A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.
Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.
A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.
A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.
A species of parasitic nematodes widely distributed throughout central Africa and also found in northern South America, southern Mexico, and Guatemala. Its intermediate host and vector is the blackfly or buffalo gnat.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Infection with nematodes of the genus DIROFILARIA, usually in animals, especially dogs, but occasionally in man.
A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.
A genus of filarial nematodes. Various immature species have been found to infect the eyes or subcutaneous tissue in humans.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Phylogenetic evidence for horizontal transmission of Wolbachia in host-parasitoid associations. (1/559)

Endosymbiotic Wolbachia infect a number of arthropod species in which they can affect the reproductive system. While maternally transmitted, unlike mitochondria their molecular phylogeny does not parallel that of their hosts. This strongly suggests horizontal transmission among species, the mechanisms of which remain unknown. Such transfers require intimate between-species relationships, and thus host-parasite associations are outstandingly appropriate for study. Here, we demonstrate that hymenopteran parasitoids of frugivorous Drosophila species are especially susceptible to Wolbachia infection. Of the five common European species, four proved to be infected; furthermore, multiple infections are common, with one species being doubly infected and two triply infected (first report). Phylogenetic statuses of the Wolbachia infecting the different species of the community have been studied using the gene wsp, a highly variable gene recently described. This study reveals exciting similarities between the Wolbachia variants found in parasitoids and their hosts. These arguments strongly support the hypothesis of frequent natural Wolbachia transfers into other species and open a new field for genetic exchanges among species, especially in host-parasitoid associations.  (+info)

A genetic test of the mechanism of Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility in Drosophila. (2/559)

Cytoplasmic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are best known as the cause of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI): many uninfected eggs fertilized by Wolbachia-modified sperm from infected males die as embryos. In contrast, eggs of infected females rescue modified sperm and develop normally. Although Wolbachia cause CI in at least five insect orders, the mechanism of CI remains poorly understood. Here I test whether the target of Wolbachia-induced sperm modification is the male pronucleus (e.g., DNA or pronuclear proteins) or some extranuclear factor from the sperm required for embryonic development (e.g., the paternal centrosome). I distinguish between these hypotheses by crossing gynogenetic Drosophila melanogaster females to infected males. Gynogenetic females produce diploid eggs whose normal development requires no male pronucleus but still depends on extranuclear paternal factors. I show that when gynogenetic females are crossed to infected males, uniparental progeny with maternally derived chromosomes result. This finding shows that Wolbachia impair the male pronucleus but no extranuclear component of the sperm.  (+info)

Sex-ratio-distorting Wolbachia causes sex-role reversal in its butterfly host. (3/559)

Sex-role-reversed mating systems in which females compete for males and males may be choosy are usually associated with males investing more than females in offspring. We report that sex-role reversal may also be caused by selfish genetic elements which distort the sex ratio towards females. Some populations of the butterflies Acraea encedon and Acraea encedana are extremely female biased because over 90% of females are infected with a Wolbachia bacterium that is maternally inherited and kills male embryos. Many females in these populations are virgins suggesting that their reproductive success may be limited by access to males. These females form lekking swarms at landmarks in which females exhibit behaviours which we interpret as functioning to solicit matings from males. The hypothesis that female A. encedon swarm in order to mate is supported by the finding that, in release recapture experiments, mated females tend to leave the swarm while unmated females remained. This behaviour is a sex-role-reversed form of a common mating system in insects in which males form lekking swarms at landmarks and compete for females. Female lekking swarms are absent from less female-biased populations and here the butterflies are instead associated with resources in the form of the larval food plant.  (+info)

Molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility of Wolbachia ftsZ and wsp gene sequences with special reference to the origin of male-killing. (4/559)

A detailed assessment of the evolution and phylogenetic utility of two genes, ftsZ and wsp, was used to investigate the origin of male-killing Wolbachia, previously isolated from the ladybird Adalia bipunctata and the butterfly Acraea encedon. The analysis included almost all available sequences of B-group Wolbachia and two outgroup taxa and showed that (1) the two gene regions differ in phylogenetic utility, (2) sequence variation is here correlated with phylogenetic information content, (3) both genes show significant rate heterogeneity between lineages, (4) increased substitution rates are associated with homoplasy in the data, (5) wsp sequences of some taxa appear to be subject to positive selection, and (6) only a limited number of clades can be inferred with confidence due to either lack of phylogenetic information or the presence of homoplasy. With respect to the evolution of male-killing, the two genes nevertheless seemed to provide unbiased information. However, they consistently produce contradictory results. Current data therefore do not permit clarification of the origin of this behavior. In addition, A. bipunctata was found to be a host to two recently diverged strains of male-killing Wolbachia that showed increased substitution rates for both genes. Moreover, the wsp gene, which codes for an outer membrane protein, was found to be subject to positive selection in these taxa. These findings were postulated to be the product of high selection pressures due to antagonistic host-symbiont interactions in this ladybird species. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the results of a detailed phylogenetic analysis, including characterization of the limitations of such an approach, can serve as a valuable basis for an understanding of the evolution of Wolbachia bacteria. Moreover, particular features of gene evolution, such as elevated substitution rates or the presence of positive selection, may provide information about the dynamics of Wolbachia-host associations.  (+info)

Inflammatory responses induced by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi are mediated by lipopolysaccharide-like activity from endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria. (5/559)

The pathogenesis of filarial disease is characterized by acute and chronic inflammation. Inflammatory responses are thought to be generated by either the parasite, the immune response, or opportunistic infection. We show that soluble extracts of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi can induce potent inflammatory responses, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and nitric oxide (NO) from macrophages. The active component is heat stable, reacts positively in the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay, and can be inhibited by polymyxin B. TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and NO responses were not induced in macrophages from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-nonresponsive C3H/HeJ mice. The production of TNF-alpha after chemotherapy of microfilariae was also only detected in LPS-responsive C3H/HeN mice, suggesting that signaling through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is necessary for these responses. We also show that CD14 is required for optimal TNF-alpha responses at low concentrations. Together, these results suggest that extracts of B. malayi contain bacterial LPS. Extracts from the rodent filaria, Acanthocheilonema viteae, which is not infected with the endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria found in the majority of filarial parasites, failed to induce any inflammatory responses from macrophages, suggesting that the source of bacterial LPS in extracts of B. malayi is the Wolbachia endosymbiont. Wolbachia extracts derived from a mosquito cell line induced similar LPS-dependent TNF-alpha and NO responses from C3H/HeN macrophages, which were eliminated after tetracycline treatment of the bacteria. Thus, Wolbachia LPS may be one of the major mediators of inflammatory pathogenesis in filarial nematode disease.  (+info)

Offsetting effects of Wolbachia infection and heat shock on sperm production in Drosophila simulans: analyses of fecundity, fertility and accessory gland proteins. (6/559)

Infection in Drosophila simulans with the endocellular symbiont Wolbachia pipientis results in egg lethality caused by failure to properly initiate diploid development (cytoplasmic incompatibility, CI). The relationship between Wolbachia infection and reproductive factors influencing male fitness has not been well examined. Here we compare infected and uninfected strains of D. simulans for (1) sperm production, (2) male fertility, and (3) the transfer and processing of two accessory gland proteins, Acp26Aa or Acp36De. Infected males produced significantly fewer sperm cysts than uninfected males over the first 10 days of adult life, and infected males, under varied mating conditions, had lower fertility compared to uninfected males. This fertility effect was due to neither differences between infected and uninfected males in the transfer and subsequent processing of accessory gland proteins by females nor to the presence of Wolbachia in mature sperm. We found that heat shock, which is known to decrease CI expression, increases sperm production to a greater extent in infected compared to uninfected males, suggesting a possible link between sperm production and heat shock. Given these results, the roles Wolbachia and heat shock play in mediating male gamete production may be important parameters for understanding the dynamics of infection in natural populations.  (+info)

Targeting of Wolbachia endobacteria in Litomosoides sigmodontis: comparison of tetracyclines with chloramphenicol, macrolides and ciprofloxacin. (7/559)

Endobacteria of the genus Wolbachia in filarial nematodes are related to Rickettsiaceae and can be depleted by tetracycline antibiotics. This depletion blocks female worm development as well as early embryogenesis, in contrast to the currently used microfilaricidal ivermectin which blocks only the last stage of embryogenesis. Since targeting Wolbachia is becoming an area of research for the treatment of human filariases, it was investigated if antibiotics other than tetracyclines are able to deplete Wolbachia from filariae. BALB/c mice infected with the rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis were treated with erythromycin, chloramphenicol or ciprofloxacin. All drugs were well resorbed and resulted in serum levels clearly above breakpoint levels for bacteria susceptible to the respective antibiotic. However, contrary to tetracycline, none of these antibiotics depleted Wolbachia or altered worm development and fertility, as evidenced by immunohistology, immunoelectron microscopy and semiquantitative PCR.  (+info)

Male killing can select for male mate choice: a novel solution to the paradox of the lek. (8/559)

In lekking species, intense directional selection is applied to aspects of the male genotype by female choice. Under conventional quantitative genetics theory, the expectation is that this will lead to a rapid loss in additive genetic variance for the trait in question. However, despite female choice, male variation is maintained and hence it pays females to continue choosing. This has been termed the 'paradox of the lek'. Here we present a theoretical analysis of a putative sex-role-reversed lek in the butterfly Acraea encedon. Sex-role reversal appears to have come about because of infection with a male-killing Wolbachia. The bacterium is highly prevalent in some populations, such that there is a dearth of males. Receptive females form dense aggregations, and it has been suggested that males preferentially select females uninfected with the bacterium. As with more conventional systems, this presents a theoretical problem exactly analogous to the lek paradox, namely what maintains female variation and hence why do males continue to choose? We model the evolution of a male choice gene that allows discrimination between infected and uninfected females, and show that the stable maintenance of both female variation and male choice is likely, so long as males make mistakes when discriminating between females. Furthermore, our model allows the maintenance, in a panmictic population, of a male killer that is perfectly transmitted. This is the first model to allow this result, and may explain the long-term persistence of a male killer in Hypolimnas bolina.  (+info)

In the past 10 years there has been increasing interest in the maternally inherited Wolbachia endosymbionts because of their remarkably widespread distribution and significant impact on the ecology, evolution, and reproductive biology of their host species (46, 54). Approximately 20 to 75% of all insect species harbor Wolbachia (20, 55), as do many arachnids and terrestrial crustaceans (7, 11, 12, 40). Individual insects can be infected with multiple Wolbachia strains (24, 55, 58), and geographically distinct populations of the same species can harbor different strains (29, 39). Outside the phylum Arthropoda, high infection levels have also been detected in the vast majority of pathogenic filarial nematodes (4). Overall, the extraordinary infection frequency among insects alone places members of the genus Wolbachia among the most widespread intracellular bacteria described thus far (55, 56). Wolbachia strains are typically vertically transmitted within a species through the cytoplasm of eggs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro cultivation of Wolbachia pipientis in an Aedes albopictus cell line. AU - ONeill, Scott L.. AU - Pettigrew, M. M.. AU - Sinkins, S. P.. AU - Braig, H. R.. AU - Andreadis, T. G.. AU - Tesh, R. B.. PY - 1997/2. Y1 - 1997/2. N2 - A continuous cell line, Aa23, was established from eggs of a strain of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, naturally infected with the intracellular aymblont Wolbachia pipientis. The resulting cell line was shown to be persistently infected with the bacterial endosymbiont. Treatment with antibiotics cured the cells of the infection. In the course of establishing this cell line it was noticed that RFLPs in the PCR products of two Wolbachia genes from the parental mosquitoes were fixed in the infected cell line. This indicates that the mosquito host was naturally superinfected with different Wolbachia strains, whereas the infected cell line derived from these mosquitoes only contained one of the original Wolbachia strains. The development of ...
The endosymbiont, Wolbachia, imposes cytoplasmic incompatibility in many arthropods, resulting in embryonic mortality. When an infected male mates with an uninfected female, unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility arises; however, uninfected males can successfully mate with infected females, as can two infected parents.At the other end of the spectrum, bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility occurs between individuals infected with different Wolbachia strains, when they mate. Wolbachia affects mitotic division as a result of spermatogenesis paternal chromosome modification. This modification thus causes a loss in mitotic synchrony. The importance of cytoplamsic incompatibility induced by Wolbachia is for use in stopping mosquito vector disease transmission. Wolbachia can manipulate reproduction by causing a form of sterility known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which prematurely stops the development of early embryos. When a Wolbachia infected male mates with an uninfected female or a ...
The endosymbiont, Wolbachia, imposes cytoplasmic incompatibility in many arthropods, resulting in embryonic mortality. When an infected male mates with an uninfected female, unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility arises; however, uninfected males can successfully mate with infected females, as can two infected parents.At the other end of the spectrum, bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility occurs between individuals infected with different Wolbachia strains, when they mate. Wolbachia affects mitotic division as a result of spermatogenesis paternal chromosome modification. This modification thus causes a loss in mitotic synchrony. The importance of cytoplamsic incompatibility induced by Wolbachia is for use in stopping mosquito vector disease transmission. Wolbachia can manipulate reproduction by causing a form of sterility known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which prematurely stops the development of early embryos. When a Wolbachia infected male mates with an uninfected female or a ...
Microbes of the genus Wolbachia are transmitted by their hosts via the maternal parent and are responsible for cytoplasmic incompatibility among insect populations. This phenomenon can result in Wolbachia spreading through natural populations as previously demonstrated in Drosophila simulans. Here we describe another Wolbachia infection in D. simulans that does not cause cytoplasmic incompatibility. This is a property of the Wolbachia rather than the nuclear background. The infection occurs at a low frequency in natural populations from eastern Australia. The infection shows perfect maternal transmission in the field and does not cause any detectable deleterious effects on its host. These findings suggest that the Wolbachia infection behaves like a neutral variant in populations. The infection may represent an evolutionary outcome of interactions between Wolbachia infections and their hosts.. ...
Wolbachia, obligate intracellular bacteria, infect the majority of arthropods, including many mosquito species of medical importance. Some Wolbachia strains interfere with the development of Plasmodium parasites in female Anopheles, a major vector of malaria. The use of Wolbachia as a means to block malaria transmission is an emerging vector control strategy in highly endemic areas. Hence, identification of native Wolbachia strains in areas where malaria transmission is low may uncover a particular Wolbachia strain capable of Plasmodium interference. This study aims to identify native Wolbachia strains in female Anopheles spp. that are predominant in a low-malaria transmission area in mainland Southeast Asia. Following a 2-year survey of malaria vectors in Umphang Valley of Tak Province, Thailand, DNA extracts of female An. minimus, An. peditaeniatus, and An. maculatus were subjected to amplification of the conserved region of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene. The DNA sequences of the amplicons were
The mechanisms whereby the endosymbiont Wolbachia impacts apoptosis in host cells have been poorly studied. Preferential infection and high accumulation. of Wolbachia in region 2a of the germarium [26] where the checkpoint is located in Drosophila was thought-provoking. We raised the question: Can bacteria Wolbachia in region 2a of the germarium affect the frequency of apoptosis there? Using MLN2238 fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy we compared germaria from ovaries of two D. melanogaster stocks infected with either the wMel or wMelPop strains with germaria from two uninfected counterparts. It was established that the presence of wMel did not alter apoptosis frequency in germaria from D. melanogaster Canton S. In contrast, the number of PLX4032 mw germaria containing apoptotic cells in the checkpoint was considerably increased. selleck compound in the wMelPop-infected flies as compared with their uninfected counterparts. Thus, evidence was obtained indicating that the virulent ...
Author Summary Mosquito-transmitted viruses such as dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. These viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a mosquito that due to its close association with humans has historically been difficult to control. An innovative control strategy involving the release of mosquitoes infected with the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia is currently being developed. This approach is based on the recent discovery that Wolbachia reduces infection of mosquitoes with dengue virus, malaria parasites and filarial nematodes. In the current study, we demonstrated that Wolbachia also blocks infection of chikungunya and yellow fever viruses in Ae. aegypti. The degree of virus inhibition depended on the strain of Wolbachia, the route of virus exposure, the virus strain and the titer of virus that the mosquitoes were exposed to. The implementation of Wolbachia-based control
Wolbachia bacteria are widely distributed throughout terrestrial arthropod species. These bacteria can manipulate reproduction and influence the vector competence of their hosts. Recently, Wolbachia have been integrated into vector control programmes for mosquito management. A number of supergroups and strains exist for Wolbachia, and they have yet to be characterized for many mosquito species. In this study, we examined Wolbachia prevalence and their phylogenetic relationship to other Wolbachia, using mosquitoes collected in Merced County in the Central Valley of California. Adult mosquitoes were collected from 85 sites in Merced County, California in 2017 and 2018. Traditional and quantitative PCR were used to investigate the presence or absence and the density of Wolbachia, using Wolbachia-specific 16S rRNA and Wolbachia-surface protein (wsp) genes. The supergroup of Wolbachia was determined, and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) by sequencing five housekeeping genes (coxA, gatB, ftsZ, hcpA and fbpA)
The α-proteobacterium Wolbachia pipientis is a highly successful intracellular endosymbiont of invertebrates that manipulates its hosts reproductive biology to facilitate its own maternal transmission. The fastidious nature of Wolbachia and the lack of genetic transformation have hampered analysis of the molecular basis of these manipulations. Structure determination of key Wolbachia proteins will enable the development of inhibitors for chemical genetics studies. Wolbachia encodes a homologue (α-DsbA1) of the Escherichia coli dithiol oxidase enzyme EcDsbA, essential for the oxidative folding of many exported proteins. We found that the active-site cysteine pair of Wolbachia α-DsbA1 has the most reducing redox potential of any characterized DsbA. In addition, Wolbachia α-DsbA1 possesses a second disulfide that is highly conserved in α-proteobacterial DsbAs but not in other DsbAs. The α-DsbA1 structure lacks the characteristic hydrophobic features of EcDsbA, and the protein neither ...
Filarial nematodes harbour intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria, which have been assigned to the genus Wolbachia. These bacteria appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of filarial diseases through their lipopolysaccharides. In view of the presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in the body of filarial nematodes, one might also expect that proteins from these bacteria play an antigenic role in humans and animals affected by filariases. To test this hypothesis, we produced in recombinant form the surface protein WSP and a portion of the cell-cycle protein FTSZ from the Wolbachia of Dirofilaria immitis. Western immunoblot assays were then performed using cat sera to test the immunogenicity of these proteins. Sera were collected from owners cats, which were either sero-negative or sero-positive for D.immitis and from cats before and after experimental infection with D.immitis. FTSZ was recognized in Western blots by sera from both positive and negative cats and from both uninfected and ...
Wolbachia are maternally inherited, intracellular, alpha proteobacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. They cause three kinds of reproductive alterations in their hosts: cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. There have been many studies of the distribution of Wolbachia in arthropods, but very few crustacean species are known to be infected. We investigated the prevalence of Wolbachia in 85 species from five crustacean orders. Twenty-two isopod species were found to carry these bacteria. The bacteria were found mainly in terrestrial species suggesting that Wolbachia came from a continental environment. The evolutionary relationships between these Wolbachia strains were determined by sequencing bacterial genes and by interspecific transfers. All the bacteria associated with isopods belonged to the wolbachiae B group, based on 16S rDNA sequence data. All the terrestrial isopod symbionts in this group except one formed an independent clade. The results of ...
The extent of Wolbachia diversity within species has been investigated in two terrestrial isopods: P. pruinosus (Marcade et al ., 1999; Michel-Salzat et al ., 2001) and A. vulgare (Cordaux et al , 2004; Verne et al , 2007) Three distinct Wolbachia strains have been identified within each isopod species . In P. pruinosus, two strains (wPruI and wPruII) exhibit ~5% nucleotide divergence based on the variable wsp gene (Michel-Salzat et al , 2001) In comparison, the third strain (wPruIII) shows ~20% nucleotide divergence with wPruI and wPruII based on the wsp gene . Interestingly, two types of Wolbachia infections are found in the P. pruinosus complex of species (Lefebvre and Marcadé, 2005): (1) populations with Wolbachia in both males and females, with a prevalence of ~90%, and (2) populations with Wolbachia only in females, with a prevalence of ~60% (Marcadé et al ., 1999) . We observed that there is no strong association between Wolbachia strain distribution and infection patterns Indeed, the ...
A new approach for dengue control has been proposed that relies on life-shortening strains of the obligate intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis to modify mosquito population age structure and reduce pathogen transmission. Previously we reported the stable transinfection of the major dengue ve …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Using parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia for the selection of optimal lines of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum for use in biocontrol. AU - Ebrahimi, Valeh. AU - Ashouri, Ahmad. AU - Rugman-Jones, Paul F.. AU - Lindsey, Amelia R.I.. AU - Javan-Nikkhah, Mohammad. AU - Stouthamer, Richard. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported in part by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture NIFA 194617 to R.S. and V.E. was supported in part by the Department of Entomology of the University of Tehran. Publisher Copyright: © 2019 The Netherlands Entomological Society. PY - 2019/3. Y1 - 2019/3. N2 - Trichogramma wasps (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) are egg parasitoids commonly employed in augmentative biological control releases against a variety of mainly lepidopteran pests. By exploiting the mechanism by which the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia induces parthenogenesis in this genus, we created a set of completely homozygous Wolbachia-infected ...
To investigate the role of the host cytoskeleton in the maternal transmission of the endoparasitic bacteria Wolbachia, we have characterized their distribution in the female germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. In the germarium, Wolbachia are distributed to all germ cells of the cyst, establishing an early infection in the cell destined to become the oocyte. During mid-oogenesis, Wolbachia exhibit a distinct concentration between the anterior cortex and the nucleus in the oocyte, where many bacteria appear to contact the nuclear envelope. Following programmed rearrangement of the microtubule network, Wolbachia dissociate from this anterior position and become dispersed throughout the oocyte. This localization pattern is distinct from mitochondria and all known axis determinants. Manipulation of microtubules and cytoplasmic Dynein and Dynactin, but not Kinesin-1, disrupts anterior bacterial localization in the oocyte. In live egg chambers, Wolbachia exhibit movement in nurse cells but not in the ...
Author Summary Wolbachia are symbiotic bacteria that are found in many insect species. Recent laboratory studies show that certain strains of Wolbachia can reduce the capacity of mosquito species to transmit diseases such as dengue fever and malaria, either by directly inhibiting the pathogen or by shortening lifespan. However, little is known about how easily these bacteria will spread in natural mosquito populations or the impact of deliberate Wolbachia introduction on disease transmission. We use a simple model of Wolbachia-mosquito interactions to explore the design of field releases of infected mosquitoes to initiate symbiont spread. A particular concern is how Wolbachia can be introduced while releasing only small numbers of female mosquitoes which may bite humans and transmit disease. The models include explicit mosquito population dynamics including seasonal fluctuations in population size and different forms of population regulation. We find that rapid Wolbachia establishment is possible by
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BACKGROUND:Arbovirus transmission by the mosquito Aedes aegypti can be reduced by the introduction and establishment of the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia in wild populations of the vector. Wolbachia spreads by increasing the fitness of its hosts relative to uninfected mosquitoes. However, mosquito fitness is also strongly affected by population size through density-dependent competition for limited food resources. We do not understand how this natural variation in fitness affects symbiont spread, which limits our ability to design successful control strategies. RESULTS:We develop a mathematical model to predict A. aegypti-Wolbachia dynamics that incorporates larval density-dependent variation in important fitness components of infected and uninfected mosquitoes. Our model explains detailed features of the mosquito-Wolbachia dynamics observed in two independent experimental A. aegypti populations, allowing the combined effects on dynamics of multiple density-dependent fitness components to be
Wolbachia pipientis are bacterial endosymbionts of arthropods currently being implemented as biocontrol agents to reduce the global burden of arboviral diseases. Some strains of Wolbachia, when introduced into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, reduce or block the replication of RNA viruses pathogenic to humans. The wAlbB strain of Wolbachia was originally isolated from Aedes albopictus, and when transinfected into Ae. aegypti, persists in mosquitoes under high temperature conditions longer than other strains. The utility of wAlbB to block a broad spectrum of RNA viruses has received limited attention. Here we test the ability of wAlbB to reduce or block the replication of a range of Flavivirus and Alphavirus species in cell culture. The C6/36 mosquito cell line was stably infected with the wAlbB strain using the shell-vial technique. The replication of dengue, West Nile and three strains of Zika (genus Flavivirus), and Ross River, Barmah Forest and Sindbis (genus Alphavirus) viruses was compared in wAlbB
Ademais de a insectos, Wolbachia infecta a varias especies de crustáceos isópodos, arácnidos, e moitas especies de vermes nematodos (filarias parasitas), entre as que se inclúen as que causan oncocercose (causada por Onchocerca volvulus ) e elefantíase en humanos e certas infestacións de vermes en cans (Dirofilaria immitis). A Wolbachia non se limita a infectar aos vermes, senón que a Wolbachia parece xogar un papel pouco común nestas doenzas humanas parasitarias. Unha grande parte da patoxenicidade destes nematodos débese á resposta do sistema inmunitario do hóspede contra a Wolbachia. A eliminación da Wolbachia dos nematodos orixina xeralmente a morte ou a esterilidade do verme.[31] En consecuencia, unha estratexia actual para o control das enfermidades producidas polos nematodos filariais é a eliminación de Wolbachia por medio do antibiótico doxiciclina en vez de utilizar medicacións antinematodos, que son máis tóxicas.[32] Tamén se investigou o uso das cepas que existen na ...
Wolbachia bacteria infect about half of all arthropods, with diverse and extreme consequences ranging from sex-ratio distortion and mating incompatibilities to protection against viruses. These phenotypic effects, combined with efficient vertical transmission from mothers to offspring, satisfactorily explain the invasion dynamics of Wolbachia within species. However, beyond the species level, the lack of congruence between the host and symbiont phylogenetic trees indicates that Wolbachia horizontal transfers and extinctions do happen and underlie its global distribution. But how often do they occur? And has the Wolbachia pandemic reached its equilibrium? Here, we address these questions by inferring recent acquisition/loss events from the distribution of Wolbachia lineages across the mitochondrial DNA tree of 3,600 arthropod specimens, spanning 1,100 species from Tahiti and surrounding islands. We show that most events occurred within the last million years, but are likely attributable to individual
Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria found in the reproductive tissue of all major groups of arthropods. They are transmitted vertically from the female hosts to their offspring, in a pattern analogous to mitochondria inheritance. But Wolbachia phylogeny does not parallel that of the host, indicating that horizontal infectious transmission must also occur. Insect parasitoids are considered the most likely vectors, but the mechanism for horizontal transfer is largely unknown. Here we show that newly introduced Wolbachia cross several tissues and infect the germline of the adult Drosophila melanogaster female. Through investigation of bacterial migration patterns during the course of infection, we found that Wolbachia reach the germline through the somatic stem cell niche in the D. melanogaster germarium. In addition, our data suggest that Wolbachia are highly abundant in the somatic stem cell niche of long-term infected hosts, implying that this location may also contribute to efficient vertical ...
The maternally inherited obligate intracellular bacteria Wolbachia infects the reproductive tissues of a wide range of arthropods and affects host reproduction. Wolbachia is a credible biocontrol agent for reducing the impact of diseases associated with arthropod vectors. Paederus fuscipes is a small staphylinid beetle that causes dermatitis linearis and conjunctivitis in humans when they come into contact with skin. Wolbachia occur in this beetle, but their relatedness to other Wolbachia, their infection dynamics, and their potential host effects remain unknown. In this study, we report the phylogenetic position and density dynamics of Wolbachia in P. fuscipes. The phylogeny of Wolbachia based on an analysis of MLST genotyping showed that the bacteria from P. fuscipes belong to supergroup B. Quantitative PCR indicated that the infection density in adults was higher than in any other life stage (egg, larva or pupa), and that reproductive tissue in adults had the highest infection densities, with ...
In collaboration with The University of Queensland, QIMR scientists have found that the Wolbachia bacteria prevent Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from becoming infected with dengue virus, and means that the mosquitoes cant transmit the virus to humans.. Dr Peter Ryan from the Mosquito Control Laboratory at QIMR worked on the study, which was published in the 24 December edition of Cell.. We discovered that infecting the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with Wolbachiaprevented the virus from replicating inside the mosquitoes. The bacteria act like a barrier which prevents the mosquitoes from becoming infected with dengue virus, said Dr Ryan. Its likely that the bacteria primes the mosquitoes immune system or competes for limited resources and prevents the virus from multiplying.. Wolbachia live naturally in 60% of insect species, but do not naturally infect the species of mosquito that carry the dengue virus.. Dengue and the more severe form, dengue haemorrhagic fever lead to 50 million cases and cause ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heat Sensitivity of wMel Wolbachia during Aedes aegypti Development. AU - Ulrich, Jill N.. AU - Beier, John C. AU - Devine, Gregor J.. AU - Hugo, Leon E.. PY - 2016/7/26. Y1 - 2016/7/26. N2 - The wMel strain of Wolbachia bacteria is known to prevent dengue and Zika virus transmission in the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. Accordingly, the release of wMel-infected A. aegypti in endemic regions has been recommended by the World Health Organization as a potential strategy for controlling dengue and Zika outbreaks. However, the utility of this approach could be limited if high temperatures in the aquatic habitats where A. aegypti develop are detrimental to Wolbachia. We exposed wMel-infected A. aegypti eggs and larvae to fluctuating daily temperatures of 30-40°C for three, five, or seven days during their development. We found that Wolbachia levels in females emerging from heat treatments were significantly lower than in the controls that had developed at 20-30°C. Notably, seven ...
Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium of insects and other arthropods that can rapidly invade host populations. Deliberate releases of Wolbachia into natural populations of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, are used as a novel biocontrol strategy for dengue suppression. Invasion of Wolbachia through the host population relies on factors such as high fidelity of the endosymbiont transmission and limited immigration of uninfected individuals, but these factors can be difficult to measure. One way of acquiring relevant information is to consider mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation alongside Wolbachia in field-caught mosquitoes. Here we used diagnostic mtDNA markers to differentiate infection-associated mtDNA haplotypes from those of the uninfected mosquitoes at release sites. Unique haplotypes associated with Wolbachia were found at locations outside Australia. We also performed mathematical and qualitative analyses including modelling the expected dynamics of the ...
Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) provide protection against virus-induced mortality in Drosophila. In addition to contributing to oxidative stress, ROS are known to activate a number of signalling pathways including the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signalling cascade. It was recently shown that ERK signalling is important for resistance against viral replication and invasion in cultured Drosophila cells and the gut epithelium of adult flies. Here, using a Drosophila loss-of-function ERK (rolled) mutant we demonstrated that ERK is important for fly survival during virus infection. ERK mutant flies subjected to Drosophila C virus (DCV) oral and systemic infection were more susceptible to virus-induced mortality as compared with wild-type flies. We have demonstrated experimentally that ERK activation is important for fly survival during oral and systemic virus infection. Given that elevated ROS correlates with Wolbachia-mediated antiviral protection, we also investigated the
Wolbachia are widespread maternally transmitted intracellular bacteria that infect most insect species and are able to alter the reproduction of innumerous hosts. The cellular bases of these alterations remain largely unknown. Here, we report that Drosophila mauritiana infected with a native Wolbachia wMau strain produces about four times more eggs than the noninfected counterpart. Wolbachia infection leads to an increase in the mitotic activity of germline stem cells (GSCs), as well as a decrease in programmed cell death in the germarium. Our results suggest that up-regulation of GSC division is mediated by a tropism of Wolbachia for the GSC niche, the cellular microenvironment that supports GSCs. ...
Dengue-suppressing Wolbachia strains are promising tools for arbovirus control, particularly as they have the potential to self-spread following local introductions. To test this, we followed the frequency of the transinfected Wolbachia strain wMel through Ae. aegypti in Cairns, Australia, following releases at 3 nonisolated locations within the city in early 2013. Spatial spread was analysed graphically using interpolation and by fitting a statistical model describing the position and width of the wave. For the larger 2 of the 3 releases (covering 0.97 km 2 and 0.52 km 2 ), we observed slow but steady spatial spread, at about 100-200 m per year, roughly consistent with theoretical predictions. In contrast, the smallest release (0.11 km 2 ) produced erratic temporal and spatial dynamics, with little evidence of spread after 2 years. This is consistent with the prediction concerning fitness-decreasing Wolbachia transinfections that a minimum release area is needed to achieve stable local ...
Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbionts that can invade arthropod populations through manipulation of their reproduction. In mosquitoes, Wolbachia
Wolbachia is the most widespread bacterial endosymbiont. It is found in about 40% of all terrestrial arthropods, and in filarial nematodes. Among Wolbachia strains, multiple genetically distinct lineages can be differentiated. These lineages differ in their host spectrum, their prevalence and in the phenotypes they can induce in their hosts. I am interested in reconstructing the evolutionary history of these Wolbachia lineages in order to understand which evolutionary transitions have occurred at what time in the history of Wolbachia ...
Bacteria and viral host pathogens exhibit tissue-specific host tropisms. Much of this tropism is explained by routes of entry during infection and subsequent cell-to-cell migration (Ireton, 2007; Sieczkarski and Whittaker, 2005). Less well explored are mechanisms that regulate the tissue distribution of obligate intracellular bacteria that are inherited through the germline. Of particular interest is the segregation of intracellular pathogens in mitotically active host cells, as this might be an important mechanism to spread infection to specific tissue types during host development. Wolbachia is a bacterial endosymbiont that infects numerous insect species and is an effective system in which to identify the factors that control pathogen distribution in host tissue (Serbus et al., 2008; Werren et al., 2008). Although much research has focused on Wolbachia germline concentration and transmission, a number of studies have convincingly demonstrated that Wolbachia are present in a broad array of ...
These findings raise the question of whether the Wolbachia insert was integrated in the female sex-determining region of the native W sex chromosome of the pillbug genome, or was integrated in another genomic locus that has since become a new sex-determining region. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we performed genetic crosses spanning three generations (Materials and Methods). We predicted that F2 progenies should exclusively consist of females if the Wolbachia insert were linked to the native female sex-determining region of the pillbug genome, or up to 50% males if the Wolbachia insert occurred in a ZZ genetic male background (i.e., lacking the native female sex-determining region). We found that all 25 F2 progenies (939 individuals) were composed of ,21% males, thus verifying the second prediction (Table S2). These results provide direct evidence that the Wolbachia insert was integrated in a genetic background lacking the female sex-determining region of the native W sex ...
A primary aim is to fully understand the mechanisms of Wolbachia-mediated arbovirus transmission blocking in mosquitoes. The viruses studied include dengue and Zika, in the most important mosquito vector species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. We are examining the interactions between these mosquito hosts and various native and non-native strains of Wolbachia, including bacterial density (which correlates positively with degree of virus-blocking), interactions between Wolbachia strains in multi-strain infections, and the modulation of various host cellular metabolic pathways by Wolbachia that can impact on virus transmission.. We are also working towards collaborative open field trials in Malaysia in both mosquito species, using various Wolbachia strains to reduce the transmission of dengue and other mosquito-borne viruses. This includes creation of new transinfected lines, and characterization of the effects on mosquito fitness and viral susceptibility.. ...
Introduction 273. Wolbachia diversity 274. The Wolbachia pandemic in crustaceans 274. Phylogenetic relationships among Wolbachia strains 277. Wolbachia diversity within species and individuals 277. Crustacean Wolbachia genomics 278. Feminization induction 279. Sex differentiation in crustaceans 279. Species-specificity of androgenic hormone and Wolbachia strains 280. Evolutionary consequences of Wolbachia-isopod interactions 284. Diverse sex-ratio distorters in Armadillidium vulgare 284. Theoretical predictions and intragenomic conflicts 284. Distribution in field populations and consequences 286. Wolbachia consequences in host life history traits 287. Conclusion: dynamic evolution of sex determination in Armadillidium vulgare 288. Acknowledgments 289. References 289. ...
The process of loss or gain of parasites during invasion of new lands is not well understood. The alfalfa weevil Hypera postica is an invasive pest of various leguminous crops and consists of three major mitochondrial haplotypes, Western, Egyptian and Eastern. The Western strain is infected with the endosymbiotic proteobacteria Wolbachia, that cause unidirectional complete reproductive incompatibility, in its native (Europe) and an introduced (the United States) ranges. However, our preliminary screening of a few introduced populations in Northern Kyushu, southwestern Japan, failed to detect Wolbachia from the Western strain. A larger-scale and historical assessment of Wolbachia infection may allow to estimate when and how the bacteria were lost, and current geographical distribution of infection among host haplotypes. In this study, we aim to assess the Wolbachia-infection status of H. postica populations throughout Northern Kyushu, where H. postica invasion to Japan was first found. A ...
Meksianis Zadrak Ndii, Roslyn I Hickson, Geoffry N Mercer Abstract Infecting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with the bacteria Wolbachia has been proposed as an innovative new strategy to reduce the transmission of dengue fever. Field trials are currently being undertaken in Queensland, Australia. However, few mathematical models have been developed to consider the persistence of Wolbachia-…
This technology is a transgenic method of controlling arthropod pest and disease vectors such as mosquito populations, by manipulating reproductive viability. Some strains of the intracellular Wolbachia bacterium found naturally in some arthropods can been used to control pest populations by altering reproductive success. The presence of this bacterium in males can lead to the death of offspring, when these males mate with uninfected females. Two of the genes in the Wolbachia bacterium which induce this loss of offspring viability have been identified. Our data reveals that these genes can be directly expressed in arthropods to have a similar effect in the absence of the bacterium. This technology can be used to transgenically target and reduce arthropod populations.. ...
Over the past few days, Ive been shocked to see and hear obvious attempts to downplay Zikas similarities to West Nile virus. And what I discovered sent chills up my spine. Its possible that a seemingly harmless mosquito control method (using the bacterium Wolbachia) could enhance the Zika virus in Culex mosquitoes. And Culex have finally been acknowledged as a vector of Zika (by the WHO). In California and Florida, Culex mosquitoes are everywhere. And it appears that dangerous decisions have been (and are being) made by our public health authorities that we can never undo.
As the genomes of many new creatures rapidly fill the public DNA sequence databases, the problems for the grand evolutionary story are becoming overwhelming. One issue is the fact that different creatures have unique sets of genes specific to their kind with no apparent evolutionary history. To explain this glaring problem, evolutionists have resorted to the myth of pervasive horizontal gene transfer.. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the process whereby genes are transferred from one type of creature to another without sexual reproduction. Earlier in my career, I participated in a study (published in the journal Science), in which we found that the pathogenic bacterium Wolbachia had transferred large portions of its DNA into the genomes of both worms and insects.1 The Wolbachia bacterium is able to do this extraordinary feat by targeting the cells of reproductive organs so that the transferred DNA is literally inherited in the host. However, we also observed that very few of these transferred ...
Beyond Pesticides, May 1, 2017) The Florida Keys Mosquito Control District released 20,000 male mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia bacteria near Key West, as a trial strategy to manage mosquitoes that carry Zika and other viruses. The district and others have been exploring new ways to suppress infected Aedes aegypti mosquito populations, which thrive in urban environments and can spread Zika, dengue fever, and chikungunya. It is unclear what impacts, if any, these infected mosquitoes will have on non-target organisms or public health. The trial is the second U.S. test conducted with the naturally occurring Wolbachia bacteria in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, developed by the Kentucky-based company MosquitoMate. The first test occurred in Clovis, California, last year. In September 2016, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which registers mosquito control products, approved and expanded an experimental use permit (EUP) for Wolbachia pipientis-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (not to be ...
Arthropods are infected by a wide diversity of maternally transmitted microbes. Some of these manipulate host reproduction to facilitate population invasion and persistence. Such parasites transmit vertically on an ecological timescale, but rare horizontal transmission events have permitted colonisation of new species. Here we report the first systematic investigation into the influence of the phylogenetic distance between arthropod species on the potential for reproductive parasite interspecific transfer. We employed a well characterised reproductive parasite, a coccinellid beetle male-killer, and artificially injected the bacterium into a series of novel species. Genetic distances between native and novel hosts were ascertained by sequencing sections of the 16S and 12S mitochondrial rDNA genes. The bacterium colonised host tissues and transmitted vertically in all cases tested. However, whilst transmission efficiency was perfect within the native genus, this was reduced following some transfers of
The aim of this study was to determine the presence and prevalence of Wolbachiabacteria in natural population of fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) in Turkey, and to exhibit the molecular...
Mosquitoes infected with the bacteria Wolbachia are more likely to become infected with West Nile virus and more likely to transmit the virus to humans, according to a team of researchers.
|p style=text-indent:20px;|Numerous studies have examined the growth dynamics of |i|Wolbachia|/i| within populations and the resultant rate of spatial spread. This spread is typically characterised as a travelling wave with bistable local growth dynamics due to a strong Allee effect generated from cytoplasmic incompatibility. While this rate of spread has been calculated from numerical solutions of reaction-diffusion models, none have examined the spectral stability of such travelling wave solutions. In this study we analyse the stability of a travelling wave solution generated by the reaction-diffusion model of Chan & Kim [|xref ref-type=bibr rid=z177|4|/xref|] by computing the essential and point spectrum of the linearised operator arising in the model. The point spectrum is computed via an Evans function using the compound matrix method, whereby we find that it has no roots with positive real part. Moreover, the essential spectrum lies strictly in the left half plane. Thus, we find that the
Wolbachia is an endosymbiotic bacteria which is vastly distributed in arthropods and is known for its ability to manipulate the reproduction of its host to favor its own vertical transmission. In flies, Wolbachia causes a sterility syndrome known as Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI). CI occurs when sperm from infected males fertilize uninfected eggs. Paternal chromosomes in these eggs appear unable to properly divide during the first zygotic cycle but the molecular bases of this intriguing phenotype remain elusive. We are interested in understanding how Wolbachia interferes with the remodeling of paternal chromatin at fertilization in Drosophila, as well as in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis.. ...
Verily, the life sciences arm of Google’s parent company Alphabet, will release about 1 million mosquitoes a week over a 20-week period in two 300-acre neighborhoods in Fresno as a means of exterminating the Zika-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquito, which is prevalent in the area. Verily’s mosquitoes, all male, are infected with a type of bacteria (Wolbachia) that makes females’ eggs unable to produce offspring. You see, the Zika-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquito is prevalent in the area. Earlier this year, a woman contracted the first confirmed case of Zika in Fresno through sexual contact with a partner who had been traveling. Now there’s the fear of the inevitable mosquito-meets-patient if we don’t do something about it. Verily’s plan, called the Debug Project, hopes to now wipe out this potential Zika-carrying mosquito population to prevent further infections. Discussion
Lymphatic filariasis (LF), which can cause elephantiasis or hydrocele, swelling of the limbs or scrotum and onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, affect millions of people in some of the worlds poorest communities. Both are caused by filarial parasites for which the bacterial symbiont Wolbachia is essential for development. Filarial Neglected Tropical Diseases are prioritised for elimination, in line with fulfilment of the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
Earlier this year, researchers showed that they could cut the lives of disease-carrying mosquitoes in half by infecting them with a bacterium they took from fruit flies. Now, a new report in the December 24th issue of Cell, a Cell Press publication, suggests that their strategy might do one better: The Wolbachia bacteria also makes the mosquitoes more resistant to infection by viruses that are a growing threat to humans, including those responsible for dengue fever and Chikungunya.. Once infected with Wolbachia, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes also become less suitable as hosts for a form of malaria parasite that infects birds, said Scott ONeill of The University of Queensland. (The mosquitoes under study arent natural carriers of human malaria.). This might be very powerful in reducing pathogen transmission by Aedes aegypti to humans, particularly for dengue and Chikungunya, ONeill said. Together with the previously described life-shortening effects, the results suggest we might be able to have ...
Rifampicin antibiotic is a new anti-wolbachia drug that was found to change the therapeutic approach for parasitic helminth diseases.
Why mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia bacteria dont transmit diseases such as dengue fever, West Nile virus and Zika. A new study from Indiana University may explain how a bacterium called Wolbachia prevents mosquitoes from transmitting deadly diseases such as dengue fever, West Nile virus and Zika. Published today in the journal PLOS Pathogens, the study…
Scientists reported that they had documented very fast evolution in the butterfly species Hypolimnas bolina. After infection by Wolbachia, the fraction of the population that was male dropped drastically to about one percent of the total population. However, after approximately ten generations (about a year) the male population had rebounded to about 39 percent of the overall population.. In the case of H. bolina, infected females were unable to have male offspring since the male embryos died early on. However, a gene arose which suppressed Wolbachias ability to kill the male offspring, and this gene spread rapidly through the natural H. bolina population.. At this time, it is unknown if the novel gene was a mutation or a pre-existing gene. However, researchers said that regardless, the findings constituted strong evidence that parasites can drive and substantially alter evolution. The research was performed by scientists at the University of Berkeley lead by Sylvain Charlat, a post-doc at ...
Hybrid zones and the consequences of hybridization have contributed greatly to our understanding of evolutionary processes. Hybrid zones also provide valuable insight into the dynamics of symbiosis since each subspecies or species brings its unique microbial symbionts, including germline bacteria such as Wolbachia, to the hybrid zone. Here, we investigate a natural hybrid zone of two subspecies of the meadow grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus in the Pyrenees Mountains. We set out to test whether co-infections of B and F Wolbachia in hybrid grasshoppers enabled horizontal transfer of phage WO, similar to the numerous examples of phage WO transfer between A and B Wolbachia co-infections. While we found no evidence for transfer between the divergent co-infections, we discovered horizontal transfer of at least three phage WO haplotypes to the grasshopper genome. Subsequent genome sequencing of uninfected grasshoppers uncovered the first evidence for two discrete Wolbachiasupergroups (B and F) ...
Becker, E.M.; Ball, L.A.; and Hintz, W.E., PCR-based genetic markers for detection and infection frequency analysis of the biocontrol fungus Chondrostereum purpureum on Sitka alder and Trembling aspen (1999). ...
Genetic modification of a male mosquito whose offspring die before they mature and mate can be used to kill a certain kind of mosquito (Aedes aegypti) that carries dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever and now Zika virus. Oxitec, a company out of the United Kingdom, produces this mosquito, with an engineered self destruct gene.. This company provides only one of three ways to drastically reduce the number of the offending mosquitoes. The other two ways are using male mosquitoes that have been sterilized by low doses of radiation and/or a mosquito that is infected with the Wolbachia bacteria. These bacteria do not infect humans but prevents eggs of infected females from hatching. All of these approaches entail releasing large numbers of male mosquitoes into the environment.. The Oxitec genetically modified mosquito has been tested in Brazil, the Cayman Islands and a trial has been proposed in Florida. Now the World Health Organization is very interested in the Oxitec mosquito as a viable way ...
1. WerrenJH. ONeillSL. 1997 The evolution of heritable symbionts. ONeillSL. HoffmannAA. WerrenJH. Influential Passengers Oxford Oxford University Press 1 41. 2. MajerusMEN. HurstGDD. 1997 Ladybirds as a model system for the study of male-killing symbionts. Entomophaga 42 13 20. 3. HurstGDD. HurstLD. MajerusMEN. 1997 Cytoplasmic sex-ratio distorters. ONeillSL. HoffmannAA. WerrenJH. Influential Passengers Oxford Oxford University Press 125 154. 4. WerrenJH. 1987 The coevolution of autosomal and cytoplasmic sex ratio factors. J Theor Biol 124 317 334. 5. HurstLD. 1992 Intragenomic conflict as an evolutionary force. P Roy Soc Lond B Bio 248 91 99. 6. OwenDF. ChanterDO. 1969 Population biology of tropical African butterflies. Sex ratio and genetic variation in Acraea encedon. J Zool 157 345 374. 7. MajerusMEN. MajerusTMO. 2000 Female-biased sex ratio due to male-killing in the Japanese ladybird Coccinula sinensis. Ecol Entomol 25 234 238. 8. UyenoyamaMK. FeldmanMW. 1978 The genetics of sex ratio ...
popcorn has characteristics different from other known strains. The original one described, W. pipientis, was detected in the ovary of the mosquito Culex pipiens. Since then, RLOs have been reported in the salivary glands or Malpighian tubules of mosquitoes (19) and flies (20). However, popcorn is seen to widely proliferate in the brain, muscle, and retina of Drosophila and to cause tissue degeneration and early death of its adult host. The dynamics of its growth, rapid in adults but not in earlier stages, presents an interesting system for the study of the host-symbiont relationship. It is conceivable that the availability of some essential substrate might be limited early on, due to the great developmental demands of the host, whereas in the adult, essentially postmitotic fly, nutrients might become more available, enabling massive proliferation of the bacteria to begin. Alternatively, a repressive mechanism of the host may be released. popcorn may have special features in its life cycle, as ...
Prior to this work there had been no systematic survey of heritable endosymbionts, other than Wolbachia, in Drosophila species. By examining 181 fly strains (from 35 species, 11 species groups) in the genus Drosophila for presence in ovarioles of endosymbionts from any lineage of bacteria (Figure 1), we have gained a more complete picture of the nature and scope of heritable endosymbiotic infections in this group of organisms. The most striking and unexpected result is that only two kinds of heritable endosymbionts were detected in these samples: Wolbachia and Spiroplasma. We contrast this to some other insects that possess a variety of bacterial symbionts, with high representation of Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Baumann 2005). While our results imply a relatively low incidence of other heritable symbionts that do not cause sex-ratio distortion in Drosophila, such infections may occur in some populations or species. A previous study based on PCR screenings of different tissues of D. paulistorum, ...
Genetic modification of a male mosquito whose offspring die before they mature and mate can be used to kill a certain kind of mosquito (Aedes aegypti) that carries dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever and now Zika virus. Oxitec, a company out of the United Kingdom, produces this mosquito, with an engineered self destruct gene.. This company provides only one of three ways to drastically reduce the number of the offending mosquitoes. The other two ways are using male mosquitoes that have been sterilized by low doses of radiation and/or a mosquito that is infected with the Wolbachia bacteria. These bacteria do not infect humans but prevents eggs of infected females from hatching. All of these approaches entail releasing large numbers of male mosquitoes into the environment.. The Oxitec genetically modified mosquito has been tested in Brazil, the Cayman Islands and a trial has been proposed in Florida. Now the World Health Organization is very interested in the Oxitec mosquito as a viable way ...
Miami-Dade County in Florida is now home to a new strain of lab-grown Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, altered to carry wolbachia bacteria, which were released in January 2018.
Sex ratios are distorted by the presence of a maternally inherited bacterium which has the effect of selectively killing male embryos. The authors report ratios of >99% female to nearly 1:1. These were different on different islands and at different times. The genetics of this shift of sex ratios is summarised in one paragraph with some supporting online data. There is not enough information here for anyone to either confirm or challenge their conclusions ...
This is the first time when scientists have transformed a population of wild insects to reduce their ability to pass on human diseases. There is no precedent for this, says Jason Rasgon, who studies mosquito-borne diseases at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, who describes the study as important and groundbreaking. Jan Engelstadter from ETH Zurich, who studies host-parasite evolution, is also impressed. He says, There is a lot of very hard work behind this. The idea to use Wolbachia in this way has been around for a long time, but finally it seems that this may really work.. The same approach might even work for other diseases. Wolbachia also seems to prevent the growth of other mosquito-borne parasites, including West Nile virus and Plasmodium, which causes malaria. However, its proving more difficult to get the bacterium to stably infect the species of mosquito that carry these diseases.. Meanwhile, Engelstadter sounds a note of caution. The virus cannot be expected to sit around ...
When subjected to molecular examine, species of digeneans believed to be cosmopolitan are often discovered to encompass complexes of species with narrower distributions. We current molecular and morphological proof of transcontinental distributions in two species of Apharyngostrigea Ciurea, 1924, based mostly on samples from Africa and the Americas. Sequences of cytochrome c oxidase I (CO1) and, in some samples, inside transcribed spacer (ITS), revealed Apharyngostrigea pipientis (Faust, 1918) in Tanzania (first recognized African document), Argentina, Brazil, USA and Canada. Sequences from A. pipientis additionally match beforehand revealed sequences recognized as Apharyngostrigea cornu (Zeder, 1800) originating in Mexico.. Hosts of A. pipientis surveyed embody definitive hosts from the Afrotropic, Neotropic and Nearctic, in addition to first and second intermediate hosts from the Americas, together with the kind host and sort area. As well as, metacercariae of A. pipientis had been obtained ...
Bacteria have the ability to transfer genes to one another. Now, scientists have found that one species, Wolbachia, has managed to transfer its entire genome into that of a fruit fly. These extreme gene transfers could be more common than we thought, and they have important consequences for genome-sequencing projects. A humble species of fruit…
Bagaimana cara kami meyakinkan warga bahwa menyebarkan nyamuk yang terinfeksi bakteri Wolbachia bisa menghilangkan demam berdarah?
For occupants of the Oval Office, wealth, status and quality medical care more than compensate for any life-shortening effects of stress.
23970111 -, OEM=Leybold, Part Type=O Rings, Description=O-RING;VITON;11.5 X 3 MM, Pump Models=WA151;WA501;WA150;WA250;WA500;WAU150;WAU250; ...
Endosymbiotic theory It has been suggested that Proto-mitochondrion be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) It has been suggested that Transfer of
Endosymbiotic relationship with Wolbachia[edit]. O. volvulus, along with most filarial nematodes, share an endosymbiotic ... In the absence of Wolbachia, larval development of O. volvulus is disrupted or ceased.[26] These bacteria have been proposed to ... "The Role of Endosymbiotic Wolbachia Bacteria in the Pathogenesis of River Blindness" (PDF). Science. 295 (5561): 1892-1895. ... "Onchocerciasis: the Role of Wolbachia Bacterial Endosymbionts in Parasite Biology, Disease Pathogenesis, and Treatment" ...
Wolbachia sp., Rickettsia sp., and Babesia sp. in Southern Germany". International Journal of Medical Microbiology Supplements ...
Wolbachia, a genus of inherited bacteria common in insects, are known to alter the sex ratio in arthropods and mites. The sex ... It is not known whether the intracellular endosymbiont bacterium Wolbachia is responsible for the alteration in reproductive ... Werren JH, Baldo L, Clark ME (2008). "Wolbachia: master manipulators of invertebrate biology". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 6 ( ...
Wolbachia species have been found to be endosymbionts of O. volvulus adults and microfilariae, and are thought to be the ... Research on other antibiotics, such as rifampicin, has shown it to be effective in animal models at reducing Wolbachia both as ... For the treatment of individuals, doxycycline is used to kill the Wolbachia bacteria that live in adult worms. This adjunct ... The antibiotic doxycycline weakens the worms by killing an associated bacterium called Wolbachia, and is recommended by some as ...
Wolbachia, a bacterium, was also mentioned. Peeps was nominated for the 2006 Andre Norton Award, bestowed in May 2007. It was ...
However, in some areas, such as Gabon and Uganda, Wolbachia endosymbionts have not been detected in the microfilariae of M. ... Such lateral gene transfer has occurred in various geographic isolates of B. malayi, in which a fraction of the Wolbachia ... Most current studies are focused on coinfection of M. perstans with other filarial parasites, and the study of Wolbachia ... Taylor MJ, Bandi C, Hoerauf A (2005). "Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts of filarial nematodes". Advances in Parasitology. 60: ...
Another genus of well-known Rickettsiales is the Wolbachia, which infect about two-thirds of all arthropods and nearly all ... ISBN 978-0-387-24145-6. Werren JH, Baldo L, Clark ME (2008). "Wolbachia: master manipulators of invertebrate biology". Nat. Rev ...
Arthropod infection with Wolbachia can cause sterility and inhibit the transmission of vector-borne diseases. Ecology portal A ... Wolbachia species are common insect endosymbionts and investigation into this species has yielded potential human health ... This relationship between Asobara tabida wasps and Wolbachia is an important model for insect microbiome study. Women who are ... Slatko, Barton E.; Luck, Ashley N.; Dobson, Stephen L.; Foster, Jeremy M. (2014-07-01). "Wolbachia endosymbionts and human ...
Wolbachia. Attempts are ongoing to infect the mosquito population with bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, which makes the ... to determine the best type of Wolbachia to use.[94] ... "The Impact of Wolbachia on Virus Infection in Mosquitoes" ... "Assessing the epidemiological effect of wolbachia for dengue control". The Lancet. Infectious Diseases. 15 (7): 862-6. doi ... mosquitos partially resistant to dengue virus.[27][92] While artificially induced infection with Wolbachia is effective, it is ...
This implies that Wolbachia establishes itself early in the females in order to ensure its transfer into further hosts, at the ... Wolbachia is a cytoplasmically inherited intracellular bacterium. It can generally be found in the reproductive organs of its ... However, the bacterium, Wolbachia, has evolved with this species of wasp through vertical transfer to induce irreversible ... There are three primary reasons for why M. uniraptor has become so dependent on Wolbachia for survival and reproduction. The ...
Feminizing Wolbachia species are widespread in arthropods and nematodes, where they co-evolved with most of their lineages. ... Parthenogenesis (also called thelytoky) is under the control of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, which live, ... Werren, John H.; Zhang, Wan & Guo, Li Rong (1995). "Evolution and phylogeny of Wolbachia: reproductive parasites of arthropods ... Fenn, Katelyn & Blaxter, Mark (2004). "Are filarial nematode Wolbachia obligate mutualist symbionts?" (PDF). Trends in Ecology ...
"Asymmetrical Reinforcement and Wolbachia Infection in Drosophila". PLOS Biology. 4 (10): e325. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040325 ...
Wolbachia infection are the most common infection in arthropods today, and over 40% of arthropods have contracted it. Wolbachia ... but without the Wolbachia infection. Wolbachia can also be used to transfer certain genes into the population to further ... Due to Wolbachia's ability to transmit from one host to the next, it can change the average genotype of a population, ... Wolbachia is easily transmitted within the Ae. albopictus mosquito due to the effects it has on fecundity in females. Once ...
Wolbachia is a bacterium commonly present in insect species that can protect their hosts against viruses, including the dengue ... Studies on the bacteria Wolbachia conducted by Luis Teixeira and his research group revealed that a single genomic change can ... Chrostek, Ewa; Teixeira, Luis (2015-02-10). "Mutualism Breakdown by Amplification of Wolbachia Genes". PLOS Biology. 13 (2): ... functions in the Wolbachia bacterium and providing a starting point for the understanding of the widespread insect-Wolbachia ...
Wolbachia pipientis is an intracellular bacterium that is an endosymbiont of D. immitis. All heartworms are thought to be ... The inflammation occurring at the die-off of adult heartworms or larvae is in part due to the release of Wolbachia bacteria or ... Treating heartworm-positive animals with an antibiotic such as doxycycline to remove Wolbachia may prove to be beneficial, but ... Todd-Jenkins, Karen (October 2007). "The Role of Wolbachia in heartworm disease". Veterinary Forum. 24 (10): 28-30. Wheeler, ...
Zhang, Hong; Lui, Roger (7 January 2020). "Releasing Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti to prevent the spread of dengue virus: A ... In 2015, Ferguson published a paper titled "Modeling the impact on virus transmission of Wolbachia-mediated blocking of dengue ... "Genome Sequence of the Intracellular Bacterium Wolbachia". PLOS Biology. 2 (3): e76. 16 March 2004. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio. ... of Wolbachia-mediated blocking of dengue virus infection of Aedes aegypti Assessing the epidemiological effect of wolbachia for ...
However, Wolbachia is absent in Acanthocheilonema viteae. Since, the A. Viteae lacks the Wolbachia, it is widely used as a ... "Trans-species transfer of Wolbachia: Microinjection of Wolbachia from litomosoides sigmodontis into Acanthocheilonema viteae". ... Intracellular bacteria Wolbachia are prevalent among the different species of nematodes. ... Nematoda: Filarioidea) from Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma): Description, molecular identification, and Wolbachia screening". ...
Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia alter their sexuality; some species consist entirely of ZZ individuals, with sex determined by ... the presence of Wolbachia.[citation needed] In those species with two sexes, males may differ from females in ways other than ...
Wolbachia, etc. Betaproteobacteria: Bordetella, Ralstonia, Neisseria, Nitrosomonas, etc. Gammaproteobacteria: Escherichia, ...
"Male-killing Wolbachia in two species of insect". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 266 (1420): 735-740. doi:10.1098/rspb. ...
Since the discovery of the importance of Wolbachia bacteria in the life cycle of B. malayi and other nematodes, novel drug ... In a study done by the University of Bonn in Ghana, doxycycline effectively depleted Wolbachia from W. bancrofti. It is likely ... The relationship between the Wolbachia bacteria and B. malayi is not fully understood. Extrapolating from research done with ... "Targeting wolbachia, doxycycline reduces pathology of lymphatic filariasis". 18, September 2006. The World Health ...
One of the only other examples of this type of parasitism is the genus Wolbachia, which also infects arthropods. These two ... Dorigatti I, McCormack C, Nedjati-Gilani G, Ferguson NM (February 2018). "Using Wolbachia for Dengue Control: Insights from ... "Candidatus Cardinium" bacteria use many of the same methods to interfere with host reproduction as Wolbachia, including ... induces these conditions in hosts are thought to be different from the mechanisms used by Wolbachia. "Candidatus Cardinium" ...
Work is still ongoing as of 2015[update] to determine the best type of Wolbachia to use. Apart from the attempts to control the ... Attempts are ongoing to infect the mosquito population with bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, which makes the mosquitos ... Johnson KN (November 2015). "The Impact of Wolbachia on Virus Infection in Mosquitoes". Viruses. 7 (11): 5705-17. doi:10.3390/ ... While artificially induced infection with Wolbachia is effective, it is unclear if naturally acquired infections are protective ...
Wolbachia) and intracellular pathogens (e.g. Rickettsia). Moreover, the class includes (as an extinct member) the ...
1999). "Male killing Wolbachia in two species of insects". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 266 (1420): 735-740. doi:10.1098 ... This trait is associated with a variety of bacteria (Wolbachia, Rickettsia, and Spiroplasma) which are present in between 0 and ...
Bridgeman, Benjamin; Morgan-Richards, Mary; Wheeler, David; Trewick, Steven A. (2018). "First detection of Wolbachia in the New ...
... is bacteriophage virus affecting bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, hence its name. This virus is notable for carrying ... Bordenstein, Sarah R.; Bordenstein, Seth R. (2016). "Eukaryotic association module in phage WO genomes from Wolbachia". Nature ...
Trewick, Steven A.; Wheeler, David; Morgan-Richards, Mary; Bridgeman, Benjamin (2018-04-25). "First detection of Wolbachia in ... These cryptic species are hosts to the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia, which might explain their speciation without ...
Bridgeman, B (2018). "First detection of Wolbachia in the New Zealand biota". PLOS ONE. 13 (4): e0195517. Bibcode:2018PLoSO.. ...
Scientists have manipulated Wolbachia so it blocks the growth of virus inside the mosquito. As a result, transmission of the ... This Wolbachia infection is transmitted through the female line. When infected males mate with uninfected females the progeny ... Recently scientists have managed to use Wolbachia bacteria to control outbreaks of dengue fever. Mosquitoes are a vector for ... Sturmer, J. (2014) Researchers want Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes unleashed on Townsville in bid to eradicate dengue fever. ABC ...
"Wolbachia" at the Encyclopedia of Life The Wolbachia Project at Vanderbilt University Images of Wolbachia. ... Wolbachia, especially Wolbachia-caused cytoplasmic incompatibility, may be important in promoting speciation. Wolbachia strains ... Some Wolbachia strains have increased their prevalence by increasing their hosts fecundity. Wolbachia strains captured from ... This suggested that the sRNA may play important roles in the biology of Wolbachia. Outside of insects, Wolbachia infects a ...
New assay using cellphone cameras developed for testing mosquitos, Wolbachia Wolbachia bacteria are widely studied for possible ... By targeting Wolbachia, a bacterial symbiont that the filarial parasites need to live, the team has discovered a drug synergy ... Wolbachia bacterium can prevent mosquitoes from transmitting Zika virus Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have ... New anti-Wolbachia drug could potentially treat onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis Researchers from LSTM and the ...
About Wolbachia Wolbachia pipientis is a symbiotic bacterium that lives within the cells of filarial nematodes and about 40 ... About Wolbachia. Wolbachia pipientis is a symbiotic bacterium that lives within the cells of filarial nematodes and about 40 ... About Discover the Microbes Within! The Wolbachia Project. Discover the Microbes Within! The Wolbachia Project empowers biology ... Incorporate Wolbachia into your Curriculum. Implementation of the labs in your classroom is facilitated by partnerships with ...
Genome Watch highlights discoveries of high variability in the genes underlying cytoplasmic incompatibility among Wolbachia ... Evolutionary genetics of cytoplasmic incompatibility genes cifA and cifB in prophage WO of Wolbachia. Genome Biol. Evol. 10, ... Effect of naturally occurring Wolbachia in Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes from Mali on Plasmodium falciparum malaria ... Inhibition of Zika virus by Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti. Microb. Cell. 3, 293-295 (2016). ...
... we show recombination in the Wolbachia outer surface protein gene (wsp) between strains of Wolbachia. In addition, we find a ... Recombination in Wolbachia.. Werren JH1, Bartos JD.. Author information. 1. Biology Department, University of Rochester, ... Wolbachia are widely distributed intracellular bacteria that cause a number of reproductive alterations in their eukaryotic ... Evidence indicates either genetic exchange between Wolbachia in a parasitoid wasp and in the fly that it parasitizes or ...
This is the first finding of insect Wolbachia DNA in the circulatory system of birds, which can be explained either by the ... Rossi MID, Aguiar-Alves F, Santos S, Paiva J, Bendas A, Fernandes O, Labarthe N (2010) Detection of Wolbachia DNA in blood from ... Fenn K, Conlon C, Jones M, Quail MA, Holroyd NE, Parkhill J, Blaxter M (2006) Phylogenetic Relationships of the Wolbachia of ... McNulty SN, Fischer K, Mehus JO, Vaughan JA, Tkach VV, Weil GJ, Fischer PU (2012) Absence of Wolbachia endobacteria in ...
This article has sections titled 1 What Wolbachia is2 What Wolbachia Does to Its Host3 Wolbachia - a Reproductive Parasite of ... 1 What Wolbachia is. 2 What Wolbachia Does to Its Host. 3 Wolbachia - a Reproductive Parasite of Arthropods. 3.1 CI: sperm‐ ... 8 What Defines a Strain of Wolbachia?. Figure 1. Phylogeny of Wolbachia and related groups derived from 1.3 kb of 16S rDNA ... Wolbachia host genera are shown in parentheses. Wolbachia sequences used in this analysis were from infections in coleopteran ( ...
Wolbachia has been known for decades to cause sterility in male insects, but its mechanism of action has eluded scientists. ... Wolbachia has already been used to create sterile males as a means of insect population control, Beckmann said. He explained ... The main flaw in the Yale study was the research teams inability to show that a female fly possessing the two Wolbachia genes ... Wolbachia infects approximately two-thirds of insect species worldwide, according to a study in the Federation of European ...
Once an insect dies, the Wolbachia will also die.. *The type of Wolbachia used in these mosquitoes are same types of Wolbachia ... Scientists introduced Wolbachia into Ae. aegypti mosquito eggs.. *When male Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with Wolbachia mate with ... Mosquitoes with Wolbachia are not genetically modified.. How mosquitoes with Wolbachia are used to control Ae. aegypti ... Mosquitoes with Wolbachia do not harm animals. Wolbachia bacteria cannot make people or animals (for example, fish, birds, pets ...
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Wolbachia Infection and Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Drosophila Species Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Wolbachia Infection and Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Drosophila Species. Kostas Bourtzis, Androniki Nirgianaki, George ... Wolbachia Infection and Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Drosophila Species. Kostas Bourtzis, Androniki Nirgianaki, George ... Wolbachia Infection and Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Drosophila Species. Kostas Bourtzis, Androniki Nirgianaki, George ...
Wolbachia wAna, Wolbachia wSim, and Wolbachia wMoj. W. wAna and W. wSim have nearly identical genomes. These genomes were ... NCBI: Taxonomy Wolbachia endosymbiont of D. melanogaster Wolbachia endosymbiont of B. malayi ... "Wolbachia Genome Project." Accessed 15 July 2005. Pfarr, Kenneth and Achim Hoerauf. "The Annotated Genome of Wolbachia from the ... A great deal of research is in progress on Wolbachia genomes, including the structures of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Drosophila ...
Wolbachia Micrografía de microscopio electrónico de transmisión dunha célula de insecto con bacterias Wolbachia no seu interior ... Vantaxes na eficacia biolóxica debidas á infección por Wolbachia[editar , editar a fonte]. As infeccións por Wolbachia foron ... Wolbachia, especialmente as Wolbachia que causan incompatibilidade citoplasmática, poden ser importantes para favorecer a ... A Wolbachia non se limita a infectar aos vermes, senón que a Wolbachia parece xogar un papel pouco común nestas doenzas humanas ...
The bacteria in the genus Wolbachia are cytoplasmically inherited symbionts of arthropods. Infection often causes profound ... Typically Wolbachia infection is transmitted from mother to progeny, regardless of the sex of the progeny; however, infected T ... Based on DNA sequence data, the male-killing strain of Wolbachia in T. madens was indistinguishable from the CI-inducing ... Our findings suggest that host symbiont interaction effects may play an important role in the induction of Wolbachia ...
"This might point to a positive fitness effects of the Wolbachia, which could help Wolbachia spread in populations," ... Wolbachia (stained in green) are highly concentrated in the GSCN, at the tip of the germarium. COURTESY OF EVA M. FAST AND ... Because Wolbachia seem to accumulate in these areas, "the bacteria might point us to where these other stem cell niches reside ... Wolbachia can infiltrate germline stem cells of the fruit fly Drosophila mauritiana, where it spurs increased cell division of ...
A total of 16,000 male and female Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes were released at 300 dengue ... The Wolbachia technique, as recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO), is the latest method being applied by countries ... "A total of 16,000 male and female Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes were released at 300 dengue hotspots in Keramat AU2 areas," he ... He said studies have shown that Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes could prevent the spread of the dengue virus among humans. ...
Wolbachia-Laced Mosquitoes to Be Released for Population Control. By Katarina Zimmer , November 7, 2017 ...
Super-infections of Wolbachia in byturid beetles and evidence for genetic transfer between A and B super-groups of Wolbachia ... Detection of Wolbachia pipientis, including a new strain containing the wsp gene, in two sister species of Paraphlebotomus ... Evolutionary Significance of Wolbachia-to-Animal Horizontal Gene Transfer: Female Sex Determination and the f Element in the ... Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect. Natsuko Kondo, Naruo Nikoh, Nobuyuki ...
As much as mosquitos with resistance to wolbachia may be selected, those wolbachia that can evade the mosquitos resistance ... Wolbachia IS cool! They do some crazy things in their female-boosting game. In some insects they even cause the males to turn ... Even though Wolbachia lowers a females lifespan, they dont hurt her egg-laying ability, or kill her off before she gets a ... Wolbachia sets the mosquitos immune system on high-alert, switching on a few important immune system genes. Even if any ...
Can Wolbachia modulate the fecundity costs of Plasmodium in mosquitoes? - Volume 145 Issue 6 - F Zélé, J Denoyelle, O Duron, A ... Although Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes fare overall better than uninfected ones, Wolbachia does not confer a sufficiently high ... Can Wolbachia modulate the fecundity costs of Plasmodium in mosquitoes?. * F Zélé (a1), J Denoyelle, O Duron (a2) (a3) and A ... Duron, O, Fort, P and Weill, M (2006 a). Hypervariable prophage WO sequences describe an unexpected high number of Wolbachia ...
Wolbachia Bacteria Might Stop Zika And Dengue Viruses - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice ... Smart Science: Wolbachia Bacteria Might Stop Zika And Dengue Viruses. Published: Feb 08, 2016 ... A funny-sounding bacteria that youve never heard of-Wolbachia-will likely be an important weapon in the fight against Zika, ...
Wolbachia Transmission electron micrograph of Wolbachia within an insect cell. Credit:Public Library of Science / Scott ONeill ... "Wolbachia efforts ramp up to fight Zika in Brazil, Colombia".. *^ Buhr, Sarah. "Googles life sciences unit is releasing 20 ... Issues in Infectious Diseases 5 (Wolbachia: A Bugs Life in another Bug): 1-14. ISBN 3-8055-8180-7. doi:10.1159/000104228.. ... Wolbachia je rod gramnegativnih bakterij, ki je naravno prisotna v različnih vrstah členonožcev, predvsem žuželk, pa tudi v ...
An agreement was signed between Sri Lanka and Australia to introduce Wolbachia bacteria to Sri Lanka to control dengue, Health ... Wolbachia bacteria live in bodies of over 60 insects including mosquitoes. When dengue mosquitoes were infected with Wolbachia ... An agreement was signed between Sri Lanka and Australia to introduce Wolbachia bacteria to Sri Lanka to control dengue, Health ... Australia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Brazil and Colombia successfully use Wolbachia infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to control ...
Nematode Wolbachia might also have a role in modulating the mammalian host immune system but the sequenced Wolbachia genomes ... Anatomical context of Wolbachia. *Estimates of Wolbachia density in the eggs, testes and whole flies of drosophilid hosts have ... Biological context of Wolbachia. *Molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility of Wolbachia ftsZ and wsp gene sequences with ... Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Wolbachia. *Further, sequence analysis of the Wolbachia ftsZ gene and an ...
The ratio of Wolbachia wsp DNA to host S17 DNA was used to estimate the Wolbachia concentration The concentration of wMel was ... Wolbachia Purification and Intrathoracic Inoculation.. Wolbachia were maintained in the Ae. albopictus cell line Aa23 (43). ... The ratio between Wolbachia wsp DNA and host S17 DNA was used to estimate the concentration of Wolbachia. The concentration of ... albopictus injected with either Wolbachia strain, with the exception of CECD at day 9. Live Wolbachia was confirmed in wMelPop ...
D) Fitness costs (e.g., fecundity) of transinfected Drosophila Wolbachia strains to Ae. aegypti, which impact the ability of ... B) The JEV transmission cycle could be interrupted at various points using a Wolbachia-based biocontrol strategy in which JEV- ... The Potential Use of Wolbachia-Based Mosquito Biocontrol Strategies for Japanese Encephalitis.. Jeffries CL1, Walker T1. ... B) Maternal transmission of Wolbachia from female mosquitoes to progeny is close to 100% for transinfected Drosophila strains ...
M. F. Mattio, E. B. Argüello Caro, M. S. Rodriguero, A. D. Dumoń, V. M. Alemandri, and G. Truol "Wolbachia Occurrence in ... Amplification by PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA, wsp- and ftsZ-specific genes demonstrated Wolbachia infection in Caenodelphax ... M. F. Mattio, E. B. Argüello Caro, M. S. Rodriguero, A. D. Dumoń, V. M. Alemandri, G. Truol "Wolbachia Occurrence in ... Infection by Two Strains of Wolbachia and Sex Ratio Distortion... Distribution of Members of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say s.l ...
Here, we have characterized the interaction of Wolbachia with dengue viruses in Ae. aegypti. Wolbachia alone was able to ... In addition, this Wolbachia-mediated viral interference was associated with an elevation of basal immunity and increase in ... Our study provides novel insights into the usefulness of Wolbachia for blocking dengue transmission by mosquitoes. ... control strategy for reducing or blocking dengue transmission by mosquitoes involves the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia, ...
At present, it is unknown whether or not ZIKV can infect, disseminate and be transmitted by Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti. ... aegypti infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia that are being released in Medellin, Colombia, we report that these ... This primarily has been proposed as a tool to control dengue virus (DENV) transmission; however, evidence suggests Wolbachia ... A promising candidate for arbovirus control and prevention relies on the introduction of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia ...
In this work, we develop a model to describe how the imperfect maternal transmission affects the dynamics of ,i,Wolbachia,/i, ... These analytical results may help find a plausible explanation for the recent observation that the ,i,Wolbachia,/i, strain ,i,w ... Wolbachia,/i, into the natural areas to infect the wild population of mosquitoes and block disease transmission. The bacterium ... Keywords: Population dynamics, Wolbachia>Wolbachia, imperfect maternal transmission, cytoplasmic incompatibility, monomorphism ...
  • Wolbachia bacteria are widely studied for possible properties to block transmission of viruses like chikungunya, dengue and zika. (news-medical.net)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency has now approved the use of special mosquitoes that have been infected with bacteria called Wolbachia for eradication of mosquitoes in 20 states and District of Columbia. (news-medical.net)
  • Wolbachia are widely distributed intracellular bacteria that cause a number of reproductive alterations in their eukaryotic hosts. (nih.gov)
  • Results have important implications for the evolution of these bacteria and the potential use of Wolbachia in biological control. (nih.gov)
  • Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular bacteria that infects mainly arthropod species, including a high proportion of insects, and also some nematodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wolbachia bacteria maximize their spread by significantly altering the reproductive capabilities of their hosts, with four different phenotypes: Male killing occurs when infected males die during larval development, which increases the rate of born, infected, females. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several host species, such as those within the genus Trichogramma, are so dependent on sexual differentiation of Wolbachia that they are unable to reproduce effectively without the bacteria in their bodies, and some might even be unable to survive uninfected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wolbachia (wohl-bach-ee-uh) is a common type of bacteria found in insects. (cdc.gov)
  • Wolbachia bacteria cannot make people or animals (for example, fish, birds, pets) sick. (cdc.gov)
  • Wolbachia are very common bacteria found in insects throughout the world. (cdc.gov)
  • Wolbachia are Gram-negative bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • Morphologically, Wolbachia bacteria is similar to other members of its family and class. (kenyon.edu)
  • Varias especies son tan dependentes de Wolbachia , que non se poden reproducir se non teñen a bacteria nos seus corpos, e algunhas mesmo non poderían sobrevivir sen a bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 21 ] No insecto Phyllonorycter blancardella (unha couza minadora de folas), a bacteria Wolbachia axuda aos hóspedes a producir áreas illadas verdes en follas de árbore que están amarelando, o que permite aos adultos continuar alimentándose mentres crecen ata converterse en formas adultas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacteria in the genus Wolbachia are cytoplasmically inherited symbionts of arthropods. (mendeley.com)
  • Wolbachia are widespread bacteria that infect a variety of invertebrate species. (the-scientist.com)
  • Different strains of Wolbachia can cause infected males to produce sperm that kills uninfected eggs, induce parthenogenesis in infected females-eliminating the need for reproductive mating-and can even turn males into functional females that can pass the bacteria on to their offspring. (the-scientist.com)
  • To understand how Wolbachia induce this increase in egg production, Frydman's team examined the distribution of the bacteria inside flies infected with a Wolbachia strain called w Mau. (the-scientist.com)
  • A funny-sounding bacteria that you've never heard of-Wolbachia-will likely be an important weapon in the fight against Zika, dengue and other viruses plaguing the tropics. (biospace.com)
  • An agreement was signed between Sri Lanka and Australia to introduce Wolbachia bacteria to Sri Lanka to control dengue, Health Ministry spokesman said. (dailynews.lk)
  • The Monash University of Australia will provide technical assistance to carry out field studies in selected areas in Sri Lanka to use Wolbachia bacteria. (dailynews.lk)
  • Wolbachia bacteria live in bodies of over 60 insects including mosquitoes. (dailynews.lk)
  • When dengue mosquitoes were infected with Wolbachia bacteria, the virus does not develop inside their bodies up to the level of spreading it out. (dailynews.lk)
  • Wolbachia inherited bacteria are able to invade insect populations using cytoplasmic incompatibility and provide new strategies for controlling mosquito-borne tropical diseases, such as dengue. (pnas.org)
  • Wolbachia is a group of obligate intracellular bacteria infecting numerous arthropod species and causing reproductive alterations in their hosts. (bioone.org)
  • However, Duplouy had also noticed previously that H. horticola populations had lower levels of M. cf. stigmaticus infection where H. horticola had high rates of infection by the symbiotic Wolbachia bacteria ( doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134843 ). (biologists.org)
  • Explaining that Wolbachia infections are often beneficial to their hosts in order to maintain their welcome, Duplouy wondered whether the bacteria also boosted the resistance of H. horticola to M. stigmaticus hyperparasitic lodgers - consequently reducing M. cf. stigmaticus infection rates when Wolbachia infection rates are high. (biologists.org)
  • So, Wolbachia infections seem to make H. horticola larvae more vulnerable to parasitic infection, which poses the question of why H. horticola maintains the close relationship with symbiotic bacteria that increase its vulnerability in some circumstances. (biologists.org)
  • In order to persist in the host population, [ Wolbachia ] must have a positive effect on the fitness of infected parasitic wasps that could outweigh the costly burden of susceptibility to widespread parasitism', says Duplouy and colleagues, who suspect that bacteria may contribute to H. horticola 's resistance to other parasitic infections instead. (biologists.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the presence and prevalence of Wolbachia bacteria in natural population of fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) in Turkey, and to exhibit the molecular characterization and the phylogenetic reconstruction at the positive isolates with other species in GenBank, based on 16S rDNA sequences. (springer.com)
  • And Wolbachia isn't some harmless bacteria (although it's been touted as such). (infobarrel.com)
  • To determine whether absence of cytoplasmic incompatibility in D. mauritiana was due to either the bacterial or host genome, we transferred bacteria from D. mauritiana into an uninfected strain of D. simulans, a host species known to express high levels of incompatibility with endogenous Wolbachia. (genetics.org)
  • A larger-scale and historical assessment of Wolbachia infection may allow to estimate when and how the bacteria were lost, and current geographical distribution of infection among host haplotypes. (cabi.org)
  • I highly recommend reading this book because I believe that Wolbachia science will grow dramatically in the coming years as an example of the complex relationships between intracellular bacteria and hosts. (cdc.gov)
  • Wolbachia are endosymbiont bacteria of the family Rickettsiacea that are widespread in invertebrates and occur between 20% and 60% of Neotropical insects. (scielo.br)
  • Wolbachia are intracellular obligatory bacteria of the family Rickettsiacea that occur in a wide range of arthropods and nematodes. (scielo.br)
  • The presence of Wolbachia in Anastrepha is therefore of considerable interest since these bacteria may be exploited as biological controls of pest insects, as suggested by Bourtzis (1). (scielo.br)
  • Finally, Prof. Scott O'Neill will explain you the new and ecofriendly technology of vector control with the Wolbachia bacteria. (coursera.org)
  • The eubacterial genus Wolbachia comprises one of the most abundant groups of obligate intracellular bacteria, and it has a host range that spans the phyla Arthropoda and Nematoda. (asm.org)
  • Overall, the extraordinary infection frequency among insects alone places members of the genus Wolbachia among the most widespread intracellular bacteria described thus far ( 55 , 56 ). (asm.org)
  • Wolbachia are gram-negative bacteria that infect 70% of invertebrates. (umsystem.edu)
  • Wolbachia are widespread maternally transmitted intracellular bacteria that infect most insect species and are able to alter the reproduction of innumerous hosts. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are bacteria that live within the cells of their hosts. (asu.edu)
  • Researchers began to study Wolbachia with molecular methods like polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a biochemical technology used to generate copies of a particular DNA sequence, and that enabled researchers to detect and to identify the bacteria more easily and rapidly. (asu.edu)
  • Wolbachia are present in mature eggs, but not in mature sperm , so when bacteria are present in males, they are eliminated from the germ-line during spermatogenesis. (asu.edu)
  • Wolbachia bacteria are known to cause deviations from random mating and affect sperm competition (SC) in some of their arthropod hosts. (ajtmh.org)
  • Wolbachia are widespread bacteria in nature. (cnrs.fr)
  • 1 The next great leap forward in heartworm treatment came with the discovery that some filarial worms harbor a type of bacteria, Wolbachia, and that elimination of these bacteria proved beneficial to the animal and reduced the complications of disease. (heartwormsociety.org)
  • Wolbachia is a genus of Gram-negative endosymbiotic bacteria that is naturally present in many insects, such as in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that commonly infect arthropods, inducing certain phenotypes in their hosts. (scielo.br)
  • Wolbachia are maternally transmitted alpha-proteo-bacteria known to infect a wide range of arthropods and nematodes, where they can be found in either germ line or somatic tissues (Bandi et al . (scielo.br)
  • Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacteria that use mechanisms such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), a type of embryonic lethality that results from crosses between infected males with uninfected females, to rapidly spread into insect populations ( 14 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Wolbachia are maternally transmitted symbiotic bacteria that can spread within insect populations because of their unique ability to manipulate host reproduction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sri Lanka partnered with Monash University and the Australian Government last week to breed mosquitoes carrying Wolbachia, a low risk naturally occurring bacteria, to control the spread of dengue. (lankanewspapers.com)
  • The Monash University's Eliminate Dengue Program, has pioneered the use of Wolbachia bacteria to reduce the rates of dengue infection. (lankanewspapers.com)
  • Wolbachia are obligate intracellular bacteria that have evolved diverse ways to manipulate reproduction in their arthropod hosts in order to invade host populations [ 13 , 14 ]. (springer.com)
  • These nematodes have evolved a mutualistic symbiosis with intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, which are required for nematode embryogenesis and survival. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • The essential role of these bacteria in the biology of the nematode and their demonstrated involvement in the pathogenesis of filariasis make Wolbachia a promising novel chemotherapeutic target for the control of filarial infection and disease. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • To better understand how bacteria maintain symbiotic associations with animal hosts, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression for the endosymbiotic α-proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis across the entire life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster . (g3journal.org)
  • Wolbachia are a rickettsial type bacteria that have been implicated as a cause of reproductive disruption and alteration in many insect species. (unl.edu)
  • The National Environment Agency (NEA) has been conducting a feasibility study to fight dengue by deploying male Aedes mosquitoes carrying the Wolbachia bacteria. (blogspot.com)
  • Wolbachia is a naturally-occurring bacteria found in over 60 per cent of insect species, including butterflies, fruit flies, dragonflies, and certain mosquito species. (blogspot.com)
  • The members of the genus Wolbachia are rickettsial endosymbitic bacteria belonging to the α- Proteobacteria , whose infections are prevalent among arthropods, including over 60 per cent of insects and some filarial nematodes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Wolbachia is a naturally-occurring bacteria that is widely spread in insects but not naturally in Aedes aegpyti, the mosquito that spreads Dengue, Zika and other flaviviruses. (sciencemediacentre.org)
  • In this paper the authors report on a set of studies infecting Aedes mosquitoes with two different Wolbachia - they show two very neat results: first, that in combination these Wolbachia bacteria act in combination to shorten adult mosquito survival. (sciencemediacentre.org)
  • This is significant and interesting as it suggests that this Wolbachia bacteria interacts with the mosquito immune system to make it (partially) resistant to flavivirus infections. (sciencemediacentre.org)
  • Brazil has released thousands of mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia bacteria that suppress dengue fever. (bellenews.com)
  • The intercellular bacteria, Wolbachia, being introduced cannot be transmitted to humans. (bellenews.com)
  • If the male and female are contaminated or if only a female has the bacteria, all future generations of mosquito will carry Wolbachia. (bellenews.com)
  • These bacteria belong to the genus Wolbachia , which is a widespread and abundant intracellular symbiont in worms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transmitted through the reproductive systems of insects, crustaceans, mites and nematode worms, the Wolbachia is endocellular bacteria whose interactions between the host and itself are far from mutualistic (Hurst & Randerson 2002:44). (writework.com)
  • Feminisation: Another reproductive method the Wolbachia bacteria employ is that they are able to convert genetic males of a population such as pill bugs and the. (writework.com)
  • Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria are capable of inducing chronic upregulation of insect immune genes in some situations and this phenotype may influence the transmission of important insect-borne pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arbovirus transmission by the mosquito Aedes aegypti can be reduced by the introduction and establishment of the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia in wild populations of the vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The role of Wolbachia endosymbionts in shaping the mitochondrial diversity of their arthropod host depends on the effects they have on host reproduction and on the mode of transmission of the bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim was to study the relationship of Wolbachia and its ant hosts in terms of vertical and horizontal transmission of the bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wolbachia , the common endosymbiotic bacteria of arthropods and filarial nematodes, may have an influence on the genetic variation of its host population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One interaction whose dynamism makes it particularly interesting is that between the Blue Moon butterfly, Hypolimnas bolina , and the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wolbachia inherited intracellular bacteria can manipulate the reproduction of their insect hosts through cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and certain strains have also been shown to inhibit the replication or dissemination of viruses. (pasteur.fr)
  • Wolbachia pipientis is a worldwide bacterial parasite of arthropods that infects germline cells and manipulates host reproduction to increase the ratio of infected females, the transmitting sex of the bacteria. (peerj.com)
  • Wolbachia pipientis , an obligate intracellular bacteria, is estimated to infect approximately 40% of all arthropod species ( Zug & Hammerstein, 2012 ). (peerj.com)
  • Infections of Wolbachia, a commonly infectious strain of bacteria observed in many insects such as Trichogramma and Muscidifurax uniraptor wasps, are transmitted between generations of Drosophila simulans. (wikipedia.org)
  • and determine the evolutionary relatedness of these Wolbachia strains to other sequences published by scientists in the NCBI national genetic database. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • This month's Genome Watch highlights discoveries of high variability in the genes underlying cytoplasmic incompatibility among Wolbachia strains that help identify the best strains to use for the control of vector-borne diseases such as Zika virus and malaria. (nature.com)
  • Comparative genomics of Wolbachia strains that induce cytoplasmic incompatibility with those that do not identified the genes cifA and cifB and their homologues as responsible for this type of host reproduction manipulation 1 . (nature.com)
  • More recently, whole genome comparisons of Wolbachia strains found a high prevalence of the cif genes in cytoplasmic incompatibility-inducing strains but also revealed great divergence in the form of insertions, deletions and duplications. (nature.com)
  • Here, we show recombination in the Wolbachia outer surface protein gene (wsp) between strains of Wolbachia. (nih.gov)
  • Wolbachia strains that distort the sex ratio may alter their host's pattern of sexual selection in nature, and also engender strong selection to prevent their action, leading to some of the fastest examples of natural selection in natural populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bidirectional CI one of two different strains of Wolbachia are present in two populations of Drosophila . (els.net)
  • The Vanderbilt study identified two candidate genes through comparative genomics and transcriptomics by looking for genes that were conserved through multiple strains of Wolbachia. (yaledailynews.com)
  • The successful transinfection of Wolbachia strains from Drosophila flies to Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes has resulted in the generation of "dengue-refractory" mosquito lines. (nih.gov)
  • JEV and dengue virus are both members of the Flavivirus genus, and the successful establishment of Drosophila Wolbachia strains in Cx. (nih.gov)
  • Artificial releases of Wolbachia -infected Aedes mosquitoes have been under study in the past yearsfor fighting vector-borne diseases such as dengue, chikungunya and zika.Several strains of this bacterium cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and can also affect their host's fecundity or lifespan, while highly reducing vector competence for the main arboviruses. (aimsciences.org)
  • aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. (mdpi.com)
  • A new approach for dengue control has been proposed that relies on life-shortening strains of the obligate intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis to modify mosquito population age structure and reduce pathogen transmission. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we used the MultiLocus Sequence Typing system, to identify and characterize five Wolbachia strains infecting several species within the Nanos clypeatus dung beetle clade. (frontiersin.org)
  • We discuss the implications of these Wolbachia strains for the evolution and diversification of their dung beetle hosts in Madagascar. (frontiersin.org)
  • Text-book examples include the association between Wolbachia strains inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in their hosts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Individual insects can be infected with multiple Wolbachia strains ( 24 , 55 , 58 ), and geographically distinct populations of the same species can harbor different strains ( 29 , 39 ). (asm.org)
  • Wolbachia strains are typically vertically transmitted within a species through the cytoplasm of eggs (maternal inheritance). (asm.org)
  • The importance of Wolbachia strains ranges from their effects on the reproductive biology, ecology, and evolution of their hosts to their potential use in biological control of pest insects and biomedical applications ( 35 , 54 , 61 ). (asm.org)
  • Wolbachia naturally infect many insects including some mosquitoes, and strains have recently been developed to infect Aedes aegypti , the vector for dengue, and Anopheles gambiae , malaria's vehicle of choice. (asmblog.org)
  • WO-B lytic development would cause lower bacterial density, and may explain how WO-B infection causes differences in the strength of cytoplasmic incompatibility observed in some Wolbachia strains. (asmblog.org)
  • Many strains of Wolbachia also affect the lifespan of their hosts. (asmblog.org)
  • The bacterium Wolbachia is a striking example of such a selfish cytoplasmic element, with effects ranging from reproductive incompatibility between host strains, induction of parthenogenesis and feminization of males. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In addition to this strategy, Scott O'Neill and others have documented that infection by specific strains of Wolbachia (particularly the strain wMel) have another effect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wolbachia strains from B. sellowii had a higher genetic variation than those isolated from B. glaber . (scielo.br)
  • AMOVA analyses showed that most of the genetic variance was distributed among populations of each species rather than between species, and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Wolbachia strains from Balloniscus cluster within Supergroup B, but do not form a single monophyletic clade, suggesting multiple infections for this group. (scielo.br)
  • Our results highlight the importance of studying Wolbachia prevalence and genetic diversity in Neotropical species and suggest that South American arthropods may harbor a great number of diverse strains, providing an interesting model to investigate the evolution of Wolbachia and its hosts. (scielo.br)
  • It has been proposed that life-shortening Wolbachia strains, such as w MelPop, might be used to skew mosquito population age structure toward younger individuals, thereby reducing pathogen transmission without eradicating the mosquito population ( 12 , 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Some strains of Wolbachia , when introduced into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, reduce or block the replication of RNA viruses pathogenic to humans. (springer.com)
  • The replication of dengue, West Nile and three strains of Zika (genus Flavivirus ), and Ross River, Barmah Forest and Sindbis (genus Alphavirus ) viruses was compared in w AlbB-infected cells with Wolbachia -free controls. (springer.com)
  • Four Wolbachia strains sequenced to date indicate that the constitution of the genome is dynamic, but these strains are quite divergent and do not allow resolution of genome diversification over shorter time periods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified 44 genes in w Bol1-b that do not have homologs in any previously sequenced strains, indicating that Wolbachia 's non-core genome diversifies rapidly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The w Bol1-b-specific genes we have identified provide candidates for further investigations of the genomic bases of phenotypic differences between closely-related Wolbachia strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This diversity of host effects is mirrored by the genetic diversity found between strains of Wolbachia pipientis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the divergence between previously sequenced strains has made it difficult to characterise the tempo and mode of divergence of Wolbachia strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Second, they show that these doubly Wolbachia infected mosquitoes were less likely to carry some strains (but not all) of Dengue virus. (sciencemediacentre.org)
  • Whilst distinct Wolbachia strains are documented in a group of evolutionarily closely related mosquitoes known as the Culex pipiens complex, their impact on mosquito population genetics remains unclear. (pasteur.fr)
  • sample sequences were similar or identical to five known Wolbachia strains belonging to supergroups A and B while the majority of 16S rDNA sample sequences were similar to strains belonging to supergroup B. Overall, 80 (11.90%) individual mosquito samples showed positive amplifications in both markers and 69% showed congruence in supergroup identification (supergroup B). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results showed a low Wolbachia infection rate and inferred the detected strains belong to either supergroups A and B. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All studied ant species were doubly infected with two Wolbachia strains (wFex1 and wFex4) all over their geographical distribution area in Eurasia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two lines of evidence suggest that the sharing of Wolbachia strains by all F. rufa species is rather due to horizontal than vertical transmission. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Second, the frequent sharing of identical Wolbachia strains by distant mitochondrial lineages within the F. rufa group further shows that horizontal transmission has occurred repeatedly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the Wolbachia strains within this species, w Bol1, possesses male-killing ability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wolbachia strains also vary in their relative fitness effects on their hosts and this is a particularly important consideration with respect to the potential of newly created transinfections for use in disease control. (pasteur.fr)
  • Finally, strength of CI induced by several different strains of Wolbachia does not correlate with levels of DNA methylation in the host testes. (peerj.com)
  • Drosophila simulans has also played an important role in sequencing the genomes for certain Wolbachia strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further studies can help understand how Wolbachia strains coexist with D. simulans individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studying Wolbachia strains and their mechanisms of infection can provide insight into the complex phylogenetic relationships of arthropods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrocephalus palustris ) yielded a Wolbachia sequence, closely related to a moth endosymbiont with 99.8% identity. (springer.com)
  • A great deal of research is in progress on Wolbachia genomes, including the structures of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster , as well as Wolbachia endosymbiont strain TRS of Brugia malayi . (kenyon.edu)
  • In recent years, significant advancements have been made in the potential use of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia for mosquito biocontrol. (nih.gov)
  • Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. (mdpi.com)
  • Although Wolbachia is known to inhibit flaviviruses in mosquitoes, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), it remains unclear how the endosymbiont interferes with viral replication cycle. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike most filariae, L. loa does not contain the obligate intracellular Wolbachia endosymbiont. (broadinstitute.org)
  • When the researchers inoculated flies with spores from this fungus, Wolbachia -infected flies fared better than flies of the same strain that had been treated with tetracycline to cure them of their endosymbiont. (asmblog.org)
  • Wolbachia pipientis , a bacterial endosymbiont of insect, has recently garnered attention as a mechanism for arbovirus control. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Co-evolution between an endosymbiont and its nematode host: Wolbachia asymmetric posterior localization and AP polarity establishment. (cnrs.fr)
  • Our work provides comprehensive insight into the developmental dynamics of gene expression for a widespread endosymbiont in its natural host context, and shows that public gene expression data harbor rich resources to probe the functional basis of the Wolbachia-Drosophila symbiosis and annotate the transcriptional outputs of the Wolbachia genome. (g3journal.org)
  • We also investigated the prevalence of infection with the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. (nih.gov)
  • The discovery of massive gene transfer from Wolbachia to M. alternatus would provide further insights into the evolution and fate of laterally transferred endosymbiont genes in multicellular host organisms. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis causes diverse and sometimes dramatic phenotypes in its invertebrate hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wolbachia pipientis , a bacterial endosymbiont of a vast range of insect and other arthropod species [ 1 ], is maternally transmitted, and commonly enhances its transmission to the next host generation by modifying its hosts' reproductive systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular data revealed that the bacterium of L. chagasfilhoi shares 100% identity with the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Litomosoides galizai . (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the consensus CAF1 genome assembly lacks any sequence similarity to the reference genome of the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster ( w Mel), numerous studies from multiple laboratories provide experimental support for a large lateral/horizontal gene transfer (LGT) of a Wolbachia genome into this D. ananassae line. (g3journal.org)
  • highlights that an assembly of the Wolbachia sequence reads and their mate pairs was erroneously attributed solely to the Wolbachia endosymbiont, albeit before we understood the extent of LGT in D. ananassae . (g3journal.org)
  • As such, we recommend that the sequences deposited at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) under PRJNA13365 should not be attributed to Wolbachia endosymbiont of D. ananassae , but should have their taxonomy reclassified by NCBI as "Unclassified sequences. (g3journal.org)
  • Wolbachia is a naturally occurring endosymbiont which can be maternally inherited and cause different reproductive alterations in its host to increase their transmission to the next generation [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Filarial Endosymbiont Wolbachia sp. (allenpress.com)
  • Inhibition of Zika virus by Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti . (nature.com)
  • The Puerto Rico Vector Control Unit is working with the Communities Organized to Prevent Arboviruses (COPA) project in Ponce, Puerto Rico to determine whether mosquitoes with Wolbachia reduce the numbers of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which spread dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. (cdc.gov)
  • He added that the deployment of such mosquitoes, monitored by IMR, will take place on a weekly basis, until 60 per cent of the population of wild Aedes mosquitoes in Keramat are replaced with the Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. (yahoo.com)
  • Australia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Brazil and Colombia successfully use Wolbachia infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to control dengue, he said. (dailynews.lk)
  • The successful establishment of Wolbachia in wild Aedes aegypti populations has recently been demonstrated, and open releases in dengue-endemic countries are ongoing. (nih.gov)
  • A promising candidate for arbovirus control and prevention relies on the introduction of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. (nature.com)
  • G. Bian , Y. Xu , P. Lu and Z. Xi , The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia induces resistance to dengue virus in Aedes aegypti , PLoS Pathogens , 6 (2010), e1000833. (aimsciences.org)
  • H. L. Dutra , L. M Dos Santos , E. P. Caragata , J. B. Silva , D. A. Villela and R. Maciel-De-Freitas , From lab to field: The influence of urban landscapes on the invasive potential of Wolbachia in Brazilian Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 9 (2015), e0003689. (aimsciences.org)
  • H. L. Dutra , M. N. Rocha , F. B. Dias , S. B. Mansur , E. P. Caragata and L. A. Moreira , Wolbachia, blocks currently circulating Zika virus isolates in Brazilian Aedes aegypti , Cell Host Microbe , 19 (2016), 771-774. (aimsciences.org)
  • F. D. Frentiu , T. Zakir , T. Walker , J. Popovici , A. T. Pyke and D. H. A. Van , Limited dengue virus replication in field-collected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia , PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 8 (2014), e2688. (aimsciences.org)
  • Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia are being released into natural populations to suppress the transmission of arboviruses. (jove.com)
  • Aedes aegypti mosquitoes experimentally infected with Wolbachia are being utilized in programs to control the spread of arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika. (jove.com)
  • We have adapted the Wolbachia -infected Aa23 Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line to Eagle's minimal medium, supplemented with nonessential amino acids, glutamine, and 20% fetal bovine serum. (bioone.org)
  • Ann M. Fallon "Cytological properties of an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line infected with Wolbachia strain w AlbB," In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal 44(5), 154-161, (10 April 2008). (bioone.org)
  • I believe Wolbachia-infected Aedes eggs and larvae in the waters of southeastern U.S. and areas around northeastern Brazil (and wherever right whales "winter") are the problem. (infobarrel.com)
  • In this study, we have carried out viral binding assays to investigate the impact of the Wolbachia strain w AlbB on the attachment of DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) and ZIKV to Aedes aegypti Aag-2 cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • M. S. C. Blagrove, C. Arias-Goeta, C. Di Genua, A.-B. Failloux and S. P. Sinkins, A Wolbachia w Mel transinfection in Aedes albopictus is not detrimental to host fitness and inhibits Chikungunya virus, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 7 (2013), e2152. (aimsciences.org)
  • Male Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes will be released at expanded sites in Nee Soon and Tampines, under the next phase of a study to reduce the Aedes mosquito population and fight dengue. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • In the long term, this will require strategies which can reduce the number of male Wolbachia-Aedes mosquitoes being released in an area, to make the technology more sustainable. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • NEA's Environmental Health Institute (EHI) and local startup Orinno Technology have also developed a prototype of a mosquito launcher, which is designed to store male Wolbachia-Aedes mosquitoes so that they can be easily transported and later, released at high-rise residential blocks. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • Previously we reported the stable transinfection of the major dengue vector Aedes aegypti with a life-shortening Wolbachia strain (wMelPop-CLA) from the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. (nih.gov)
  • See commentary " Inhibition of Zika virus by Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti " in Microb Cell , volume 3 on page 293. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here we report that Aedes aegypti harboring Wolbachia are highly resistant to infection with two currently circulating Zika virus isolates from the recent Brazilian epidemic. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • P.-A. Bliman , M. S. Aronna , F. C. Coelho , M. A. da Silva and A. H. B. Moacyr , Ensuring successful introduction of Wolbachia in natural populations of Aedes aegypti by means of feedback control, Journal of Mathematical Biology , 76 (2018), 1269-1300. (aimsciences.org)
  • D. E. Campo-Duarte , O. Vasilieva , D. Cardona-Salgado and M. Svinin , Optimal control approach for establishing wMelPop Wolbachia infection among wild Aedes aegypti populations, Journal of Mathematical Biology , 76 (2018), 1907-1950. (aimsciences.org)
  • The article describes the successful scaled deployment of Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti to protect the community from arboviruses transmitted by these mosquitoes, including dengue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This realization lead to the suggestion that in addition to using Wolbachia as a gene drive mechanism, and for population suppression, it could also be used to make Aedes aegypti mosquitoes refractory. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The successful transfer of a life-shortening strain of the inherited bacterial symbiont, Wolbachia , into the major mosquito vector of dengue, Aedes aegypti , halved adult life span under laboratory conditions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Wolbachia induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of the Toll pathway to control dengue virus in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study, we have deciphered how Wolbachia infection affects the Aedes aegypti host in inducing resistance to DENV. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Wolbachia naturally occurs in up to 60% of all insect species, including butterflies and dragonflies, but not the Aedes aegypti mosquito that transmits Dengue virus. (lankanewspapers.com)
  • The Monash research team had successfully transferred Wolbachia from other insects into Aedes aegypti (Dengue) mosquitoes. (lankanewspapers.com)
  • The small-scale field study will involve the release of male Wolbachia-Aedes mosquitoes at a few selected sites at the end of the year. (blogspot.com)
  • When they mate with a female, Wolbachia-free Aedes aegypti mosquito, the eggs they produce will not hatch. (blogspot.com)
  • NEA said the upcoming small-scale study aims to understand the behaviour of Wolbachia-Aedes mosquitoes in an urban built-up environment, such as their longevity and flight range. (blogspot.com)
  • NEA has assured the public that the male mosquitoes do not bite and hence the release of the Wolbachia-Aedes will not pose any risk of biting or disease transmission. (blogspot.com)
  • As a result, Aedes mosquitoes with Wolbachia become predominant without researchers having to constantly release more contaminated insects. (bellenews.com)
  • The 250th study, entitled "Wolbachia uses host microRNAs to manipulate host gene expression and facilitate colonization of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. (eprhealthcarenews.com)
  • We have found that WSP is a strong immune elicitor in a naturally Wolbachia -uninfected mosquito species ( Anopheles gambiae ) while a milder elicitor in a naturally-infected species ( Aedes albopictus ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prophage WO genes recapitulate and enhance Wolbachia -induced cytoplasmic incompatibility. (nature.com)
  • Evolutionary genetics of cytoplasmic incompatibility genes cifA and cifB in prophage WO of Wolbachia . (nature.com)
  • Research on Wolbachia intensified after 1971, when Janice Yen and A. Ralph Barr of UCLA discovered that Culex mosquito eggs were killed by a cytoplasmic incompatibility when the sperm of Wolbachia-infected males fertilized infection-free eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytoplasmic incompatibility is the inability of Wolbachia-infected males to successfully reproduce with uninfected females or females infected with another Wolbachia strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cytoplasmic incompatibility mechanism, Wolbachia interferes with the parental chromosomes during the first mitotic divisions to the extent that they can no longer divide in sync. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wolbachia, especially Wolbachia-caused cytoplasmic incompatibility, may be important in promoting speciation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reproductive alterations known to result from Wolbachia infection include cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), parthenogenesis, feminization of genetic males, fecundity enhancement, male killing and, perhaps, lethality Here, we report male killing in a third insect, the black flour beetle Tribolium madens, based on highly female-biased sex ratios of progeny from females infected with Wolbachia. (mendeley.com)
  • L. B. Carrington , J. R. Lipkowitz , A. A. Hoffmann and M. Turelli , A re-examination of Wolbachia -induced cytoplasmic incompatibility in California Drosophila simulans , PLoS One , 6 (2011), e22565. (aimsciences.org)
  • S. L. Dobson , C. W. Fox and F. M. Jiggins , The effect of Wolbachia -induced cytoplasmic incompatibility on host population size in natural and manipulated systems, Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences , 269 (2002), 437-445. (aimsciences.org)
  • Wolbachia infections and the expression of cytoplasmic incompatibility in Drosophila sechellia and D. mauritiana. (genetics.org)
  • Various stocks of Drosophila mauritiana and D. sechellia were found to be infected with Wolbachia, a Rickettsia-like bacterium that is known to cause cytoplasmic incompatibility and other reproductive abnormalities in arthropods. (genetics.org)
  • These experiments indicate that in D. simulans and D. mauritiana expression of the cytoplasmic incompatibility phenotype is determined by the bacterial strain and that D. mauritiana harbors a neutral strain of Wolbachia. (genetics.org)
  • The parasitoid wasp N. vitripennis is a Wolbachia host in which the degree of cytoplasmic incompatibility correlates with bacterial density. (asmblog.org)
  • The selective advantage of Wolbachia infection due to cytoplasmic incompatibility may be outweighed by the disadvantage of a shorter lifespan. (asmblog.org)
  • One of the traits of Wolbachia is a gene drive-like attribute, called cytoplasmic incompatibility , where uninfected female mosquitoes that mate with infected male mosquitoes will not produce any offspring from the mating. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytoplasmic incompatibility is beneficial for the spread of Wolbachia because infected females can successfully reproduce, even if they mate with infected male mosquitoes, providing a relative fitness benefit to infected mosquitoes, driving Wolbachia through the population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most common Wolbachia -induced phenotype in insects is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which occurs when sperm from infected males fertilize eggs from uninfected females. (biologists.org)
  • Cytoplasmic incompatibility is the most common effect of Wolbachia infection and involves a sperm-egg incompatibility expressed in fertilized eggs. (biologists.org)
  • Microbes of the genus Wolbachia are transmitted by their hosts via the maternal parent and are responsible for cytoplasmic incompatibility among insect populations. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Here we describe another Wolbachia infection in D. simulans that does not cause cytoplasmic incompatibility. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The Wolbachia have a variety of reproductive manipulations that enable successful transmission such as feminization, male killing, parthenogenesis and also cytoplasmic incompatibility. (writework.com)
  • Wolbachia are able to manipulate the reproduction mechanisms of its hosts by provoking male killing, feminization, parthenogenesis and also cytoplasmic incompatibility (Hurst & Randerson 2002:44). (writework.com)
  • Wolbachia is maternally transmitted and it invades by manipulating host reproduction, most commonly using a mechanism known as cytoplasmic incompatibility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As these Wolbachia -induced changes are stable, reversible, and affect the host cell cycle machinery including DNA replication and chromosome segregation, we hypothesized that the host methylation pathway is targeted for modulation during cytoplasmic incompatibility because it accounts for all of these traits. (peerj.com)
  • Cytoplasmic incompatibility causes egg and sperm cells to fail in creating viable offspring, a common feature in Wolbachia-infected D. simulans and D. mauritiana individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The infection is maintained through a process involving cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in which Wolbachia hinders uninfected individuals from producing offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wolbachia sequences used in this analysis were from infections in coleopteran ( Diabrotica ), dipteran ( Drosophila ), hymenopteran ( Muscidifurax ) and filarial worm ( Brugia ) hosts. (els.net)
  • Ballard JWO (2004) Sequential evolution of a symbiont inferred from the host: Wolbachia and Drosophila simulans. (els.net)
  • 2004) Widespread prevalence of Wolbachia in laboratory stocks and the implications for Drosophila research. (els.net)
  • Forty-one stocks from 30 Drosophila species were surveyed for Wolbachia infection using PCR technology. (genetics.org)
  • Wolbachia forms relationships with a number of arthropods, such as Drosophila , as well as with filarial nematodes. (kenyon.edu)
  • As infeccións por Wolbachia foron asociadas coa resistencia viral na mosca Drosophila melanogaster e en especies de mosquitos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wolbachia can infiltrate germline stem cells of the fruit fly Drosophila mauritiana , where it spurs increased cell division of gamete precursors and lower rates of cell death, according to a study published today (October 20) in Science Express . (the-scientist.com)
  • In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, they enable the Wolbachia strain infecting one species of fruit fly, Drosophila simulans , to maintain a stable 94% rate of infection in natural populations, even though an estimated 2.5% of the eggs are not infected. (asmblog.org)
  • So, are the Wolbachia doing their Drosophila hosts a favor by defending them against DCV infection? (asmblog.org)
  • transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we report that Drosophila mauritiana infected with a native Wolbachia w Mau strain produces about four times more eggs than the noninfected counterpart. (sciencemag.org)
  • To address these questions, we use the natural hosts of Wolbachia as experimental models, such as Brugia malayi (the causative agent of elephantiasis) and other filarial nematodes species, as well as the Drosophila fly and the Culex pipens mosquito. (cnrs.fr)
  • A strain of the obligate intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, w MelPop, has been described that reduces adult life span of its natural fruit fly host Drosophila melanogaster ( 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we used nutritional geometry to quantify the role of macronutrients on insect-Wolbachia relationships in Drosophila melanogaster. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Differentially-expressed Wolbachia genes are typically up-regulated after Drosophila embryogenesis and include many bacterial membrane, secretion system, and ankyrin repeat-containing proteins. (g3journal.org)
  • During the initial mitotic divisions in Drosophila embryogenesis, Wolbachia exhibit a symmetric pattern of segregation. (biologists.org)
  • Insights into mechanisms of Wolbachia segregation during host mitosis have come from studying initial mitotic divisions in early Drosophila embryogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • This phenomenon can result in Wolbachia spreading through natural populations as previously demonstrated in Drosophila simulans. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The pathogenic Wolbachia strain w MelPop is detected in the central nervous system, muscles, and retina of Drosophila melanogaster . (springer.com)
  • Wolbachia infections give insight into how certain species of Drosophila are related. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wolbachia pipientis is a symbiotic bacterium that lives within the cells of filarial nematodes and about 40 percent of the world's arthropods, including insects, spiders, mites, and crustaceans. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Hertig formally described the species in 1936, and proposed both the generic and specific names: Wolbachia pipientis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004) Phylogeneomics of the reproductive parasite Wolbachia pipientis wMel: a streamlined genome overrun by mobile genetic elements. (els.net)
  • Hertig describiu formalmente a especie en 1936 como Wolbachia pipientis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that virus infection and transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. (mdpi.com)
  • In vitro production of the obligate intracellular bacterium, Wolbachia pipientis , is essential to its manipulation as a genetic tool to spread transgenes within vector populations. (bioone.org)
  • Casiraghi M, Bordenstein SR, Baldo L, Lo N, Beninati T, Wernegreen JJ, Werren JH, Bandi C (2005) Phylogeny of Wolbachia pipientis based on gltA , groEL and ftsZ gene sequences: clustering of arthropod and nematode symbionts in the F supergroup, and evidence for further diversity in the Wolbachia tree. (springer.com)
  • In 1924, Marshall Hertig in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Simeon Burt Wolbach at Harvard University Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts, first described Wolbachia in the mosquito Culex pipientis . (asu.edu)
  • In 1936, Hertig named these particular parasites Wolbachia pipientis . (asu.edu)
  • Efforts to control the spread of these diseases, many of which cannot be curbed by vaccination, have lately looked to the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis for help. (asmblog.org)
  • Wolbachia pipientis are bacterial endosymbionts of arthropods currently being implemented as biocontrol agents to reduce the global burden of arboviral diseases. (springer.com)
  • Wolbachia pipientis is a maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacterium that infects a wide range of nematodes and arthropods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dengue fever stopped spreading in an Australian city, called Townsville, after an army of mosquitoes infected with the Wolbachia bacterium was released on it. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers from INRA, CIRAD, CEA, the University of Montpellier, and Chicago and Vanderbilt Universities in the United States have developed an innovative method for analyzing the genome of the Wolbachia bacterium. (news-medical.net)
  • A new study from Indiana University may explain how a bacterium called Wolbachia prevents mosquitoes from transmitting deadly diseases such as dengue fever, West Nile virus and Zika. (news-medical.net)
  • John Beckmann, co-first author of the Yale study and a co-author of the Vanderbilt study, said the Yale researchers tested what they believed to be a two-gene operon found in the bacterium with the hypothesis that Wolbachia infection functions as a toxin-antidote system, since infected female insects can produce normal offspring even with infected males that are otherwise considered sterile. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Using Wolbachia for biological control makes sense because the bacterium uses many self-serving strategies that allow it to spread like wildfire. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In the last few years, a new disease control method, besides pesticide spraying to kill mosquitoes, has been developed by releasing mosquitoes carrying bacterium Wolbachia into the natural areas to infect the wild population of mosquitoes and block disease transmission. (aimsciences.org)
  • As traditional approaches to the control of dengue and Zika are insufficient, significant efforts have been made to develop utilization of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia to reduce the ability of mosquitoes to transmit pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • These male mosquitoes infected with the Wolbachia bacterium do not bite or transmit diseases. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • Wolbachia is a maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacterium widespread in insects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since the bacterium is passed on maternally from infected females to their eggs, this incompatibility gives a reproductive advantage to infected females, thereby favoring the spread of Wolbachia . (asmblog.org)
  • The bacterium Wolbachia is found in 60% of insects. (bellenews.com)
  • The maternally inherited bacterium Wolbachia often acts as a subtle parasite that manipulates insect reproduction, resulting potentially in reproductive isolation between host populations. (pasteur.fr)
  • By cloning various combinations of these candidate genes into plasmids and inserting them into fruit flies, the researchers both observed the known effects of Wolbachia infection and provided evidence to support the Yale team's findings. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Scott O'Neill, co-author of a commentary that ran alongside the two studies in Nature, called the study a step forward in understanding the mechanism of Wolbachia infection. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Using a natural system, we explore the effects of a Wolbachia-Plasmodium co-infection on mosquito fecundity. (cambridge.org)
  • Wolbachia , on the other hand, increases fecundity by roughly 10%, but does not alter the tolerance (fecundity-burden relationship) of mosquitoes to Plasmodium infection. (cambridge.org)
  • To date, Wolbachia infection status of planthopper species of Argentina is unknown. (bioone.org)
  • Amplification by PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA , wsp- and ftsZ -specific genes demonstrated Wolbachia infection in Caenodelphax teapae (Fowler), Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah, Pyrophagus tigrinus Remes Lenicov & Varela, Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir), and Toya propinqua (Fieber). (bioone.org)
  • However, there was an alternative explanation for low levels of M. cf. stigmaticus infection: if Wolbachia reduced the resistance of H. horticola to M. cf. stigmaticus , this would allow M. stigmaticus to kill off Wolbachia -infected H. horticola to keep their numbers down when M. cf. stigmaticus infection rates were high. (biologists.org)
  • the team finally transferred the plants and their parasitised caterpillars to Åland Islands to measure the impact that Wolbachia infection had on the rate of M. cf. stigmaticus infestation of H. horticola larvae. (biologists.org)
  • N. W. Brattig, D. W. Büttner, and A. Hoerauf, "Neutrophil accumulation around Onchocerca worms and chemotaxis of neutrophils are dependent on Wolbachia endobacteria," Microbes and Infection , vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 439-446, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Dynamics of infection with Wolbachia in Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) during invasion and establishment. (cabi.org)
  • In this study, we aim to assess the Wolbachia -infection status of H. postica populations throughout Northern Kyushu, where H. postica invasion to Japan was first found. (cabi.org)
  • In this thesis, we analyze common criticisms of such a role by means of mathematical models, combining Wolbachia infection dynamics and host population genetics. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Small Things Considered: Wolbachia Infection: A Good Thing? (asmblog.org)
  • Wolbachia Infection: A Good Thing? (asmblog.org)
  • Might it be that Wolbachia infection prevents deleterious infections by other organisms? (asmblog.org)
  • Thus, the Wolbachia protects the insects from serious infection by this fungus. (asmblog.org)
  • Aim 1: To experimentally examine the effect of Wolbachia infection on the competitive ability of A. aegypti larvae across a realistic range of habitat conditions. (europa.eu)
  • Fitness components did not differ significantly between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected mosquitoes, indicating that Wolbachia infection did not affect mosquito fitness. (europa.eu)
  • This means that fewer released mosquitoes are required to achieve a target Wolbachia infection frequency at the end of a release program. (europa.eu)
  • Here, we report a further characterization of the phenotypic effects of this virulent Wolbachia infection on several life-history traits of Ae. (nih.gov)
  • Wolbachia infection leads to an increase in the mitotic activity of germline stem cells (GSCs), as well as a decrease in programmed cell death in the germarium. (sciencemag.org)
  • Wolbachia -harboring mosquitoes displayed lower viral prevalence and intensity and decreased disseminated infection and, critically, did not carry infectious virus in the saliva, suggesting that viral transmission was blocked. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Infection by Wolbachia may limit the spread of these diseases by efficiently becoming established in insect populations, where they shorten the lifespan of their hosts or directly interfere with the pathogens the insects carry. (asmblog.org)
  • Upon Wolbachia infection, dramatic changes occur in the host insect's gametes such that infected females can reproduce by mating with either infected or uninfected males, but uninfected females who mate with infected males have no offspring. (asmblog.org)
  • Recently it was also shown to inversely correlate with infection of the Wolbachia with bacteriophage WO-B in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis . (asmblog.org)
  • Besides some key factors for Wolbachia infection, the CI effect suffering by uninfected ova produced by infected females, which is often neglected, is also incorporated. (aimsciences.org)
  • We analyze the conditions under which Wolbachia infection still can be established even if the basic reproduction number is less than unity. (aimsciences.org)
  • Numerical simulations manifest that the threshold value of infected mosquitoes required to be released at the beginning can be evaluated by the stable manifold of a saddle equilibrium, and low levels of MK effect, fitness costs, as well as high levels of CI effect and maternal inheritance all contribute to the establishment of Wolbachia -infection. (aimsciences.org)
  • Moreover, our results suggest that ignoring the CI effect suffering by uninfected ova produced by infected females may result in the overestimation of the threshold infection level for the Wolbachia invasion. (aimsciences.org)
  • A. I. Adekunle , M. T. Meehan and E. S. McBryde , Mathematical analysis of a Wolbachia invasive model with imperfect maternal transmission and loss of Wolbachia infection, Infectious Disease Modelling , 4 (2019), 265-285. (aimsciences.org)
  • Eggs and media was replaced every two weeks until Wolbachia infection increased to exceed 50% of mosquitoes collected using BG Sentinel traps, for at least two consecutive weeks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • So far, no endemic South American species of terrestrial isopods have been investigated for Wolbachia infection. (scielo.br)
  • Due to the non-cultivable nature of Wolbachia , the most common method for detecting infection is the enzymatic amplification of one or more Wolbachia gene fragments (O'Neill et al . (scielo.br)
  • Yet, Wolbachia abundance has been shown to vary greatly between individuals and the magnitude of the effects of infection on host life-history traits and protection against infection is correlated to within-host Wolbachia abundance. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Wolbachia in filarial parasites: targets for filarial infection and disease control. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • Populations from Sub-Saharan Africa also differ in the prevalence of Wolbachia infection, with very low levels of infection compared to populations from the rest of the world. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that the Wolbachia infection behaves like a neutral variant in populations. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The infection may represent an evolutionary outcome of interactions between Wolbachia infections and their hosts. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Nevertheless, our dataset also provides some evidence for longer-term persistence of infection, indicating that Wolbachia infection within this host clade has been shaped by both horizontal and vertical transmission of symbionts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The interaction between the Blue Moon butterfly, Hypolimnas bolina , and Wolbachia has attracted interest because of the high prevalence of male-killing achieved within the species, the ecological consequences of this high prevalence, the intensity of selection on the host to suppress the infection, and the presence of multiple Wolbachia infections inducing different phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We examined diversity in the co-inherited marker, mtDNA, and the partitioning of this between individuals of different infection status, as a means to investigate the population biology and evolutionary history of the Wolbachia infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This rescue capability gives a strong fitness advantage to Wolbachia -infected females and can lead to rapid sweeps of the infection through host populations. (peerj.com)
  • Two separate Wolbachia infection events have occurred in the ancestors of D. simulans, suggesting the evolutionary advantage of Wolbachia infections to D. simulans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Western strain is infected with the endosymbiotic proteobacteria Wolbachia , that cause unidirectional complete reproductive incompatibility, in its native (Europe) and an introduced (the United States) ranges. (cabi.org)
  • Male mosquitoes with Wolbachia are released regularly into an area by mosquito control professionals. (cdc.gov)
  • Mosquitoes with Wolbachia will only work to reduce numbers of target mosquito species, not other types of mosquitoes. (cdc.gov)
  • O xénero identificouse por primeira vez en 1924 por Marshall Hertig e Simeon Burt Wolbach no mosquito Culex pipiens . (wikipedia.org)
  • So a Wolbachia-based approach would never drive a mosquito to extinction - it would just kill older individuals before they become capable of spreading disease . (scienceblogs.com)
  • While Plasmodium is known to frequently express its virulence by partially castrating its mosquito vectors, the effects of Wolbachia infections on mosquito fecundity are, in contrast, highly variable. (cambridge.org)
  • This study provides an example of strong pathogen inhibition in a naturally Wolbachia -infected mosquito species, demonstrating that this inhibition is not limited to naturally naïve species, and suggests that the Wolbachia strain is more important than host background for viral inhibition. (pnas.org)
  • The Potential Use of Wolbachia-Based Mosquito Biocontrol Strategies for Japanese Encephalitis. (nih.gov)
  • This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. (mdpi.com)
  • This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. (mdpi.com)
  • The presence of Wolbachia was monitored by Giemsa staining of cytological preparations, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of Wolbachia 16S ribosomal DNA, and by simultaneous PCR amplification of ribosomal protein genes from Wolbachia and mosquito host cell genomes. (bioone.org)
  • I was gobsmacked to discover last year that safety tests prior to Wolbachia-infected mosquito releases was only carried out spiders, spider eggs, soil samples, plant leaves, plant roots, earthworms, and millipedes (in Australia). (infobarrel.com)
  • These results will aid in understanding the Wolbachia -DENV interactions in mosquito and the development of novel control strategies for mosquito-borne diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inserting the Wolbachia genes into infected mosquitoes can help decrease the hatch rate of the mosquito population. (medindia.net)
  • However, density-dependent variation in mosquito fitness components strongly affected the rate of Wolbachia spread. (europa.eu)
  • We incorporated the empirical relationships describing the form of density-dependent variation in mosquito fitness components into mathematical models to predict the dynamics of wMel Wolbachia field release strategies. (europa.eu)
  • Second, the development rate of mosquito larvae is also strongly density-dependent which affects the speed of Wolbachia invasion. (europa.eu)
  • Third, transient Wolbachia dynamics associated with field releases are influenced by density-dependent mosquito population growth rates. (europa.eu)
  • In addition to influencing the invasion dynamics of this particular Wolbachia strain, we suggest that the negative impact of wMelPop-CLA on embryonic quiescence may have applied utility as a tool to reduce mosquito population size in regions with pronounced dry seasons or in regions that experience cool winters. (nih.gov)
  • In 1971, Janice Yen and Ralph Barr at the University of California in Los Angeles, California, found that mosquito eggs were killed when the sperm of males infected by Wolbachia fertilized non-infected eggs. (asu.edu)
  • Wolbachia is a promising biological weapon to control the mosquito population, and is not harmful to humans' health, environment, and ecology. (aimsciences.org)
  • Here, Krisztian Magori summarizes the most recent updates from the World Mosquito Program on the success of scaled deployment of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes to reduce dengue transmission risk in a large city in Australia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The idea is that by simply introducing Wolbachia into mosquito populations, via the release of infected mosquitoes, Wolbachia would spread and eventually most mosquitoes would become unable to transmit dengue and other viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data suggest that targeting mosquito age with inherited Wolbachia infections may be a viable strategy to reduce the transmission of pathogens such as dengue viruses. (sciencemag.org)
  • When introduced to nonnative mosquito hosts, Wolbachia induce resistance to a number of human pathogens, including dengue virus (DENV), Plasmodium, and filarial nematodes, but the molecular mechanism involved is unclear. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Likewise, they will seed wild mosquito populations with Wolbachia in areas where dengue is endemic. (lankanewspapers.com)
  • Transinfection of mosquito vector populations with Wolbachia has been proposed as an arbovirus biocontrol measure that may be self-sustaining and environmentally friendly [ 12 ]. (springer.com)
  • There was a strong association between Wolbachia and mitochondrial haplotypes indicating a stable co-transmission in mosquito populations. (pasteur.fr)
  • Totals of 113 (16.8%) and 89 (13.2%) individual mosquito samples were determined to be infected with Wolbachia using the wsp and 16S rDNA markers, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study we investigated whether WSP can also induce innate immune responses in insects, using mosquito cell lines originating from both naturally Wolbachia -uninfected and Wolbachia -infected mosquito species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our model explains detailed features of the mosquito- Wolbachia dynamics observed in two independent experimental A. aegypti populations, allowing the combined effects on dynamics of multiple density-dependent fitness components to be characterized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Large urban settlements with high human and mosquito densities are important in driving dengue transmission [ 8 ], and present more challenging conditions for Wolbachia invasion compared to the low-density populations in north-east Australia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to design release strategies that achieve successful Wolbachia invasion across a range of environmental settings, it is critical to develop an understanding of the factors influencing Wolbachia invasion in wild mosquito populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, populations of the pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare which are exposed to the feminizing effects of Wolbachia, have been known to lose their female-determining chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that removal of Wolbachia by antibiotic treatment results in the loss of CI showing that the infected populations are indeed the same species. (els.net)
  • This might point to a positive fitness effects of the Wolbachia , which could help Wolbachia spread in populations," evolutionary geneticist Ary Hoffmann of The University of Melbourne, who was not involved in the research, wrote in an email to The Scientist . (the-scientist.com)
  • This mechanism is used by Wolbachia to spread through insect populations because in contrast, infected females can mate successfully with either infected or uninfected males, giving them a frequency-dependent reproductive advantage ( 8 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • These analytical results may help find a plausible explanation for the recent observation that the Wolbachia strain w MelPop failed to establish in the natural populations in Australia and Vietnam. (aimsciences.org)
  • Numerous studies have examined the growth dynamics of Wolbachia within populations and the resultant rate of spatial spread. (aimsciences.org)
  • Previously published findings by the authors have shown that a 4-week course of the tetracycline antibiotic, doxycycline, depletes Wolbachia populations in onchocerciasis and leads to long-term sterilization and a macrofilaricidal effect, whereas a 3-week course of doxycycline delivers sub-optimal effects. (medindia.net)
  • However, our preliminary screening of a few introduced populations in Northern Kyushu, southwestern Japan, failed to detect Wolbachia from the Western strain. (cabi.org)
  • On the other hand, in natural populations of the closely-related D. melanogaster , the infecting Wolbachia doesn't interfere with host reproduction. (asmblog.org)
  • Since epizootics caused by pathogenic fungi are a major factor limiting insect populations in nature, a group of Russian researchers asked whether Wolbachia helped D. melanogaster stave off infections by a fungus. (asmblog.org)
  • Aim 2: To develop data-driven mathematical models to predict strategies for the release of Wolbachia into A. aegypti populations that are robust to endogenous and exogenous environmental variation. (europa.eu)
  • To meet the first Aim, we designed experimental studies of the dynamics of wMel Wolbachia in populations of A. aegypti housed in field-cages. (europa.eu)
  • Specifically, the intense larval density-dependent competition occurring in the experimental populations caused marked extension of larval development times, which slowed the rate of Wolbachia spread. (europa.eu)
  • In this work, we examined the ability of these primers to detect Wolbachia in Anastrepha populations from three regions in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • Wolbachia spread very effectively through insect populations. (asmblog.org)
  • Wolbachia found in both species were generally specific to one population, and five populations hosted two different Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences. (scielo.br)
  • When two populations of M. alternatus were subjected to diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of four Wolbachia genes, only the ftsZ gene was detected from one of the populations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Exhaustive PCR surveys revealed that 31 and 30 of 214 Wolbachia genes examined were detected from the two insect populations, respectively. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • successfully used f or the containment, suppression or ev en eradication of populations of insect pests. (deepdyve.com)
  • Models of Wolbachia invasion incorporating density-dependent demographic variation in the host population explain observed dynamics in experimental A. aegypti populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These models predict strong effects of density-dependence on Wolbachia dynamics in field populations, and can assist in the effective use of Wolbachia to control the transmission of arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya and zika. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A nematode origin of Wolbachia DNA detected here in avian blood can be excluded, because results of phylogenetic analysis showed its closest alignment with insect wolbachiae. (springer.com)
  • This is the first finding of insect Wolbachia DNA in the circulatory system of birds, which can be explained either by the inoculation of wolbachiae by blood-sucking vectors, or passing of Wolbachia DNA from the gut into the blood of this insectivorous bird species. (springer.com)
  • Wolbachia has already been used to create sterile males as a means of insect population control, Beckmann said. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Once an insect dies, the Wolbachia will also die. (cdc.gov)
  • It is hypothesized that 70% of all insect species contain Wolbachia . (kenyon.edu)
  • is a fairly efficient dengue vector suggests a significant contribution of host background to the dengue inhibition phenotype, which possibly could be mediated by the increased immune response to Wolbachia found in a novel insect host. (pnas.org)
  • C. Brelsfoard , S. Dobson , Short note: an update on the utility of Wolbachia for controlling insect vectors and disease transmission, Asia-Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology , 19 (2011), 85-92. (aimsciences.org)
  • P. R. Crain, J. W. Mains, E. Suh, Y. Huang, P. H. Crowley and S. L. Dobson, Wolbachia infections that reduce immature insect survival: Predicted impacts on population replacement, BMC Evolutionary Biology , 11 (2011), p290. (aimsciences.org)
  • Approximately 20 to 75% of all insect species harbor Wolbachia ( 20 , 55 ), as do many arachnids and terrestrial crustaceans ( 7 , 11 , 12 , 40 ). (asm.org)
  • Previous research in the Davis laboratory, by graduate student Kelli Barr, indicates that WCR-vectored Wolbachia can affect gene expression in Zea mays L. as a consequence of insect feeding. (umsystem.edu)
  • Given the ability of WCR-vectored Wolbachia to alter maize gene expression, we wanted to determine whether other pests of maize carry Wolbachia as a first step towards evaluating the extent to which insect-vectored Wolbachia might affect plant gene expression. (umsystem.edu)
  • Since Wolbachia is an obligate parasite in most insects and can induce genetic drive, as well as affect plant gene expression, we hypothesize that the difference in mutation rate and selection pressure on the bacterial compared to the insect genome may explain some insect's ability to easily overcome chemical control. (umsystem.edu)
  • What are the transmission mechanisms of Wolbachia, within an organism (from the zygote to the adult germline), and within an insect population? (cnrs.fr)
  • In general, Wolbachia may represent a widespread and previously unrecognized party active in the conflicts of interest within social insect colonies. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • They are primarily known for their manipulation of host reproductive biology, and recently, infections with Wolbachia have been proposed as a new strategy for controlling insect vectors and subsequent human-transmissible diseases. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The results and methods described here open a new avenue in the study of insect-Wolbachia relationships and are of general interest to numerous research disciplines, ranging from nutrition and life-history theory to public health. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • If Wolbachia is to be used optimally in applied strategies to disrupt pathogen transmission in mosquitoes and other pest insects, it is important to gain a better understanding of what Wolbachia molecules are involved in eliciting insect immune responses, and whether responses to these molecules differ between naturally Wolbachia -infected and uninfected hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • thus in order to avoid the complications of possible strain-host co-adaptations, we have initially used WSP derived from a nematode Wolbachia rather than from an insect-derived Wolbachia strain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The male killing and feminization effects of Wolbachia infections can also lead to speciation in their hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing Wolbachia genomes will help researchers develop ways of treating and controlling human infections caused by filarial nematodes, which host Wolbachia . (kenyon.edu)
  • Killing their Wolbachia endosymbionts with antibiotics is a way of treating and controlling human filarial infections. (kenyon.edu)
  • J. Z. Farkas and P. Hinow , Structured and unstructured continuous models for Wolbachia infections, Bulletin of Mathematical Biology , 72 (2010), 2067-2088. (aimsciences.org)
  • Intrigued by both possibilities, the team investigated whether Wolbachia -infected H. horticola were better at evading M. cf. stigmaticus infections or became more susceptible to the tenacious hyperparasite. (biologists.org)
  • with Wolbachia infections in the laboratory for experiments and field release, taking precautions to minimize laboratory adaptation and selection. (jove.com)
  • Are They Suffering Zika and Wolbachia Infections? (infobarrel.com)
  • So, this suggests that this Wolbachia benefits its host by protecting it against RNA virus infections. (asmblog.org)
  • Feminization, a process by which geneticly male organisms turn into females, characterizes the infections of male organisms by Wolbachia , which require females to reproduce and survive. (asu.edu)
  • Some medical and hygienic pest insects, such as tsetse flies and mosquitoes, which vector devastating human pathogens, often also carry Wolbachia infections. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this context, Wolbachia infections in pest insects are potentially of practical utility. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The time taken for Wolbachia infections to become established has varied across recent field release trials, and establishment has failed to occur in some cases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wolbachia infections have significantly decreased virus-induced mortality in D. simulans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some host species cannot reproduce, or even survive, without Wolbachia colonisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic studies have shown that Wolbachia persica (now Francisella persica) was closely related to species in the genus Francisella and that Wolbachia melophagi (now Bartonella melophagi) was closely related to species in the genus Bartonella, leading to a transfer of these species to these respective genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wolbachia species are ubiquitous in mature eggs, but not mature sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of parthenogenesis induced by presence of Wolbachia are some species within the Trichogramma parasitoid wasp genus, which have evolved to procreate without males due to the presence of Wolbachia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptic species of ground wētā (Hemiandrus maculifrons complex) are host to different lineages of Wolbachia which might explain their speciation without ecological or geographical separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most Wolbachia species cannot be cultured outside of their eukaryotic host and so have not been given formal latin names. (wikipedia.org)
  • K. Hilgenboecker , P. Hammerstein , P. Schlattmann , A. Telschow , J. H. Werren , How many species are infected with wolbachia? (aimsciences.org)
  • All flea species were individually screened for the presence of Wolbachia spp. (springer.com)
  • The sequence analyses revealed 17 polymorphic sites and 2 genetically different Wolbachia isolates, representing two different haplotypes in two flea species. (springer.com)
  • Now, I believe Wolbachia is tied into what is happening to vertebrate species (including North Atlantic right whales). (infobarrel.com)
  • The intracellular bacterial parasites of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropod species. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In the past 10 years there has been increasing interest in the maternally inherited Wolbachia endosymbionts because of their remarkably widespread distribution and significant impact on the ecology, evolution, and reproductive biology of their host species ( 46 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • In 1990, Richard Stouthamer at the University of California in Riverside, California, found that Wolbachia could make males dispensable for reproduction in some species, by feminizing the population and producing parthenogenesis, a process of reproduction that does not involve fertilization . (asu.edu)
  • Why are Wolbachia required for the survival and fertility of the filarial species they colonize? (cnrs.fr)
  • Absence of Wolbachia endobacteria in the human parasitic nematode Dracunculus medinensis and two related Dracunculus species infecting wildlife. (cnrs.fr)
  • Terrestrial isopod species (Crustacea, Oniscidea) are widely infected with Wolbachia with prevalence reaching ~61% (~36 infected species) in this group (Bouchon et al . (scielo.br)
  • In both studies, the authors observed that the overall prevalence of Wolbachia was higher than that found in other studies in France with the same species (Cordaux et al . (scielo.br)
  • Polymerase chain reaction assays of the 16S rRNA gene were conducted to reveal the prevalence of Wolbachia in 14 Diabroticite species, 12 Diabrotica , and two Acalymma . (unl.edu)
  • We have compared the sequence diversity of wsp ( Wolbachia surface protein gene) and the host mtDNA in a group of Formica ant species that have diverged approximately 0.5 million years ago (MYA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effect of Wolbachia on host genetic variation depends on its transmission dynamics, i.e. whether it is strictly vertically transmitted from mother to offspring, or whether horizontal transmission also occurs between individuals or even between species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both of these diseases are caused by filarial nematodes, which rely on Wolbachia endosymbionts to survive. (kenyon.edu)
  • Endosymbionts of ticks and their relationship to Wolbachia spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dittmar K, Whiting MF (2004) New Wolbachia endosymbionts from Nearctic and Neotropical fleas (Siphonaptera). (springer.com)
  • Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts that naturally infect a diverse array of arthropods. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts that occupy many but not all tissues of adult insects. (biologists.org)
  • The genus Wolbachia is of considerable interest today due to its ubiquitous distribution, its many different evolutionary interactions, and its potential use as a biocontrol agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Males are rare in this genus of wasp, possibly because many have been killed by that same strain of Wolbachia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in different regions of Brazil have detected Wolbachia in fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (3, 4, 17, 23). (scielo.br)
  • Wolbachia has been known for decades to cause sterility in male insects, but its mechanism of action has eluded scientists. (yaledailynews.com)
  • He explained that male insects can be reared and infected with Wolbachia to create hordes of sterile males, which can then outcompete wild-type males for mates, producing sterile eggs that die upon fertilization. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Approximately 6 in 10 of all types of insects, including butterflies, bees, and beetles, around the world have Wolbachia . (cdc.gov)
  • Approximately 6 in 10 of all insects around the world have Wolbachia . (cdc.gov)
  • The type of Wolbachia used in these mosquitoes are same types of Wolbachia found throughout the world in many types of insects. (cdc.gov)
  • A week after the mosquitoes had fed on contaminated blood, Moreira found 26 times less Plasmodium DNA in insects defended by Wolbachia , and the number of individuals that could potential transmit the parasite had halved. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Between 20% and 60% of Neotropical insects are infected with Wolbachia (28). (scielo.br)
  • In a second experiment, insects that rapidly overcome chemical control were tested for the presence of Wolbachia and the specific strain of Wolbachia. (umsystem.edu)
  • DNA was prepared from these insects and tested for Wolbachia as described above. (umsystem.edu)
  • Wolbachia positive insects were assayed with a standard set of primers to delineate the strain of Wolbachia they carry. (umsystem.edu)
  • Since consuming blood increases the amount of iron in the insects, and Wolbachia have been shown elsewhere to influence iron metabolism, the study authors suggest that the iron may be the cause of post-bloodmeal mortality. (asmblog.org)
  • We study the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the symbiosis with Wolbachia in nematodes and insects. (cnrs.fr)
  • In arthropods, Wolbachia affects its host's reproductive abilities in order to increase its own numbers. (kenyon.edu)
  • Our findings suggest that host symbiont interaction effects may play an important role in the induction of Wolbachia reproductive phenotypes. (mendeley.com)
  • Although Wolbachia- infected mosquitoes fare overall better than uninfected ones, Wolbachia does not confer a sufficiently high reproductive boost to mosquitoes to compensate for the reproductive losses inflicted by Plasmodium. (cambridge.org)
  • In summary, our results implicate that Wolbachia might be a frequent factor in host speciation, but usually only by contributing to overall reproductive isolation among other factors. (hu-berlin.de)
  • To reproduce, Wolbachia often exploit their hosts' reproductive processes. (asu.edu)
  • Wolbachia are housed in the lateral chords and oocytes of their filarial nematode hosts. (kenyon.edu)
  • Vertically transmitted parasites (VTPs) such as Wolbachia are expected not only to minimize the damage they inflict on their hosts, but also to protect their hosts against the damaging effects of coinfecting parasites. (cambridge.org)
  • If this were the only factor, the percentage of Wolbachia -infected hosts would decrease with each generation. (asmblog.org)
  • You may be acquainted with one of these factors-the strategies some Wolbachia use to manipulate the reproduction of their hosts and thereby increase the number of infected individuals. (asmblog.org)
  • That 2.5% may sound small, but it causes the percentage of Wolbachia -infected hosts to decline generation after generation. (asmblog.org)
  • Wolbachia alter both reproduction and development of their hosts. (asu.edu)
  • As Wolbachia can affect the biology of their hosts, which can be disease vectors (for instance, mosquitos or human parasites), they are of utmost biomedical relevance. (cnrs.fr)
  • As mentioned earlier Wolbachia are unable to be transmitted via sperm and as a result female hosts are of crucial importance to the parasite. (writework.com)
  • Male Killing: In some groups of African Butterfly Acraea encedon, the widespread pill bug Armidillidium vulgare and the common two-spot ladybug Adilia bipunctata the Wolbachia eradicate unhatched male hosts in a population, known as male killing as they have no chance of being transmitted through sperm. (writework.com)
  • Wolbachia spreads by increasing the fitness of its hosts relative to uninfected mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Internal fragments of five ubiquitous genes ( gatB , coxA , hcpA , fbpA , and ftsZ ) were chosen, and primers that amplified across the major Wolbachia supergroups found in arthropods, as well as other divergent lineages, were designed. (asm.org)
  • Scientists estimate that Wolbachia exist in between seventeen percent and seventy-six percent of arthropods and nematodes. (asu.edu)
  • In the mutualistic relationship with filarial nematodes, Wolbachia produces metabolic coenzymes that its host does not have. (kenyon.edu)
  • The relationship between Wolbachia and filarial nematodes is different. (kenyon.edu)
  • For example, if Wolbachia is removed from host nematodes, the host organism loses its fertility and/or dies. (kenyon.edu)
  • These results suggest that the role of Wolbachia in filarial biology is more subtle than previously thought and reveal marked differences between parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes. (broadinstitute.org)
  • It is caused by parasitic nematodes that live in mutualism with Wolbachia. (cnrs.fr)
  • Both asymmetric mitotic segregation and cell-to-cell invasion are required for stable germline transmission of Wolbachia in filarial nematodes. (cnrs.fr)
  • The Wolbachia genome is small, the result of streamlining its genome as it coevolved inside host organisms. (kenyon.edu)
  • While we do not disagree with the first conclusion, the authors base their second conclusion on the lack of homology detected between their improved CAF1 genome assembly attributed to D. ananassae and reference Wolbachia genomes. (g3journal.org)
  • As such, we strongly suspect that the original whole genome assembly was either constructed after the removal of all Wolbachia reads, or that Wolbachia sequences were directly removed from the contigs in the CAF1 assembly. (g3journal.org)
  • Although we do not disagree with the first conclusion, we were surprised to see that the authors stated that the Wolbachia sequences integrated into the D. ananassae genome are a minor contributor to expansion of the Muller F Element. (g3journal.org)
  • The authors base their conclusions on the lack of homology detected between their improvements to the CAF1 genome assembly attributed to D. ananassae and reference Wolbachia genomes. (g3journal.org)
  • To test whether bacteriophages transfer as single genes or larger regions between coinfections, we sequenced the genome of the obligate intracellular Wolbachia strain w VitB from the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis and compared it against the prophage sequences of the divergent w VitA coinfection. (oup.com)
  • All these parameters influence the population dynamics of Wolbachia, and the data presented are favourable with respect to the aim of taking wMel to high population frequency. (pasteur.fr)
  • 2008). Accurate estimates of Wolbachia prevalence are difficult to obtain, and both under and/or overestimation may occur. (scielo.br)
  • This data overall supports the hypothesis that high prevalence of male-killing Wolbachia ( w Bol1) in H. bolina is associated with very high transmission efficiency rather than regular horizontal transmission. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crossed lines indicate two key biological differences: (1) Wolbachia have lost the ability to infect mammals and (2) have acquired the ability to alter host reproduction. (els.net)
  • Wolbachia doesn't usually infect mosquitoes but Scott O'Neill from the University of Queensland is leading a team of researchers who are trying to enlist it. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The researchers allowed the mosquitoes to feed on their own arms for five years because of concerns at the time Wolbachia could infect humans and domestic animals. (bellenews.com)
  • Our data indicate that the use of Wolbachia -harboring mosquitoes could represent an effective mechanism to reduce Zika virus transmission and should be included as part of Zika control strategies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Wolbachia organisms became noteworthy in tropical medicine when they were found in nematode worms, specifically those causing filariasis. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we described ultrastructural aspects of the relationship of the Wolbachia with the filarial nematode Litomosoides chagasfilhoi and the findings lead us to consider this relationship as a mutualistic symbiosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • He said studies have shown that Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes could prevent the spread of the dengue virus among humans. (yahoo.com)
  • Even after five generations of breeding with wild mosquitoes, the offspring of the Wolbachia carriers still resisted dengue virus. (scienceblogs.com)
  • aegypti infected with Wolbachia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • aegypti and the RNAi depletion approach has been instrumental in proving the role of defensins and cecropins in the resistance of Wolbachia-infected Ae. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We develop a mathematical model to predict A. aegypti-Wolbachia dynamics that incorporates larval density-dependent variation in important fitness components of infected and uninfected mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • K. Fenn and M. Blaxter, " Wolbachia genomes: revealing the biology of parasitism and mutualism," Trends in Parasitology , vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 60-65, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • The main flaw in the Yale study was the research team's inability to show that a female fly possessing the two Wolbachia genes could produce a viable embryo when fertilized by an infected male, Yale study co-first author Judith Ronau said. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Wolbachia sets the mosquito's immune system on high-alert, switching on a few important immune system genes. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Specifically, Wolbachia turns off host defense genes. (umsystem.edu)
  • We found that the majority of Wolbachia genes are expressed stably across the D. melanogaster life cycle, but that 7.8% of Wolbachia genes exhibit robust stage- or sex-specific expression differences when studied in the whole-organism context. (g3journal.org)
  • The identity of the Wolbachia strain was determined by sequencing the 16S rRNA and fts Z genes as well as a restriction enzyme digest of the fts Z gene. (unl.edu)
  • Many of these Wolbachia genes contained stop codon(s) and/or frame shift(s). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Fluorescent in situ hybridization confirmed the location of the Wolbachia genes on an autosome. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This article reviews the recent findings, which highlight potential processes that form the basis of the symbiosis, the role of Wolbachia in filarial pathogenesis, and the efficacy of Wolbachia-targeted antibiotic chemotherapy in human trials. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • For example, primers for 16S rDNA (a ribosomal gene), fts Z (a regulatory gene of the bacterial cell cycle) and wsp (a gene for an cell membrane protein) have been used to study the phylogenetics of Wolbachia (2, 6, 18) and have led to the division of Wolbachia into eight taxonomic supergroups (A to H) (12, 13, 27). (scielo.br)
  • The ftsZ gene was extensively used by Werren and colleagues (27, 28) to detect Wolbachia , but several studies have demonstrated its low sensitivity (3, 9, 30, 31). (scielo.br)
  • Future studies will examine whether Wolbachia vectored by other maize pests can cause similar changes in maize gene expression as those demonstrated with the western corn rootworm. (umsystem.edu)
  • The Wolbachia ftsZ gene persisted even after larvae were fed with a tetracycline-containing diet for six weeks. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We further report a second possible case of horizontal gene transfer from a eukaryote into Wolbachia . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Following years of research into Wolbachia, our field trials have been met with widespread support from communities, governments and regulators," the program announced adding that their field trials have been carried out since 2011. (lankanewspapers.com)
  • In this work, we develop a model to describe how the imperfect maternal transmission affects the dynamics of Wolbachia spread. (aimsciences.org)
  • We apply our model to investigate Wolbachia field release dynamics, and show how invasion outcomes can depend strongly on the severity of density-dependent competition at the release site. (biomedcentral.com)
  • in females, Wolbachia must somehow restore embryonic viability, through what is usually called ‘the rescue (rest) function.’ The occurrence of CI in crosses between males and females bearing different Wolbachia variants demonstrates that the mod and rest functions interact in a specific manner: different mod resc pairs make different compatibility types. (ebscohost.com)
  • It results when males infected with Wolbachia mate with uninfected females (or with females infected with a different strain of Wolbachia ). (biologists.org)
  • CI acts as a post-fertilization mating barrier by preventing the development of embryos from uninfected females that are mated with Wolbachia -infected males. (peerj.com)
  • All of these manipulations increase the number or fitness of infected females in the population, which is advantageous for Wolbachia because they are maternally transmitted via the egg cytoplasm. (biologists.org)
  • A supplemental typing system using the hypervariable regions of the Wolbachia surface protein (WSP) was also developed. (asm.org)
  • Each individual sample was processed and screened for the presence of Wolbachia by selected markers, Wolbachia -specific 16S rDNA and its surface protein ( wsp ), under optimized PCR conditions and sequenced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • adult mosquitoes using Wolbachia -specific 16S rDNA and its surface protein ( wsp ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genomics of Loa loa, a Wolbachia-free filarial parasite of humans. (broadinstitute.org)
  • 2014. "Genomics of Loa loa, a Wolbachia-free filarial parasite of humans. (harvard.edu)
  • An LSTM led partnership has been awarded nearly £1.5 million from the Medical Research Council for the pre-clinical development of a candidate drug to treat onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, by targeting the bacterial symbiont Wolbachia. (news-medical.net)
  • By targeting Wolbachia, a bacterial symbiont that the filarial parasites need to live, the team has discovered a drug synergy that enables effective treatment over a shorter time. (news-medical.net)
  • The findings could have implications for the use of Wolbachia to control vector-borne diseases, an effort that has shown recent promise to limit the transmission of malaria and dengue transmission via mosquitoes, for example. (the-scientist.com)
  • infected with the w Mel strain of Wolbachia that are being released in Medellin, Colombia, we report that these mosquitoes have reduced vector competence for ZIKV. (nature.com)
  • Understanding of the role of Wolbachia in vector biology may provide information for developing Wolbachia -based biological control tools. (springer.com)
  • Wolbachia obtains nutrients through symbiotic relationships. (kenyon.edu)
  • Wolbachia has formed a symbiotic relationship with D. simulans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review outlines the current control methods for JEV in addition to highlighting the potential use of Wolbachia-based biocontrol strategies to impact transmission. (nih.gov)
  • B) The JEV transmission cycle could be interrupted at various points using a Wolbachia -based biocontrol strategy in which JEV-refractory mosquitoes are unable to maintain the enzootic transmission cycles or transmit the virus to humans. (nih.gov)
  • however, that strain of Wolbachia no longer is being considered for biocontrol because infected mosquitoes displayed reduced fitness in small-scale field releases 19 . (nature.com)
  • These findings lend optimism that Wolbachia biocontrol represents a significant new development in the fight against arbovirus transmission. (nature.com)
  • Here, we describe the epidemiology of dengue in the city of Yogyakarta, Central Java, as a prelude to implementation of a cluster-randomized trial of Wolbachia for the biocontrol of arboviral transmission. (ajtmh.org)
  • Fifteen new Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences were detected. (scielo.br)
  • Now, O'Neill's team, led by Luciano Moreira, have found that their Wolbachia recruits have a second advantage - they stop mosquitoes from becoming vectors for the viruses and parasites that cause human disease. (scienceblogs.com)
  • This is the first report of Wolbachia in delphacid vectors of viruses affecting maize and wheat. (bioone.org)
  • When Culex mosquitoes naturally acquire Wolbachia - and there are multiple ways this can happen - they were better vectors of West Nile virus and malaria. (infobarrel.com)
  • molecular identification of Wolbachia endobacteria and their recognition by antibodies against proteins of endobacteria from filarial parasites. (springer.com)
  • Effect of naturally occurring Wolbachia in Anopheles gambiae s.l . mosquitoes from Mali on Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission. (nature.com)
  • Culex tarsalis are naturally uninfected with Wolbachia. (infobarrel.com)
  • This study considers the influence of low (16°C) and high (29°C) temperature on the survival and lifespan of D. melanogaster females infected with the Wolbachia strain w MelPop. (springer.com)
  • Few studies have investigated the effect of Wolbachia on pathogen transmission by Culex mosquitoes, despite the fact they transmit viruses impacting human health. (infobarrel.com)
  • The distribution patterns, molecular characterization, and phylogenetic status of Wolbachia spp. (springer.com)
  • They also represent a moderate proportion of the phylogenetic diversity present in Wolbachia . (biomedcentral.com)
  • from India was presented, based on amplification of Wolbachia -specific 16S rRNA, wsp and ftsZ molecular markers [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogeny of Wolbachia and related groups derived from 1.3 kb of 16S rDNA sequence. (els.net)
  • The primers for 16S rDNA, fts Z and wsp and the corresponding PCR conditions have been optimized to study the distribution of Wolbachia and their effect on the biology of Anastrepha in Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • These findings indicate that reliable PCR detection of Wolbachia requires the use of primers for 16S rDNA and wsp to avoid cross-reactions and false negatives, and that the fts Z primer needs to be redesigned to improve its selectivity. (scielo.br)
  • For instance, the study does not directly test the teams' hypotheses, since there is currently no way to genetically transform Wolbachia, O'Neill said in an email. (yaledailynews.com)
  • JEV transmission cycle and potential inhibition through the introduction of Wolbachia -infected Cx . (nih.gov)
  • The first stage covered 18 suburbs with known highest dengue transmission risk, where program staff released Wolbachia -infected mosquitoes placed as eggs in a bucket with water and food in about 20% of all residential properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Long term monitoring has shown that when a high proportion of mosquitoes in an area carry Wolbachia, local transmission of the disease has stopped. (lankanewspapers.com)
  • Although much research has focused on Wolbachia germline concentration and transmission, a number of studies have convincingly demonstrated that Wolbachia are present in a broad array of larval and adult somatic tissues. (biologists.org)
  • Horizontal transmission of Wolbachia will weaken the association between Wolbachia and the mitochondrial haplotype, and the effects on host mitochondrial DNA variation are presumed to be negligible. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mosquitoes with Wolbachia mate with wild female mosquitoes that do not have Wolbachia , the eggs will not hatch. (cdc.gov)
  • From these eggs, new mosquitoes with Wolbachia are bred. (cdc.gov)
  • In the new study, cell biologist Horacio Frydman of Boston University and his colleagues showed Wolbachia can increase the number of eggs produced by D. mauritiana females. (the-scientist.com)
  • Wolbachia -infected flies laid 3.5 to 4 times more eggs than uninfected individuals. (the-scientist.com)
  • Electron microscopy and confocal imaging techniques demonstrated a substantial accumulation of Wolbachia in the germline stem cell niche (GSCN), where the stem cells that form the females' eggs are stored. (the-scientist.com)
  • Knowing that only 50% of the parasitic wasps carried Wolbachia , they then offered clutches of butterfly eggs to the H. horticola wasp mothers for them to lay their eggs in. (biologists.org)
  • D. simulans eggs were infected with the wRi Wolbachia strain in order to better understand how Wolbachia recombines. (wikipedia.org)
  • We further examined the Wolbachia genetic diversity, the variability in the coinherited host mitochondria and their partitioning among members of the Cx. (pasteur.fr)
  • As CI Wolbachia spreads in the population, the associated, also maternally inherited mitochondria are transmitted along with it. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evidence indicates either genetic exchange between Wolbachia in a parasitoid wasp and in the fly that it parasitizes or horizontal transfer of Wolbachia between the parasitoid and the fly, followed by a recombination event. (nih.gov)
  • The Wolbachia Project empowers biology educators to bring real-world scientific research into the classroom with inquiry, discovery, biotechnology, and a culture of excellence. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • My guess is that when researchers start to look in more detail in other systems, they're going to find that Wolbachia are routinely manipulating stem cell biology. (the-scientist.com)
  • M. H. Chan , P. S. Kim , Modelling a Wolbachia invasion using a slow-fast dispersal reaction-diffusion approach, Bulletin of Mathematical Biology , 75 (2013), 1501-1523. (aimsciences.org)
  • However, our theoretical framework suggests that this effect is unlikely to hamper Wolbachia invasion and has only minor effects on population suppression programs. (ajtmh.org)
  • Furthermore, unlike Wolbachia, which need a host cell to multiply, F. persica and B. melophagi can be cultured on agar plates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The red lines indicate representative Wolbachia lineages that have specialized in manipulating host reproduction. (els.net)
  • Wolbachia host genera are shown in parentheses. (els.net)
  • In addition to meeting its nutritional needs, host organisms synthesize amino acids and vitamins for Wolbachia . (kenyon.edu)
  • Serendipitously, it also was discovered that some Wolbachia interfere with viruses and other microbes in the same host. (nature.com)
  • Removal of Wolbachia by treatment with tetracycline did not alter the cytological properties of the host cells, which had a population doubling time of 4-5 d. (bioone.org)
  • Wolbachia morphology was pleomorphic, and Wolbachia DNA persisted in the culture medium for several weeks after degradation of PCR-amplifiable host cell DNA. (bioone.org)
  • Such observations suggest that this Wolbachia must be conferring some fitness on its host. (asmblog.org)
  • In these conditions, Wolbachia can obscure studies of mitochondrial variation in the host population. (frontiersin.org)
  • The central database for storing and organizing Wolbachia bacterial and host information can be accessed at http://pubmlst.org/wolbachia/ . (asm.org)
  • How do Wolbachia subvert the host cell machinery to establish and maintain their intracellular lifestyle? (cnrs.fr)
  • It is therefore essential to better understand the factors that modulate Wolbachia abundance and effects on host fitness. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Our results show fundamental interactions between diet composition, host diet selection, Wolbachia abundance and effects on host lifespan and fecundity. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • This centrosome association is microtubule-dependent and promotes an even Wolbachia distribution throughout the host embryo. (biologists.org)
  • To this aim, we developed a PCR-RFLP test that discriminates the five known Wolbachia groups found in this host complex. (pasteur.fr)
  • pipiens complex, in order to assess the impact of Wolbachia on host population structure. (pasteur.fr)
  • Instead, overexpression decreases Wolbachia titers in host testes by approximately 17%, leading to a similar reduction in CI levels. (peerj.com)