten times the usual level for a woman ... SHBG levels are usually about twice as high in women than in men. In women, SHBG serves to limit exposure to both androgens ... Obese girls are more likely to have an early menarche due to lower levels of SHBG. Anorexia or a lean physique in women ...
Adult males have levels similar to those in women during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Blood test results should ... In women, progesterone levels are relatively low during the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, rise after ovulation, ... When women undergo cyclic changes or different hormonal transition phases (menopause, pregnancy, adolescence), there are ... Perimenopausal women have been found to have greater CYP3A4 activity relative to men and postmenopausal women, and it has been ...
Luteal versus follicular phase surgical oophorectomy plus tamoxifen in premenopausal women with metastatic hormone receptor ... Timing of adjuvant surgical oophorectomy in the menstrual cycle and disease-free and overall survival in premenopausal women ... clinical research with the aim of alleviating the difficult circumstances of women throughout the world. Peer-reviewed research ... Adjuvant surgical oophorectomy plus tamoxifen in premenopausal women with operable breast cancer: a global treatment option. ...
... to mid-follicular phase, and a second peak at ovulation. Inhibin A reaches its peak in the mid-luteal phase. Inhibin secretion ... Cycle characteristics of women aged over 40 years compared with a reference population of young women". Human Reproduction. 18 ... In both females and males, inhibin inhibits FSH production. Inhibin does not inhibit the secretion of GnRH from the ... Luisi S, Florio P, Reis FM, Petraglia F (2005). "Inhibins in female and male reproductive physiology: role in gametogenesis, ...
The follicular phase (or proliferative phase) is the phase of the menstrual cycle during which the ovarian follicles mature. ... February 2004). "Female's sexual experience during the menstrual cycle: identification of the sexual phase by noninvasive ... The follicular phase lasts from the beginning of menstruation to the start of ovulation. For ovulation to be successful, the ... In humans, ovulation occurs about midway through the menstrual cycle, after the follicular phase. The few days surrounding ...
The chart should show low temperatures before ovulation in the follicular phase, and higher ones after ovulation in the luteal ... Donors may also use a female condom to collect a semen sample. When used in this way, a female condom may be known as a 'baggy ... A woman will urinate on an LH surge stick once or twice a day, starting a few days before suspected ovulation. Often the stick ... Ovulation is the time of the month when the oocyte, or egg, is released by the woman. This is identified as the most fertile ...
"Successful pregnancy in a 45-year-old woman with elevated day 3 serum follicle stimulating hormone and a short follicular phase ... During the luteal phase the FSH levels should be kept low for subsequent cycles, thus the phase is supplemented with 4 mg oral ... In some cases (more so in younger women) ovarian function and ovulation can spontaneously resume. With POF up to 50% of women ... Fisch, Keskintepe and Sher report 35% (14 out of 40) ongoing gestation in women with elevated FSH levels (all women had prior ...
Effects of the Yuzpe regimen, given during the follicular phase, on ovarian function. „Contraception". 65 (2), s. 121-128, 2002 ... Can we identify women at risk of pregnancy despite using emergency contraception? Data from randomized trials of ulipristal ... Practical Advice for Emergency IUD Contraception in Young Women. „Obstet Gynecol Int". 2015, 2015. DOI: 10.1155/2015/986439. ... Early chorionic activity in women bearing inert IUD, copper IUD and levonorgestrel-releasing IUD. „Contraception". 36 (2), s. ...
In addition, androstenol has been found to decrease luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency during the follicular phase of the ... In accordance, it has been proposed that androstenol may be involved in the menstrual synchrony of women. In contrast to ...
A woman's menstrual cycle begins, as it has been arbitrarily assigned, with menses. Next is the follicular phase where estrogen ... This fertile window varies from woman to woman, just as the ovulation date often varies from cycle to cycle for the same woman ... Child-Woman Ratio (CWR) - the ratio of the number of children under 5 to the number of women 15-49, times 1000. It is ... This is considered the end of the fertile phase of a woman's life. According to a computer simulation run by Henri Leridon, PhD ...
Weak evidence suggests that AMH should be measured only in the early follicular phase because of variation over the menstrual ... Note that males are born with higher AMH levels than females in order to initiate sexual differentiation, and in women, AMH ... This endocrine disorder increases AMH levels at nearly two to three times higher in women with PCOS than in normal type women. ... In healthy females AMH is either just detectable or undetectable in cord blood at birth and demonstrates a marked rise by three ...
... is administered by a subcutaneous injection of 250 µg once per day during the mid to late follicular phase of a woman's ... Ganirelix is used as a fertility treatment drug for women. Specifically, it is used to prevent premature ovulation in women ... Women using ganirelix should not breast feed, as it is not known whether ganirelix is excreted in breast milk. Clinical studies ... Ganirelix should not be used in women who are already pregnant, and because of this the onset of pregnancy must be ruled out ...
... and remain absent during the follicular (preovulatory) phase. The symptoms must be severe enough to interfere with the woman's ... Women who reported its symptoms were often told it was "all in their head". Woman's reproductive organs were thought to have ... This class of medication may cause PMS-related symptoms in some women, and may reduce physical symptoms in other women. They do ... The exact symptoms and their intensity vary significantly from woman to woman, and even somewhat from cycle to cycle and over ...
Proliferation is induced by estrogen (follicular phase of menstrual cycle), and later changes in this layer are engendered by ... 2006). "Chapter 81 Female Physiology Before Pregnancy and Female Hormones". Textbook of Medical Physiology (11th ed.). Elsevier ... Slide is proliferative phase - click forward to see secretory phase. ... and PAEP expressed in the secretory phase. Other proteins such as the HOX11 protein that is required for female fertility, is ...
... with levels of 5 to 9 ng/mL during the mid-luteal phase), while follicular phase levels of progesterone are 0.02 to 0.9 ng/mL, ... It is used in non-pregnant women with a delayed menstruation of one or more weeks, in order to allow the thickened endometrial ... levels typical of the follicular phase are reached. Progesterone for topical administration is not approved by the FDA in the ... Topical progesterone has been used as a component of menopausal HRT to treat thousands of women in the United States and Europe ...
On the contrary, PR-A is upregulated in both tissue types in the follicular phase and persists in the stromal tissue during the ... Since the 1990s it has been evident that the two major receptor isomers, A and B, are functionally distinct within the female ... The PR-B has been found to be upregulated in the stroma and glandular epithelium during follicular phase, but is down-regluated ... 15), entered phase II clinical trial for in treatment uterine fibroids in 2014 and has a planned phase II clinical trial for ...
Levels of estradiol gradually increase during this time and through the mid to late follicular phase (or the second week of the ... and a feminine pattern of fat distribution in women and is important in the development and maintenance of female reproductive ... except during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle; thus, estradiol may be considered the predominant estrogen ... the volumes of sexually dimorphic brain structures in transgender women were found to change and approximate typical female ...
During the menstrual cycle, the level of SFRP1 mRNA in leiomyoma was highest in the follicular phase. Gonadotropin releasing ... Uterine leiomyomas are the most common tumors found in the female genital tract. Leiomyomas have been reported to grow under ... Using adenovirus-expressing SFRP1, impaired the canonical Wnt/Fzd pathway in the early phase of ischemia and as a result ...
Typically they are administered in the mid-follicular phase in stimulated cycles after administration of gonadotropins and ... In men, the reduction in LH subsequently leads to rapid suppression of testosterone release from the testes; in women it leads ... This protocol is likely beneficial in women expected to be hyper-responders, and probably also those expected to be poor ... GnRH antagonists are also being investigated in the treatment of women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer and some benign ...
"International Journal of Women's Dermatology. 3 (1): 44-52. doi:10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.02.018. PMC 5419026. PMID 28492054.. ... Results of a Phase 2, Dose-Ranging Study". Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. 17 (3): 333-338. PMID 29537451.. ... "International Journal of Women's Dermatology (Review). 4 (2): 56-71. doi:10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.10.006. PMC 5986265. PMID 29872679 ... In women, the use of combined birth control pills can improve acne. These medications contain an estrogen and a progestin. ...
... women in the proliferative or follicular phase, and women using levonogerestrol IUDs, DMPA or combined oral contraceptives. ... Conclusion The women in all six study groups had similar quantities of albumin. Cervical mucus presents as 8 different protein ... Aliquots were stored at -80oC. The six groups (20 participants per group) were: healthy asymptomatic post-menopausal women (PM ... P1.037 Analysis of the Major Human Cervical Mucus Patterns in Normal Healthy Females Using Different Methods of Birth Control ...
... software from the follicular phase on the estrous pattern (EC) altered the cholinergic innervation on the gonad. ... Lots of women ask this issue as soon as they can be aware of having an ovarian cysts and several wonder even before they are ... These types of women might not have functional ovarian cysts. All of us revealed previously that inauguration ? introduction of ... Locating an ovarian cyst could be cause for worry for most women and right away they will suspect that they have ovarian tumor ...
Ive only ever used it in the follicular, not luteal phase. But when its done, I look 10 years younger and fee ... Ive only ever used it in the follicular, not luteal phase. But when its done, I look 10 years younger and feel better... ... Ive only ever used it in the follicular, not luteal phase. But when its done, I look 10 years younger and feel better... ... Ive only ever used it in the follicular, not luteal phase. But when its done, I look 10 years younger and feel better... ...
Acute effects of cocaine on prolactin and gonadotropins in female rhesus monkey during the follicular phase of the menstrual ... Acute effects of cocaine on prolactin and gonadotropins in female rhesus monkey during the follicular phase of the menstrual ... Acute effects of cocaine on prolactin and gonadotropins in female rhesus monkey during the follicular phase of the menstrual ... Acute effects of cocaine on prolactin and gonadotropins in female rhesus monkey during the follicular phase of the menstrual ...
Cardiovascular system adaptability to physical exercise during follicular phase of endometrial cycle in female trained athletes ... Cardiovascular system adaptability to physical exercise during follicular phase of endometrial cycle in female trained athletes ... Keywords: Follicular Phase, Oestrogen Role in Exercise, Dynamic Cardiac Functions, Adaptability, Maximal Oxygen Consumption ( ... of the cardiovascular system adaptability to exercise in follicular phase of endometrial cycle in peri-menopausal females.. ...
Early follicular phase. The growth phase is stimulated by gonadotropins, which steadily increase at the beginning of the ... In the late follicular phase, granulosa cells in the dominant follicle start to express LH receptors and respond to LH as well ... In the late follicular phase, the level of estrogen secretion from the dominant follicle crosses a certain threshold, and the ... Note that ovulation divides the cycle in half: the first half, when follicles develop is the follicular phase, the second half ...
Only women who have normal looking of ovaries without dominant ovarian follicle will be included in study-protocol. Immediately ... Ovulation and Follicular Development Associated With Mid Follicular Phase Initiation of Combined Hormonal Contraception. The ... Ovulation and Follicular Development Associated With Mid Follicular Phase Initiation of Combined Hormonal Contraception ... comparison of ovulation inhibition effect between Zoely and Meliane ED with mid follicular phase starting ...
This randomized, comparative, parallel controlled Phase II study will be conducted in infertile female subjects aged 35-42 ... A Phase II Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Luveris® (Lutropin Alfa) in Mid Follicular Phase for Controlled Ovarian ... Lutropin Alfa (Luveris®) in Mid Follicular Phase for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in Advanced Reproductive Age: Phase ... surges while not causing suppression in the early follicular phase. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue antagonists are ...
Learn about menstrual cycle phases and how hormonal changes influence a womans behavior. ... Feeling Good: The Follicular Phase and Ovulation. The follicular phase of your menstrual cycle begins on the day you start your ... Women in the follicular phase of their cycle might display greater brain activity at the thought of possibly winning money than ... The Latest in Womens Health. Womens Health. Tips for Coping With Hair Loss as a Woman. Just as in men, hormones and other ...
While the average phase length is 16 days, some women will have a longer follicular phase and some will have a shorter one. ... The follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is a time when follicles grow and prepare for ovulation. ... have also been linked to a longer follicular phase.. Women with a long follicular phase are just as likely to get pregnant as ... Shorter follicular phase. Having a short follicular phase could impact your likelihood of conceiving, though. It may be a sign ...
During this phase of the ovarian cycle, compared to the pre-ovulatory (follicular, F) phase, normally menstruating women at sea ... phases of the menstrual cycle phase in La Paz women (N=30). A positive value signifies an increase in P from the F to L phase. ... nine F-phase women and five different L-phase women) as well as by the fact that investigators did not use a randomized ... Follicular versus luteal phase differences in submaximal exercise. For the 23 women showing an increase in P level from F to L ...
Female. Follicular phase. 1.5-8.5 ng/dL. 45-257 pmol/L. Luteal phase ... These precursors can be converted to adrenal androgen leading to virilization in females and premature adrenarche in both ...
Follicular dynamics were studied during 12 interovulatory intervals (IOIs) and 36 preovulatory periods in Miniature mares. The ... Female. Follicular Phase / physiology. Horses / physiology. Luteal Phase / physiology. Ovarian Follicle / physiology*, ... Follicular dynamics were studied during 12 interovulatory intervals (IOIs) and 36 preovulatory periods in Miniature mares. The ...
... progesterone was studied in anesthetized female rhesus monkeys during either the early follicular phase or the midluteal phase ... progesterone was studied in anesthetized female rhesus monkeys during either the early follicular phase or the midluteal phase ... progesterone was studied in anesthetized female rhesus monkeys during either the early follicular phase or the midluteal phase ... progesterone was studied in anesthetized female rhesus monkeys during either the early follicular phase or the midluteal phase ...
Sympathetic Nerve Function Status in Follicular and Late Luteal Phases of Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Young Women. Journal of ... Sympathetic Nerve Function Status in Follicular and Late Luteal Phases of Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Young Women. ... Results: Mean resting heart rate was significantly (p,0.01) increased in late luteal phase than that of follicular phase. Mean ... increased in late luteal phase than those of follicular phase. Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that sympathetic ...
Follicular Phase: Part I (approx. Day 6 to 10). *The primary follicle continues to develop and grow larger. The antrum gets ... Follicular Phase: Part II (approx. Day 11 to 14 ). *The primary follicle continues to develop, grow larger and is about ready ...
10 oral contraceptive users at follicular phase (OC-FOL), 10 non-oral contraceptives users at follicular phase (NOC-FOL), and ... and knee-flexion torque production during early follicular and postovulatory phases in recreationally active women. J Athl ... Wiewelhove T, Raeder C, Meyer T et al (2015) Markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in male and female team ... Rinard J, Clarkson PM, Smith LL, Grossman M (2000) Response of males and females to high-force eccentric exercise. J Sports Sci ...
There are two phases of the ovarian cycle the follicular phase and the luteal phase. In the follicular phase about 10-25 ... The first phase in the menstrual phase. It is named the menstrual phase because in corresponds with the shedding the uterine ... Estrogen promotes uterine changes in this phase. The last phase is the secretory phase. This is where the endometrium is ... Both sexes have gonads: in females, the gonads are the ovaries. The female gonads produce female gametes (eggs); the male ...
... the study was to compare the effects of two different models of altering the frequency of strength training sessions of females ... Female * Follicular Phase / physiology * Gonadal Steroid Hormones / blood * Humans * Luteal Phase / physiology ... was characterized by workouts every second day in the follicular and about once per week during the luteal phase. In order to ... Frequency variations of strength training sessions triggered by the phases of the menstrual cycle Int J Sports Med. 1995 Nov;16 ...
Adult women Follicular phase. 1.3. 1.36. 66.0. 2.26. 30.4 Luteal phase. 1.3. 1.37. 65.7. 2.20. 30.7 ... FemalesEdit. Androgens may modulate the physiology of vaginal tissue and contribute to female genital sexual arousal. ... In women, mean levels of total testosterone have been reported to be 32.6 ng/dL. In women with hyperandrogenism, mean ... whereas female fetuses have α-fetoprotein, which binds the estrogen so that female brains are not affected. ...
The amount of FSH varies throughout a womans menstrual cycle and is... ... In women, FSH helps control the menstrual cycle and the production of eggs by the ovaries. ... Menstruating women. Follicular phase:. 1.37-9.9 international units per liter (IU/L) ... The phase of a womans menstrual cycle can affect results, so it is important to know the first day of your last menstrual ...
Understanding the phases of menstrual cycle to see that all is working as well as it should be, is as important an indication ... For a woman, to know about the inner workings of her reproductive system is important because it indicates good health and ... The Follicular or Proliferative Phase (Days 5 to 13). In this one of the phases of menstrual cycle, the lining of the uterus ... The Menstrual Phase (Days 1 to 4/5). A womans cycle is always calculated by counting the first day of the period as Day 1 of ...
HIV Risk Greatest During Follicular Phase of Menstrual Cycle Editors pick. Contagionlive.com ... Women. Study finds that women are much more vulnerable to HIV infection during pregnancy and in the months after giving birth. ... Transgender women in Los Angeles are more likely to be in high HIV incidence clusters than any other group. News ... Exploring Factors That Contribute to Increased Risk of HIV Infection in Transgender Women. Editors pick ...
A patient with persistent urticaria related to the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle is presented. Although systemic ... Female. Follicular Phase* / immunology. Humans. Medroxyprogesterone / diagnostic use. Patch Tests. Progesterone / immunology*. ... A patient with persistent urticaria related to the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle is presented. Although systemic ...
Premenopausal women. Early follicular phase (days 1-4). Mid follicular phase (days 5-9). Late follicular phase (days 10-14). ... Adult female (follicular. phase, day 5). 70. 95% PI (standard). 500. 95% PI. pmol/L ... early follicular phase) and from 80 to 300 pg/ml during the 2nd week (mid- and late follicular phase including periovulatory ... Female reproductive system. In the female, estradiol acts as a growth hormone for tissue of the reproductive organs, ...
OvulationProgesteroneMenstruationEstradiolCorpus luteumLength of the follicular phaseIncrease during the folliculaPremenopausalPostmenopausalLymphomaLate follicular phaseLuteal phase of their menstrual cyclePhysiologicalOvarian follicularMenopauseWoman'sThecal cellsProliferativeShort luteal phaseOvumEndometriumGonadotropinOestrogenMidlutealHalf of your menstrual cycleEstrogen levelsUterusFolliclesEarlyReproductive ageEstrous CycleSecretory PhaseEndometrial cycleLastsPregnancyCycle phasesSecretionEvents in the ovaryPremenstrualHormonalDaysHumansSignificantlyInfertileMenstrual periodOvaryFertileMales
- Note that ovulation divides the cycle in half: the first half, when follicles develop is the follicular phase , the second half when the corpus luteum is active is the luteal phase . (washington.edu)
- Quick starting combined oral contraception containing estradiol hemihydrate/nomegestrol acetate is effective to inhibit ovulation in healthy reproductive age women and non-inferiority to combined oral contraception containing ethinyl estradiol/gestodene. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study is a randomized control, non-inferiority trial which compare the proportion of ovulation between two oral combined pills when delay starting the first tablet at mid-follicular phase of menstrual cycle in 18 - 40 year old, healthy women with prior normal and regular periods. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The next appointments will be every 2 - 3 days to monitor ovarian function by using Hoogland score until ovulation or follicular quiescence will be presented. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The rise in LH halts estrogen production and starts the process of ovulation, the next phase in the cycle. (healthline.com)
- 10 oral contraceptive users at follicular phase (OC-FOL), 10 non-oral contraceptives users at follicular phase (NOC-FOL), and 10 non-oral contraceptives users at ovulation phase (NOC-OV) participated. (springer.com)
- This chapter describes the different parts of the female reproductive system: the organs involved in the process of reproduction, hormones that regulate a woman's body, the menstrual cycle, ovulation and pregnancy, the female's role in genetic division, birth control, sexually transmitted diseases and other diseases and disorders. (wikibooks.org)
- There are several steps in the process of follicular development that occur in the follicular phase: Initiation, Recruitment and progression, Pre-ovulatory maturation and Ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
- One study of women with regular menstrual cycles found that none of them ovulated after the first wave of follicle development: 68% of cycles showed ovulation after the second wave, while 32% of cycles showed ovulation after the third wave. (wikipedia.org)
- Some women experience some pelvic pain or discomfort at this time, which is associated with the ovulation and often referred to as "middle pain" (mittelschmerz). (womenhealthzone.com)
- The follicular phase begins from the first day of menses and ends at ovulation. (livestrong.com)
- But for an individual woman, the ovulation day is usually quite consistent. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- Progesterone rises after ovulation, leading some women to feel sleepy. (sleepfoundation.org)
- The ovarian cycle consists of the follicular phase , ovulation , and luteal phase whereas the uterine cycle is divided into menstruation , proliferative phase, and secretory phase. (wikipedia.org)
- In women, LH helps regulate the menstrual cycle and egg production ( ovulation ). (nkch.org)
- The secretion of progesterone is stimulated by ovulation and increases during the first half of the luteal phase. (divshare.com)
- Objective: The objective of the studywasto determine whether ovulation frequency/quality as well as associated reproductive parameters improve after Roux en Y gastric bypass surgery. (cdc.gov)
- On average, most women experiences ovulation between 11 to 16 days before menstruation starts. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
- If it remains unfertilized and ovulation ends, the next phase of the cycle will begin. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
- Menstrual cycle lengths were standardized to 14-day follicular and 14-day luteal phases, centered on the day of ovulation. (eurekalert.org)
- Short-term caloric restriction had negative effects on sleep in both the late follicular phase, just before ovulation, and in the late luteal phase, just before the onset of menses," said Kim, who performed this study at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). (eurekalert.org)
- Not all women will have a drop in temperature before ovulation but if you notice your temperature drop, you should start having intercourse then. (empowher.com)
- Traditionally, human females are different from species which possess 'sexual swelling', with human ovulation considered to be concealed (cryptic, hidden). (wiley.com)
- From this perspective, there is supposedly a lack of any cues to female ovulation, with no systematic changes in female attractiveness across the cycle. (wiley.com)
- In women, the pituitary sends out LH during the ovulation part of the menstrual cycle. (ahealthyme.com)
- The menstrual cycle phases are luteal phase, ovulation and follicular phase. (womenhealthzone.com)
- After the follicular phase and at the beginning of ovulation, estradiol suppresses the luteinizing hormone. (womenhealthzone.com)
- The corpus luteum in these menstrual cycle phases continues to grow for some time after ovulation and finally produces progesterone. (womenhealthzone.com)
- Volunteer women ( n = 22) wore the Oura ring, measured ovulation through urine tests, and kept diaries on menstruations at an average of 114.7 days (SD 20.6), of which oral temperature was measured immediately after wake-up at an average of 1.9 cycles (SD 1.2). (springer.com)
- Women's BBT curve is typically biphasic, as the temperature is about 0.2-0.4 °C higher in the luteal (post-ovulation) phase compared to the follicular (pre-ovulation) phase. (springer.com)
- Some women may experience light spotting around ovulation. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Each woman is born with millions of immature eggs that are waiting to be released during ovulation. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Ovulation can occur even if a woman has not had her menstrual period. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Some women feel a bit of pain or aching near the ovaries during ovulation called mittelschmerz, which means "middle pain" in German. (americanpregnancy.org)
- The first part of the ovulation cycle is called the follicular phase . (americanpregnancy.org)
- This phase starts the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) and continues until ovulation. (americanpregnancy.org)
- The second half of the cycle is called the luteal phase and is from the day of ovulation until the next period begins. (americanpregnancy.org)
- The luteal phase has a more precise timeline and usually lasts for 12-16 days, starting from the day of ovulation. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Tracking ovulation can help a woman get a better idea of when pregnancy can and cannot occur during her monthly cycle. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Many women may also feel the desire to be more sexually active prior to ovulation. (wisegeek.com)
- With cycle day one, a woman's body once again begins to prepare for ovulation, and this part of the menstrual cycle is called the follicular phase due to the fact that during this time ovarian follicles begin to mature. (early-pregnancy-tests.com)
- Further tests may be needed such as semen analysis, checks of ovulation, and other tests of the female partner such as hysterosalpingogram or laparoscopy. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The luteal phase is the period of time between ovulation and the start of the menstrual cycle. (reference.com)
- Progesterone starts producing during the follicular phase, which occurs during the first part of the menstrual cycle before ovulation. (reference.com)
- A woman can find out the length of her luteal phase by tracking her cycles, including using home ovulation predictor kits. (reference.com)
- Levels rise through the follicular phase to a maximum in the luteal phase with an intermediate peak at ovulation. (labcorp.com)
- In which phase of meiosis is a follicle arrested until ovulation? (sporcle.com)
- During the _____ phase of the ovarian cycle, large antral follicles are recruited and undergo growth to compete for ovulation. (sporcle.com)
- After ovulation, what phase of meiosis is the oocyte arrested in? (sporcle.com)
- The follicular phase of the menstrual cycle begins on the first day of a woman's period, at the onset of menstrual bleeding and lasts until ovulation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- There is very high rise in both progesterone around 37% and oestradiol around 13.5%, in the previous studies it has been observed there FSH and LH plasma levels do not change in trained exercising females. (innovativepublication.com)
- At sea level normally menstruating women show increased ventilation (V̇ e ) and hemodynamic changes due to increased progesterone (P) and estrogen (E2) levels during the mid-luteal (L) compared to the mid-follicular (F) phase of the ovarian cycle. (biologists.org)
- The physiological changes that occur during the post-ovulatory (early to mid-luteal, L) phase of the menstrual cycle include rises in progesterone (P) and estrogen (E2) levels. (biologists.org)
- The in vivo metabolism of [ 3 H]progesterone was studied in anesthetized female rhesus monkeys during either the early follicular phase or the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. (elsevier.com)
- Tissue extractions of [ 3 H]progesterone, calculated from the arteriovenous difference in blood concentrations, did not differ statistically between the follicular and luteal phases, except in the uterine extractions. (elsevier.com)
- The tissue conversions of these organs systems of [ 3 H]progesterone to 20α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one and 5α-pregnane-3, 20-dione were measured but could not account for more than 10% of the peripheral conversion of progesterone to 20α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one and 30% of the peripheral conversion of progesterone to 5α-pregnane-3, 20-dione. (elsevier.com)
- Since the phase of the menstrual cycle of the rhesus monkey influences uterine extraction, uterine metabolism may thus be significant in the tissue response to progesterone. (elsevier.com)
- Background: Autonomic nerve function status may be changed during follicular and late luteal phases of menstrual cycle due to fluctuations of serum estrogen and progesterone level. (who.int)
- Objective: To observe the sympathetic nerve function status during follicular and late luteal phases of menstrual cycle and their relationships with serum estrogen and progesterone in healthy young womens. (who.int)
- To determine the effects of oral contraceptive (OC) use on salivary concentrations of testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, and its effects on the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage following eccentric cycling in women. (springer.com)
- Furthermore, testosterone and progesterone levels may affect recovery of indirect markers of muscle damage in women. (springer.com)
- The amounts of FSH and other hormones (luteinizing hormone, estrogen, and progesterone) are measured in both a man and a woman to determine why the couple can't become pregnant (infertility). (cigna.com)
- It also causes endometrial cells to produce receptors for progesterone, which helps prime the endometrium to respond to rising levels of progesterone during the late proliferative phase and throughout the luteal phase. (wikipedia.org)
- In this phase the corpus luteum prepares the uterus for pregnancy by producing, for example, progesterone. (livestrong.com)
- What Causes Women to Have Low Progesterone? (livestrong.com)
- Hi Katie We should feel good during the luteal phase, but if progesterone doesn't peak, or insufficient is produced, it will leave oestrogen dominant. (progesteronetherapy.com)
- But with the very short luteal phase you have, it's leaving you very short of progesterone. (progesteronetherapy.com)
- Production of progesterone peaks during the luteal phases, between day 20 and 25. (divshare.com)
- The female hormones estrogen and progesterone play an important role in the sexual and feminine health of a woman, and they can easily be disrupted. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
- The remains of the follicle become a corpus luteum, which secretes a second female hormone, progesterone. (ferring.com)
- Venous estradiol and progesterone concentrations were higher in the luteal than in the follicular phase but did not differ between placebo and norepinephrine transporter inhibition testing days. (ahajournals.org)
- To address the issue, we tested cardiovascular responses to selective NET inhibition or placebo during the early follicular phase, when estradiol and progesterone concentrations are low, and again during the midluteal phase, when both hormones are elevated. (ahajournals.org)
- Given the implication of sex steroid hormones in emotion processing (e.g., [ 24 - 26 ]) and in schizophrenia [ 27 - 29 ], we compared patterns of brain activations during two different stages of the menstrual cycle: follicular (associated with high estradiol and low progesterone levels) and luteal (characterized by a lower estradiol to progesterone ratio). (hindawi.com)
- Working from the finding from previous research that quitting smoking is harder for men than for women, the team looked specifically at the effects of estrogen and progesterone, two natural sex hormones, on addictive behavior in animals. (medicaldaily.com)
- Hormones like estrogen, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) play a big part in all menstrual cycle phases. (womenhealthzone.com)
- In the luteal phase, the remnants of the follicle ( corpus luteum ) keep secreting estrogen and progesterone to maintain the readiness of the uterus. (howstuffworks.com)
- Optimizing endometrial receptivity for patients with recurrent implantation failure: The role of progesterone on the day of triggering final oocyte maturation * Is there a role of follicular phase LH and E2 on the day of triggering final oocyte maturation for embryo implantation? (routledge.com)
- Low progesterone typically causes short luteal phases, notes Resolve. (reference.com)
- Another possible cause for a short luteal phase is the uterus lining's lack of response to the progesterone produced, according to WebMD. (reference.com)
- Progesterone is a steroid hormone in mammals that is involved in the female menstrual cycle , pregnancy (supporting gestation ), and embryogenesis . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Which cell type in the ovarian follicle is the main producer of progesterone in the follicular phase? (sporcle.com)
- During the ____ phase, granulosa cells are the main producer of progesterone. (sporcle.com)
- True or False: During the follicular phase, the granulosa cells are the main producers of progesterone because they are the closest to blood supply. (sporcle.com)
- The luteal phase triggers sharp hormonal changes-progesterone peaks and then plunges, along with estradiol. (ideafit.com)
- We examined the association of archived serum TCDD levels with serum hormone levels (estradiol, progesterone) at follow-up among 129 women who were in the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. (lww.com)
- Sheets is just one of the many women who experience premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, a collection of unpleasant symptoms, such as anxiety and bloating, that typically occur one to two weeks before menstruation and might influence behavior through in the menstrual cycle. (everydayhealth.com)
- Of all the stages of menstruation, the follicular phase varies the most, but typically lasts approximately 13 to 14 days. (livestrong.com)
- Up to 80% of women report having some symptoms during the one to two weeks prior to menstruation . (wikipedia.org)
- Menstruation is a good time to remember to focus on foods rich in iron, which the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 names as a nutrient of real concern among women in their childbearing years. (parenting.com)
- They are also known as the secretory phase, proliferative phase and menstruation. (womenhealthzone.com)
- At the beginning or before the menstruation phase begins, the breasts become tender and general mood swings are noticed in most women. (womenhealthzone.com)
- Lastly, although young women may not be aware of this, it is possible to get pregnant without ever having experienced one's first menstruation. (wisegeek.com)
- Estradiol ( E2 ), also spelled oestradiol , is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone . (wikipedia.org)
- Estradiol is responsible for the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as the breasts , widening of the hips , and a feminine pattern of fat distribution in women and is important in the development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues such as the mammary glands , uterus , and vagina during puberty , adulthood , and pregnancy . (wikipedia.org)
- Though estradiol levels in men are much lower compared to those in women, estradiol has important roles in men as well. (wikipedia.org)
- Upon menopause in women, production of estrogens by the ovaries stops and estradiol levels decrease to very low levels. (wikipedia.org)
- The development of secondary sex characteristics in women is driven by estrogens, to be specific, estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
- In the female, estradiol acts as a growth hormone for tissue of the reproductive organs, supporting the lining of the vagina , the cervical glands, the endometrium , and the lining of the fallopian tubes. (wikipedia.org)
- In this study, we hypothesized decreased DNA methylation of ESR1 associated with postmenopause, lower estradiol (E2) levels, and increased age among healthy middle-aged and older women. (mdpi.com)
- Here we examined the effects of endogenous fluctuations in estradiol on working memory in healthy young women as a function of baseline PFC DA [indexed by catechol- O -methyltransferase (COMT) Val 158 Met genotype and, at a finer scale, COMT enzyme activity]. (jneurosci.org)
- Physiological plasma levels of 17 β -estradiol range from 118 to 914 pmol/L in premenopausal women and fluctuate in healthy women during the menstrual cycle [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Serum samples collected during the mid-luteal phase of cycles 1 and 5 were analyzed for total estradiol, free estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin. (aacrjournals.org)
- Pilot studies of raloxifene have been conducted in premenopausal women but have shown increases in estradiol concentrations and decreases in bone mineral density ( 9 , 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women: Relation to age, stage of puberty, menstrual cycle, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol levels. (labcorp.com)
- The close relationship between the female and the male sex hormones is revealed by the fact that testosterone (the main male hormone) is an intermediate compound in the pathway that leads to the synthesis of estradiol, although another route, which avoids the formation of testosterone, is possible. (britannica.com)
- This is the last of the phases of menstrual cycle when the corpus luteum continues for about 14 days. (womenhealthzone.com)
- If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates at the end of the luteal phase in a process called luteolysis. (livestrong.com)
- If a woman gets pregnant, the corpus luteum is called the corpus luteum graviditatis. (livestrong.com)
- It's possible to have a corpus luteum defect, also referred to as luteal phase defect. (healthline.com)
- In women, inhibin A is made largely by the dominant follicle/corpus luteum. (labcorp.com)
- OBJECTIVE -To determine whether insulin resistance and secretion differ in obese premenopausal African-American women with and without glucose intolerance. (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS -Obese premenopausal African-American women with and without glucose intolerance have a similar degree of insulin resistance but differ in insulin secretion. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We completed a phase I trial of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) in 17 women (1 postmenopausal and 16 premenopausal) from a high-risk breast cancer cohort. (aacrjournals.org)
- Measurements were made during the follicular phase for premenopausal women. (aacrjournals.org)
- A more recent article on abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women is available. (aafp.org)
- In premenopausal women with normal findings on physical examination, the most likely diagnosis is dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) secondary to anovulation, and the diagnostic investigation is targeted at identifying the etiology of anovulation. (aafp.org)
- Premenopausal women with DUB may respond to oral contraceptives, cyclic medroxyprogesterone therapy or cyclic clomiphene. (aafp.org)
- In premenopausal women, the ovaries are the principal source of E2 [ 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
- 1,2 ⇓ Moreover, women who undergo early menopause, either surgically or naturally, are at increased risk of developing coronary heart disease in comparison with premenopausal women of the same age. (ahajournals.org)
- In premenopausal women, estrogen receptor (ER)α levels were associated with age (p = 0.0002), were similar in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle and were higher in parous than in nulliparous women (p = 0.009). (diva-portal.org)
- Protein levels of the androgen receptor, syndecan-4 and decorin was lower in premenopausal women who were using oral contraceptives (OC) than in those in the follicular phase (p = 0.002 - 0.02), whereas no significant differences between OC use and the luteal phase were found. (diva-portal.org)
- In premenopausal women, BD was negatively associated with age and body mass index but was similar for the menstrual phases. (diva-portal.org)
- The incidence of cerebral aneurysms is doubled in menopausal and postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women at the same age [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Effective breast cancer prevention strategies for women to begin while premenopausal are limited. (aacrjournals.org)
- Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved chemopreventive agent for premenopausal women at high breast cancer risk ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Among premenopausal women with anorexia nervosa, prolonged periods of low weight and suboptimal calcium intake, have been associated with osteopenia. (natap.org)
- Uterine pathology, particularly endometrial carcinoma, is common in postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. (aafp.org)
- Acute exogenous estrogen administration enhances endothelial function in postmenopausal women. (ahajournals.org)
- 16-19 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ Acute estrogen administration has been reported to improve vasoreactivity in healthy postmenopausal women at dosages achieving serum concentrations typical of the midcycle of reproductive-age women. (ahajournals.org)
- 20 Moreover, a beneficial effect of acute estrogen administration on myocardial ischemia has been found in postmenopausal women with angiographically proven coronary artery disease. (ahajournals.org)
- During a median follow-up of 10 years, 359 postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were matched with 359 control subjects by age, race, duration of follow-up, and time of blood draw. (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that SHBG may account for the inverse association between coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes risk among postmenopausal women. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Little is known about estrogen receptors and their signaling mechanisms in human cerebral vascular endothelial cells, which is important for understanding cerebral aneurysm pathogenesis in menopausal and postmenopausal women. (hindawi.com)
- Our data support HCVECs to serve as a suitable cellular model for studying cerebral aneurysm pathogenesis in menopausal and postmenopausal women. (hindawi.com)
- Subtypes of estrogen receptors and their signaling mechanisms identified in HCVECs could be applicable for developing estrogen-like compounds to specifically bind to a subtype of estrogen receptors with greater specific action on the cerebral arteries, without the estrogen-dependent side effects on the reproductive organs, to prevent cerebral aneurysm formation in menopausal and postmenopausal woman. (hindawi.com)
- In menopausal and postmenopausal women, estrogen level decreased to less than 73 pmol/L due to reductions in its biosynthesis [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Mucosal blood flow was highest in men and lowest in postmenopausal women. (bmj.com)
- However, the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene trial was limited to postmenopausal women. (aacrjournals.org)
- A Two-Arm, Non-Randomized, Multicenter, Phase 2 Study of VELCADE (Bortezomib) in Combination With Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, and Prednisone With or Without Doxorubicin Followed by Rituximab Maintenance in Patients With Relapsed Follicular Lymphoma. (knowcancer.com)
- Pathological diagnosis of follicular lymphoma (any grade) or marginal zone lymphoma. (knowcancer.com)
- Patients with transformed follicular lymphoma are eligible, provided there has previously been pathologic documentation of follicular lymphoma. (knowcancer.com)
- For this reason a phase II, multicenter, open-label, randomized study in patients with relapsed or refractory follicular, small lymphocytic, or marginal zone/mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) B-cell lymphoma was initiated to further determine safety and efficacy in this population at two dose levels of apolizumab. (cancernetwork.com)
- Currently enrolled patients have the following histologies: follicular small cell (n = 5), follicular mixed cell (n = 9), follicular large cell (n = 1), small lymphocytic (n = 5), and marginal zone (n = 1) lymphoma. (cancernetwork.com)
- Decreased energy availability increased sleep disruption, with less sleep efficiency, greater WASO, and higher sleep fragmentation index in the late follicular phase in addition to the effects noted above in the late luteal phase. (eurekalert.org)
- Urine samples collected during the late follicular phase of cycles 1 and 5 were analyzed for 2-hydroxyestrone and 16α-hydroxyestrone. (aacrjournals.org)
- The physiological role of oestrogen on the cardiovascular system is well studied during phases of the endometrial cycle. (innovativepublication.com)
- Some studies in the past have shown the potential of recombinant human LH (r-hLH) supplementation in women of advanced reproductive age to improve oocyte quality, but these studies are of small size and did not provide data on the physiological mechanism behind the benefit obtained. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The menstrual cycle of a fertile woman includes many physiological changes. (livestrong.com)
- Other than female sex organs and female secondary sex characteristics, what are 3 physiological effects of estrogen on female maturation? (brainscape.com)
- Physiological changes in a fertile woman are necessary for reproduction and occur under the influence of the endocrine gland. (womenhealthzone.com)
- In the follicular phase, the biochemical and physiological events (secretions of LH, FSH and estrogen) support the growth of the follicle (the cell complex that surrounds and nurtures the egg) in the ovary and build up the lining of the uterus to receive a fertilized egg. (howstuffworks.com)
- We found that one month of chronic treatment with elevated ALLO levels within physiological range impaired learning and memory function in the Swe/Arc female and male mice. (diva-portal.org)
- This continues until the woman reaches menopause, usually around the age of 50 years. (wikibooks.org)
- This can help determine whether the woman has gone through menopause. (cigna.com)
- The average age of menopause in women is 52 years, with anywhere between 45 and 55 being common. (wikipedia.org)
- This can help see if the woman has gone through menopause. (nkch.org)
- If you're a woman, abnormally high levels of LH during nonovulatory times in your menstrual cycle may mean you are in menopause. (ahealthyme.com)
- 21 On the other hand, endogenous estrogen seems to play a protective role on endothelial function since in normotensive women the age-related impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation occurs later in comparison with men, appearing only around the time of menopause. (ahajournals.org)
- Women menstruate from puberty to menopause , except during pregnancy. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The phase of a woman's menstrual cycle can affect results, so it is important to know the first day of your last menstrual period at the time the test is performed. (cigna.com)
- According to experts, normal and regular phases of menstrual cycle indicate various different things such as a woman's heart health, the status of bone health, ovarian health, and long term fertility as well. (womenhealthzone.com)
- How much LH is in a woman's body depends on the phase of her menstrual cycle. (nkch.org)
- On average, a woman's cycle is between 28-32 days , although some women may have much shorter or longer cycles. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Some 12-16 days after a woman ovulates, this lining will be shed from the body at the beginning of a woman's next menstrual cycle. (wisegeek.com)
- Laparoscopic image of a woman's ovary during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. (sciencephoto.com)
- As you may already know, women are born with all the eggs they will every have, and this abundant lifetime supply is known as a woman's ovarian reserve . (early-pregnancy-tests.com)
- With a short luteal phase, it means your follicular phase is very long. (progesteronetherapy.com)
- How does a short luteal phase impact fertility? (reference.com)
- A short luteal phase impacts fertility by not giving the endometrial lining enough time to thicken for proper implantation, according to Resolve. (reference.com)
- Doctors often refer to a short luteal phase as a luteal phase defect, explains Resolve. (reference.com)
- In the human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells ( gametes), are involved: the male gamete (sperm), and the female gamete (egg or ovum). (wikibooks.org)
- FSH is complimentary to LH as it stimulates the production of the ovum (in females) and sperm (in males). (divshare.com)
- Once the ovum is released and travels down one of the fallopian tubes, the process is complete and the body enters the luteal phase of the menstrual period. (wisegeek.com)
- Throughout the entire follicular phase, rising estrogen levels in the blood stimulates growth of the endometrium and myometrium of the uterus. (wikipedia.org)
- During the menstrual flow phase the endometrium (uterus lining) is shed. (divshare.com)
- In the secretory phase the endometrium continues to thicken and becomes vascularised in preparation for fertilisation. (divshare.com)
- Study this area of the female system, including a look at the perimetrium, endometrium and cervical canal. (study.com)
- We studied 16 healthy eumenorrheic women (25±1 years) during the early follicular phase (day 5±0) and midluteal phase (day 22±0) of the menstrual cycle. (ahajournals.org)
- Testing was conducted during the early follicular phase (days 3 to 6) and during the midluteal phase (days 21 to 23) of both menstrual cycles. (ahajournals.org)
- First, changes in arterial baroreflex control of sympathetic neural outflow results in elevated sympathetic nerve activity to skeletal muscle vascular beds during the midluteal phase ( 39 ). (physiology.org)
- Specifically, enhanced baroreflex-mediated changes in sympathetic nerve activity in the midluteal phase could lead to lower overall skeletal muscle blood flow and diminished peripheral vascular conductance during recovery from exercise, diminishing postexercise hypotension. (physiology.org)
- The estrogen levels are highest during this phase of the menstrual cycle. (womenhealthzone.com)
- Estrogen levels are also high in this phase causing the breasts to feel tender and swollen. (livestrong.com)
- During the follicular phase, your body is working hard to develop a dominant follicle and estrogen levels are on the rise. (parenting.com)
- This is also the time that most women experience some pain, cramping or discomfort during this menstrual phase as the uterus contracts and sheds its lining. (womenhealthzone.com)
- In this one of the phases of menstrual cycle, the lining of the uterus once again develops and grows in preparation for a possible pregnancy. (womenhealthzone.com)
- Each cycle can be divided into three phases based on events in the ovary (ovarian cycle) or in the uterus (uterine cycle). (wikipedia.org)
- Oestrogens are important in the development of the uterus lining and maintenance of the female reproductive system and the secondary characteristics such as metabolic processes and changes in breast tissues. (divshare.com)
- The average luteal phase is 14 days, but some women have a shorter phase, which leads to the defect and lack of membrane lining of the uterus. (reference.com)
- During this phase, the egg-containing pods called follicles ripen and one of the eggs matures. (healthline.com)
- These follicles grow during this phase of your cycle. (healthline.com)
- The follicular phase is the phase of the estrous cycle, (or, in humans and great apes, the menstrual cycle) during which follicles in the ovary mature. (wikipedia.org)
- Two follicles are present in ovary but only one acquires dominance after the birth and when the woman attains maturity. (womenhealthzone.com)
- This repeated-measures, randomized study, conducted at 3600 m, tests the hypothesis that a P-mediated increase in V̇ e increases maximal oxygen consumption (V̇ O 2 max ) during the L phase relative to the F phase in Bolivian women, either born and raised at high altitude (HA), or resident at HA since early childhood. (biologists.org)
- Using a repeated-measures design on a large study sample, our purpose was to determine whether ovarian cycle-phase affects maximal exercise performance (V̇ O 2 max ) in women who had lived at an altitude of 3600 m since birth or early childhood. (biologists.org)
- Compared with the early follicular phase, sleep efficiency decreased by 3.3 percent, WASO increased by 15 minutes, and number of awakenings per night increased by three in the late luteal phase. (eurekalert.org)
- The women also completed five-day diets during the early follicular phases of each cycle. (eurekalert.org)
- Li X, Guo YR, Lin JF, Feng Y, Billig H, Shao R. Combination of Diane-35 and Metformin to Treat Early Endometrial Carcinoma in PCOS Women with Insulin Resistance. (jcancer.org)
- The aim of the study was to describe and discuss cases of PCOS and insulin resistance (IR) women with early endometrial carcinoma while being co-treated with Diane-35 and metformin. (jcancer.org)
- Five PCOS-IR women who were scheduled for diagnosis and therapy for early endometrial carcinoma were recruited. (jcancer.org)
- Early-follicular phase androgens decreased with the botanical supplement. (aacrjournals.org)
- In the early perimenopausal phase of the menopausal transition, the circulating follicular phase levels of inhibin decline. (labcorp.com)
- Cardiovascular system adaptability to physical exercise during follicular phase of endometrial cycle in female trained athletes and non-athletes-IJCAP-IP Innovative Publication Pvt. (innovativepublication.com)
- Hence this study was aimed to see the restrictions of the cardiovascular system adaptability to exercise in follicular phase of endometrial cycle in peri-menopausal females. (innovativepublication.com)
- The follicular phase of your menstrual cycle begins on the day you start your period and lasts for about 10 to 14 days. (everydayhealth.com)
- The luteal phase lasts for approximately two weeks. (healthline.com)
- and the G 1 phase of interphase, which lasts until the S phase of the next cycle. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The menstrual cycle is the female body's monthly pattern of preparing for a possible pregnancy. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- If the egg is fertilized, then the luteal phase continues throughout pregnancy. (howstuffworks.com)
- It has been shown that female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) in the semiconductor industry have higher risks of spontaneous abortion, subfertility, and menstrual disturbances, and prolonged waiting time to pregnancy. (bmj.com)
- Furthermore, a prolonged time to pregnancy occurred among female workers who were exposed to ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. (bmj.com)
- On placebo, hemodynamics at rest and in response to different stressors were mostly identical between cycle phases. (ahajournals.org)
- Samples were collected using cotton pads worn in the armpit for 24 h, from the menstrual, follicular and luteal cycle phases. (wiley.com)
- Home Women's Reproductive Health Menstrual Cycle What Are the Menstrual Cycle Phases? (womenhealthzone.com)
- What Are the Menstrual Cycle Phases? (womenhealthzone.com)
- FSH secretion begins to rise in the last few days of the previous menstrual cycle, and is highest and most important during the first week of the follicular phase (Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
- OGTT showed that insulin secretion was lower in the glucose-intolerant than the obese glucose-tolerant women (1.73 ± 1.38 vs. 3.62 ± 2.11, P = 0.005). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In glucose-tolerant Caucasian women, a positive association has been reported between acute insulin secretion and VAT ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The relationship between VAT and insulin secretion in African-American women must be explored. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether insulin resistance and secretion differ in African-American women with and without glucose intolerance. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In addition, increased sympathetic activity during late luteal phase might be the cause of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in some women. (who.int)
- A patient with persistent urticaria related to the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle is presented. (biomedsearch.com)
- These symptoms interfere with normal life and therefore qualify as premenstrual syndrome in 20 to 30% of women. (wikipedia.org)
- In this phase, symptoms of premenstrual syndrome often discourage interest in going to the gym. (ideafit.com)
- Secondary outcomes were changes in vaginal bleeding, other biometric, hormonal, ultrasound, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measures, and Female Sexual Function Index. (cdc.gov)
- Samples of body odour were acquired from 12 women (aged 19-27 yr), none of whom were using hormonal contraceptives. (wiley.com)
- Altered nutritional status, hormonal function and body composition may contribute to lower bone density in HIV-infected women. (natap.org)
- Note that the timing of ovarian events is based upon an average female cycle length of 28 days, however normal cycle length varies from 20 to 35 days. (washington.edu)
- This phase of monthly bleeding will last for an average of 4 days though a longer or shorter duration can also be perfectly normal. (womenhealthzone.com)
- The luteal phase last approximately 14 days and ends just before a menstrual period. (livestrong.com)
- Women Report Sleeping Worse in the Days Leading Up To Their Period. (sleepfoundation.org)
- Women report worse sleep during the days prior to and during the first few days of their period. (sleepfoundation.org)
- With the very long cycle you have some months, i.e. 35 days, this will make the follicular phase even longer. (progesteronetherapy.com)
- The typical length of time between the first day of one period and the first day of the next is 21 to 45 days in young women and 21 to 35 days in adults (an average of 28 days). (wikipedia.org)
- A woman who experiences variations of less than eight days between her longest cycles and shortest cycles is considered to have regular menstrual cycles. (wikipedia.org)
- It is unusual for a woman to experience cycle length variations of more than four days. (wikipedia.org)
- In fact, the average woman loses 30-40 milliliters of blood over the course of three to seven days. (parenting.com)
- NEW ORLEANS--Young women are more likely to experience sleep disruption in the days leading up to their menstrual period, according to a new study that will be presented Saturday at ENDO 2019, the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society, in New Orleans, La. (eurekalert.org)
- We submitted women to identical cardiovascular autonomic tests on 4 separate days during 2 consecutive menstrual cycles. (ahajournals.org)
- According to a recent study , women who want to quit smoking may have better success by timing their quit dates with optimal days within their menstrual cycle. (medicaldaily.com)
- This first half of the cycle can differ greatly for each woman lasting anywhere from 7 to 40 days . (americanpregnancy.org)
- 0.01) increased and resting diastolic blood pressure was non-significantly increased in late luteal phase than those of follicular phase. (who.int)
- FSIGT showed that AIRg was not significantly lower in glucose-intolerant than in obese glucose-tolerant women (807 ± 665 vs. 1,253 ± 655 mU · l −1 · min, P = 0.078). (diabetesjournals.org)
- A prospective semiconductor industry study 12 found that the mean and standard deviation of the cycle length were significantly greater among female workers engaged in thin film and ion implantation jobs than among non-fabrication (non-fab) workers. (bmj.com)
- We demonstrate significantly lower bone density at the lumbar spine and hip among HIV-infected women as compared to female control subjects of similar age, weight and racial background. (natap.org)
- It is useful to diagnose uterine malformations, Asherman's syndrome, tubal occlusion and pelvic inflammatory disease and used extensively in the work-up of infertile women. (wikipedia.org)
- Should laparoscopy be a mandatory component of the infertility evaluation in infertile women with normal hysterosalpingogram or suspected unilateral distal tubal pathology? (thefreedictionary.com)
- Oocyte retrieval is a technique used in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in order to remove oocytes from the ovary of the female participant, enabling fertilization outside the body. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This phase happens when the ovary releases that mature egg down the fallopian tube on its way to fertilization. (healthline.com)
- Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a high risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. (jcancer.org)
- Some experts surmise that this may be nature's way of encouraging women to have sex during their most fertile time. (everydayhealth.com)
- Females of a number of primate species display their fertile period by behavioural and/or morphological changes. (wiley.com)
- Traditionally, the fertile period in human females has been considered to be concealed. (wiley.com)
- Odour from women in the follicular (i.e. fertile) phase was rated as the least intense and the most attractive. (wiley.com)
- For postnatal effects in both males and females, these are mostly dependent on the levels and duration of circulating free testosterone. (wikipedia.org)
- Clinically, the onset of puberty is announced by the appearance of secondary sex characteristics, in particular the appearance of breast in females, testicular enlargement in males, and pubic/axillary hair in both sexes. (nih.gov)