A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.
A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.
Blood-filled UTERUS.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
One of a pair of excretory organs (mesonephroi) which grows caudally to the first pair (PRONEPHROI) during development. Mesonephroi are the permanent kidneys in adult amphibians and fish. In higher vertebrates, proneprhoi and most of mesonephroi degenerate with the appearance of metanephroi. The remaining ducts become WOLFFIAN DUCTS.
Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)
The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.
A broad fold of peritoneum that extends from the side of the uterus to the wall of the pelvis.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
A long flat muscle that extends along the whole length of both sides of the abdomen. It flexes the vertebral column, particularly the lumbar portion; it also tenses the anterior abdominal wall and assists in compressing the abdominal contents. It is frequently the site of hematomas. In reconstructive surgery it is often used for the creation of myocutaneous flaps. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p491)
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
A mass of tissue that has been cut away from its surrounding areas to be used in TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A Gartner's duct is a homologous remnant in the female. Function[edit]. Role in storage of sperm and ejaculant[edit]. ... Persistence of the cranial end of the mesonephric duct will leave behind a remnant called the appendix of the epididymis. In ... The head (Latin: caput). The head of the epididymis receives spermatozoa via the efferent ducts of the mediastinium of the ... there is an additional canal between the testis and the head of the epididymis and which receives the various efferent ducts. ...
Intermediate mesoderm: purple, near Wolffian duct.. * Lateral plate mesoderm: purple, near "Somatic mesoderm" and "Splanchic ...
w, w. Right and left Wolffian ducts.. The observable, visual differences become apparent between male or the female ... Main article: Mesonephric duct. The seminal vesicles form from lateral outgrowths of the caudal and of each mesonephric duct ... It carries the spermatozoa from the epididymis to ejaculatory duct. Accessory glands[edit]. Main article: Male accessory gland ... The vas deferens, which is also known as the sperm duct, is a thin tube approximately 30 centimetres (0.98 ft) long that starts ...
... also known as Wolffian ducts) and the paramesonephric ducts, (also known as Müllerian ducts). The mesonephric duct remains as ... Remains of the left Wolffian duct, such as give rise to the duct of Gärtner, represented by dotted lines; that of the right ... m, m. Right and left Müllerian ducts uniting together and running with the Wolffian ducts in gc, the genital cord. ... Main article: Paramesonephric duct. Shortly after the formation of the mesonephric ducts a second pair of ducts is developed; ...
... the mesonephros is crucial for the development of structures such as the Wolffian duct (or mesonephric duct), which in turn ... Hannema, SE; Hughes, IA (2007). "Regulation of Wolffian duct development". Hormone Research. 67 (3): 142-151. doi:10.1159/ ... Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a congenital disorder of male sexual development and is a form of ... In mammals however, the pronephric tubules and the anterior portion of the pronephric duct degenerates in 3.5 weeks to be ...
Male reproductive system - Bulbourethral glands - Corpus cavernosum - Ejaculatory ducts - Epididymis - Foreskin - Frenulum - ... Wolffian duct. Vein. Pampiniform plexus. Identifiers. Latin. Epididymis. MeSH. D004822. TA. A09.3.02.001. ...
... also known as Wolffian ducts) and the paramesonephric ducts, (also known as Müllerian ducts). The mesonephric duct remains as ... W. Left Wolffian body. w, w. Right and left Wolffian ducts. B.-Diagram of the female type of sexual organs. C. Greater ... Remains of the left Wolffian duct, such as give rise to the duct of Gärtner, represented by dotted lines; that of the right ... m, m. Right and left Müllerian ducts uniting together and running with the Wolffian ducts in gc, the genital cord. ot. The ...
... beyond the pronephros it is termed the Wolffian duct. Thus, the Wolffian duct is what remains of the pronephric duct after the ... The ureter opens at first into the hind-end of the Wolffian duct; after the sixth week it separates from the Wolffian duct, and ... Shortly after the formation of the Wolffian ducts a second pair of ducts is developed; these are the Müllerian ducts. Each ... the ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicle and efferent ducts. In the female, on the other hand, the Wolffian bodies and ducts ...
w, w. Right and left Wolffian ducts.. The observable, visual differences become apparent between male or the female ... Main article: Mesonephric duct. The seminal vesicles form from lateral outgrowths of the caudal and of each mesonephretic duct ... The vas deferens, also known as the sperm duct, is a thin tube approximately 30 centimetres (0.98 ft) long that starts from the ... Three accessory glands provide fluids that lubricate the duct system and nourish the sperm cells. They are the seminal vesicles ...
Without testosterone, the wolffian ducts fail to develop, so no internal male organs are formed. Also, the lack of testosterone ... Without AMH, the Müllerian ducts develop into normal internal female organs (uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, vagina). Due to ...
At a later stage the Wolffian duct and Müllerian duct open into its ventral portion. The cloaca is, for a time, shut off from ...
In this case, testosterone is not made and the Wolffian duct will degrade thus, the Müllerian duct will develop into female sex ... The clitoris is the remnants of the Wolffian duct. On the other hand, if the fetus inherits the Y chromosome from the father, ... The presence of testosterone will stimulate the Wolffian duct which will bring about the development of the male sex organs and ...
All human fetuses begin fetal development looking similar, with both the Müllerian duct system (female) and the Wolffian duct ... the Wolffian duct system is promoted and the Müllerian duct system is suppressed (the reverse happens with typically developing ... "Residual activity of mutant androgen receptors explains wolffian duct development in the complete androgen insensitivity ... Germ cell malignancy risk, once thought to be relatively high, is now thought to be approximately 2%. Wolffian structures (the ...
PTCs originate from the mesothelium and are presumed to be remnants of the Müllerian duct and Wolffian duct. Most cysts are ...
Before this stage, humans are simply undifferentiated and possess a Müllerian duct, a Wolffian duct, and a genital tubercle. ...
As the ureteric bud grows out of the Wolffian duct, the nephrogenic mesenchyme induces the ureteric bud to branch. Concurrently ... which form the collecting duct and nephrons respectively (see kidney development for more details). During kidney ontogenesis, ...
Masculinization involves the production of male typical morphology (development of the Wolffian ducts into male reproductive ... development of the Müllerian ducts into the fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina) and behavioural predispositions. ...
... promote growth of the Wolffian duct and degeneration of the Müllerian duct respectively. This period affects the femininization ...
Next, androgens cause the development of the Wolffian duct system, which develops into the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and ... In males, the Müllerian duct-inhibiting hormone MIH causes this duct system to regress. ... In typical female differentiation, the Müllerian duct system develops into the uterus, Fallopian tubes, and inner third of the ... ejaculatory ducts. By birth, the typical fetus has been completely sexed male or female, meaning that the genetic sex (XY-male ...
In the 1930s, Alfred Jost determined that the presence of testosterone was required for Wolffian duct development in the male ...
The mullerian ducts are also referred to as paramesonephric ducts, referring to ducts next to (para) the mesonephric (Wolffian ... The Mullerian ducts only develop in the absence of anti-Mullerian hormone, where the Wolffian ducts regress. Development of the ... Mice lacking Wnt4 display androgenisation, the presence of Wolffian ducts and absence of Mullerian ducts. This effect is ... ducts are present, where development of the Wolffian ducts give rise to the male reproductive tract and development of the ...
The Wolffian duct forms the epididymis, vas deferens, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and seminal vesicle in the male ... The three main fetal precursors of the reproductive organs are the Wolffian duct, the Müllerian ducts, and the gonads. ... The reverse is true for the Müllerian duct, as it essentially disappears in the male reproductive system and forms the ...
A ureteric bud, arising from the mesonephric (or Wolffian) duct, gives rise to the ureter, as well as other parts of the ...
... the Wolffian ducts, develop into the epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles. This action of androgens is supported by a ... was 2.4 times more potent than testosterone at maintaining normal prostate weight and duct lumen mass (this is a measure of ... hormone from Sertoli cells, Müllerian inhibitory hormone (MIH), which prevents the embryonic Müllerian ducts from developing ...
It is usually regarded as a detached efferent duct. This structure is derived from the Wolffian duct (Mesonephric Duct) as ... opposed to the appendix testis which is derived from the Müllerian duct (Paramesonephric Duct) remnant. Appendix testis This ...
... seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct (Wolffian duct). In reptiles and birds both the testes and excurrent ducts (efferent ducts ... The coiled epididymal duct within the cauda epididymis does not appear to be particularly long, and so may be limited in its ... Sever, D.M. & Freeborn, L.R. (2012). Observations on the anterior testicular ducts in snakes with emphasis on sea snakes and ... Jones, N., Jones, R.C. & Djakiew, D. (1984). Luminal composition and maturation of spermatozoa in the male genital ducts of the ...
Condensation of mesenchyme, urethra, and Wolffian ducts gives rise to the adult prostate gland, a composite organ made up of ... The glands are formed as many follicles, which in drain into canals and subsequently 12-20 main ducts, These in turn drain into ... The part of the urethra passing through it is called the prostatic urethra, which joins with the two ejaculatory ducts. The ... When sperm is emitted, it is transmitted from the vas deferens into the male urethra via the ejaculatory ducts, which lie ...
Inadequate levels of testosterone and Anti-Müllerian hormone disrupts the development of Wolffian ducts and internal genitalia ... The lack of the male associated steroid hormones drives Müllerian duct development and promotes the development of female ...
If no hormone is produced from the gonads, the Müllerian ducts automatically develop, while the Wolffian ducts, which are ... Its expression inhibits the development of the female reproductive tract, or Müllerian ducts (paramesonephric ducts), in the ... Its ability to inhibit growth of tissue derived from the Müllerian ducts has raised hopes of usefulness in the treatment of a ... In male mammals, AMH prevents the development of the Müllerian ducts into the uterus and other Müllerian structures. The effect ...
... and go down inside Wolffian duct, to the coelom and finally to the organ the animal uses to transport sperm into females. In ...
When this organ is embryonic, specialized tubules empty into Wolffian ducts. $2000. 22. ...
Wolffian duct. November 27, 2018 * glendale. November 14, 2018 * on in years. November 15, 2018 ...
Genital cord (Anat.), a cord developed in the fetus by the union of portions of the Wolffian and M ian ducts and giving rise to ...
Reciprocal Spatiotemporally Controlled Apoptosis Regulates Wolffian Duct Cloaca Fusion. J Am Soc Nephrol. Jan 11. pii: ASN. ...
2018) In vivo replacement of damaged bladder urothelium by Wolffian duct epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 115:8394- ...
A baby starts off with two internal tubes or ducts called a Mullerian duct and a Wolffian duct. In girls, the Mullerian duct ... turning the Wolffian duct into the reproductive tract and destroying the Mullerian duct.. and. *Labor pain does not come ... becomes a girls reproductive tract and the Wolffian duct dissolves away. In boys, the newly formed testes start sending out ...
... conditional mouse genetic approach we demonstrate that deficiency of mTORC1 in the epithelial derivatives of the Wolffian duct ...
The intention is to give rise to the wolffian brand viagra generic vs name duct metanephrosh h h on the renal pelvis AlSince it ...
  • From the Wolffian ducts the lower part of the bladder develops in both sexes, but in males it also forms the epididymis, sperm tube (vas deferens) and sperm storage sac (seminal vesicle). (familygp.online)
  • The head of the epididymis receives spermatozoa via the efferent ducts of the mediastinium of the testis . (wikipedia.org)
  • In reptiles, there is an additional canal between the testis and the head of the epididymis and which receives the various efferent ducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistence of the cranial end of the mesonephric duct will leave behind a remnant called the appendix of the epididymis . (wikipedia.org)
  • mesonephric duct an embryonic duct of the mesonephros, which in the male becomes the epididymis, ductus deferens and its ampulla, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory duct, and in the female is largely obliterated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The epididymis, a whitish mass of tightly coiled tubes cupped against the testicles, acts as a maturation and storage for sperm before they pass into the vas deferens , that carry sperm to the ampullary gland and prostatic ducts . (wikipedia.org)
  • The vas deferens, also known as the sperm duct, is a thin tube approximately 30 centimetres (0.98 ft) long that starts from the epididymis to the pelvic cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It carries the spermatozoa from the epididymis to ejaculatory duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the male the duct persists, and forms the tube of the epididymis , the vas deferens and the ejaculatory duct , while the seminal vesicle arises during the third month as a lateral diverticulum from its hinder end. (wikipedia.org)
  • The efferent ducts (or efferent ductules or ductuli efferentes ) connect the rete testis with the initial section of the epididymis . (wikidoc.org)
  • In humans and other large mammals , there are approximately 15-20 efferent ducts, which also occupy nearly one third of the head of the epididymis. (wikidoc.org)
  • Male urogenital structures that arise from the mesonephric duct include the epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a male, it develops into a system of connected organs between the efferent ducts of the testis and the prostate, namely the epididymis, the vas deferens, and the seminal vesicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • These ducts include the epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct and urethra. (wikibooks.org)
  • In male fetuses, T stimulates the differentiation of the Wolffian duct into male internal genitalia (epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles) and development of libido, enlargement of the vocal cords, skeletal muscles, penis, and scrotum and the initiation of spermatogenesis at puberty [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Unlike the testis, the epididymis develops from the mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts. (vetstream.com)
  • When bred to B6;SJL-Tg(tetop-lacZ)2Mam/J mice, adult mice carrying both transgenes, which were maintained on Dox during pre and postnatal life, show strong expression of beta-gal in the renal collecting duct system, and embryos display strong expression throughout the Wolffian duct, ureteric bud, vas deferens, epididymis and seminal vesicles. (jax.org)
  • Upon tetracycline induction beta-gal is expressed in the renal collecting duct system, and embryos display strong expression throughout the Wolffian duct, ureteric bud, vas deferens, epididymis and seminal vesicles. (jax.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the embryology of anomalies of Wolffian duct (WD) derivatives with specific attention to the seminal vesicles, vas deferens, ureter, and kidneys. (canjurol.com)
  • It is a single, narrow, tightly-coiled tube in adult humans, 6 to 7 meters (20 to 23 ft) in length [1] connecting the efferent ducts from the rear of each testicle to its vas deferens. (wikipedia.org)
  • ejaculatory duct the duct formed by union of the ductus deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicles, opening into the prostatic urethra on the colliculus seminalis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One set, called the Wolffian ducts, has the capacity to develop into the male vas deferens and accessory structures, which store, nourish, and ejaculate sperm. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The tips of the Wolffian ducts fail to merge with the urogenital sinus, which results in convolutions at the junctions of the vas deferens and urethra. (jax.org)
  • It is a narrow, tightly-coiled tube connecting the efferent ducts from the rear of each testicle to its vas deferens . (wikidoc.org)
  • The mesonephric duct remains as the duct in males which gives rise to seminal vesical, epididymes and vas deferens, and the paramesonephric duct as that of the female. (wikipedia.org)
  • No definite dilatation of vas deferens or ejaculatory duct or any abnormality in the seminal vesicle was seen on left side. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • If the embryo has both an X and a Y chromosome and produces the two hormones, then the testosterone will stimulate the Wolffian duct to develop male sex organs, including the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Enthusiastic vessels from the Wolffian duct (now the vas deferens (CAVD). (varac.ca)
  • The duct that conveys sperm from the vas deferens and secretions from the seminal vesicle to the urethra. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the normal mouse embryo, Bmp4 is expressed in mesenchymal cells surrounding the Wolffian duct (WD) and ureter stalk, whereas bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor genes are transcribed either ubiquitously ( Alk3 ) or exclusively in the WD and ureter epithelium ( Alk6 ). (jci.org)
  • Kidney development depends on reciprocal signaling between metanephric mesenchyme that differentiates into the nephron, the ureteric bud epithelium that forms the collecting duct system, and stromal mesenchyme that differentiates into the renal interstitium. (biologists.org)
  • The müllerian duct is lined by a columnar epithelium. (medscape.com)
  • Hoxb7-Cre mediated removal of beta-catenin from the mouse Wolffian duct (WD) epithelium results in the ectopic ureteric bud (UB) formation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Instead, enhanced phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in Wolffian duct epithelium was responsible for the retention of male structures in an androgen-independent manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • We thus suggest that elimination of Wolffian ducts in female embryos is actively promoted by COUP-TFII, which suppresses a mesenchyme-epithelium cross-talk responsible for Wolffian duct maintenance. (sciencemag.org)
  • Elongation of the Müllerian duct is regulated by WNT9B secreted by the Wolffian duct epithelium ( 4 ) and requires physical contact with the latter ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These mice may be useful for the inducible expression of genes throughout the Wolffian duct, ureteric bud (UB) epithelium, and developing kidney. (jax.org)
  • Prior to the evolution of the metanephric kidney, the products of the male gonad , the testis, traveled through the same duct with the nitrogenous wastes from the kidney. (britannica.com)
  • Vertical section of the testis , to show the arrangement of the ducts. (wikidoc.org)
  • In the male the paramesonephric ducts atrophy (but traces of their anterior ends are represented by the appendix of testis of the male), while their terminal fused portions form the prostatic utricle in the floor of the prostatic urethra. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. In a rabbit fetus with XX genotype, you implant a testis next to the ovary, only on the right side, before the ducts have developed. (columbia.edu)
  • Any of a group of 12 to 14 small tubes that constitute the efferent ducts of the testis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The presence of testosterone in male embryos causes the duct to develop into major components of the male reproductive system. (fertilitysmarts.com)
  • The lack of testosterone in the female embryo causes the Wollfian duct to recede, while the Mullerian duct composes the female system. (fertilitysmarts.com)
  • In males, testosterone from the testes stimulates the development of the Wolffian ducts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In females, the absence of testosterone and AMH causes the M ü llerian ducts to develop and the Wolffian ducts to degenerate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the case of testosterone, the genes affected are those that "masculinize" the fetus, triggering the transformation of the Wolffian ducts into the mature male sexual anatomy and causing other, more subtle changes, including in the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the absence of testosterone and müllerian inhibitory substance, the mesonephric ducts regress and the paramesonephric ducts continue to form the female reproductive structures with fusion of the distal portions of the paramesonephric ducts to give rise to the uterine fundus, the cervix, and the upper vagina. (medscape.com)
  • For this it is critical that the ducts are exposed to testosterone during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical findings include a female type of external genitalia, 46-XY karyotype, absence of Mullerian structures, presence of Wolffian structures to various degree, and normal to high testosterone and gonadotropin levels. (urotoday.com)
  • Leydig cells, under the effect of placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), produce testosterone, which acts directly on the Wolffian ducts promoting their differentiation into epididymides, vasa deferentia, and seminal vesicles by the 12th week. (frontiersin.org)
  • Oxidation results in synthesis of androstenedione, which is the precursor for testosterone Testosterone - consists of the majority (95%) of androgens produced - Testosterone is responsible for the development of the _Wolffian__ duct into male accessory structures. (coursehero.com)
  • o The leydig cell secretes testosterone, which is responsible for development of Wolffian duct into accessory structures. (coursehero.com)
  • In the 1930s, Alfred Jost determined that the presence of testosterone was required for Wolffian duct development in the female rabbit. (bionity.com)
  • Jost also observed that while testosterone was required for Wolffian duct development, the regression of the Müllerian duct was due to another substance. (bionity.com)
  • As a result, a growth called a Gartner's duct or Gartner's cyst may develop. (fertilitysmarts.com)
  • Gartner's ducts affect approximately 25% of all women, but only 1% of these ducts develop into cysts. (fertilitysmarts.com)
  • A Gartner's duct is a homologous remnant in the female. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lower part of the mesonephric duct disappears, while the upper part persists as the longitudinal duct of the epoöphoron , called Gartner's duct . (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, lateral to the wall of the vagina a Gartner's duct or cyst could develop as a remnant. (wikipedia.org)
  • MR imaging and sonography of Gartner's duct cyst and single ectopic ureter with ipsilateral renal dysplasia. (radiopaedia.org)
  • 7. Dwyer PL, Rosamilia A. Congenital urogenital anomalies that are associated with the persistence of Gartner's duct: a review. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Initially, the UB is connected indirectly to the primitive bladder via the caudal WD segment, the common nephric duct (CND). (biologists.org)
  • Gonadal derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) secreted by the metanephrogenic blastema activates the receptor tyrosine kinase RET, via the co-receptor GFRα1 and triggers outgrowth of Ret positive cells from the nephric duct towards the GDNF signal, promoting ureteric bud outgrowth and invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nephric duct insertion is a crucial step in urinary tract maturation that is regulated by a Gata3-Raldh2-Ret molecular network in mice. (nih.gov)
  • The mesonephric duct (also known as the Wolffian duct, archinephric duct, Leydig's duct or nephric duct) is a paired organ found in mammals including humans during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the Wolffian duct regresses in female embryos, it typically disappears. (fertilitysmarts.com)
  • The mesonephric duct is a structure in the embryos of mammals including humans, that connects the primitive kidney, the mesonephros, to the cloaca and serves as the anlage for certain male reproductive organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we discovered that female mouse embryos lacking Coup-tfII (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II) in the Wolffian duct mesenchyme became intersex-possessing both female and male reproductive tracts. (sciencemag.org)
  • The addition of Gdnf protein to urogenital tracts taken from Gdf11 null embryos induced ectopic ureteric bud formation along the Wolffian duct. (nih.gov)
  • müllerian duct either of the two paired embryonic ducts developing into the vagina, uterus, and fallopian tubes, and becoming largely obliterated in the male. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The other set, called the M ü llerian ducts, has the capacity to become the female fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and upper vagina. (encyclopedia.com)
  • AMH will cause degeneration of the M ü llerian ducts, and so there will be no fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, or upper vagina. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The mean prevalence of Mullerian duct studies have emphasized the importance of uterus anomalies was estimated to be about 7% in the and intrauterine pathology for spontaneous and general population (1) and 13.3% in the infertile post-ART fertility (8), which makes evaluation of population (2) . (who.int)
  • fusion of the 2 paired mullerian ducts which unite to Office hysteroscopy (OH) is increasingly form the uterus and upper part of cervix. (who.int)
  • The Wolffian duct will degrade, and the Mullerian duct will develop into female sex organs such as the uterus, fallopian tubes and part of the vagina . (howstuffworks.com)
  • The mesonephros, Wolffian and Müllerian ducts differentiate in an orchestrated manner to form the uterus, vagina and lower urinary tract. (springer.com)
  • The W ducts regress and the M ducts turn into the uterus, fallopian tubes, and upper vagina. (verywellhealth.com)
  • It is a matter of common knowledge that the caudal end of the Wolffian duct is concerned in some way with the formation of the bladder, and that in the course of the changes taking place the ureter comes to end separately in that viscus, while the opening of the duct finally is into the prostatic urethra. (edu.au)
  • prostatic d's minute ducts from the prostate, opening into or near the prostatic sinuses on the posterior wall of the urethra. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of about 20 ducts that discharge prostatic secretion into the urethra. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • primary sex determination: genetically male or female - gonads (testes/sperm or ovaries/oocyte) -secondary sex determination: external phenotype outside gonads - duct stem and external genitalia What does Müllerian inhibitory substance ( hormone ) do? (coursehero.com)
  • A second hormone made by the testes, called antiM ü llerian hormone (AMH), induces the M ü llerian ducts to undergo apoptosis , causing them to degenerate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The second set, the mesonephroi, are the functional kidneys of adult amphibians, but their only contribution to the lives of reptiles is in providing the duct (the Wolffian duct ) that forms a connection between the testes and the cloaca. (britannica.com)
  • The oviducts, like the Wolffian ducts of the testes , open to the cloaca . (britannica.com)
  • The ducts from the testes, as already mentioned, empty into the cloaca, and the sperm flow along a groove on the surface of the penis or hemipenis. (britannica.com)
  • The male reproductive system consists of the testes and a series of ducts and glands. (wikibooks.org)
  • Sperm are produced in the testes and are transported through the reproductive ducts. (wikibooks.org)
  • DSD results when discordance between a person's genetic sex (XX or XY), gonadal sex (testes or ovaries), external genital sex (vulva or penis and scrotum), and/or internal sex ducts (Müllerian or Wolffian) exists at birth [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The cysts may also form from vestiges of the paramesonephrontic (Müllerian) duct. (healthline.com)
  • Paratubal cysts represent remnants of the paramesonephric or mesonephric duct, the former being more common. (humpath.com)
  • Gartner duct cysts develop from embryologic remnants of the Wolffian (mesonephric) duct . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Gartner duct cysts are located in the anterolateral wall of the proximal (superior) portion of the vagina 2 and are typically located above the level of the inferior most aspect of the pubic symphysis. (radiopaedia.org)
  • In mammals however, the pronephric tubules and the anterior portion of the pronephric duct degenerates in 3.5 weeks to be succeeded by the mesonephros, the embryonic kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite its transiency, the mesonephros is crucial for the development of structures such as the Wolffian duct (or mesonephric duct), which in turn gives rise to the ureteric bud of the metanephric kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mesonephric duct connects the primitive kidney, the mesonephros, to the cloaca and serves as the anlage for certain male reproductive organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is named after Caspar Friedrich Wolff who described the mesonephros and its ducts in his dissertation in 1759. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two hormones provide crucial signals for the differentiation of other sex-related characteristics, including an important set of primitive ducts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Androgen-mediated wolffian duct (WD) development is programmed between embryonic d 15.5 (e15.5) and 17.5 in male rats, and WD differentiation has been shown to be more susceptible to reduced androgen action than is its initial stabilization. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Fetal genital development List of homologues of the human reproductive system Masculinization Müllerian duct Sexual differentiation Hannema SE, Print CG, Charnock-Jones DS, Coleman N, Hughes IA (2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • The sexual differentiation paradigm contends that the female pattern of the reproductive system is established by default because the male reproductive tracts (Wolffian ducts) in the female degenerate owing to a lack of androgen. (sciencemag.org)
  • The distal region of the UB elongates and invades kidney mesenchyme (MetM) by E11.5 and undergoes successive rounds of branching morphogenesis to form the renal collecting duct system. (biologists.org)
  • Together, these studies suggest that renal development depends on paracrine RA signaling between stromal mesenchyme and ureteric bud cells that regulates Ret expression both during ureteric bud formation and within the developing collecting duct system. (biologists.org)
  • The cells of the pronephric duct migrate caudally whilst inducing adjacent mesenchyme to form the tubules of the initial kidney-like structure called the pronephros. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, these cells invaginate caudally until they reach the Wolffian duct, a step requiring the expression of WNT4 by the mesonephric mesenchyme ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Our studies suggest that Gdf11 may be important in directing the initial outgrowth of the ureteric bud from the Wolffian duct by controlling the expression of Gdnf in the metanephric mesenchyme. (nih.gov)
  • Kidney development is characterized by an interaction between an epithelial and a mesenchymal compartment: the Wolffian duct and the nephrogenic mesenchyme. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Dependent on signals from the mesenchyme, the ureter will give rise to the adult collecting duct system whereas the mesenchyme upon signals from the ureter will differentiate to form the major part of the nephrons, the functional unit of the excretory system, which is responsible for removal of nitrogenous waste and physiological control of salt balance. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These embryonic structures are the mesonephric ducts (also known as Wolffian ducts ) and the paramesonephric ducts , (also known as Müllerian ducts ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Right and left paramesonephric ducts uniting together and running with the mesonephric ducts in gc, the common genital cord * ot. (wikipedia.org)
  • these are the paramesonephric ducts . (wikipedia.org)
  • At a later stage the sinus tubercle opens in the middle, connecting the paramesonephric ducts with the cloaca. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 5 weeks' gestational age, the wolffian (ie, mesonephric) and the müllerian (ie, paramesonephric) ducts have formed from intermediate mesoderm. (medscape.com)
  • In the female the paramesonephric ducts persist and undergo further development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fusion of the paramesonephric ducts begins in the third month, and the septum formed by their fused medial walls disappears from below upward. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tubes and cavities that will house the adult's eggs or sperm after they leave the gonads develop from two different sets of ducts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Three accessory glands provide fluids that lubricate the duct system and nourish the sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developmental anomalies of the müllerian duct system represent some of the most fascinating disorders that obstetricians and gynecologists encounter. (medscape.com)
  • Most müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are associated with functioning ovaries and age-appropriate external genitalia. (medscape.com)
  • Because of the wide variation in clinical presentations, müllerian duct anomalies may be difficult to diagnose. (medscape.com)
  • Refinements in surgical techniques, such as the Vecchietti and McIndoe procedures, have enabled many women with müllerian duct anomalies to have normal sexual relations. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, developments in assisted reproductive technology allow some women with müllerian duct anomalies to conceive and deliver healthy babies. (medscape.com)
  • As a foundation for understanding müllerian duct anomalies, the first part of this article discusses the epidemiology and classification of müllerian duct defects and the normal embryologic development of the female reproductive tract. (medscape.com)
  • Despite the great advances in the assisted development, the abnormalities originating from reproduction technologies, the delivery rate per the mesonephric maldevelopment are associated oocyte retrieval was only 25% for ICSI and 27.41% with mullerian duct anomalies (5) . (who.int)
  • There are also developments of other tissues from the mesonephric duct that persist, e.g. the development of the suspensory ligament of the ovary . (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, WNT4 is a signaling ligand that is essential for ovary and Müllerian duct development, where it antagonizes the male-promoting FGF9 signal. (genetics.org)
  • The present article reports a triad of right renal agenesis, ipsilateral seminal vesicle cyst, and ejaculatory duct obstruction (Zinner syndrome) in a 19-year boy who presented with urinary symptoms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Zinner's syndrome is a triad of mullerian duct abnormality comprising of unilateral renal agenesis, ipsilateral seminal vesicle cyst, and ejaculatory duct obstruction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While rare, any complications during the embryonic development of the Wolffian duct have the potential to create anatomical abnormalities in the male reproductive system. (fertilitysmarts.com)
  • The müllerian ducts are the primordial anlage of the female reproductive tract. (medscape.com)
  • Additionally, both male and female wnt4a mutants are sterile due to defects in reproductive duct development. (genetics.org)
  • Together these results strongly argue that Wnt4a is a conserved regulator of female sex determination and reproductive duct development in mammalian and nonmammalian vertebrates. (genetics.org)
  • In humans, the reproductive organs develop from two sets of ducts-Mullerian (M) ducts and Wolffian (W) ducts. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The Mullerian duct tips fail to merge or enter the urogenital sinus at E15.5, which results in an unmerged upper vagina and vaginal atresia. (jax.org)
  • The prostate forms from the urogenital sinus and the efferent ducts form from the mesonephric tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts form in the intermediate mesoderm during the 4th week and elongate caudally in direction of the urogenital sinus ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The Müllerian ducts grow toward the urogenital sinus, crossing the Wolffian ducts ventrally, thus finally lying medially and fusing to give rise to the uterovaginal canal in the midline ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In the normal male, its cranial end shows signs of impending regression even before the Müllerian duct reaches the urogenital sinus, coinciding with the beginning of secretion of AMH by Sertoli cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mesonephric duct originates from a part of the pronephric duct . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the outer part of the intermediate mesoderm , immediately under the ectoderm, in the region from the fifth cervical segment to the third thoracic segment , a series of short evaginations from each segment grows dorsally and extends caudally , fusing successively from before backward to form the pronephric duct . (wikipedia.org)
  • During early development (approximately day 22 in humans), the pronephric duct forms from the intermediate mesoderm, ventral to the anterior somites. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that the pronephric duct may play a key role in the induction of the mesonephric (adult) kidney. (xenbase.org)
  • The most anterior part of the pronephric duct shows distinct gene expression patterns and is sometimes referred to as DT2. (xenbase.org)
  • The permanent organs of the adult are preceded by a set of structures which are purely embryonic, and which with the exception of the ducts disappear almost entirely before the end of fetal life. (wikipedia.org)
  • As revealed by graphic reconstruction (pl. 1) the right Wolflian duct has reached the cloaca and has given rise to a ureter which, in turn, has grown into the blastema of that side and is apparently developing into a normal kidney. (edu.au)
  • The kidney tubule system is composed of two distinct cell populations: the nephrons forming the filtering units and the collecting duct system derived from the ureteric bud. (mdpi.com)
  • Large Gartner duct cyst associated with a solitary crossed ectopic kidney: imaging features. (radiopaedia.org)
  • In mice the primary connection between the upper and lower UT is established by embryonic (E) day 9.5 (E9.5), when the Wolffian ducts (WDs), paired epithelial tubes in the intermediate mesoderm, insert into the primitive bladder. (biologists.org)
  • In both the male and the female the mesonephric duct develops into the trigone of urinary bladder, a part of the bladder wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annual Meeting, American Urological Association, 'The bladder trigone is not a Wolffian duct remnant. (yalecancercenter.org)
  • The collecting duct is a Wolffian duct-derived epithelial tube that concentrates and collects urine and transfers it via the renal pelvis into the bladder. (mdpi.com)
  • A number of rudimentary structures can persist and be encountered in clinical practice, most commonly these are derived from the Wolffian ducts. (springer.com)
  • efferent duct any duct that gives outlet to a glandular secretion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • excretory duct one through which the secretion is conveyed from a gland. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the female, with the absence of anti-Müllerian hormone secretion by the Sertoli cells and subsequent Müllerian apoptosis, the mesonephric duct regresses, although inclusions may persist. (wikipedia.org)
  • For each type, name the disorder they have, and describe the appearance of the gonad, Wolffian duct, Mullerian duct, external genitals, and the major gonadal hormone produced. (columbia.edu)
  • The mesonephric ducts end in an epithelial elevation, the sinus tubercle , on the ventral part of the cloaca between the orifices of the mesonephric ducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The operational kidneys of reptiles, birds, and mammals are the last set, the metanephroi , which have separate ducts to the cloaca. (britannica.com)
  • Each Wolffian duct ends blindly in front, and the two unite behind to open by a common papilla into the cloaca. (dictionary.com)
  • Duct that drains urine from the pronephros and connects it to the cloaca. (xenbase.org)
  • PTCs originate from the mesothelium and are presumed to be remnants of the Müllerian duct and Wolffian duct . (humpath.com)
  • The Müllerian ducts are the female equivalent, but these degenerate in the male. (familygp.online)
  • In the female the mesonephric bodies and ducts atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wolffian ducts differentiate in the upper midwest and i pacificus in the. (wellchild.org)
  • These mesoepithelial characteristics persist during regression while, at the same age, the female Müllerian duct becomes exclusively epithelial, heralding the end of the window of sensitivity to AMH ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • AMH causes the regression of the M ducts. (verywellhealth.com)
  • MIS blocks the development of Müllerian ducts , promoting their regression. (bionity.com)
  • Early in development, every fetus has both sets of ducts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Depending on hormones are made, and which are responded to, one of those sets of ducts regresses and the other develops. (verywellhealth.com)
  • mammary duct lactiferous ducts . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the 'organoid' assay we isolate primary mammary epithelial ducts and embed them inside gels of extracellular matrix proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Any of 15 to 20 ducts that drain the lobes of the mammary gland. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Right and left mesonephric ducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • (4) . Because of the role of the wolffian outcome, similar to that achieved in patients with a (mesonephric) ducts in the development of the normal hysteroscopy (10,13) . (who.int)
  • Each arises on the lateral aspect of the corresponding mesonephric duct as a tubular invagination of the cells lining the abdominal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The female genital tract is derived the uterine cavity a basic step in investigation of the from paramesonephric duct (Mullerian) by the lateral infertile women (9) . (who.int)
  • The Müllerian duct morphologically resembles an epithelial tube but expresses mesenchymal cell markers. (frontiersin.org)
  • cystic duct the passage connecting the gallbladder neck and the common bile duct. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Any of the intercellular ducts that convey bile from the liver to the hepatic duct, which joins the duct from the gallbladder (cystic duct) to form the common bile duct (ductus choledochus), and which enters the duodenum about 3 in (7.6 cm) below the pylorus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • It is formed by the union of the cystic duct of the gallbladder and the hepatic duct of the liver and is joined by the main pancreatic duct. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • There are actually two parts or stages in the process, that in which the duct disappears as far as the ureteric implantation, and that which brings about the change in level of its aperture. (edu.au)
  • In a female fetus, the wolffian duct disappears except for nonfunctional vestiges. (medscape.com)
  • no Wolffian duct development and external genitalia remain female. (studystack.com)
  • Wolffian ducts develop into male sex organs , and Mullerian ducts develop into female sex organs. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This gland is the pancreas, and the duct is the pancreatic duct. (thesaurus.com)
  • A duct of the pancreas leading into the main pancreatic duct or into the duodenum at the minor duodenal papilla. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The duct that carries bile and pancreatic juice to the duodenum. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Normal development of the female genital office hysteroscopy has the advantages of faster tract involves a series of events: mullerian duct ambulation, enhanced cost effectiveness and elongation, fusion, canalization, and septal reduced anesthesiological risks. (who.int)
  • Coordination between body growth and tissue growth: Wolffian duct elongation and somitogenesis proceed in harmony with axial growth. (researchmap.jp)
  • lymphatic duct, left thoracic duct . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • thoracic duct a duct beginning in the cisterna chyli and emptying into the venous system at the junction of the left subclavian and left internal jugular veins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thus, the mesonephric duct remains after the atrophy of the pronephros duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactiferous d's ducts conveying the milk secreted by the lobes of the breast to and through the nipples. (thefreedictionary.com)