Radiographic examination of the breast.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Pathological processes of the BREAST.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.
The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Women licensed to practice medicine.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Absence of menstruation.
... not switching the infant back to the breast when they are extremely hungry, and more skin-to-skin contact (during breast- ... "Your Guide to Breastfeeding" (PDF). Office on Women's Health. Retrieved 8 October 2018. "Nipple Confusion , Ask Dr Sears® , The ... An infant that is used to feeding at the breast and gets switched to a bottle cannot use the same technique as latching on to ... A parent can provide instant gratification to the infant by making it easier for them to feed from the breast. This can be done ...
Ten percent of women's breasts are asymmetrical, with the left breast being larger in 62 percent of cases. One woman's breasts ... Some women experience generalized breast discomfort and tenderness from fibrocystic breast changes, and their breast tissue is ... ISBN 978-0-300-09953-9. Stoppard, Miriam (1996). The Breast Book: The Essential Guide to Breast Care & Breast Health for Women ... Few very-large-breasted women jogged, for example. To avoid exercise-related discomfort and pain, medical experts suggest women ...
It also appears to have had a statistically significant effect of reducing breast cancer in women according to a study ... In studies of breast cancer prevention, lasofoxifene showed a 79% reduction in breast cancer incidence and an 83% reduction ... In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, lasofoxifene at a dose of 0.5 mg per day was associated with reduced risks of ... As of December 2017, lasofoxifene is in phase III clinical trials for breast cancer and phase II clinical studies for ...
... breast ironing and widow inheritance. UNFPA and UNICEF regard the practice of female genital mutilation as "a manifestation of ... Men had oversight of men; women had oversight of women. Women lived with women; men lived with men. In Shaker society, a woman ... Women Voices and Feminist Visions. p. 450. Women are expected to want to be mothers "How Does Gender Bias Really Affect Women ... "Supplement to the Handbook for Legislation on Violence Against Women: Harmful Practices Against Women" (PDF). UN Women. 2012. " ...
After visiting with women in several villages, they hit upon the idea of encouraging the women in the village to make their own ... ORT is one of the principal elements of the UNICEF "GOBI FFF" program (growth monitoring; ORT; breast feeding; immunization; ... A task force of fourteen women, one cook and one male supervisor traveled from village to village. ... female education; family spacing and food supplementation). The program aims to increase child survival in developing nations ...
Laura Ziskin, 61, American film producer (Pretty Woman, Spider-Man, What About Bob?), breast cancer. David C. Baldus, 75, ... "US woman Betty Neumar - with trail of dead husbands - dies". Weekend Australian. June 13, 2011. "Another broadcaster shot dead ... "여자축구대표 출신 정정숙씨 별세" [Jeong-suk Jeong, female soccer player, dies]. Naver Sports (in Korean). June 27, 2011. Vitello, Paul (June ... Mayer, James (June 26, 2011). "Betty Roberts, first woman on the Oregon Supreme Court, dies". "Morre o ex- ...
During this time, she may have met the future wife of Belisarius, Antonina, who would become a part of the women's court led by ... Harding, Fred (2007). Breast Cancer. ISBN 978-0955422102. Anderson & Zinsser, Bonnie & Judith (1988). A History of Their Own: ... The Female. Paul Wellman (1953). The rise of Theodora from prostitute to empress. The Bearkeeper's Daughter. Gillian Bradshaw ( ... Anderson, Zinsser, Bonnie, Judith (1988). A History of Their Own: Women in Europe, Vol 1. New York: Harper & Row. p. 47. ISBN ...
In January 2010, ghd partnered with charity "Mom It Forward" and SafeHouse Denver, a women's shelter that serves victims of ... Since 2004, ghd has raised approximately £2.5 million for the Breakthrough Breast Cancer charity. The company produces a ... Together, they created a limited edition 'tattooed' pink styler to raise $1 million for breast cancer charities worldwide. " ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Support Breakthrough Breast Cancer with ghd". Retrieved 2010-07-08. CS1 ...
Kopans led the defense of screening for women ages 40-49 when an effort was made, in the 1990s, to deny these women access to ... Daniel Kopans is a leading expert in breast cancer detection and diagnosis. He is the founder of the Breast Imaging Division in ... The American Society of Breast Disease honored Daniel Kopans with the 2007 Pathfinder Award in Breast Imaging for his work in ... He is also a recipient of a gold medal from the Society for Breast Imaging. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original ( ...
Ramanujam's research on women's cancers has centered on translational and laboratory research of relevance to breast and ... "Breast Cancer Imaging". Center for Global Women's Health Technologies. Retrieved 2019-09-24. "Cancer Ablation". Center for ... "Breast Cancer Imaging". Center for Global Women's Health Technologies. Retrieved 2019-09-24. "Cervical Cancer Prevention". ... Center for Global Women's Health Technologies. Retrieved 2019-09-24. "Cervical Cancer Prevention". Center for Global Women's ...
Women's economic empowerment, or ensuring that women and men have equal opportunities to generate and manage income, is an ... Supporting breast-feeding. Training programs for community health in rural areas. Upgrading slums, and providing land for ... By increasing female participation in the labor force, women are able to contribute more effectively to economic growth and ... The ability and opportunity for women to lawfully own land also decreases the asset gap that exists between women and men, ...
Puberty is considered delayed if breast development does not start before age 13 or if a female has not had her first period ( ... Complete breast development, from thelarche to adult breasts, takes between 2 and 4 years. If secondary breast development ... The breasts of these females typically exhibit alternating progression and regression patterns of growth in 6-week intervals, ... The initial growth of breasts occurs during fetal development in both males and females. Thelarche is the stage at which male ...
"This female wrestler hits harder than any of the other DoA characters while still managing to show off the maximum amount of ... PLAY ranked Tina as the third-hottest blonde in games in 2010, and jokingly deemed her breasts "the undisputed #1 and #2 of all ... Tina is a young white woman in her early twenties, with blonde hair and blue eyes. She is canonically listed as standing 5'9" ... Like the series' other female characters, Tina is most often noted in gaming media for her sex appeal. She was ranked the ...
... (originally Women Who Want to be Women) is a conservative political organisation describing itself as "a ... "AbortionBreastCancer". Abortion Breast Cancer. 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2017. Masanauskas, John (27 January 2014). "Pamela ... The Endeavour Forum is listed on the Australian National Women's Register as a lobby group and as a women's rights organisation ... "Australian National Women's Register". Australian National Women's Register. Retrieved 30 September 2017. Francis, Babette (21 ...
His most recent book was Bathsheba's Breast: Women, Cancer, and History, which won the 2002 History of Science Category Award ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) History Today; Bathsheba's Breast: Women,...; Jul 2002 Olson's homepage at SHSU v t e. ...
Tit, female breast. Tetilla = n. Male breast, male nipple. Tigre = n. Second job or night job. See Matar un tigre. Lit. Tiger. ... "To suck rooster". Mamita = n. (or mamacita) An attractive woman/young woman. Also used as a synoym of "mami" (mommy). Mamón = n ... A girl/woman of bitchy behavior, foxy lady, vixen. Used as a noun, it can also mean a firearm, mostly a pistol. Birra = n. Beer ... Woman who makes cachapas. Cacharro/a = n. Old, worn out vehicle. A piece of junk. Cachicamo = n. Armadillo. Cachúo(a) = adj. ( ...
Popular American culture in the 1950s was notable for its focus on full-breasted women like Lana Turner and Jane Russell. The ... ISBN 0-415-92128-7. "Developing Breast". Retrieved 29 June 2011. Young, Iris Marion (27 January 2005). On Female Body ... Some styles are padded to hide developing breast buds or to increase the perceived size of the breasts. Prior to the 1950s, ... Firm, upright breasts are typical of youth. As such, they may not physically require the support of a bra. A Pencil test, ...
... the entire female breast". Whereas female dancers had previously been able to avoid being classified as "nude" by wearing ... Bikini bars are similar to go-go bars and striptease establishments except that the breasts and genital areas of the female ... playing with the American stereotype of blonde and big-breasted Scandinavian women. Feminist activists found the ads ... the advertisements were dropped after protests by the National Organization for Women and female employees of the Pabst Brewing ...
"Myth of breast tax". The News Minute. S. Pillai, Manu (2019). "The woman with no breasts". The Courtesan, the Mahatma and the ... A breast tax (mulakkaram) was also allegedly imposed by the-then Brahmin king on lower caste Hindu women, which was to be paid ... "A Travancore Tale: The graphic story of Nangeli, the woman who cut off her breasts to protest a tax". Retrieved 10 ... Channar revolt Kannagi List of Ezhavas >"The woman who cut off her breasts to protest a tax". BBC News. 28 July 2016. " ...
"Ericka Hart Wants to Make Sure Privileged White Women Aren't the Face of Breast Cancer". For Harriet , Celebrating the Fullness ... Us, Cosmopolitan (2017-09-12). "Ericka Hart Opens Up About Surviving Breast Cancer as a Queer Black Woman". ELLE. Retrieved ... "Ericka Hart's Mission: To Break Breast Cancer's Connotation With Cis Women". them. Retrieved 2020-11-05. "The Root 100 - The ... Women's Health wrote, "Hosts Ericka Hart and Ebony Donnley allow their listeners to take part in an intimate conversation, ...
"America's Best Breast Centers". Women's Choice Award. Retrieved 2017-01-23. Coordinates: 41°41′38″N 73°56′9″W / 41.69389°N ... The second floor of the Vassar Ambulatory Surgery Center houses the Dyson Breast Center, a center for breast disease, breast ... The Dyson Breast Center features two 3D mammography units for use in the Breast Center, separate from the Center for Cancer ... The project was designed to provide women with a single place for all breast care needs, and features exam rooms, procedure ...
... the entire female breast". Whereas female dancers had previously been able to avoid being classified as "nude" by wearing ...
"Breast Cancer Research Foundation Adds to Board". Women's Wear Daily. March 13, 2012. Retrieved April 7, 2014. "Entrepreneur ... Breast Cancer Research Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2015. Breast Cancer Research Foundation (November 2, 2015). "The ... "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women 28 May 2014". Forbes. "Tory Burch Has a Message For Women Everywhere: 'Embrace Your ... In March 2017, to coincide with International Women's Day and Women's History Month, the Tory Burch Foundation launched Embrace ...
"Breast Cancer Network Australia". Retrieved 2021-04-11. "MEDIA ALERT: Parliamentary Friends for Women's ... Murphy was first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2011, aged 37. She received a new breast cancer diagnosis a few days after ... Since her maiden speech, Murphy has worked with the Breast Cancer Network of Australia to promote better treatment for cancer, ... Murphy actively speaks to local and national audiences about the importance of breast screening and early diagnosis of cancer. ...
Kate Berlant as the "Women Taking Up Space" Lady, a lizard. Awkwafina as Bertie's breast. Tig Notaro as Yeast Week MC and Dr. ... Tuca & Bertie follows "the friendship between two 30-year-old bird-women who live in the same apartment building, Tuca, a cocky ... Giorgis, Hannah (May 6, 2019). "The Raunchiest Women on TV Are Technically Birds". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on ... due to both shows focusing on female friendship. Upon release, The A.V. Club thought that the show was one of the best new ...
"Advancing breast cancer survivorship among African-American women." Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015 Sep;153(2):253-61. Coughlin ... Contextual Analysis of Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis Among Women in the United States, 2004. Open Health Serv Policy J. 2009 ... Contextual analysis of breast and cervical cancer screening and factors associated with health care access among United States ... Cancer screening practices of Cajun and non-Cajun women in Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana.J La State Med Soc. 1997 Apr;149(4):125 ...
... is the largest website used by women to find donations, particularly from men, via crowdfunding for breast ... BARNS, SARAH (April 14, 2014). "'I was depressed': Online strangers buy a young woman a breast enlargement operation". Daily ... Thompson, Jadiann (December 4, 2012). "Legit or a bust? Website touts free breast implants". KTVK. "Breast implant website ... The women frequently converse with their donors. The site has been criticized by professional organizations including the ...
"The Breast Cancer Research Foundation Announces New Board Members". Breast Cancer Research Foundation. December 16, 2014. ... she was named in The Hollywood Reporter's Women in Entertainment Power 100 list and named one of the top 5 most powerful women ... Raven is on the board of directors of the Breast Cancer Research Foundation. She was elected to the board of directors of ... "Breast Cancer Research Foundation". July 11, 2014. Retrieved April 19, 2018. "A+E's Raven Joins Pencil Board of Directors". ...
... and Women's Health: Progress and Promise. World Scientific. pp. 42-43. ISBN 978-1-84816-958-6. Hormones and Breast Cancer. ... for postmenopause delay in the use of conjugated equine estrogens among postmenopausal women that causes reduction in breast ... Of 4 cases of breast cancer treated with triphenylmethylethylene, only one showed a favorable response. Sir James Hopwood Jeans ... triphenylmethylethylene was studied in 1944 by Sir Alexander Haddow for the treatment of breast cancer, and this is ...
Following an old wartime escape route, she led a team of women past and present from the Royal Navy, RAF and Army across the ... Suzanne has been an ambassador of The Prince's Trust since 1999 and a Patron for Against Breast Cancer since the early 1990s. ... "Female forces personnel face the 'Freedom Trail' in honour of WWII veteran". Government of the United Kingdom. ""The Baton" ... A passionate supporter of the men and women of Britain's Armed Forces, Suzanne in 2010 coordinated The Remembrance Expedition ...
... female gender, and genetics.[10] Obesity is more common in women than men in many parts of Africa.[29] The nutritional status ... "Physical activity and risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke events: ... Women seem to be at a greater risk as do certain ethnic groups,[10][126] such as South Asians, Pacific Islanders, Latinos, and ...
They survive solely on breast milk or formula.[12] Small amounts of pureed food are sometimes fed to young infants as young as ... naturalistic study by Lowe and Fisher compared the emotional reactivity and emotional eating of normal and overweight female ... "How to combine breast and bottle feeding". Retrieved 5 October 2017.. ...
Female anatomy. Breasts - Cervix - Clitoris - Clitoral hood - Fallopian tubes - Bartholin's glands - Gräfenberg spot (G-spot) ...
The eggs are incubated for 21-22 days by the female, who is fed on the nest by the male.[32] The chicks are altricial, hatching ... The wingspan is 52-62 cm (20-24 in).[19] The head, neck and breast are glossy black with a metallic green and violet sheen; the ... They are brooded by the female for the first 5-10 days and fed by both parents.[33] Initially the parents eat the faecal sacs ... The legs and bill are black; the iris is dark brown.[20] The plumage of the sexes is similar but females are slightly smaller. ...
... may also occur in the breast milk of women after recovery, and it is not known when it is safe to breastfeed again.[5] ... Ebola can stay in some body parts like the eyes,[143] breasts, and testicles after infection.[4][144] Sexual transmission after ... Semen or breast milk of a person after recovery from EVD may carry the virus for several weeks to months.[1][4][5] Fruit bats ... breast milk, urine and semen.[4][41] The WHO states that only people who are very sick are able to spread Ebola disease in ...
Breast Cancer Awareness Month. Disability Employment Awareness Month. Filipino American History Month. LGBT History Month. * ... In Canada, National Volunteer Week was first conceived in 1943 as a way to celebrate the contribution made by women on the home ...
2012). Women and Poverty in 21st Century America. NC, USA: McFarland. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-7864-4903-3. . Archived from the ... A 2020 JAMA study found that Medicare expansion under the ACA was associated with reduced incidence of advanced-stage breast ... Women were 60% more likely to have mammograms, and recipients overall were 20% more likely to have their cholesterol checked; ... In 2008, Medicaid provided health coverage and services to approximately 49 million low-income children, pregnant women, ...
... but black and orange in females;[30][self-published source] 2) the breast feathers are reddish-brown in males, but brown in ... Several species of duck have brown-plumaged females that can be confused with the female mallard.[33] The female gadwall ( ... for female mallards that have lost or abandoned their previous clutch)[75] or forcibly mate with females that appear to be ... and nonlaying females ate 37.0% animal matter and 63.0% plant matter, while laying females ate 71.9% animal matter and only ...
its women". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on July 6, 2012. Retrieved April 12, 2015.. (Op-ed) ... March wrote an essay, published in June 2016, that detailed her experience with breast augmentation surgery in 2014, and the ... March also appeared in the 2009 film The Invention of Lying as the woman Ricky Gervais's character tells the world will end ... March is an advocate for women's rights and a supporter of Planned Parenthood. In 1938, her great-grandmother, Ruby Webster ...
... women of child bearing age, pregnant women, and all ages through the control of general malnutrition and the prevention and ... Nepal's Breast Milk Substitute Act (2049) of 1992 promotes and protects breastfeeding and regulates the unauthorized or ... of infections are in females, out of which around 92.2% are in the reproductive age group of 15‐49 years.The male to female sex ... with almost half of pregnant women and children under five, as well as 35 percent of women of reproductive age being anemic. ...
Women undergoing hormonal changes, like pregnancy or those on birth control pills.[medical citation needed] Atopy. ... with the breast of the bird of the same name. Many pseudoscientific claims by proponents of alternative medicine surround the ... Higher carriage is reported during the summer months, in females, in hospitalized individuals, in persons with blood group O ... an infants antibodies to the fungus are normally supplied by the mother's breast milk. Other forms of immunodeficiency which ...
A study in women with IBS confirmed that an NK1RAs antagonist was anxiolytic.[73] ... "Increased expression of preprotachykinin-I and neurokinin receptors in human breast cancer cells: implications for bone marrow ... receptor antagonism decreases anxiety and emotional arousal circuit response to noxious visceral distension in women with ...
Breast cancer hypothesis[change , change source]. There is a hypothesis that induced abortion raises the risk of getting breast ... Or a woman may have no pain at all. If the pregnancy is many weeks old, the woman may see the embryo or fetus when it comes out ... In Bangladesh, India and Kenya, however, more such women thought the pregnancy was a risk to their health.[32] 1% of women in ... In many cases, the woman is not even aware she was pregnant. The pregnancy is only a few days or weeks old and the woman ...
... graphic illustrations involving women, tentacles, and bare breasts.[131][132] ... The testis in males and the ovary in females bulges into the gonocoel and the gametes are released here. The gonocoel is ... The female deposits fertilised eggs in a den and cares for them until they hatch, after which she also dies. ... The male may cling to the top or side of the female or position himself beside her. There is some speculation that he may first ...
2 women) it may not have a significant effect on bioavailability in young adults.[23] A study of eight women suggested that ... While a minimal amount of thyroid hormones are found in breast milk, the amount does not influence infant plasma thyroid levels ... King, Tekoa L.; Brucker, Mary C. (2010). Pharmacology for Women's Health. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 544. ISBN ... Thyroid hormone requirements increase during and last throughout pregnancy.[11] As such, it is recommended that pregnant women ...
The women devoted their summers to field work and harvested the crops in August. Women cultivated varieties of maize, squash ... was a favorite component of headdresses and breast ornaments for males.[32] The Lenape also adorned themselves with various ... A Nation of Women: Gender and Colonial Encounters Among the Delaware Indians (Early American Studies). University of ... The women often wore headbands of dyed deer hair or wampum. They painted their skin skirts or decorated them with porcupine ...
Women and smoking. *Breastfeeding difficulties. *Breast cancer. *Cervical cancer. *Menopause. *Ptosis of the breast ...
... and breast milk.[78] However, according to the CDC, live spirochetes have not been found in breast milk, urine, or semen and ... Lyme disease effects are comparable among males and females. A wide range of age groups is affected, though the number of cases ... ring-like lesion he had observed in an older woman following the bite of a sheep tick. He named the lesion erythema migrans.[ ... Doxycycline is contraindicated in children younger than eight years of age and women who are pregnant or breastfeeding;[23] ...
in females, for the limited gynecological palpations of internal organs when you are unable to access the vaginal vault or it ...
In The Trick Top Hat, President Hubbard, a woman, promotes a scientific approach to the improvement of life, offering rewards ... The Book of the Breast (1974). *Cosmic Trigger I: The Final Secret of the Illuminati (1977) ... Another follows an "Ithyphallic Eidolon", a penis removed from a transsexual woman named Epicene (post-surgery, Mary Margaret) ... Epicene Wildeblood, a.k.a. Mary Margaret Wildeblood, a transsexual woman who throws great parties ...
In human breast cancer cell lines, quercetin has also been found to act as an agonist of the G protein-coupled estrogen ... female sex hormone-like) activities by activating estrogen receptors. Quercetin activates both estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) ... "The G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 mediates c-fos up-regulation by 17beta-estradiol and phytoestrogens in breast cancer cells ... alpha mediates the proliferative but not the cytotoxic dose-dependent effects of two major phytoestrogens on human breast ...
"I would not be happy to see a beautiful, well-proportioned woman, no matter from which point of view, however extravagant, not ... Greco's inner-archangel's breast had thrust him on savage freedom's single hope, this world's most excellent garret. ... It is not confirmed whether he lived with his Spanish female companion, Jerónima de Las Cuevas, whom he probably never married ...
... breast enlargement, feminization, hot flashes, sexual dysfunction, infertility, and osteoporosis. In women, antiandrogens are ... This is evidenced by the perfectly female phenotype of women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.[95][96] These women ... and women who are pregnant should not be treated with an antiandrogen.[54] Moreover, women who can or may become pregnant are ... It is commonly seen in women with PCOS, and also occurs in women with intersex conditions like congenital adrenal hyperplasia.[ ...
No study has proven presence in breast milk, but the high level of viremia suggests it may be possible.[6] ... When Lassa fever infects pregnant women late in their third trimester, inducing delivery is necessary for the mother to have a ... High risk groups include pregnant women and newborns. The latter may have an 87% fatality rate. The "Swollen baby syndrome" ... when it occurs in pregnant women during their third trimester; fetal death also occurs in nearly all those cases. Abortion ...
Progesterone Regulation of Proliferation in the Normal Human Breast and in Breast Cancer: A Tale of Two Scenarios?". Molecular ... Conneely OM, Mulac-Jericevic B, Lydon JP (November 2003). "Progesterone-dependent regulation of female reproductive activity by ... "Progesterone receptor variants found in breast cells repress transcription by wild-type receptors". Breast Cancer Research and ... "Breast Cancer Research. 15 (3): R44. doi:10.1186/bcr3431. PMC 3738150. PMID 23705924.. ...
Another image of the idealized American female is that of Marilyn Monroe with Mickey Mouse breasts.[citation needed] ...
Both males and females with larger combs have higher bone density and strength, which allows females to deposit more calcium ... These include breast milk, eggs, chicken, beef, pork, fish, nuts, and other foods. A special PKU formula can be obtained in ...
... for its optical tomographic technique for female breast imaging. This medical imaging technique uses laser energy in the near ... A laser detector measures the intensity drop and the data is collected as the laser detector moves across the breast creating a ... CTLM as an adjunct to mammography in the diagnosis of patients with dense breast // Clinical Imaging, March-April 2013, Volume ... Operations/surgeries and other procedures of the breast (ICD-9-CM V3 85, ICD-10-PCS 0H) ...
"Female genital mutilation among Iraqi Kurdish women: a cross-sectional study from Erbil city". BMC Public Health. 13: 809. doi: ... Tattoo ink is made by mixing soot with (breast) milk and the poisonous liquid from the gall bladder of an animal. The design is ... The Kurdish Woman's Life. Copenhagen. Ethnographic Museum Record 7:1-213.. *Leach, E.R. 1938. Social and Economic Organization ... One of the first Kurdish female singers to sing heyrans is Chopy Fatah, while Lawje is a form of religious music and Payizoks ...
2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of invasive breast cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary ... The Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial[37] found that a diet of total fat to 20% of ... 2006). "Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (19): 1991-2002. doi ... They found that these diets lowered total body mass by 8% in the short term, over 3-12 months.[1] Women doing low-calorie diets ...
... life was saved by her size-D breast implants when she was shot at point blank range with a semi-automatic assault rifle, her ... Womans size-D breast implants save her from gunshot A woman life was saved by her size-D breast implants when she was shot at ... "Shes just one lucky woman," surgeon Dr Ashkan Ghavami told the Los Angeles Times. "The bullet fragments were millimetres from ...
Think youre clear on whos at risk and what keeps breast cancer away? Maybe not: Turns out a lot of us have misinformation ... 25 breast cancer myths busted Surprise finding #2: 40% of women say breast cancer is the cancer they worry about ... Though breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, lung cancer actually kills the most women every year. We have a 1 in ... Surprise finding #3: 39% of women say the most important way to catch breast cancer early is by doing a formal monthly breast ...
CDC is increasing awareness of breast cancer in young women. ... Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. *Breast Cancer in Young Women ... Most breast cancers are found in women who are 50 years old or older, but breast cancer also affects younger women. While ... Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women. The Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women helps CDC develop ... breast cancer to women younger than age 45 by sharing real stories about young women whose lives have been affected by breast ...
... node-negative breast cancers not seen on mammography.ObjectiveTo compare the diagnostic yield, defined as the prop ... glandular6 breasts, as do at least one-third of women older than 50 years.5 In women with dense breasts, mammographic ... Nine of 23 women who carried either the BRCA-1 or BRCA-2 mutation also had a history of breast cancer, as did 4 of 8 women who ... As stated, dense breast tissue is common: approximately half of women younger than 50 years and a third of older women have ...
... stunned British TV viewers Thursday when she appeared on a morning program showing off her breast implants, which weigh more ... Womens Health. Woman Reveals 50-Pound Breast Implants. Published May 12, 2011. Fox News ... And despite their weight, the 35-year-old denied her massive breasts give her a backache. She said she prepared for her large ... Also known as string breast implants, this particular design allows the implants to absorb fluids and expand once they are ...
High quality Breast Cancer Woman inspired Canvas Prints by independent artists and designers from around the world. Independent ... High quality Breast Cancer Woman inspired Canvas Prints by independent artists and designers from around the world. Independent ... Related searches:Pink,Awareness,Love,Women,Hope,Lady,Girl,Cure,Dream,Pink Ribbon,Ribbon ...
Doctors blame a brown recluse spider for causing raging and life-threatening infection in a Georgia woman, Victoria Franklin. ... Toxic Spider Bite Causes Woman to Lose Breast. Skeptical toxologists say MRSA bacteria more likely caused infection. ... "Im glad it took my breast," she said. "If I had to lose an arm or leg Id have been torn up. They can do reconstruction on my ... "Her breast was three times the size, black as tar and had a horrible smell," said Valerie Dapaa, 51, who took her nearly ...
Read about breast cancer, the most common type of cancer in the UK, including information on symptoms, causes, diagnosis, ... Most women diagnosed with breast cancer are over 50, but younger women can also get breast cancer. ... Read about breast cancer in men.. Symptoms of breast cancer. Breast cancer can have a number of symptoms, but the first ... As the risk of breast cancer increases with age, all women who are 50 to 70 years old are invited for breast cancer screening ...
Female Nudity (3) Female Singer (3) Held At Gunpoint (3) Interracial Kiss (3) Killer Clown (3) Lens Flare (3) Machine Gun (3) ... Three Breasted Woman Murder (9) Flashback (8) Bare Chested Male (7) Character Repeating Someone Elses Dialogue (7) Deformity ( ... Most Popular Three Breasted Woman Titles Refine See titles to watch instantly, titles you havent rated, etc ... Breasts (2) Brother Sister Relationship (2) Camera Shot Of Feet (2) Campfire (2) Car Crash (2) Catfight (2) Cell Phone (2) ...
As the causes of breast cancer arent fully understood, its not known if it can be prevented altogether. ... Three medicines are available on the NHS for women at an increased risk of breast cancer:. *tamoxifen - for women who either ... During breast reconstruction surgery, your original breast shape is recreated using either breast implants or tissue from ... It can be used to treat breast cancer, and can reduce the chances of developing the condition in the small number of women from ...
... is working to help more women with disabilities get screened for breast cancer. ... Finding Breast Cancer Early Can Save Lives. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in the United States, ... is working to help more women with disabilities get screened for breast cancer. Here are a few examples:. *"Every Woman Matters ... "Campaign raises awareness about breast cancer among women with physical disabilities and encourages women to get screened. The ...
TSA agents ignored their own guidelines when they detained her after she refused to let them X-ray bottles of pumped breast ... PHOENIX - A Southern California woman who was held at a Phoenix airport four years ago after refusing to have her breast milk X ... Armato was traveling from Phoenix to Los Angeles in 2010 with bottles of pumped breast milk for her 7-month-old son when she ... It shows Armato detained in a glass enclosure, even after she showed a TSA supervisor a printout of TSA guidelines for breast ...
Non-lactating women may present with a painful red breast because of periductal inflammation, which can evolve into a breast ... Are women with breast problems taught breast self examination at your clinic? ... Acute painful breast in a non-lactating woman BMJ 2016; 353 :i2646 ... Examine both breasts, the axillae, and supraclavicular area.. Ask the patient to raise her arms and compare the breasts. Note ...
Spain arrests woman with cocaine breast implants. 6 years ago. What, no surgeon on call at the gate?. Spanish authorities have ... The woman said she had recently had breast implant surgery.. Officers were suspicious and sent her to a local hospital where ... arrested a Panamanian woman who arrived at Barcelona airport with 1.38kg of cocaine concealed in her breast implants.. The ... The woman had flown in from Bogota, Colombia.. European authorities routinely submit passengers arriving from Latin America to ...
Woman Says Docs Breast Photos Got Her Fired June 5, 2013. CAMERON LANGFORD ... HOUSTON (CN) - A woman lost her job after a surgeon took photos of her breast and showed them to his staff, boss, neighbors, ... Doe claims she went to the hospital to have Shippey remove scar tissue on her breast from a previous reduction surgery.. " ... Doe claims she found out Shippey was showing off her breast photos from her physical therapist on May 27, 2011.. "During the ...
But the benefits of breast milk might make the small risk worth it, suggests another. ... For women with HIV who are not being treated, breast-feeding is a significant source of transmission. In fact, for women not on ... CHICAGO - A controversy being debated around the world - whether women living with HIV should breast-feed - was in the ... Cite this: Breast-feeding by Women With HIV Disputed - Medscape - Sep 21, 2017. ...
my mothers breast is swollen really bad and she is in alot of pain. she also has alot of discharge and crusty around the nipple ... breast problems. my mothers breast is swollen really bad and she is in alot of pain. she also has alot of discharge and crusty ... my mothers breast is swollen really bad and she is in alot of pain. she also has alot of discharge and crusty around the nipple ... 15 Cancer Symptoms Women Ignore From skin changes to weight loss to unusual bleeding, here are 15 cancer warning signs that ...
1. IS THIS NORMAL FOR A WOMEN EVEN IF SHE ISNT SWEATING? 2. IS THERE ANYTHING I CAN TAKE OR EVEN APPLY TO MY BREASTS THAT IS ... I am sure you are a clean woman.. you are blessed with large breast and maybe the heat and a possible change of diet may be the ... Even when I do not sweat, i have this awful smell under my breasts. I use baby wipes to clean it, but it takes a lot to really ... 15 Cancer Symptoms Women Ignore From skin changes to weight loss to unusual bleeding, here are 15 cancer warning signs that ...
Female) including causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment, with links to other useful resources. ... Find everything you need to know about Breast Cancer ( ... Cancer-of-the-breast-female Real stories. *Cancer-of-the-breast ... Breast cancer. Information on breast changes to watch out for plus breast cancer genes, breast reconstruction and mastectomy. ... Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK. About 46,000 women get breast cancer in the UK each year. Most of them (8 ...
Female Breast (Cross-section View). The breasts are a pair of milk-producing organs of the female reproductive system located ... Each breast projects outward from the anterior of the chest as a mass of skin-covered soft tissue. At the tip of the breast is ... The breasts also contain many sensitive nerve endings and play a role in human sexual arousal. Stimulation of the breasts, and ... These ligaments give the breasts support by connecting the skin of the breasts to the pectoralis muscles below them. ...
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Many breast cancers are sensitive to estrogen, so there has been concern that for women who have had breast cancer, the high ... Women carrying BRCA gene mutations have up to a 75 percent risk of developing breast cancer and up to a 50 percent risk of ... Fishman, who tested positive for the BRCA1 gene - which increases a womans risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer - is ... Maryland Woman Becomes Sisters Surrogate After Breast Cancer Diagnosis: Its the Best Gift. ...
Tricia Leckbee, a Bonita Springs resident, was surprised by friends, family and the national and local chapters of Pink Heals, on Thursday, Oct. 18.
Primary Breast Burkitts Lymphoma in an HIV-Infected Woman. Bangaly Traoré,1 Marie-Eve Fondrevelle,2 Mamoudou Condé,1 Catherine ... A 30-year-old Guinean woman who experienced a gradual increase of her right breast mass for 1 month consulted our unit on 17 ... Here, we present a case of primary breast Burkitts lymphoma (PBBL) in a HIV-infected Guinean young woman with the literature ... Figure 1: Multilobed mass of the right breast in a young woman of 40 years infected with HIV. ...
7,500AUD breast implant procedure in Thailand and claims she was butchered by cosmetic surgeons. ... An Australian woman who contracted a life-threatening infection after a breast implant procedure at a Thai hospital, later ... Get a woman who can do it all! Dolly Parton pokes fun at social media as she shares mock Tinder Playboy bunny and Facebook ... I thought I would never be allowed on TV again as a trans woman... but I got a pay rise: Rodrigo Alves says she finally feels ...
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among black women. It is also the second-leading cause of cancer death among black ... women, exceeded only by lung cancer, according to the American Cancer Society. For more information and to RSVP, call 516-489- ... Goosby will be the host at a breast cancer forum Saturday to discuss the diseases impact on black women and how it could be ... Breast cancer forum focuses on black women. Learn about African-American history and enjoy arts and crafts at the African- ...
A survey of women with breast cancer found that about one-third would like genetic testing; minorities were significantly more ... A strong desire for testing was more common in younger women, Latinas, and women with a family history of breast cancer. ... About 35% of women with nonmetastatic breast cancer would like to have genetic testing, but only 43% have had a discussion ... "Many women diagnosed with breast cancer have concerns about the genetic risk of developing other cancers or that their family ...
Researchers found that trans women on hormone therapy had a higher breast cancer risk than the general male population but ... increases breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, but it was unclear whether the same was true for trans women receiving ... Among the trans women, 15 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed at an average age of 50. On average, those patients ... And transgender men (female sex assigned at birth, male gender identity) were found to have a lower breast cancer risk than the ...
  • The two main treatments are surgery to remove the breasts (mastectomy) or medication. (
  • A mastectomy is surgery to remove the breasts. (
  • If you want to, you can usually choose to have a breast reconstruction either during the mastectomy operation or at a later date. (
  • An Australian woman who contracted a life-threatening infection after a breast implant procedure at a Thai hospital, later requiring a partial double mastectomy, said she was 'butchered' by cosmetic surgeons. (
  • Ordeal: Courtney O'Keefe (pictured) contracted a life-threatening infection after a breast implant procedure at a Thai hospital, later requiring a double mastectomy, said she was 'butchered' by cosmetic surgeons. (
  • The disease was less apt to recur in young women who had mastectomy plus radiation than in young women who had mastectomy alone or breast-conserving therapy. (
  • In total, 197 of the women had breast-conserving therapy, 237 had mastectomy and 234 had mastectomy plus radiation. (
  • For the group as a whole, the researchers found that the rate of relapse was 15.1 percent in women who had mastectomy plus radiation therapy, compared with 19.8 percent in women who had breast-conserving therapy and 24.1 percent for those who had mastectomy alone. (
  • Women with early or "stage I" breast cancer had similar outcomes with breast-conserving therapy and mastectomy, but adding chemotherapy to either treatment was beneficial, the researchers found. (
  • Women with "stage II" disease, they report, achieved the best control rates with mastectomy plus radiation therapy. (
  • Although the cancer was only in one breast, she opted for a double mastectomy and chose not to reconstruct. (
  • More women are getting chemotherapy or hormone therapy before surgery to shrink large tumors enough to let them have a breast-conserving operation instead of a mastectomy. (
  • Newer ways to rebuild breasts have made mastectomy a more appealing option for some women. (
  • There's even a "Goldilocks" mastectomy for large-breasted women - not too much or too little removed, and using excess skin to create a "just right" natural implant. (
  • Many women don't want the worry or the radiation, and choose mastectomy even though they could have less drastic surgery. (
  • Women would have a mastectomy, which usually involves taking the skin and the nipple along with all the breast tissue, followed by operations months later to rebuild the breast. (
  • Breast implants are used for not only cosmetic reasons, but a significant number for reconstructive reasons after a woman has a mastectomy for cancer or a genetic mutation predisposing them to cancer," Song said. (
  • They found that use of mastectomy over breast-conserving lumpectomy varied little by surgeon. (
  • Primarily, women who were not eligible for lumpectomy or who preferred mastectomy received the more aggressive surgery. (
  • About one-third of women who undergo mastectomy go on to have breast reconstruction. (
  • Breast reconstruction after mastectomy increased significantly, but more than a third of eligible U.S. patients did not have the procedure during the 10 years ending in 2007. (
  • The proportion of patients who had breast reconstruction after mastectomy increased from 46% in 1998 to 63% in 2007. (
  • Use of mastectomy varied substantially by geographic region, and patients who underwent bilateral mastectomy were more than twice as likely to have breast reconstruction. (
  • Studies of breast reconstruction have shown that the procedures confer significant psychosocial and quality of life benefits to breast cancer patients who undergo mastectomy. (
  • Several studies have suggested that more women opt for prophylactic contralateral mastectomy, even among low-risk patients. (
  • Additionally, use of radiation therapy after mastectomy could influence decision making related to breast reconstruction. (
  • Few studies have examined recent trends in breast reconstruction after mastectomy, providing a rationale for the investigation by Jagsi and colleagues. (
  • The search identified 20,560 women who underwent mastectomy. (
  • At the same time, women who have panic fear before mastectomy continue smoking, ignoring car safety bells, and having unprotected sex. (
  • A preventive double mastectomy (amputation of both breasts) is also possible. (
  • Understand options for having breast reconstruction or not after mastectomy. (
  • Whaanga had a double mastectomy and breast reconstruction in November, and with a hysterectomy next on the schedule, her body was riddled with scars. (
  • But her announcement that she had decided on a preventive double mastectomy to reduce her unusually high risk of cancer sparked an outpouring of passionate comment on breast cancer prevention and treatment. (
  • Tell your doctor if a family member has had breast cancer (or even ovarian, prostate, or pancreatic cancers), so you can consider getting screened earlier, and discuss whether genetic testing or preventive medication might be good ideas for you. (
  • That's because, compared with lung and other hard-to-treat cancers (such as ovarian), breast cancer tends to be caught at earlier, more treatable stages, thanks to screenings like mammograms (which is why it's so important to get one every year, starting at age 40). (
  • Most breast cancers are found in women who are 50 years old or older, but breast cancer also affects younger women. (
  • Breast density as a predictor of mammographic detection: comparison of interval- and screen-detected cancers. (
  • However, you should be aware that a mammogram might fail to detect some breast cancers. (
  • Many breast cancers are sensitive to estrogen, so there has been concern that for women who have had breast cancer, the high hormone levels that result from a pregnancy might increase the chance of the cancer coming back, according to the American Cancer Society . (
  • Many women diagnosed with breast cancer have concerns about the genetic risk of developing other cancers or that their family members will develop cancer in the future," said first author Reshma Jagsi, MD, DPhil, associate professor of radiation oncology at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor. (
  • About 5% to 10% of patients with breast cancer carry germline mutations, putting them at risk for other cancers. (
  • If that happens, women run the risk of not having breast cancers identified,' she said. (
  • No such decrease in the number of diagnosed breast cancers was evident among African American, Hispanic or Asian/Pacific Islander women. (
  • After the published results of the 2002 Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study unequivocally linked the use of synthetic hormone replacement drugs to an increased risk of breast cancers, heart attack, stroke and Alzheimer's disease, millions of women decided to stop filling their prescriptions. (
  • For example, the drug Herceptin, which was approved in the late 1990s, has been shown to lengthen the lives of women with certain aggressive breast cancers. (
  • The genomic analysis also identified a number of signaling pathways in the breast cancers of young women that could be potential targets for treatment, Dr Azim's group reports. (
  • The diagnosis of most breast cancers is straightforward, but some examples of non-invasive cancers (e.g., ductal carcinoma in situ), can be difficult to diagnose, especially in a core biopsy specimen that may sample only a small amount of the abnormal area. (
  • Getting regular mammograms is the best way to find breast cancers early. (
  • The authors -- epidemiologists from Boston University, Georgetown University and Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, N.Y. -- surmised that given the prevalence of infectious diseases in Africa, women of African origins may respond to pregnancy with a particularly strong immune response, which in turn can allow cancers to gain a foothold in the body. (
  • Estrogen or progesterone receptor-negative breast cancers are less common than those that are fueled by those hormones, representing just one in four breast cancers. (
  • Women who are overweight or obese when diagnosed with some breast cancers have a higher risk of dying after a recurrence compared with women of normal weight, according to a U.S. study. (
  • The stepwise relationship between increasing body mass index and poor outcomes applied only to hormone receptor-positive breast cancers, not HER-2/neu-overexpressing or triple-negative types, the researchers found. (
  • But when the researchers focused only on women whose cancers lacked receptors for the hormone estrogen, the death rate for women on low-fat diets was 36% lower than for women on the regular diets. (
  • Then the researchers zeroed in on women whose cancers lacked receptors for both estrogen and progesterone. (
  • HER2-positive cancers have a faulty HER2 gene that causes breast cells to grow out of control. (
  • But the researchers said some of the women with ER-negative and PR-negative cancers were probably negative for HER2 as well. (
  • So a lifestyle intervention that might improve survival for women with these cancers is especially welcome, the researchers said. (
  • Lycopene lowers your chance of getting cervical and breast cancers. (
  • These can help lower your risk for some cancers, including breast cancer. (
  • Approximately 10-20 percent of breast cancers are triple-negative, with a higher prevalence (30%) among African-American women. (
  • A woman' life was saved by her size-D breast implants when she was shot at point blank range with a semi-automatic assault rifle, her doctor said. (
  • Chelsea Charms told the hosts of "This Morning" about how she increased her bust size from a D-cup with a series of operations, including a now-banned procedure that gave her polypropylene breast implants. (
  • Also known as string breast implants, this particular design allows the implants to absorb fluids and expand once they are implanted. (
  • The result is continuous breast growth after surgery, which causes the implants to expand to an enormous size. (
  • During breast reconstruction surgery, your original breast shape is recreated using either breast implants or tissue from elsewhere in your body. (
  • Spanish authorities have arrested a Panamanian woman who arrived at Barcelona airport with 1.38kg of cocaine concealed in her breast implants. (
  • Breast reductive augmentation is a popular procedure in which the breast reduction surgery is combined with implants in order to give the patient a fuller, rounder breast while at the same time reducing the overall breast size. (
  • Up to 50,000 British women have been advised to consider having cheap breast implants removed after evidence in France showed they could lead to cancer. (
  • French medical authorities are expected this week to order 30,000 women who received faulty breast implants in France to have them removed. (
  • The women are potentially at risk of developing cancer after receiving cheap implants using industrial silicone gel normally destined for the electronics industry instead of the more expensive medical silicone. (
  • The MHRA's current advice to women with breast implants continues to be that women who are concerned about their breasts or think that their implants may have ruptured should seek clinical advice from their implanting surgeon," a spokeswoman said. (
  • Quoting senior medical officials, the Libération newspaper said that before the end of the week authorities will ask all women in France who received implants supplied by the company PIP to have them removed. (
  • Health officials said last week that eight cases of cancer, five of these breast cancer, had been reported in women who had received the PIP implants. (
  • If (they) tell us that as a precautionary measure it would be better to explant (remove the implants from) women, we'll do it too," he said. (
  • French government spokeswoman Valerie Pecresse said: "We must first proceed by identifying the women who had these implants and who are potentially in danger. (
  • It is urgent for all women who have PIP implants to return to see their surgeons. (
  • Police have received 2,000 complaints from women who received the implants and have opened a criminal investigation for involuntary homicide against the firm. (
  • Last week, a group of French women who had PIP implants staged a street demonstration outside the French health ministry, calling on the government to act and to pay for all implant removals. (
  • However, the state health service is only expected to pay for replacement implants for women who received reparatory surgery following breast cancer - only 20 per cent of implant cases. (
  • After they were taken out: This picture shows Ms O'Keefe's breasts after her implants were extracted from her body. (
  • Breast Implants: Should Women Have Them Removed? (
  • Crystal Hefner's decision to get rid of her breast implants due to recurring illnesses has reignited the debate over this form of plastic surgery. (
  • Crystal Hefner, the 30-year-old wife of Playboy magazine mogul Hugh Hefner, announced in a story in People magazine this month that she'd had her breast implants removed because they were making her sick. (
  • There are also plenty of articles and blogs advising women to not get the implants or to have them removed. (
  • There are millions of women worldwide who have had breast implants for either reconstructive or cosmetic reasons, and the purported adverse health impacts are rarely reported," Dr. David Song, told Healthline. (
  • There is no scientific evidence that breast implants and leakage of silicone has been the cause of any type of autoimmune disease," he added. (
  • But the rate of women who got cancer didn't change" if they had implants. (
  • Women may choose between saline and silicone implants, depending on individual needs. (
  • The longer you have breast implants, the more likely it is that complications will occur and you will need to have them removed," it says. (
  • Mills urges women who have implants, whether silicone or saline, to get them checked on a consistent basis. (
  • Both surgeons stressed that getting breast implants is a personal choice and that patients should do their homework before going ahead. (
  • Breast augmentation or augmentation mammoplasty uses breast implants to increase breast size, alter shape or texture. (
  • Dinora Rodriguez, 40, a stay-at-home mother, wanted to swap out a pair of leaking breast implants for new ones, so she went to a doctor who was referred to her by a friend, MSNBC reports. (
  • An Austrian consumer watchdog says 69 women in the country given leak-prone breast implants made by a French company have received 3,000 euros (over $3,550) each in damages. (
  • Tens of thousands of women worldwide received implants made by French company Poly Implant Prothese, or PIP. (
  • During the 10-year period reviewed, use of breast implants increased and the frequency of tissue-based reconstruction decreased, as reported online in the Journal of Clinical Oncology . (
  • W ould you allow your 18-year-old daughter to get breast implants? (
  • Moreover, practically all women who opt for breast enhancement procedures require several operations in their lifetimes -- implants should ideally be replaced once every decade. (
  • Common reasons for follow-up surgery include ruptured implants, the asymmetric or lop-sided appearance of one or both breasts, and pain -- in some instances, an individual's body rejects the implants, and is not able to establish compatibility with them. (
  • Madrid - A Venezuelan woman was arrested at Madrid airport Friday with 1.7 kilos (3.74 pounds) of cocaine concealed in her breast implants. (
  • As soon as the female officers discovered these irregularities, the suspect became very nervous and finally confessed that she was carrying implants containing cocaine. (
  • The woman was then taken to a local hospital where doctors removed the implants and discovered that they contained 1.7 kilos (3.74 pounds) of cocaine. (
  • Back in December 2012, a Panamanian woman traveled from Bogota to Barcelona carrying 1.4 kilos of cocaine inside implants. (
  • The drugs seized so far this year have been found hidden in various items such as book covers, cooler bags of beer, under wigs, in a plaster leg, in between diapers, hidden within toys or food and now breast implants have been added to the list. (
  • Some women get breast implants as part of reconstruction after breast cancer. (
  • The American Society of Plastic Surgeons says around 550,000 women last year received breast implants, but the FDA published a report this year linking a rare cancer to the implants. (
  • The risk is low, but one in 30,000 women with implants could develop it, including one patient who says she is battling the disease and her insurance company, reports CBS News correspondent Anna Werner. (
  • Then she learned it was cancer, possibly connected to the cosmetic breast implants she'd had put in 17 years ago. (
  • It's called breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, a rare cancer the FDA says can develop following breast implants, something doctors at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston have been studying for five years. (
  • Breast implants come with either a smooth or a textured outer surface. (
  • Surgeons sometimes use these rougher textured implants to limit the movement of a breast implant. (
  • Even though just about 15 percent of implants used in the U.S. are textured, the FDA says most of the women who developed the lymphoma - 203 of 231 cases that identified the type of surface - received the textured implants. (
  • The risk is low, but national cancer treatment guidelines say any woman who does get the lymphoma should have her implants removed as soon as possible. (
  • The woman applied to join the Berlin police, but was rejected after authorities said her implants would prevent her from wearing protective gear. (
  • BERLIN-A German court has ruled that a prospective Berlin police recruit's breast implants cannot legally be used as grounds to keep her off the force. (
  • But a Berlin administrative court on Tuesday upheld her challenge of the decision, saying a doctor testified that protective gear should cause no greater health problems for a woman with implants than without. (
  • A majority of doctors recommend regular mammograms for women, beginning at age 40. (
  • Analysis of parenchymal density on mammograms in 1353 women 25-79 years old. (
  • In prior studies, women have told us that they were so confused by the notifications that they intended to stop having mammograms altogether. (
  • The Breast Imaging Reporting and Database Systems, or BI-RADS, which reports the findings of mammograms, also includes an assessment of breast density. (
  • The women had regular screening mammograms every 18 to 24 months during the study. (
  • Between 2015 and 2016, they were offered free MRI cancer screening at the Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Wash. (Women with higher than average risk are advised to start annual MRIs and mammograms at age 30, according to the American Cancer Society. (
  • Most can be treated by just having the lump removed, but that requires radiation for weeks afterward to kill any stray cancer cells in the breast, plus frequent mammograms to watch for a recurrence. (
  • The American Cancer Society advises annual mammograms starting at 40 and urges women at high risk to talk with their doctors about starting younger. (
  • Starting at age 40, women should have screening mammograms every 1-2 years. (
  • At the same time, the researchers stress, overestimating the risk does not diminish the importance of prevention strategies, such as yearly mammograms and monthly breast self exams. (
  • Thermography is not a substitute for regular mammograms and should not be used in place of mammography for breast cancer screening or diagnosis," said the FDA in guidance issued February 2019 . (
  • The organisations found that 85 per cent of women were in favour of increasing the frequency of mammograms and other breast screening methods if their risk of developing the condition was higher. (
  • On the other hand, 60 per cent of women reported that they would be happy with fewer mammograms if their risk of developing the potentially life-threatening condition was lower. (
  • Significantly more women these days have mammograms which lead to early detection of the disease and increased treatability. (
  • Weed provides information that is not usually shared with patients on the risks and limited benefits of screening mammograms and standard treatment protocols, while also providing guidance on promoting breast health. (
  • TSA officers eventually allowed the breast milk to skip the X-ray. (
  • During her treatment, she searched for a memoir where the narrator grappled with the reality of the disease, where she unpacked questions about reconstruction, and challenged the tacit assumptions about what women want or need to feel whole after cancer. (
  • And so now you called your book FLAT "a queer feminist breast cancer memoir," and you've written about how breast reconstruction is informed by the male gaze even if the surgeon is a woman, so can you talk a little bit about what you mean by reconstruction and being informed by the male gaze? (
  • Nationally, about 25 to 30 percent of women get immediate reconstruction. (
  • When breast cancer surgeons regularly confer with plastic surgeons prior to surgery, their patients are more likely to have reconstruction, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center. (
  • That choice can impact the type of care a woman receives when it comes to reconstruction. (
  • Breast reconstruction is a very complex treatment issue that requires a lot of discussion. (
  • While there are multiple reasons why a woman might not have reconstruction, this study found that 31 percent of the variation could be attributed solely to how often the patient's surgeon talked to a plastic surgeon prior to initial surgery. (
  • Using a commercial employment-based database, the authors evaluated trends in breast reconstruction from 1998 to 2007. (
  • Overall, 56% of the patients underwent breast reconstruction. (
  • The proportion of women who opted for reconstruction increased significantly over time irrespective of age, geographic region (except for the western region), relationship to employer, insurance type, or income. (
  • Breast reconstruction occurred more often in states with a higher density of plastic surgeons and in counties with higher median household income. (
  • The odds of breast reconstruction decreased as patient age increased. (
  • Despite the substantial increase in the rate of breast reconstruction, the apparent disparities identified in the study require attention, said the authors of an accompanying editorial. (
  • Solutions to improving access to breast reconstruction must be found, while at the same time assuring that we fully communicate the realities of the value of surgical choices, minimize what may otherwise be considered overtreatment, and listen to our patients' preferences," said Stephen B. Edge, MD , and Lindi H. VanderWalde, MD , of Baptist Medical Center in Memphis, Tenn. (
  • I was writing about women who had decided against breast reconstruction after mastectomies. (
  • Most breast lumps aren't cancerous, but it's always best to have them checked by your doctor. (
  • Breast cancer can have a number of symptoms but usually shows as a lump or thickening in the breast tissue (although most breast lumps are not cancerous). (
  • The current study focused on 721 of 5,044 women who complained of breast lumps later diagnosed as cancer. (
  • Most breast lumps are caused by hormonal changes in a woman and may not be cancerous. (
  • Common causes of breast lumps include fibroadenosis, breast cancer, breast cyst. (
  • The doctor looks at and feels the breasts and under the arms for lumps or anything else that seems unusual. (
  • They are the most common reason for breast lumps in teens. (
  • Breast lumpiness may make it harder to tell if you have actual lumps. (
  • However, while the majority of women know to feel for unusual lumps and bumps, there are also other, less understood signs and symptoms. (
  • The steps she does recommend--from herbal oils for breast massage to help detect lumps early to the herbs milk thistle, dandelion, and burdock for women with liver damage from tamoxifen--are explained clearly, sometimes with fascinating quotes from centuries-old books on healing. (
  • Breast cancer can have a number of symptoms, but the first noticeable symptom is usually a lump or area of thickened breast tissue. (
  • Read more about the symptoms of breast cancer . (
  • A mammogram , which is an X-ray picture of the breast, is the best way to find breast cancer early, when it is easiest to treat and before it is big enough to feel or cause symptoms. (
  • The researchers attributed the decrease in this racial, socioeconomic slice of women to a decline in these same women's use of synthetic hormones often prescribed for menopausal symptoms. (
  • For close to fifteen years , I have used BHRT to successfully treat tens of thousands of women suffering from menopausal symptoms and other issues associated with hormone imbalance. (
  • Menopausal symptoms are safely alleviated and, at a cellular level, optimal healthy hormone balance is restored and breast tissue is protected. (
  • Symptoms of Vitamin D deficiency include muscle pain, weak bones/fractures, low energy and fatigue , lowered immunity, symptoms of depression and mood swings, and sleep irregularities, many of which are common for women undergoing breast cancer treatment. (
  • People on social media pointed out that her symptoms matched those of something called breast implant illness . (
  • The potential symptoms and reasons for surgery vary among women. (
  • A detailed description of the Paget's disease of the breast, characteristic signs and symptoms, detection methods and treatment modalities. (
  • Breast cancer screening looks for signs of cancer before a woman has symptoms. (
  • Fibrocystic breast changes are symptoms you may feel in your breasts right before your period. (
  • Some women are diagnosed with breast cancer after noticing symptoms, but many women with the disease have no symptoms at all. (
  • If this occurs, women may experience typical menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness and loss of bone density. (
  • A booklet explaining breast cancer, covering the causes and symptoms, diagnosis, staging and grading, treatments and clinical trials. (
  • Since the 1940s, doctors have been giving women oestrogen to reverse these symptoms, but by 1975 it had become clear that this caused higher rates of uterine cancer. (
  • CDC is working to increase awareness of breast cancer and improve the health and quality of life of young breast cancer survivors and young women who are at higher risk of getting breast cancer. (
  • Black women may have a higher risk of getting breast cancer. (
  • Although chances for getting breast cancer increase for all women as they age, other factors can make certain women especially vulnerable, according to the National Cancer Institute. (
  • The Bring Your Brave campaign provides information about breast cancer to women younger than age 45 by sharing real stories about young women whose lives have been affected by breast cancer. (
  • Most women diagnosed with breast cancer are over 50, but younger women can also get breast cancer. (
  • Most of them (8 out of 10) are over 50, but younger women, and in rare cases men, can also get breast cancer. (
  • A strong desire for testing was more common in younger women, Latinas, and women with a family history of breast cancer. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A new study confirms that women with breast cancer who are 35 years old or younger are more likely than older women to have their cancer come back after treatment. (
  • The study also shows that the likelihood of recurrence in younger breast cancer patients is influenced by the type of treatment they received. (
  • The findings stem from a review of 652 women aged 35 or younger who were treated for breast cancer at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center over more than 30 years. (
  • Previous studies have shown that younger breast cancer patients consistently have poorer outcomes than patients who develop the disease later in life. (
  • While the reason for this is not clear, doctors suspect that breast cancer in younger patients is more aggressive. (
  • Our study hopefully will help radiation oncologists plan therapies for younger breast cancer patients, who have inferior outcomes compared to older patients, and generate new interest in prospective studies to evaluate the best treatment strategies for these young women," Beadle said. (
  • Second, the USPSTF recommends against using such medications for women who don't have an increased risk of breast cancer (including women younger than 60 years with no additional risk factors for breast cancer), because the likelihood of side effects from the medications (like blood clots, endometrial cancer, and cataracts) probably outweighs the potential breast cancer prevention benefit. (
  • Mariotto, who is chief of the Data Analytics Branch in the NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, said the study didn't explore why younger women survived longer, but one possibility was that they received more aggressive treatment. (
  • Dr. Hatem A. Azim Jr., a medical oncologist from Institut Jules Bordet in Brussels, and colleagues showed that breast cancer in women forty-years or younger is enriched with the aggressive basal-like tumors. (
  • A study that looked at breast cancer in the five major ethnic groups in Hawaii found that the tumors of Native Hawaiian women often are found at a later, more advanced stage, and at a younger age. (
  • Although breast cancer in young women is rare, a significant number of cases occur in women who are 40 years or younger. (
  • Often, it is a refuge for young individuals who are prone to bouts of depression, suicide attempts and mental illnesses -- it comes as no surprise, then, that younger and younger women are opting for breast surgery in India of late. (
  • In younger menopausal women, HRT's preventative effects on coronary heart disease, bone fracture and colon cancer may outweigh the increased incidences of breast cancer, stroke and pulmonary embolism associated with the treatment. (
  • Younger breast cancer patients often have difficulty with self-esteem and having the confidence to date. (
  • Stewart told Reuters Health that the most likely reason the younger women see an increased risk of breast cancer is that they are exposed to higher levels of circulating estrogen during their cycles of IVF treatment. (
  • Stewart added, another explanation could be that younger women who undergo IVF may be different in some significant way from those who only have other types of fertility treatments. (
  • If, for example younger women who had IVF were more likely to have a specific cause of infertility, and this was related to an increased risk of breast cancer, then it would appear that IVF was related to breast cancer when in fact it was the type of infertility that was more common in women who had IVF,' Stewart explained. (
  • About one in eight women are diagnosed with breast cancer during their lifetime. (
  • In rare cases, men can also be diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • In 2011, Randi Fishman was 28 and diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • It was awful when she was diagnosed with breast cancer at such an early age and I felt horrible she was not able to have kids. (
  • Randolph said, "In all those years, we know of only two women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • When the national average of women diagnosed with breast cancer is still 1 out of 8, I contend that the trend I am witnessing in my practice reflects the growing body of evidence that bioidentical progesterone is breast tissue protective. (
  • Women might repeat risk assessments with their clinicians if there is a change in their risk factors, such as if a family member is newly diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • About one in three women diagnosed with breast cancer each year are aged 70 or over. (
  • Brenner was diagnosed with breast cancer 16 years ago. (
  • In 2009, at age 38, Catherine was diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • She was diagnosed with breast cancer a second time a year later in 2010. (
  • Women diagnosed with breast cancer should not rush into treatment. (
  • After estimating that 46 percent of women will be diagnosed with breast cancer, when they find out it s actually 13 percent, that seems relatively low and women feel a sense of relief," says lead study author Angela Fagerlin, Ph.D., research investigator in internal medicine at the U-M Medical School and with the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System. (
  • And when she was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2014 she avoided chemo, fearing the gruelling impact it might have on her body. (
  • Most women who are diagnosed with breast cancer are given advice by their oncologist to try to be physically active, to try to have their weight in an ideal range,' Goodwin said. (
  • Women under 40 who are diagnosed with breast cancer face some very unique challenges. (
  • In addition, 66 per cent of respondents said they supported the idea of altering the frequency of screening appointments if tests showed they were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer in the future. (
  • The most up-to-date statistics from the charity show that in 2011, 49,936 women and 349 men in the UK were diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • It is for women who are having tests for breast cancer and women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • Mother-of-four Beth Whaanga was diagnosed with breast cancer on her 32nd birthday last year, with doctors finding she also had the BRCA2 gene, which predisposes women to the disease. (
  • keepingabreast is about a single young woman, Mina and her journey to explore society's emphasis on breasts as she makes a difficult decision regarding her treatment after she is diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • LBBC works with women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer and their caregivers throughout their experience of diagnosis, treatment and recovery. (
  • A small number of Cis B. Golder Quality of Life Grants are awarded to provide financial assistance and support services to people diagnosed with breast cancer in the Philadelphia area. (
  • As we get older, our tissue gets older, and the risk of developing disease increases," says Dr. Susan Boolbol, chief of breast surgery at Beth Israel Medical Center in New York. (
  • Doe claims she went to the hospital to have Shippey remove scar tissue on her breast from a previous reduction surgery. (
  • A woman's breasts are made up of fat, connective tissue and thousands of tiny glands, known as lobules, which produce milk. (
  • Each breast projects outward from the anterior of the chest as a mass of skin-covered soft tissue. (
  • At the tip of the breast is a small cylindrical projection of erectile tissue called the nipple. (
  • Because the infection had spread to her surrounding tissue, both her breasts were also removed. (
  • TUESDAY, Dec. 31, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Having dense breast tissue raises a woman's odds for breast cancer , so many states require providers to notify women if a mammogram finds they have dense breast tissue. (
  • The provider can let a woman know how having dense breast tissue affects her personal risk of breast cancer or detecting it. (
  • Women who have dense breasts have more glandular tissue and fibrous connective tissue in their breasts, but less fatty tissue. (
  • It appears that more needs to be done to get the message out that if a woman has dense breast tissue, she may have to do more than just a mammogram, and should probably advocate for a 3D mammogram and breast ultrasound ,' Bernik noted. (
  • Dense breasts have less fatty tissue and more non-fatty tissue compared to breasts that aren't dense. (
  • Dense breasts have more gland tissue that makes and drains milk and supportive tissue (also called stroma) that surrounds the gland. (
  • One way to measure breast density is the thickness of tissue on a mammogram. (
  • Mostly fatty: The breasts are made up of mostly fat and contain little fibrous and glandular tissue. (
  • Scattered density: The breasts have quite a bit of fat, but there are a few areas of fibrous and glandular tissue. (
  • Consistent density: The breasts have many areas of fibrous and glandular tissue that are evenly distributed through the breasts. (
  • Extremely dense: The breasts have a lot of fibrous and glandular tissue. (
  • Women with a history of infertility had 1.53 cm 3 (0.09 cubic inches) higher volume of dense breast tissue than women who didn't have a history of infertility. (
  • A cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops in the breast tissue. (
  • When a cyst is deep in your breast tissue, it will feel like a hard lump. (
  • They can grow anywhere in your breast tissue. (
  • there is no breast tissue left. (
  • FOR most women, the first sign or symptom of breast cancer is a lump or area of thickened tissue in their breast. (
  • These reproductive risks cause change in sexual hormones that affect breast tissue. (
  • Numerous research studies show that alcohol increases the level of estrogen in blood which affects the development of tumors in breast tissue. (
  • It's actually a cancer that develops in the scar tissue around a breast implant," said Dr. Mark Clemens. (
  • The researchers found that trans women on hormone therapy had a higher breast cancer risk than the general male population. (
  • The researchers pointed out that breast cancer risk among trans women rose after a relatively short period of hormone treatment. (
  • For the study, the researchers surveyed nearly 600 women nationwide. (
  • The researchers didn't find any significant difference between women based on whether their state required notification. (
  • The researchers selected women who were part of the NSABP breast cancer prevention trials. (
  • Breast cancer survivors who take tamoxifen for ten years reduce their risk of dying from estrogen receptor positive breast cancer by 50 percent , according to researchers from Cancer Research UK reported at the ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago, Illinois, USA. (
  • To do the study, the researchers looked at information from 43,313 women who were part of the KArolinska MAmmography project, a study looking at predicting the risk of breast cancer. (
  • The researchers first compared breast density levels between fertile and infertile women. (
  • Then the researchers compared breast density levels between infertile women who had controlled ovarian stimulation and infertile women who had not received hormonal treatment. (
  • Harvard researchers analyzed data evidencing a decline in breast cancer rates across the country and discovered this startling fact. (
  • On Thursday, researchers reported that the number of women living with advanced breast cancer is growing substantially, partly due to improved survival. (
  • The researchers calculated that more than 154,000 women are currently living with cancer that has spread beyond the breast, the most serious form of the disease. (
  • Patients with Stage 4 breast cancer - the most advanced - have the most intensive health-care needs, and advocacy groups, providers and researchers are increasingly interested in knowing how many are affected. (
  • Metastatic breast cancer once was considered an immediate death sentence, and it's still largely incurable, the researchers said. (
  • The authors, who included researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle and the Metastatic Breast Cancer Alliance, said the study was the first to estimate how many women are living with advanced disease in the United States. (
  • The report is the first in the medical literature to formally document lactation in a transgender woman, the researchers said. (
  • Researchers studied more than 1,000 women in a U.S. military health system who had a 20 percent or greater lifetime risk of breast cancer due to genetics or personal or family history. (
  • Breast cancer in young women is a biologically unique disease that requires customized management strategies, researchers report at the 4th IMPAKT Breast Cancer Conference, in Brussels, Belgium. (
  • The researchers also found that a gene called RANKL is highly expressed in young women with breast cancer. (
  • The researchers from Institut Jules Bordet are in fact planning a clinical trial in which premenopausal breast cancer patients will receive two injections of a drug called denosumab, which is a RANK-ligand inhibitor, one week before surgery. (
  • The challenge: Breast cancer is a complex disease - some researchers believe it's at least five genetically distinct conditions. (
  • Researchers from the Cancer Surveillance and Outcomes Research Team, a multidisciplinary collaboration among five centers across the country, surveyed breast cancer patients and their surgeons about treatment choices. (
  • When asked to estimate the lifetime risk of breast cancer, 89 percent of women overestimated their risk, with an average estimate of 46 percent - more than three times the actual risk of 13 percent, according to a study by University of Michigan Health System researchers. (
  • In the study, researchers surveyed 356 women. (
  • The researchers then asked women from both groups how anxious or relieved the information made them and whether they thought a 13 percent risk was high or low. (
  • The researchers suggest doctors can use these findings to help patients who seem particularly concerned about their risk of breast cancer. (
  • Researchers had participants fill out, every two years, a detailed questionnaire assessing a wide range of factors that affect a woman's risk for breast cancer -- including weight, age at which they began menstruating, pregnancies and age of first childbearing, birth control or hormone-replacement use, physical activity and alcohol consumption . (
  • When the U.S. National Cancer Institute sponsored treatment trials, researchers were able to explore if increasing body fat affects breast cancer recurrence and survival. (
  • Researchers hope that by understanding the relationship between obesity, tumour-related factors and breast cancer subtypes, they'll be able to tell what factors contribute to recurrence and perhaps manage the disease better. (
  • Researchers at Brock University in Ontario, Canada found that controlling existing illnesses, known as comorbities, may help black women with the disease to live longer. (
  • However, more women may now be choosing to take the treatment since researchers started finding it had other benefits. (
  • The mortality rate for women in the low-fat diet group was 6.6% - nearly 10% lower than the 7.3% mortality rate for women in the control group, researchers reported. (
  • When all the women were analyzed together, the researchers did not see an overall link between IVF and breast cancer. (
  • That figure was about two percent for women who got fertility drugs and IVF - a difference the researchers say isn't statistically significant. (
  • She said it is unfortunate that the notifications seem to have so little impact on women's understanding of their breast cancer risk. (
  • That's the perfect time to wear our high quality Breast Cancer Support Women's Pajamas. (
  • Shop our extensive collection of comfy Breast Cancer Support Women's Pajamas in a wide variety of styles that allow you to wear your passion around the house. (
  • At CafePress, we have Breast Cancer Support Women's Pajamas for everyone. (
  • Older women 'miss breast cancer signs' Jump to media player A survey by Public Health England warns that older women's lives are at risk for failing to recognise the early signs of breast cancer. (
  • Many older women's lives are at risk because they do not recognise the early signs of breast cancer, a survey has suggested. (
  • Women's Radio Network's mission is to provide sustainable communication models to women and all people to speak-up and lead by example using Internet Radio. (
  • Two charities have been exploring women's views on breast cancer screening, finding that the majority are in support of it if their genetic risk of developing the disease is higher than average. (
  • The fear of losing breasts and becoming less attractive made this disease the most dangerous one in women's eyes. (
  • The preliminary findings are based on data from early-stage breast cancer patients who volunteered for the Women's Intervention Nutrition Study . (
  • Results of this study are not consistent with those of the Women's Health Study, the only randomized trial to prospectively look at whether low-dose aspirin reduces breast cancer risk. (
  • The Women's Health Study found no decrease in overall breast cancer for women who took low-dose aspirin every other day regardless of hormone receptor status. (
  • PHOENIX - A Southern California woman who was held at a Phoenix airport four years ago after refusing to have her breast milk X-rayed has reached a settlement with the Transportation Security Administration. (
  • Stacey Armato, who filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court in Phoenix, said Wednesday that TSA officials have tentatively offered her $75,000, along with promises to retrain agents and clarify its guidelines on screening breast milk. (
  • Armato was traveling from Phoenix to Los Angeles in 2010 with bottles of pumped breast milk for her 7-month-old son when she was stopped at a security checkpoint at Sky Harbor International Airport. (
  • It shows Armato detained in a glass enclosure, even after she showed a TSA supervisor a printout of TSA guidelines for breast milk. (
  • Armato said the TSA officers initially refused to follow the agency's own policy of providing alternative security screenings for bottles of breast milk instead of pushing them through the X-ray. (
  • Because clean water and alternatives to breast milk are widely available and affordable in the United States, that is not a risk worth taking, she said. (
  • And banked milk, which offers safer breast-feeding for mothers living with HIV, is also readily available. (
  • Breast milk will protect from infections, and the alternative is using water that isn't clean to make formula. (
  • Sometimes the smell reminds me of dry breast milk. (
  • If a woman has a baby, the milk is delivered to the nipple through tiny tubes called ducts, which allow her to breastfeed. (
  • Other less common types of breast cancer include invasive lobular breast cancer, which develops in the cells that line the milk-producing lobules, inflammatory breast cancer and Paget's disease of the breast . (
  • The breasts are a pair of milk-producing organs of the female reproductive system located on the left and right sides of the anterior thoracic (chest) region. (
  • The function of the breast is to provide milk to feed infants. (
  • A transgender woman was able to produce enough milk to breast-feed her partner's newborn baby for six weeks, according to a new report of the case. (
  • The transgender woman was able to breast-feed after undergoing a regimen of hormonal therapy along with the use of a breast pump, in a process similar to what's done for women who cannot produce breast milk on their own (including women who want to breast-feed after adoption). (
  • It's known that people who are born male can produce milk - for example, men who undergo hormonal treatment for prostate cancer can, in some cases, develop breast fullness and lactate, said Dr. Maurice Garcia, the director of the Transgender Surgery and Health Program at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, who was not involved with the case. (
  • But the new case shows that this transgender woman produced enough milk to sustain a baby for six weeks, which is "terrific," Garcia said. (
  • The woman breast-fed the baby for six weeks and then began supplementing the breast milk with formula because she was concerned that her milk supply had become insufficient for the child. (
  • Most surprising, though, was how the topic triggered inaccurate stereotypes about breast-feeding in general after I asked on my blog, Julie's Health Club, www.chicagotribune/Julie, whether human milk should be shared. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends breast milk at least through baby's first year, and the World Health Organization recommends nursing at least two years. (
  • WHO also considers a mother's breast milk to her own child as the healthiest feeding choice. (
  • Third is the breast milk of another mother. (
  • Human breast milk should not be shared. (
  • Breasts contain mammary glands which produce and secrete milk for feeding and nourishing babies. (
  • Though both men and women have mammary glands the male breasts differ from female ones as there is no physiological function for milk production in males. (
  • FROM condom-covered pizzas to grown men drinking breast milk, the antics behind closed doors on Wall St would make anyone blush. (
  • FROM being handed a pizza topped with unwrapped condoms on her first day to having a co-worker drink her breast milk from the fridge, this Wall Street trader saw it all. (
  • If you are eating processed foods or foods from nearly any restaurant, odds are very high you are getting loads of this toxin, and if you are a pregnant woman, you may be passing them along to your unborn child via your baby's placenta, umbilical cord, and in your breast milk. (
  • In the first ever testing for glyphosate in the breast milk of American women, Moms Across America and Sustainable Pulse found high levels in 30 percent of the samples tested. (
  • Breast milk levels were found to be 76 to 166 ug/l, which is 760 to 1,600 times higher than the European Drinking Water Directive allows for individual pesticides. (
  • There are currently no regulatory limits for glyphosate in breast milk. (
  • However, it is encouraging that expectant moms who were actively eating only organic, non-GE foods had lower levels of glyphosate in their breast milk. (
  • Their omega-3 fats can improve the quality of breast milk, and sardines are good for babies whose mothers ate them while they were pregnant. (
  • It's usually found during a mammogram and rarely shows as a breast lump. (
  • If you are a woman living with a disability, you may face challenges that make it hard to get a mammogram. (
  • This form of cancer rarely shows as a lump in the breast and is usually found on a mammogram. (
  • Most women (76%) had heard of breast density, and about 80% knew that it referred to how breasts look on a mammogram. (
  • The women were ages 44 to 69 and had a full-field digital mammogram when the study started. (
  • At every step, from deciding where to schedule a mammogram to determining the best treatment, women have options that were unimaginable just a few years ago. (
  • Letofsky says she went in for a mammogram and was told by a doctor -incorrectly- she didn't need to worry about breast cancer since it didn't run on her mother's side of the family. (
  • Getting a mammogram (x-ray of the breast) can help find the cancer early. (
  • CHICAGO - A controversy being debated around the world - whether women living with HIV should breast-feed - was in the spotlight here at the American Academy of Pediatrics 2017 National Conference and Exhibition. (
  • Then, in 2017, she asked her doctor about the possibility of breast-feeding her partner's baby. (
  • THURSDAY, Oct. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Knowing they're at increased risk for breast cancer isn't enough to persuade many women to get MRI screenings -- even if they're free. (
  • 63% of women think family history is the biggest breast cancer risk factor. (
  • In fact, aside from being female, your age is the biggest risk factor. (
  • With age, we've also had more lifetime exposure to estrogen, which may boost breast cancer risk. (
  • We have a 1 in 20 lifetime risk of dying from lung cancer, and a 1 in 36 lifetime risk of dying from breast cancer. (
  • Mammographic density and the risk and detection of breast cancer. (
  • Quantitative assessment of mammographic breast density: relationship with breast cancer risk. (
  • However, there are certain factors known to increase the risk of breast cancer. (
  • Women with a higher-than-average risk of developing breast cancer may be offered screening and genetic testing for the condition. (
  • As the risk of breast cancer increases with age, all women who are 50 to 70 years old are invited for breast cancer screening every three years. (
  • Some treatments are available to reduce the risk in women who have a higher risk of developing the condition than the general population. (
  • It's also been suggested that regular exercise can reduce your risk of developing breast cancer by as much as a third. (
  • This is because these conditions cause more oestrogen to be produced by your body, which can increase the risk of breast cancer. (
  • If you have an increased risk of developing breast cancer, treatment is available to reduce your risk. (
  • You'll usually be referred to a specialist genetics service if it's thought you have an increased risk of breast cancer. (
  • It can be used to treat breast cancer, and can reduce the chances of developing the condition in the small number of women from high-risk families. (
  • However, like all operations, there's a risk of complications, and having your breasts removed can have a significant effect on your body image and sexual relationships. (
  • They can reduce your risk of breast cancer while you're taking them and possibly for several years afterwards. (
  • If your doctor suggests taking medication to reduce your breast cancer risk, ask them about the benefits and risks of each medicine. (
  • The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has more on drug treatment to reduce the risk of breast cancer . (
  • Thinking "breast cancer won't happen to me" is a risk no woman should take. (
  • Patients with diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, corticosteroid treatment, or HIV infection or other immunocompromise are thought to be at increased risk, although the vast majority of women presenting with periductal mastitis do not have these identifiable risk factors and the cause is unknown. (
  • The risk for transmission of the virus from mother to child is only about 1% in women treated with antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, but that is "not zero," said Ellen Chadwick, MD, from the Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, who is chair of the AAP committee on pediatric AIDS. (
  • The risk for transmission is so low that it might be outweighed by the benefits of breast-feeding, said Robert Lawrence, MD, from the University of Florida Health in Gainesville, who is a member of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (
  • In fact, for women not on antiretroviral therapy who breast-feed from 6 to 20 months, the risk for transmission is 4% to 22%, she reported. (
  • In addition, studies have shown that the relative risk for breast cancer increases substantially in mothers who have never breast-fed, he added. (
  • But "in resource-poor countries, breast-feeding may be protective if the mom is taking her medication and has a low viral load and the risk of transmission is low," Dr Gereige added. (
  • Women who have a higher-than-average risk of developing breast cancer may be offered screening and genetic testing for the condition. (
  • As the risk of breast cancer increases with age, all women aged 50-70 are invited for breast cancer screening every three years. (
  • If you are concerned about your risk of developing inherited breast cancer, you can use Macmillan's online interactive assessment tool, which is called OPERA . (
  • The tool is based on the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guideline for the classification and care of women at risk of familial breast cancer. (
  • It is designed to be used by patients and health professionals to assess a person's risk of developing the condition based on their family history of both breast cancer and ovarian cancer. (
  • Fishman, who tested positive for the BRCA1 gene - which increases a woman's risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer - is undergoing a hysterectomy in three weeks as a preventative measure. (
  • About 35% of women with nonmetastatic breast cancer would like to have genetic testing, but only 43% have had a discussion about genetic risk with a healthcare provider, according to a study published online April 6 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology . (
  • However, 196 of the 493 women (39.8%) who expressed a strong desire for testing had no discussion about genetic risk with their provider. (
  • Cite this: Women With Breast Cancer Concerned About Genetic Risk - Medscape - Apr 09, 2015. (
  • WEDNESDAY, May 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Transgender women on gender-confirming hormone therapy have increased odds of breast cancer , but the overall risk is low and not as high as it is for the general female population, a new study finds. (
  • Previous research has shown that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, but it was unclear whether the same was true for trans women receiving hormone treatment. (
  • And transgender men (female sex assigned at birth, male gender identity) were found to have a lower breast cancer risk than the general female population. (
  • The results show that the overall risk of breast cancer in transgender people is low, so current screening guidelines are sufficient for those on hormone therapy, according to the study authors. (
  • But a new study suggests that the notifications may be having little impact in alerting women to their added breast cancer risk. (
  • Yet, the study found that less than half of women understood that having dense breasts increases their cancer risk. (
  • Women with dense breasts have a higher risk of developing breast cancer . (
  • Tamoxifen and Raloxifen can significantly reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • Current guidelines set by the U.S. Preventitive Services Task Force state that selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) therapy with tamoxifen and raloxifene can help reduce the risk of breast cancer. (
  • The finding has huge potential in explaining why women undergoing SERM therapy who carry this SNP are at a decreased risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • Women and men can learn through DNA health tests whether they possess mutations in their BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which are associated with genetically higher risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • Still, several studies have found that fertility treatments don't appear to increase breast cancer risk based on the type of fertility treatments they received. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Women with a high risk of developing breast cancer can lower that risk by taking certain medications, according to updated recommendations from the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). (
  • First, women with no personal history of breast cancer but at a high risk for developing it should consider taking medications to reduce their risk of breast cancer, especially if they have a low risk of developing unwanted side effects. (
  • Figuring out whether you're one of those high-risk women is not straightforward. (
  • The Task Force statement mentions a couple of risk assessment tools but stops short of endorsing them because evidence shows they're not accurate for all women. (
  • Instead, the Task Force suggests that women with at least a 3% risk for breast cancer in the next 5 years are likely to benefit from risk-reducing medications and should be offered them if their risk of harm from the drugs is low. (
  • They note, however, that aromatase inhibitors are not currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for reducing the risk of breast cancer. (
  • The Task Force recognizes that women with mutations in the breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 and women who previously received chest radiation face an increased risk of breast cancer, but there is not enough evidence on the benefits and harms of these medications to make a sound recommendation for these women. (
  • Additionally," Dr. Barry said, "we also need more evidence to better understand the lifelong benefits and harms of these medications and how they can reduce risk in specific populations, such as African-American women who are more likely to die of breast cancer. (
  • Dr. Heidi D. Nelson from Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, who co-authored the evidence review that supports the recommendations, told Reuters Health, "Various risk criteria were used to enroll women into trials of risk-reducing medications. (
  • It's also important for women to remember that there are other important ways that they can reduce breast cancer risk, including reducing alcohol intake and maintaining a healthy weight. (
  • Breast cancer scans 'do save lives' Jump to media player Women who have regular breast scans could lower their risk of dying from the disease by as much as 40%, according to a review by a team of international scientists. (
  • That included 15 percent of those with a 20 to 24 percent lifetime risk of breast cancer , and only half of those with more than a 40 percent risk. (
  • In the interest of helping more women be screened earlier for breast cancer , we were intrigued about what this preliminary study identified -- that 85 percent of women with a 20 to 24 percent lifetime risk still did not pursue high risk surveillance," he said said in a college news release. (
  • Ultimately, the question we are really trying to answer is why women at high risk for breast cancer are declining MRI screening. (
  • Second, reduced risk of breast cancer is well recognized among parous compared with nulliparous women. (
  • Our findings indicate that allogeneic FMc may contribute to reduction in risk of breast cancer. (
  • Moreover, these patients have a significantly higher risk of relapse independent of stage, histological grade, breast cancer molecular subtypes and treatment received. (
  • This is clinically relevant as it underscores that these gene signatures could identify women below the age of 40 with ER+ disease who are at a low risk of relapse independent of clinical prognostic tools," Dr Azim explained. (
  • Women with breast cancer should be given high doses of vitamin D because a majority of them are likely to have low levels of vitamin D, which could contribute to decreased bone mass and greater risk of fractures , according to scientists at the University of Rochester Medical Center. (
  • There are many unavoidable risk factors for breast cancer including gender, age, family history, genetics, personal history of breast cancer, prior radiation to the chest, menstrual and pregnancy history, race/ethnicity, and certain breast changes. (
  • However, there are also several modifiable breast cancer risk factors that women can focus on to decrease their risk of breast cancer and to live a healthier life. (
  • Drinking alcohol is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • Any amount of alcohol can increase breast cancer risk, but the risk starts to increase significantly with three drinks or more a week. (
  • There is an association between smoking and increased breast cancer risk, but more research into this is needed. (
  • Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. (
  • Women who have gained 10 kg (22 pounds) or more since menopause also have an increased risk of breast cancer compared to women who maintain their weight. (
  • In premenopausal women, an increased BMI is actually associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. (
  • A Mediterranean diet, consisting of plant foods, fish, and olive oil, may decrease the risk of breast cancer. (
  • Breast cancer is the second most common cancer found in women - after skin cancer - but that doesn't mean men aren't at risk as well. (
  • She later learned every woman is at risk, regardless of family history. (
  • While breast cancer is a significant health threat - striking 211,000 American women each year - a new study finds most women have a distorted view of their risk. (
  • Half the women were asked to estimate the average woman s lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, and half were not asked for an estimate. (
  • Both groups then received information on breast cancer risk. (
  • Only 37 percent said the actual risk was lower than they had expected - compared to 89 percent of women in the other group who initially thought the risk was much higher. (
  • The women who did not give an estimate first were more likely to feel anxious about the breast cancer risk information, 25 percent vs. 12 percent of women who gave an estimate first. (
  • At the same time, twice as many women who gave an estimate beforehand said they were relieved by the actual risk, 40 percent vs. 19 percent. (
  • If a woman is unduly anxious about her risk of breast cancer, and that anxiety is ruining her life, it might help to ask her what she thinks her chance of breast cancer really is. (
  • A new study finds there is likely a link between those two facts -- that bearing a baby to term raises the risk for this type of cancer, called estrogen or progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer. (
  • But when a woman with two or more childbirths breastfed her babies, that risk declined considerably. (
  • The risk of breast cancer recurrence was higher among women who were overweight or obese at the time of diagnosis, according to a U.S. study released Monday. (
  • What remains uncertain, however, is whether dietary and lifestyle interventions resulting in weight loss after a breast cancer diagnosis could substantially reduce the risk of recurrence. (
  • One suggestion to try to maximise the benefit and reduce the risk is to tailor screening more effectively to people's risk of breast cancer, but more research is needed to show whether this approach will be effective or possible. (
  • These women have a higher chance of developing breast cancer in earlier age (before menopause) and women of different generations in the family have higher risk of cancer. (
  • Those who inherited the gene have 85% risk of developing breast cancer, and 50% of them may have it before age 50. (
  • A girl has a higher risk of inheriting the disease from the father if his female relatives had cancer. (
  • When the tests show that a woman has the genes, certain measures can be taken to decrease the risk. (
  • The research shows that the majority of women with known risk factors do not develop breast cancer. (
  • Many women who suffer from cancer have no other risk factors other than age. (
  • The more alcohol a woman consumes, the higher is the risk. (
  • The risk is higher for women who had other breast issues, for example, benign tumors. (
  • Breast cancer was first shown to be associated with combined HRT treatment in 2003, when a large US trial found that the risk of developing breast cancer was 1.26 times higher for women taking HRT than those who weren't. (
  • Then a UK study found a doubled risk of breast cancer in women taking HRT, and calculated that this led to 15,000 extra cases of the disease between 1991 and 2005. (
  • The risk returns to normal five years after a woman stops taking HRT. (
  • Using a recent, more detailed study of 114,000 British women, they calculated that women who take HRT for five years have a 2.74 times higher risk of developing breast cancer than women who never take it. (
  • XRAYS: Does aspirin lower a woman's breast cancer risk? (
  • Women who take aspirin regularly may have a reduced risk of breast cancer. (
  • This study found a modest reduction in breast cancer risk for women who took a low-dose aspirin at least three times per week, but only for one subtype of breast cancer. (
  • This study found no breast cancer risk reduction for women who used regular-dose aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). (
  • Whether use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDS) can lower breast cancer risk. (
  • There have been many previous studies examining whether taking aspirin can reduce breast cancer risk. (
  • The results of these prior studies have been mixed-some studies claim regular use of aspirin can lower breast cancer risk while others do not report risk reduction. (
  • Experts have also speculated about the dose of aspirin needed to decrease breast cancer risk. (
  • This study is the first to report that regular use of low-dose aspirin is associated with a reduction in risk of ER/PR-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer. (
  • This study supports the need for an additional, larger randomized clinical trial to prove that low-dose aspirin indeed lowers the risk for certain types of breast cancer. (
  • Women taking three or more tablets of "other" NSAIDS had marginally reduced risk of breast cancer that was not statistically significant. (
  • This research study suggests that taking low-dose aspirin at least three times per week modestly lowers a woman's risk of developing breast cancer, specifically ER/PR-positive/HER2-negative subtype breast cancer. (
  • While aspirin use was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer, it does not prove that the aspirin caused the lower risk. (
  • There may be other reasons why the women in this study who took aspirin had lower risk. (
  • More research needs to be done in much larger groups of women to better understand the benefit of regular use of low-dose aspirin on risk for different subtypes of breast cancer. (
  • In the meantime, women should talk to their healthcare providers to determine the best way to manage their breast cancer risk. (
  • How can I lower my breast cancer risk? (
  • Should I regularly take low-dose aspirin to reduce my risk of breast cancer and other diseases? (
  • One study, conducted between September 1992 and March 2004, was designed to examine the effect of aspirin on the risk of cancer among healthy women. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Women who go through in vitro fertilization (IVF) early in life are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer compared to those who don't undergo the treatment, suggests a new study. (
  • Meanwhile, there was no increased risk for women who started fertility treatments when they were about 40 years old, regardless of whether they had IVF or not, according to findings published in Fertility and Sterility. (
  • The development of breast cancer is linked to estrogen exposure and the longer one is exposed, the greater the risk,' said Dr. Linda Giudice, president-elect of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, in a statement. (
  • Giudice, who was not involved with the new study, added, 'Women should be reassured that, overall, IVF was not associated with an increased risk for development of breast cancer. (
  • It is particularly important for LGBT women to be aware of possible issues, both because lesbians have a higher risk of breast cancer, and because LGBT individuals and families may face discrimination. (
  • Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, BI-RADS: Mammography. (
  • Comparison of the performance of screening mammography, physical examination, and breast US and evaluation of factors that influence them: an analysis of 27,825 patient evaluations. (
  • This might include breast screening (mammography) or a biopsy . (
  • The Oregon Office on Disability and Health external icon has a directory to better inform Oregon women with disabilities of the accessibility/usability features of their area mammography facilities. (
  • The Mobile Mammography Coach provides breast screenings for women at 100 locations in an 18-parish area. (
  • Women ages 40 and older showed progressively smaller increases in metastatic presentation by age group, without any significant trends in any group 55 years or older except for an increase in localized disease associated with the start of screening mammography programs during the 1980s. (
  • Clinical breast examination is a simple and inexpensive method of detecting breast cancer especially in women who do not have access to mammography. (
  • Mammography is used to screen women for breast cancer. (
  • Dr. Tracey Gillies, medical director at NHS Lothian, said her teams use digital mammography to detect breast cancer. (
  • Rubin said all women should make sure to attend routine mammography screening appointments. (
  • Several studies have now shown that postmenopausal women with cancer that has spread to underarm lymph nodes are helped by adjuvant chemotherapy as much as premenopausal women with the same node status. (
  • All postmenopausal women are not octogenarians, and many of those who are cling tenaciously to hopes of cure. (
  • A recent overview analysis by Richard Peto and his colleagues at Oxford found that adjuvant chemotherapy for postmenopausal women with positive nodes yields an overall survival advantage with high statistical significance. (
  • In Iraq, the continuous rise in the incidence rate is associated with an obvious trend to affect premenopausal women," said Nada A.S. Alwan, M.D., Ph.D., director of the National Breast Cancer Research Unit at Baghdad University Medical College and the executive director of the newly established Iraqi National Cancer Research Program. (
  • Young Hispanic women, premenopausal women, and women who test positive for the BRCA1 gene mutation, also have a higher prevalence of TNBC diagnosis. (
  • Some doctors are experimenting with operating on breast tumors through incisions in the armpit to avoid breast scars. (
  • While some investigators could refer this to poor compliance of young women to hormonal therapies, we performed another analysis in 1,188 women who did not receive any systemic therapy and indeed found significant poor outcome in young women both in luminal-A and luminal-B tumors," Dr Azim said. (
  • Why more young women would be presenting with tumors that have already spread to bone, brain, lungs, or other distant sites isn't clear, they noted. (
  • All of the women had surgical treatments and were continuing with various combinations of hormone therapy, chemotherapy and radiation, depending on the characteristics of their tumors. (
  • Breast cancer can be treated using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. (
  • Vitamin D is essential to maintaining bone health, and women with breast cancer have accelerated bone loss due to the nature of hormone therapy and chemotherapy . (
  • No single trial with postmenopausal node-positive women randomized to chemotherapy or just local therapy has shown a statistically significant survival advantage. (
  • Further exploration of adjuvant chemotherapy in controlled trials for postmenopausal node-positive women may eventually result in regimens with much larger effect. (
  • The study included 6,885 women with Stage 1 to Stage 3 breast cancer who were given chemotherapy with doxorubicin. (
  • Some treatment options, like hormone therapy, chemotherapy and certain surgeries, depend upon the type of breast cancer you have, as well as your menopausal status. (
  • The woman said she had recently had breast implant surgery. (
  • PIP, based in the south of France, was one of the world's leaders in silicone implant production until last year when it was found to have saved an estimated €1bn (£840m) a year by using industrial silicone - common in computers - instead of medical-grade filling for breast augmentation. (
  • A California woman is making national headlines after a botched breast implant surgery left her with a 'uniboob,' according to an MSNBC report. (
  • There are three breast implant manufacturers in the U.S. (
  • Asked about how big the problem, PR or otherwise, could be for breast implant manufacturers, d'Incelli said, "We are taking it very seriously and want to make sure that there's education. (
  • She said she prepared for her large breasts by doing back exercises to build up her muscles. (
  • i also have very large breasts, and i have tried everything. (
  • I also have large breasts and first noticed the smell this summer. (
  • A recent article from Newsday discusses the benefits, both health and cosmetic, of breast reduction surgery for women who have struggled with overly large breasts for their frame. (
  • Women with very large breasts can suffer from a number of problems, including back and shoulder pain, trouble exercising, and difficulty finding bras and clothes that fit. (
  • The Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women helps CDC develop evidence-based approaches to advance understanding and awareness of breast cancer among young women. (
  • Holy Rosary Healthcare in Miles City, Montana hosts the exhibit as part of its 'Pink Night Out' breast cancer awareness event. (
  • CDC's "Breast Cancer Screening: The Right To Know" Campaign raises awareness about breast cancer among women with physical disabilities and encourages women to get screened. (
  • Seven years ago, BCA launched Think Before You Pink , a watchdog group monitoring products marketed for breast-cancer awareness. (
  • The Breast Awareness Interactive Tool , from Susan G. Komen for the Cure, is a good place to start. (
  • A Colorado woman who's worn out 25 pairs of shoes walking around the planet to raise awareness about breast cancer is starting the final leg of her journey in Iowa today (Saturday). (
  • Letofsky explains her motivations.She's worked with breast cancer organizations in each of the nations she's walked through and all money raised stays in each of those countries, for education and awareness. (
  • Breast self-awareness is key to caring for your breasts. (
  • October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month - an international campaign aimed at increasing awareness of the second most common cancer in women. (
  • Wow I love this artwork, I've shared it on my facebook page to raise breast cancer awareness. (
  • Thank you for your Breast Cancer awareness creations. (
  • The aim of this project is to raise awareness for breast cancer. (
  • A new study, published in the journal Cancer Discovery , revealed that genetic variations could be a key indicator of which women are likely and which are unlikely to benefit from tamoxifen or raloxifene for breast cancer prevention. (
  • James Ingle, M.D., an oncologist at the Mayo Clinic, who was part of the study, said that the findings are important "because we identified genetic factors that could eventually be used to select women who should be offered the drugs for prevention. (
  • This is a major step toward truly individualized prevention of breast cancer. (
  • He added that the discovery could drive a reinvigoration of research efforts in breast cancer prevention. (
  • The study, published Tuesday in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, followed a group of 47,000 African American women from 1996 through 2009. (
  • Goodwin's team adapted a U.S. diabetes prevention program that included 20 phone calls to help women with breast cancer to lose weight. (
  • In a few days is the international day of Breast Cancer, and i'm sharing free information about cancer and prevention. (
  • Actress Angelina Jolie has prompted a national discussion about breast cancer prevention. (
  • Ali was diagnosed with MS in August 2010 at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford and then grade three estrogen-based breast cancer in 2014. (
  • African American women have higher rates of a type of breast cancer that isn't dependent for growth on the hormones estrogen or progesterone. (
  • What they found was that African American women who had given birth to more children were more likely to develop estrogen or progesterone-negative cancer than their peers who had not given birth or who had given birth to only one child. (
  • Drawing on findings in more than 5 million women who participated in 46 studies, USPSTF issued two main recommendations in its 2019 updated statement. (
  • These criteria usually included family history of breast cancer and previous benign breast biopsy, particularly atypical hyperplasia. (
  • Women with lumpy breasts may have other benign breast conditions. (
  • While breast cancer diagnosis and treatment are difficult for women of any age, young survivors may find it overwhelming. (
  • The type of surgery and the treatment you have afterwards will depend on the type of breast cancer you have. (
  • Read more about your body and your breasts after treatment . (
  • If breast cancer is found early, treatment can have a greater chance for success. (
  • Fig 2 Breast abscess (reproduced from Dixon J, Khan L. Treatment of breast infection. (
  • Average age at the start of hormone treatment was 31 for trans women and 23 for trans men, and average treatment time was 13 years for trans women and eight years for trans men, according to the report. (
  • It would be worthwhile for future studies to investigate in more detail the cause of breast cancer in transgender people receiving hormone treatment," the authors concluded in a journal news release. (
  • Looking at the issue from another angle, a Swedish study has found that women with a history of infertility had denser breasts than women who didn't have fertility problems, and infertile women who had a specific type of fertility treatment, controlled ovarian stimulation, had denser breasts than women who hadn't received the treatment. (
  • Recurrence of breast cancer after optimal treatment in young women "remains a significant problem," study leader Dr. Beth M. Beadle, of University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, said in a statement issued by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO). (
  • Breast cancer drug 'too expensive' Jump to media player A pioneering new breast cancer treatment called Kadcyla will not be routinely available in England, the NHS drugs advisory body NICE says. (
  • But new therapies targeting the triggers of the disease as well as improved palliative care mean women "can and often do live for years with reasonable quality of life, albeit undergoing constant treatment to keep their disease under control," they said. (
  • With early detection and prompt treatment, more than 93% of breast cancer cases can be cured. (
  • Now, new approaches are dramatically changing the way these operations are done, giving women more options, faster treatment, smaller scars, fewer long-term side effects and better cosmetic results. (
  • The reported findings have potentially important implications for treatment, because breast cancer in young women is often aggressive and diagnosed at an advanced stage, meaning the prognosis for these patients is often poor. (
  • In a study of 166 women undergoing treatment for breast cancer, nearly 70 percent had low levels of vitamin D in their blood, according to a study being presented Thursday, Oct. 8, at the American Society of Clinical Oncology's Breast Cancer Symposium in San Francisco. (
  • If you find yourself facing a breast cancer diagnosis, Dr. Simpson recommends the following steps to help improve your understanding of the treatment process. (
  • Dr. Anna Kurzyna:The future for treatment of metastatic breast cancer is amazing, and we're going to be with you on that journey. (
  • For anyone affected by cancer - with or without a BRCA mutation - this movie offers a rare window into the world of cancer treatment and being a female patient in the 1970s and 1980s. (
  • And no wonder: More than 180,000 women this year will receive the diagnosis, plunging them into a world of complicated decisions and difficult treatment. (
  • Where a woman goes for breast cancer treatment can vary widely - ranging from small private practices to large hospital settings. (
  • This gives a woman more treatment options and makes it more likely she will survive the cancer. (
  • Following a successful operation to remove the affected breast Ali and husband Mike, 62, chose their own treatment - funded by his inheritance. (
  • After having the affected breast removed Ali, of Shropshire, and her husband decided to go with their own healthy treatment plan which helped her shed three stone, and started having the mistletoe injections. (
  • Young women undergoing treatment for breast cancer may experience issues associated with early menopause, fertility and intimacy concerns,' Valero says. (
  • Many young women consider fertility options before undergoing treatment. (
  • BIDMC's Center for Intimate Health and Wellness provides holistic and advanced treatment for women who may have issues with intimate wellness. (
  • Combination HRT also includes the hormone progesterone, to protect against this, and in 2003, 15 per cent of women in the UK between the ages of 45 and 68 were taking this treatment. (
  • They are still in the their child-bearing years and the effects of cancer treatment can prevent them, not only from breast feeding, but also from conceiving. (
  • This is an excellent resource for women interested in preventing breast cancer, as well as those with cancer who want a frank discussion of treatment options. (
  • For the new study, Stewart and her colleagues collected information on 21,025 women between the ages of 20 and 40 years old who went through fertility treatment at the hospitals of Western Australia between 1983 and 2002. (
  • Most women who want breast reduction surgery are not significantly overweight or obese but merely have breasts that are too large and cause problems in their everyday lives. (
  • Some cases of breast cancer may also be treated using biological or hormone treatments. (
  • The new study looked at 2,260 trans women and 1,229 trans men who received gender-affirming hormone therapy at a clinic in the Netherlands between 1972 and 2016. (
  • History of lactation was reported in 63.1 percent of the women and 29 percent had taken hormone therapy. (
  • says Dr. C. W. Randolph, Jr., "This demographic of women - white, educated and informed, is not only the segment of the female population most likely to stop using synthetic hormones, it is also the segment of women most actively embracing bioidentical hormone replacement therapies (BHRT) as a safe and effective alternative. (
  • Dr. Randolph, a nationally-recognized medical pioneer in treating hormone health issues for both women and men, reports an astonishing clinical finding. (
  • Informed, well-heeled white women may be driving a shift in the way the traditional medical community is treating hormone health issues but our real good news will be when all races and all socioeconomic communities of women, whether black, white, Hispanic or Asian, are made aware that they, too, have the same choice for long-term hormone balance and breast health. (
  • However, men don't usually lactate much because of the differences in hormone levels between men and women. (
  • Several years ago, they focused on Yoplait's pink-lidded yogurt, which was sold to raise money for breast cancer, but was made with dairy stimulated with the hormone rBGH . (
  • Changes in hormone levels during your menstrual cycle affect your breasts. (
  • Hormone replacement therapy may be even more likely to cause breast cancer than we thought. (
  • Internally, each breast is made of many mammary glands arranged into a radial pattern around the nipple. (
  • While breast augmentation procedures are extremely popular, there is definitely a significant subset of women who want to reduce the size of their breasts," said leading plastic surgeon Dr. Chasan. (
  • Whether it's women who have breasts that are naturally too large or women who want to reverse a previous augmentation, breast reduction surgery is a procedure that can definitely have a positive impact on a woman's life. (
  • Breast reductive augmentation is an answer to typical breast reduction problems of breasts that lack defined shape and can sag," said Dr. Chasan. (
  • Reductive augmentation provides a solution that addresses both health issues and aesthetic issues, and leaves the patient satisfied, as long as the right breast shape and size are chosen. (
  • At Ranch and Coast Plastic Surgery in Del Mar, Dr. Chasan is renowned for his exceptional work in facial rejuvenation, breast augmentation, liposuction, and tummy tuck surgery. (
  • All you need to do is note the statistics: breast augmentation procedures increased by 20 percent from the year 2005 to 2006. (
  • During breast augmentation, the patient is put to sleep using general anaesthesia. (
  • Outside of Mumbai and Delhi, there are very few properly trained and licensed specialists in breast augmentation. (
  • For example, breast augmentation won't change their personality or who they are. (
  • Jean Sachs, CEO of LBBC, 2014 The organization is a member of the Metastatic Breast Cancer Alliance, and organizes annual conferences specifically for MBC patients and their caregivers. (
  • What we found was startling: Even smart women like you have big misconceptions about this disease. (
  • non-invasive breast cancer (carcinoma in situ) - found in the ducts of the breast (ductal carcinoma in situ, DCIS) and hasn't developed the ability to spread outside the breast. (
  • Doe claims she found out Shippey was showing off her breast photos from her physical therapist on May 27, 2011. (
  • This cancer is found in the ducts of the breast and has not developed the ability to spread outside the breast. (
  • The government health agency, Public Health England, found that fewer than half of the women over 70 who were questioned could name a symptom, apart from a lump. (
  • The study found that between 1992 and 1994, and 2005 and 2012, the five-year survival rate among women under age 50 initially diagnosed with advanced disease doubled from 18 percent to 36 percent. (
  • FMc was found significantly more often in healthy women than women with breast cancer (43% versus 14%, respectively). (
  • What we found was that even after adjustment for these parameters, there are several genes and gene signatures that are significantly associated with age in breast cancer patients," Dr Azim explained. (
  • We tested three proliferation-related signatures and found that they add prognostic information in all patients with ER+ breast cancer, irrespective of age. (
  • The number of young women being diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer has been slowly but steadily rising over the past 3 decades, a national study found. (
  • They are most often found in women in their late teens and early twenties. (
  • It very often is found by the woman herself. (
  • The study of 900 women in Detroit found that other existing illnesses caused a 76 per cent disparity in survival rates. (
  • The Breast Cancer Care report commissioned last month found that 43 per cent of women from black and ethnic minorities had never had their breasts checked, compared to 11 per cent of the rest of the population. (
  • They found the mortality rate was 56% lower for women on the low-fat diet than for women in the control group. (
  • I have a college project about breast cancer and I found this solution very inspiring! (
  • The study found that TNBC-diagnosed women had a greater interest in finding diagnosis-specific resources. (
  • It also found a greater degree of fear, anxiety, and worry among TNBC women than among those with other cancer diagnoses. (
  • Goodwin's research suggested high insulin levels accompanying obesity encourage tumour growth, and increase the likelihood of breast cancer recurrence. (
  • And, men, take note: University of Chicago researcher Martha McClintock has shown breast-feeding women and their infants produce a substance that increases sexual desire among other women. (
  • Dr. Stephanie Bernik, chief of breast surgery at Mount Sinai West in New York City, reacted to the findings. (
  • Our findings provide clear direction as to which women are likely and which are unlikely to benefit from tamoxifen or raloxifene. (
  • They adjusted their findings to take into account the size of the tumor at diagnosis, whether the disease had spread to lymph nodes and breast cancer molecular subtype, in addition to other variables. (
  • The findings show that breast cancer arising at a young age seems to be associated with age-related biological processes, which appear to be independent of other prognostic factors that are commonly used by oncologists. (
  • Authors of the study, which appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) today, said: "Our findings indicate that control of comorbidity may be an important way of improving the survival of black breast cancer patients and reducing racial disparity. (
  • The JAMA findings coincide with a report by Breast Cancer Care this week which revealed that women within black and ethnic minority groups in Britain were far less likely to attend breast cancer screening appointments. (
  • These findings caused uptake to plummet, and by 2013, only 5 per cent of women in the UK between the ages of 45 and 69 were taking HRT. (
  • Breast reduction surgery can significantly improve the quality of life for these women, and women who have the surgery are often some of the happiest patients a surgeon sees. (
  • In addition, minorities with a strong desire for genetic testing were significantly less likely than white women to have discussed genetic testing with a provider. (
  • Research shows that while black breast cancer survival rates have increased significantly in the past three decades, the gap between white and black survival is widening. (
  • The Association of Maternal & Child Health Programs (AMCMP)'s TOOLBOX external icon provides links to tools that will increase knowledge about recommended services, identify service gaps, identify accessible healthcare facilities and transportation, and improve healthcare interactions between clinicians and women with disabilities. (
  • Optimal compliance - 90% breast-feeding in the first 6 months of life - could save $13 billion per year in healthcare costs in the United States and prevent more than 900 deaths, according to one study ( Pediatrics . (
  • Randolph said, "Today's upper-income, educated female healthcare consumer is not the woman of her mother's era. (
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Anterior View of the Female Breast in minutes with SmartDraw. (
  • Obesity at the time of breast cancer diagnosis is associated with poorer survival, but less is known about specific subtypes of the disease, and treatments might be influenced by excess weight. (
  • This is because the genes that are mainly responsible for breast cancer are also linked to ovarian cancer. (
  • To elucidate the possible reasons behind the poor outcome in young women, Dr Azim and co-workers went on to study the expression of a variety of genes in women with breast cancer to see if they correlated with age. (
  • Some were highly expressed in young women --including stem cells, luminal progenitors, RANK-ligand (RANKL) and c-kit-- while others were down-regulated, such as genes related to programmed cell death, or apoptosis. (
  • Stimulation of the breasts, and especially the nipples and areola, sends signals of pleasure to the brain. (
  • Other common and unpleasant problems: engorged breasts and cracked or bleeding nipples. (
  • Here's what you think when it comes to breast cancer, what doctors want you to know - and the news that could save your life. (
  • In the United States, pediatricians should determine the intentions of an HIV-positive mother and, if she plans to breast-feed, she should be discouraged, he told Medscape Medical News . (
  • The implications of recent research contain both good and bad news for black women. (
  • Visit our Breast Cancer category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest updates on Breast Cancer. (
  • To share important information related to breast cancer, we have compiled some of the latest research news related to breast cancer from top research institutions around the world. (
  • Breast cancer is so commonly in the news, and most of us can think of friends or relatives who have been diagnosed with it. (
  • FORCE's eXamining the Relevance of Articles for Young Survivors (XRAYS) program is a reliable resource for breast cancer research-related news and information. (
  • The UK National Health Service advises that the therapy is likely to cause five more cases of breast cancer than the 22 normally expected per 1000 post-menopausal women, plus one extra death from ovarian cancer. (
  • Kressin added that unintended consequences -- anxiety , confusion or skipping breast cancer screenings -- need to be minimized. (
  • Early detection saves lives and having access to screenings is critical in the fight against breast cancer. (
  • After all, one in eight women will get it in her lifetime: "We all know someone who's had it," says Dr. Barbara Levy, vice president for health policy for the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). (
  • The New York Department of Health (NYSDOH) Disability and Health external icon Program has worked closely with the NYSDOH Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (BCCEDP) to increase providers' understanding on how to better serve women with disabilities. (
  • The campaign developed a family of health promotion materials and featured four women with physical disabilities who have survived breast cancer. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that mothers with HIV breast-feed for at least 12 months, and continue breast-feeding for up to 24 months if they are fully adherent to antiretroviral therapy. (
  • The goal of dense breast notifications is to spur a conversation between a woman and her health care provider. (
  • The free program Breast Health Basics will focus on the importance of exams and why it is important to be consistent with breast health maintenance. (
  • Only white, affluent women over 50 are showing a decline in breast cancer rates across the country, according to a new study published in the American Journal of Public Health. (
  • The Task Force encourages women to talk about the benefits and harms of medication with their clinicians so they can make the best choice for themselves, based on their personal values and preferences," USPSTF Task Force member Dr. Michael Barry from Harvard Medical School in Boston, told Reuters Health by email. (
  • But it is important for you to know about correct breast health. (
  • Many health experts believe that the pain is due to both hormonal activity and something in the breast that responds to this activity. (
  • To participate, the women had to have normal heart, kidney, liver and bone marrow function, meaning those with significant health issues were excluded. (
  • Senior health information manager at Cancer Research UK Jessica Kirby commented: 'Breast screening saves lives, but it also has risks. (
  • Breast Health! (
  • The finding helps doctors know which breast cancer patients are likely to respond well to therapy with tamoxifen. (
  • Sewart underwent a surgery to remove a breast and lymph node in June 2008 but instead of taking Tamoxifen drug during remission, she told doctors that she would use her diet as an anti cancer drug as she was concerned about the side effects of taking Tamoxifen. (
  • They surveyed these women about 9 months after diagnosis and again 4 years later. (
  • When these women start teetering into their menopausal years, they are determined to do their homework and understand their choices. (
  • Women who spend at least two years of their lives breast-feeding are less likely to suffer a heart attack than those who don't breast-feed at all, according to a new Harvard Medical School study. (
  • CHICAGO - Treating breast cancer almost always involves surgery, and for years the choice was just having the lump or the whole breast removed. (
  • Fewer lymph nodes are being removed to check for cancer's spread, sparing women painful arm swelling for years afterward. (
  • Male and female MBA graduates from 2007 to 2009 started on similar salaries, but the women were earning an average of 20 per cent less than the men within eight years, according to Bloomberg . (
  • Currently, all women aged between 50 and 70 are encouraged to attend a breast screening appointment every three years, with estimates indicating that around 1,300 lives are saved every year due to these tests. (
  • Between the ages of 45 and 55, women largely stop making the hormones oestrogen and progesterone, and this can cause hot flushes, insomnia, depression and loss of libido, usually for around four years. (
  • They were able to piece together enough data to follow the women for some 16 years to see if they developed breast cancer. (
  • Catherine's queer, feminist memoir, FLAT: Reclaiming My Body From Breast Cancer , was published in September 2018. (
  • About half of women over 40 in the United States have dense breasts, the NCI said. (
  • But only 23 percent of the women underwent MRI screening. (
  • invasive breast cancer - usually develops in the cells that line the breast ducts (invasive ductal breast cancer) and is the most common type of breast cancer. (
  • Breast cancer is often divided into non-invasive and invasive types. (
  • Non-invasive breast cancer is also known as cancer or carcinoma in situ, or pre-cancerous cells. (
  • Invasive cancer has the ability to spread outside the breast, although this does not mean it necessarily has spread. (
  • The most common form of breast cancer is invasive ductal breast cancer, which develops in the cells that line the breast ducts. (
  • As another point of evidence, metastatic presentation rose as a proportion of all invasive breast cancer in the 25 to 39 age group, from 4.4 percent in the 1970s to 7.2 percent after the turn of the century. (
  • Getting a diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer can be scary, but there's more reasons than ever before to be hopeful. (
  • Gill, who visited the attraction in May, wrote to Camera Obscura following her diagnosis, telling staff she had searched Google for information about what the hot spot could mean and saw articles about breast cancer and thermal imaging cameras. (
  • Early diagnosis has the biggest impact on breast cancer survival with as much as a 75 per cent difference between the early and late stages," Ms Yates added. (
  • Women with breast cancer now have more surgical options to treat their disease and save more of their breast. (
  • A possible exception is the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) trial, with patients randomized to receive 5-FU and L-phenylalanine mustard, or the same two drugs with doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Adria). (
  • Surgical procedure for lifting sagging or drooping breasts is called Breast lifting or Mastopexy. (
  • Breast pain isn't usually a symptom of breast cancer. (
  • The study was published in the April 13, 2016 issue of the journal Breast Cancer Research . (
  • It's possible for breast cancer to spread to other parts of the body, usually through the bloodstream or the axillary lymph nodes. (
  • It is possible for breast cancer to spread to other parts of the body, usually through the lymph nodes (small glands that filter bacteria from the body) or the bloodstream. (
  • Since BRCA1 and BRCA2 do not show in men, women may not be aware about a possible danger of inheriting the disease. (