Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Glycoside HydrolasesGlycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Oligosaccharides, Branched-Chain: Oligosaccharides containing various types of glycosidic linkages that yield branching or antennae. The number of antennae (such as bi-, tri-, tetra-, or penta-antennary) in the oligosaccharides on the PROTEOGLYCANS; GLYCOPROTEINS; or LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES contribute to their biological activities, such as receptor binding and metabolism.Mannosidases: Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.Polyisoprenyl Phosphate Oligosaccharides: These compounds function as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. Include the pyrophosphates.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase: A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.PolysaccharidesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.alpha-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Swainsonine: An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.FucoseDatabases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.1-Deoxynojirimycin: An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with antiviral action. Derivatives of deoxynojirimycin may have anti-HIV activity.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.GlucosamineAcetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase: An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Acetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.IndolizinesGalactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Polyisoprenyl Phosphate Sugars: Compounds functioning as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. They include the polyisoprenyl pyrophosphates.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Tunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Electrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Guanosine Diphosphate Mannose: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Dolichol: Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.Milk, HumanChromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Prebiotics: Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.alpha-Mannosidosis: An inborn error of metabolism marked by a defect in the lysosomal isoform of ALPHA-MANNOSIDASE activity that results in lysosomal accumulation of mannose-rich intermediate metabolites. Virtually all patients have psychomotor retardation, facial coarsening, and some degree of dysostosis multiplex. It is thought to be an autosomal recessive disorder.Mannosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Dolichol Monophosphate Mannose: A lipophilic glycosyl carrier of the monosaccharide mannose in the biosynthesis of oligosaccharide phospholipids and glycoproteins.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Dolichol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of dolichol.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Nitrous Acid: Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.alpha-L-Fucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha L-fucoside to yield an alcohol and L-fucose. Deficiency of this enzyme can cause FUCOSIDOSIS. EC 3.2.1.51.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Raffinose: A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Mannosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine: Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
Shorter polysaccharides, with 3 - 10 monomers, are called oligosaccharides. A fluorescent indicator-displacement molecular ... whose heads contain an oligosaccharide with 1-15 saccharide residues. Phospholipids, whose heads contain a positively charged ... Their number and arrangement is called the secondary structure of the protein. Alpha helices are regular spirals stabilized by ... and of some metabolic pathways as invariant features between the diversity of life forms is called "biochemical universals" or ...
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) also sometimes called oligofructose or oligofructan, are oligosaccharide fructans, used as an ... Inulin can be degraded enzymatically or chemically to a mixture of oligosaccharides with the general structure Glu-Frun (abbrev ... 2004). "Nondigestible oligosaccharides increase calcium absorption and suppress bone resorption in ovariectomized rats". ... and these oligosaccharides can be found in a large number of plants, especially in Jerusalem artichoke, chicory and the Blue ...
Oligosaccharides can be formed by a small number of monosaccharides linked together. Higher oligosaccharides are called ... This concept is illustrated by an oligosaccharide synthesis in Scheme 1. Oligosaccharide synthesis normally consists of four ... but to oligosaccharides structures of glycoconjugates. Therefore, the oligosaccharide synthesis becomes more and more important ... Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, are carbohydrates which can not be converted into smaller sugars by hydrolysis. ...
Mannosyl-oligosaccharide glucosidase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MOGS gene. Glucosidase I is the first enzyme ... GCS1 may also refer to "generative cell specific 1", also called HAP2 (hapless2), a gene of lower eukaryotes which is thought ... Pal R, Hoke GM, Sarngadharan MG (1989). "Role of oligosaccharides in the processing and maturation of envelope glycoproteins of ... GCS1 cleaves the distal alpha-1,2-linked glucose residue from the Glc(3)-Man(9)-GlcNAc(2) oligosaccharide precursor. GCS1 is ...
When a few (around three to six) monosaccharides are joined, it is called an oligosaccharide (oligo- meaning "few"). These ... or oligosaccharides. The combined pathways of glycolysis during exercise, lactate's crossing via the bloodstream to the liver, ... If the amino group is removed from an amino acid, it leaves behind a carbon skeleton called an α-keto acid. Enzymes called ... The resulting molecule is called a dipeptide, and short stretches of amino acids (usually, fewer than thirty) are called ...
Beta-mannosidosis, also called lysosomal beta-mannosidase deficiency, is a disorder of oligosaccharide metabolism caused by ... Urine testing to identify abnormal oligosaccharides is a useful screening test, and enzymatic analysis or molecular testing can ...
The oligosaccharide groups on gangliosides extend well beyond the surfaces of the cell membranes, and act as distinguishing ... which results in a group of diseases called gangliosidosis. For example, the fatal Tay-Sachs disease arises as a genetic defect ... with the two hydrocarbon chains of the ceramide moiety embedded in the plasma membrane and the oligosaccharides located on the ... They are degraded to ceramides by sequential removal of sugar units in the oligosaccharide group, catalyzed by a set of highly ...
Calnexin binds only those N-glycoproteins that have GlcNAc2Man9Glc1 oligosaccharides. These monoglucosylated oligosaccharides ... If the glycoprotein is not properly folded, an enzyme called UGGT (for UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase) will add ... the glucose residue back onto the oligosaccharide thus regenerating the glycoprotein's ability to bind to calnexin. The ...
... meaning that they can react with other monosaccharides to form a longer chain of monosaccharides called an oligosaccharide. ... "A Strategy for the Solid-Phase Synthesis of Oligosaccharides". Science. 260 (5112): 1307-1309. Bibcode:1993Sci...260.1307D. doi ... In this case, the product is called an exo-glycal. The glycal conformation that has been studied in most depth is that of the ...
Natural saccharides are generally of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general formula (CH2O)n where n is three ... As a rule of thumb, polysaccharides contain more than ten monosaccharide units, whereas oligosaccharides contain three to ten ... Oligosaccharide nomenclature. *Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria. References[edit]. *^ Varki A, Cummings R, Esko J, Freeze H ... Called dietary fiber, these carbohydrates enhance digestion among other benefits. The main action of dietary fiber is to change ...
B oligosaccharide is present) AB (A and B oligosaccharides are present) O (neither A nor B, only their precursor H ... This is called the Rh factor. If this is present, the particular blood type is called positive. If it is absent, it is called ... The varieties of glycoprotein coating on red blood cells divides blood into four groups: A (A oligosaccharide is present) B ( ... Blood is composed of cells suspended in a liquid called plasma. Suspended in the plasma are three types of cells: Red blood ...
... precursor oligosaccharide En bloc transfer of precursor oligosaccharide to protein Processing of the oligosaccharide Synthesis ... Hybrid oligosaccharides contain a mannose residues on one side of the branch, while on the other side a N-acetylglucosamine ... in a process called N-glycosylation, studied in biochemistry. This type of linkage is important for both the structure and ... Once the precursor oligosaccharide is formed, the completed glycan is then transferred to the nascent polypeptide in the lumen ...
Mannan oligosaccharides have been widely evaluated in feeding trials. As animal health and performance are influenced by many ... This mucus is produced in specific cells called goblet cells. In general the number of goblet cells is an indicator of mucus ... Mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) based nutritional supplements are widely used in nutrition as a natural additive. MOS have been ... and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on European lobster (Homarus gammarus L.) larvae growth performance, gut morphology and gut ...
The yeast protein, called the nuclear division Rft1 protein (TC# 2.A.66.3.1), is 574 aas with 12 putative TMSs. The homologue ... Dol is made on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and translocated across the membrane so that the oligosaccharide chain ... "Translocation of lipid-linked oligosaccharides across the ER membrane requires Rft1 protein". Nature. 415 (6870): 447-450. doi: ... specific for lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursors of glycoproteins in eukaryotes - (TC# 2.A.66.3) The Oligosaccharidyl-lipid ...
Oligosaccharides are sugar containing polymers. In the membrane, they can be covalently bound to lipids to form glycolipids or ... Most organelles are defined by such membranes, and are called "membrane-bound" organelles. Probably the most important feature ... "General N-and O-Linked Glycosylation of Lipoproteins in Mycoplasmas and Role of Exogenous Oligosaccharide". PLoS ONE. 10 (11): ... This transfer is catalyzed by enzymes called flippases. In the plasma membrane, flippases transfer specific phospholipids ...
Cello-oligosaccharides can be chemically reduced through the action of sodium borohydride to produce their corresponding sugar ... Enzymes that cleave lignin have occasionally been called cellulases, but this old usage is deprecated; they are lignin- ... These methods involve the use of functionalised oligosaccharide substrates in the presence of an ancillary enzyme. In the ... This makes borohydride reduced cello-oligosaccharides valuable substrates for the assay of cellulase using traditional reducing ...
The anomeric effect more accurately called the endo-anomeric effect is the propensity for heteroatoms at C-1 to be oriented ... The physical forces that dictate the three-dimensional shapes of all molecules-here, of all monosaccharide, oligosaccharide, ... conformational analysis of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides requires consideration additional factors. Exo-anomeric effect ...
All N-linked oligosaccharides originate from a common lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) precursor, synthesized in the ER on a ... A congenital disorder of glycosylation (previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome) is one of several rare ... Once transferred to the protein chain, the oligosaccharide is trimmed by specific glycosidases. This process is vital since the ... A biologically very important group of carbohydrates is the asparagine (Asn)-linked, or N-linked, oligosaccharides. Their ...
Pectate lyase is responsible for the eliminative cleavage of pectate, yielding oligosaccharides with 4-deoxy-α-D-mann-4- ... Kojima K, Ogawa H, Hijikata A, Matsumoto I (1994). "Antigenicity of the oligosaccharide moiety of the Japanese cedar ( ... Allergies are hypersensitivity reactions of the immune system to specific substances called allergens (such as pollen, ... This enzyme catalyzes the chemical reaction Eliminative cleavage of (1→4)-α-D-galacturonan to give oligosaccharides with 4- ...
The tuber and the flower are also full of mono and oligosaccharide. The tuber has more monosaccharides and oligosaccharides ... Apios americana, sometimes called the potato bean, hopniss, Indian potato, hodoimo, America-hodoimo, American groundnut,or ... which they call Schoneschironon" and an illustration of tubers is found in the Paris Documents with the explanation, "This is ... wild plant there called hodoimo (Apios fortunei) that was occasionally eaten as an emergency food. It is believed that sometime ...
As a normal human digestive tract does not contain any anti-oligosaccharide enzymes, consumed oligosaccharides are typically ... Seeds called "beans" are often included among the crops called "pulses" (legumes),[1] although a narrower prescribed sense of " ... Native Americans customarily grew them along with corn and squash (the so-called Three Sisters)[5], with the tall cornstalks ... Broad beans, also called fava beans, in their wild state the size of a small fingernail, were gathered in Afghanistan and the ...
When a few (around three to six) monosaccharides are joined, it is called an oligosaccharide (oligo- meaning "few"). These ... or oligosaccharides. The combined pathways of glycolysis during exercise, lactate's crossing via the bloodstream to the liver, ... If the amino group is removed from an amino acid, it leaves behind a carbon skeleton called an α-keto acid. Enzymes called ... The resulting molecule is called a dipeptide, and short stretches of amino acids (usually, fewer than thirty) are called ...
OligosaccharidesEdit. Oligosaccharides are sugar containing polymers. In the membrane, they can be covalently bound to lipids ... This transfer is catalyzed by enzymes called flippases. In the plasma membrane, flippases transfer specific phospholipids ... "General N-and O-Linked Glycosylation of Lipoproteins in Mycoplasmas and Role of Exogenous Oligosaccharide". PLoS ONE. 10 (11 ... Most organelles are defined by such membranes, and are called "membrane-bound" organelles. ...
Tight junctions, also called zonula occludens, are the most important components of the intenstinal epithelium for its barrier ... which is a loose network composed of the oligosaccharide side chains of integral membrane hydrolases and other enzymes ... which is composed of oligosaccharides attached to membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids. Six different cell types are produced ... Adherens junctions, also called zonula adherens, are multiprotein complexes formed by proteins of the catenin and cadherin ...
This formula was called SMA for "simulated milk adapted." In the late 1920s, Alfred Bosworth released Similac (for "similar to ... Human milk contains a variety of oligosaccharides believed to be an important factor in the pattern of microflora colonization ... Because of variety, variability, complexity and polymorphism of the oligosaccharide composition and structure, it is currently ... Calls for national infant formula recall spread: Worried parents look for guidance after traces of melamine found, posted by ...
Oligosaccharides can be formed by a small number of monosaccharides linked together. Higher oligosaccharides are called ... This concept is illustrated by an oligosaccharide synthesis in Scheme 1. Oligosaccharide synthesis normally consists of four ... but to oligosaccharides structures of glycoconjugates. Therefore, the oligosaccharide synthesis becomes more and more important ... Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, are carbohydrates which can not be converted into smaller sugars by hydrolysis. ...
Mannan oligosaccharides have been widely evaluated in feeding trials. As animal health and performance are influenced by many ... This mucus is produced in specific cells called goblet cells. In general the number of goblet cells is an indicator of mucus ... Mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) based nutritional supplements are widely used in nutrition as a natural additive. MOS have been ... and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on European lobster (Homarus gammarus L.) larvae growth performance, gut morphology and gut ...
Depending on the type of oligosaccharide, different bacterial groups are stimulated or suppressed. Clinical studies have shown ... I could call it the simple carb diet. I would give preference to monosaccharides because I am lactose-intolerant (which is a ... yet its basically fructo-oligosaccharides. And I have to take probiotics as well. I dont know if I have a problem with carbs ... wikipedia) Is that why you have to eat the scd yoghurt? Is that enough? ...
Its sweet flavor comes from the oligofructose inulin (also called fructo-oligosaccharide).. So now the questions is: Is it ... And from Wikipedia...Jícama is high in carbohydrates in the form of dietary fiber. It is composed of 86-90% water; it contains ... The surface oligosaccharides of these worms have been found to mimic human oligosaccharides and alter immune responses by ... Helminth oligosaccharides mimic human cell surface oligosaccharides and bind to carbohydrate-binding, lectin, receptors on ...
... - noun Any of a class of cyclic oligosaccharides consisting of glucopyranose residues linked as in amylose; ... Cyclodextrin - Cyclodextrins (sometimes called cycloamyloses) are a family of compounds made up of sugar molecules bound ... cyclodextrin - ˌ noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary cycl + dextrin : any of a class of cyclic oligosaccharide ... Wikipedia ... together in a ring (cyclic oligosaccharides). Cyclodextrins are ...
There are two main types of Oligosaccharides: *N-linked Oligosaccharide: In N-linked oligosaccharides, GlcNAc is variably β- ... Polysaccharides (also called Glycans), the chemical formula is written as Cn(H2O)n-1, for which 200 , n , 2500, or (C6H10O5)n, ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ethyl-glucoside.png The stereochemistry of the bond is based on the position of the ... Sequencing of Oligosaccharides: To determine the structures of oligosaccharide and their points of attachment, Berg et al.,[1] ...
Oligosaccharides contain between three and 20 linked sugars, but they qualify as complex carbohydrates. Some products include ... From wikipedia (Yes I know its not fact therefore but come on its close) ... "Maltodextrin is a corn-derived oligosaccharide source of carbohydrates, and it is commonly added to commercial ready-made ... maltodextrin as a sweetener because it is not technically a sugar, allowing companies to call their products "sugar-free." ...
... sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within Much of biochemistry deals with the structures ... When a few around three to six monosaccharides are joined, it is called an oligosaccharide oligo- meaning "few". ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the journals, see Biochemistry journal and Biological Chemistry journal. ... or oligosaccharides. The combined pathways of glycolysis during exercise, lactates crossing via the bloodstream to the liver, ...
A fluid containing the contents of lysed cells is called a lysate [...More...] "Lysis" on:. Wikipedia. Google. Yahoo. Parouse. ... Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and ... even if the carbohydrate is only an oligosaccharide.[2] Glycans usually consist solely of O-glycosidic linkages of ... A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or biose[1]) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined ...
Many aspects of biochemistry and physiology have to do with the breakdown and synthesis of simple sugars, oligosaccharides, and ... In the so-called complete oxidations, CO2 is the only excreted end product. In incomplete oxidations, characteristic of the ... The simple sugars reach the intestine or are produced there through the digestion of oligosaccharides. They are absorbed by the ... Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to Carbohydrate Metabolism: glycolysis ...
Monosaccharides can be linked together into what are called polysaccharides (or oligosaccharides) in a large variety of ways. ... This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here). Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; ... Glycoproteins are proteins which contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains. The ... Oligosaccharides (3-9) Malto-oligosaccharides. Maltodextrins Other oligosaccharides. Raffinose, stachyose, fructo- ...
Main articles: Oligosaccharide and Polysaccharide. Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are composed of longer chains of ... Monosaccharides with three carbon atoms are called trioses, those with four are called tetroses, five are called pentoses, six ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Carbohydrate". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ... The resulting possible pair of stereoisomers are called anomers. In the α anomer, the -OH substituent on the anomeric carbon ...
Often, oligosaccharides have additional functional groups that give them special properties. Many oligosaccharides are ... New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World ... The repeating units of polysaccharides are simple sugars called monosaccharides. There are two categories of sugars: aldosugars ... The human blood groups (ABO) obtain their specificity from oligosaccharide polymers. Polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are giant ...
... also called a DOUBLE SUGAR or BIOSE ) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic ... Wikipedia. Google. Yahoo. Reducing Agent. A REDUCING AGENT (also called a REDUCTANT or REDUCER) is an element (such as calcium ... oligosaccharides , and polysaccharides ). The most common types of disaccharides-sucrose , lactose , and maltose -have twelve ... Wikipedia. Google. Yahoo. Site Map How To Use theinfolist.com. The "Did you know" Game. How To Research a Report, Essay or ...
Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. When a few (around three to six) monosaccharides are joined together, it is called an ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Biochemistry". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ... oligosaccharide (oligo- meaning "few"). These molecules tend to be used as markers and signals, as well as having some other ... Some combinations of amino acids will tend to curl up in a coil called an α-helix or into a sheet called a β-sheet; some α- ...
They are called plant based, microbial and fungal. Of all the choices, plant based enzymes are the most active or potent. This ... Oligosaccharides, which are a form of carbohydrates, stimulate good bacteria growth for the body. foods high in Raffinose ( ... carbohydrates) and Atachyose are part of Oligosaccharide Foods highest in raffinose and stachyose English peas, soybeans and ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phytic_acid. Phytic acid attaches to toxins and removes them.. http://books.google.com/books?id= ...
Oligosaccharides. Oligosaccharides are sugar containing polymers. In the membrane, they can be covalently bound to lipids to ... This transfer is catalyzed by enzymes called flippases. In the plasma membrane, flippases transfer specific phospholipids ... "General N-and O-Linked Glycosylation of Lipoproteins in Mycoplasmas and Role of Exogenous Oligosaccharide". PLoS ONE. 10 (11 ... Most organelles are defined by such membranes, and are called "membrane-bound" organelles. ...
With 2-10 amino acids such chains are called peptides, with 10-100 they are often called polypeptides, and longer chains are ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Biomolecule". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ... Shorter polysaccharides, with 2-15 monomers, are sometimes known as oligosaccharides. Lipids Lipids are chiefly fatty acid ... Glycolipids, whose heads contain an oligosaccharide with 1-15 saccharide residues. *Phospholipids, whose heads contain a ...
Natural saccharides are generally of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general formula (CH2O)n where n is three ... As a rule of thumb, polysaccharides contain more than ten monosaccharide units, whereas oligosaccharides contain three to ten ... Oligosaccharide nomenclature. *Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria. References. *^ Varki A, Cummings R, Esko J, Freeze H, ... Called dietary fiber, these carbohydrates enhance digestion among other benefits. The main action of dietary fiber is to change ...
... oligosaccharides, called heparin. Heparin is commonly secreted by mast cells as these cells secrete their companion molecule ... Wikipedia has a good explanation of fats and fatty acids. What is important here is what fatty acids are (long chains of carbon ... The glycerol with three attached fatty acids is called a triglyceride or fat. The fatty acids (also called soap) can be removed ... The HIV protein called TAT is secreted from HIV-infected cells bound to HSPG. As the bound TAT is swept from one end of the ...
hh is a rare blood group also called Bombay Blood group. This blood phenotype was first discovered in Bombay, now known as ... The resulting antigens are oligosaccharide chains, which are attached to lipids and proteins that are anchored in the RBC ... The specificity of the H antigen is determined by the sequence of oligosaccharides. More specifically, the minimum requirement ... Individuals with the rare Bombay phenotype (hh) do not express H antigen (also called substance H the antigen which is present ...
When a few (around three to six) monosaccharides are joined, it is called an oligosaccharide (oligo- meaning "few"). These ... or oligosaccharides. The combined pathways of glycolysis during exercise, lactates crossing via the bloodstream to the liver, ... If the amino group is removed from an amino acid, it leaves behind a carbon skeleton called an α-keto acid. Enzymes called ... The resulting molecule is called a dipeptide, and short stretches of amino acids (usually, fewer than thirty) are called ...
... plant-derived carbohydrate compounds called oligosaccharides are the main source of prebiotics that have been identified.[4][6] ... 7] Specifically, fructans and galactans are two oligosaccharide sources which have been found to stimulate the activity and ... Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. ... An endogenous source of prebiotics in humans is human breast milk, which contains oligosaccharides structurally similar to GOS ...
Beta-mannosidosis, also called lysosomal beta-mannosidase deficiency,[5] is a disorder of oligosaccharide metabolism caused by ... Urine testing to identify abnormal oligosaccharides is a useful screening test, and enzymatic analysis or molecular testing can ... it being a lysosomal enzyme catalyzing and thus involved in degradation route for N-linked oligosaccharide moieties( ...
Cello-oligosaccharides can be chemically reduced through the action of sodium borohydride to produce their corresponding sugar ... Enzymes that cleave lignin have occasionally been called cellulases, but this old usage is deprecated; they are lignin- ... These methods involve the use of functionalised oligosaccharide substrates in the presence of an ancillary enzyme. In the ... Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. ...
  • This triplet that provides binding to heparin is found, for example in the nasty HIV protein, called TAT that moves on heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) from infected to uninfected human cells and paves the way for the spread of infection. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • For example, the aldohexose glucose may form a hemiacetal linkage between the hydroxyl on carbon 1 and the oxygen on carbon 4, yielding a molecule with a 5-membered ring, called glucofuranose. (lariwagije.tk)
  • This explains why formula, which lacks these unique oligosaccharides, results in aberrant gut flora, contributes to neonatal necrotizing colitis and supports the development of allergies and autoimmune diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • In contrast, judicious use of self or Helminth oligosaccharides may provide a means of restoring the function of damaged immune systems and therapy for allergies and autoimmune diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • But although a high fat diet supplemented with mannan oligosaccharide in mice reduced food intake, there was no significant effect on body weight, total fat, or visceral fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or homoglycan , but when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are called heteropolysaccharides or heteroglycans . (bioscience.ws)