Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Expectorants: Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Respiratory Tract DiseasesGuaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Adolescent Medicine: A branch of medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases occurring during the period of ADOLESCENCE.Abortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Schools: Educational institutions.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Scapegoating: Process in which the mechanisms of projection or displacement are utilized in focusing feelings of aggression, hostility, frustration, etc., upon another individual or group; the amount of blame being unwarranted.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Guilt: Subjective feeling of having committed an error, offense or sin; unpleasant feeling of self-criticism. These result from acts, impulses, or thoughts contrary to one's personal conscience.Mandatory Testing: Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Los AngelesMeasles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Lunch: The meal taken at midday.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.

Analysis with a combination of macrorestriction endonucleases reveals a high degree of polymorphism among Bordetella pertussis isolates in eastern France. (1/815)

From 1990 to 1996, routine screening for whooping cough identified 399 patients with a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase-positive test result and yielded 69 Bordetella pertussis isolates. None of the patients were fully vaccinated, and most were less than 6 months old. Analysis of total DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after XbaI, SpeI, or DraI macrorestriction yielded 19, 15, and 5 different patterns, respectively, whereas ribotyping failed to demonstrate any strain polymorphism. Discrimination among the isolates was improved by combining the PFGE profiles. Some patterns were more frequent, but the corresponding patients were not clearly epidemiologically related. The patterns for two strains obtained during a 3-month period from patients who were neighbors differed by the length of a single DNA fragment. These data strongly suggest that one type of isolate is widely spread throughout the world and is carried by individuals other than patients who develop a true illness.  (+info)

Serum IgG antibody responses to pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin in nonvaccinated and vaccinated children and adults with pertussis. (2/815)

Levels of IgG antibody to pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) were measured in paired serum samples from 781 patients fulfilling at least one laboratory criterion for pertussis that was suggested by an ad hoc committee sponsored by the World Health Organization. The patients were participants or family members of participants in a double-blind efficacy trial of a monocomponent pertussis toxoid vaccine. Of 596 nonvaccinated children, 90% had significant (two-fold or more) rises in PT IgG and FHA IgG levels. Only 17 (32%) of 53 children previously vaccinated with three doses of pertussis toxoid had rises in PT IgG levels because they already had elevated PT IgG levels in their acute-phase serum samples. PT IgG and FHA IgG levels were significantly higher in acute-phase serum samples from 29 adults than in acute-phase serum samples from the nonvaccinated children. Nevertheless, significant rises in levels of PT IgG (79% of samples) and FHA IgG (90%) were demonstrated in adults. In conclusion, assay of PT IgG and FHA IgG in paired serum samples is highly sensitive for diagnosing pertussis in nonvaccinated individuals. Assay of PT IgG levels in paired sera is significantly less sensitive for diagnosis of pertussis for children vaccinated with pertussis toxoid.  (+info)

Evidence of efficacy of the Lederle/Takeda acellular pertussis component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine but not the Lederle whole-cell component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine against Bordetella parapertussis infection. (3/815)

A subanalysis of a recent cohort efficacy trial of a pertussis vaccine was performed to determine its efficacy against cough illnesses due to Bordetella parapertussis infections. Infants received four doses of either the Lederle/Takeda acellular pertussis component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTaP) vaccine or the Lederle whole-cell component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTP) vaccine at 3, 4.5, 6, and 15-18 months of age; controls received three doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) vaccine only. All subjects were prospectively followed for cough illnesses of > or = 7 days' duration; cases of B. parapertussis infection were confirmed by positive culture, household contact, or serology. Seventy-six cough illnesses due to B. parapertussis were identified; 24 occurred in 929 DTaP recipients, 37 in 937 DTP recipients, and 15 in 321 DT recipients, resulting in an efficacy of 50% for DTaP vaccine (95% CI [confidence interval], 5% to 74%) and 21% for DTP vaccine (95% CI, -45% to 56%). The data in the present analysis suggest that the Lederle/Takeda DTaP vaccine but not the Lederle whole-cell component DTP vaccine has efficacy against B. parapertussis infection.  (+info)

Capture-recapture method for estimating misclassification errors: application to the measurement of vaccine efficacy in randomized controlled trials. (4/815)

BACKGROUND: The measure of efficacy is optimally performed by randomized controlled trials. However, low specificity of the judgement criteria is known to bias toward lower estimation, while low sensitivity increases the required sample size. A common technique for ensuring good specificity without a drop in sensitivity is to use several diagnostic tests in parallel, with each of them being specific. This approach is similar to the more general situation of case-counting from multiple data sources, and this paper explores the application of the capture-recapture method for the analysis of the estimates of efficacy. METHOD: An illustration of this application is derived from a study on the efficacy of pertussis vaccines where the outcome was based on > or =21 days of cough confirmed by at least one of three criteria performed independently for each subject: bacteriology, serology, or epidemiological link. Log-linear methods were applied to these data considered as three sources of information. RESULTS: The best model considered the three simple effects and an interaction term between bacteriology and epidemiological linkage. Among the 801 children experiencing > or =21 days of cough, it was estimated that 93 cases were missed, leading to a corrected total of 413 confirmed cases. The relative vaccine efficacy estimated from the same model was 1.50 (95% confidence interval: 1.24-1.82), similar to the crude estimate of 1.59 and confirming better protection afforded by one of the two vaccines. CONCLUSION: This method allows supporting analysis to interpret primary estimates of vaccine efficacy.  (+info)

Pertussis is increasing in unimmunized infants: is a change in policy needed? (5/815)

The proportion and trend in absolute number of pertussis notifications in young infants has increased each year in England and Wales since the accelerated immunization schedule was introduced. We report five infants all less than 3 months of age admitted with life threatening pertussis infection to two paediatric intensive care units. Despite aggressive cardiorespiratory support measures, three of the infants died. Pertussis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in unimmunized infants. In this age group presentation is likely to be atypical and infection more severe. Public health measures to prevent the disease could be strengthened. Chemoprophylaxis should be offered to susceptible contacts and booster vaccinations against pertussis considered.  (+info)

Respiratory diseases among U.S. military personnel: countering emerging threats. (6/815)

Emerging respiratory disease agents, increased antibiotic resistance, and the loss of effective vaccines threaten to increase the incidence of respiratory disease in military personnel. We examine six respiratory pathogens (adenoviruses, influenza viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis) and review the impact of the diseases they cause, past efforts to control these diseases in U.S. military personnel, as well as current treatment and surveillance strategies, limitations in diagnostic testing, and vaccine needs.  (+info)

Bordetella holmesii-like organisms isolated from Massachusetts patients with pertussis-like symptoms. (7/815)

We isolated Bordetella holmesii, generally associated with septicemia in patients with underlying conditions, from nasopharyngeal specimens of otherwise healthy young persons with a cough. The proportion of B. holmesii-positive specimens submitted to the Massachusetts State Laboratory Institute increased from 1995 to 1998.  (+info)

Stochastic dynamics and a power law for measles variability. (8/815)

Since the discovery of a power law scaling between the mean and variance of natural populations, this phenomenon has been observed for a variety of species. Here, we show that the same form of power law scaling also occurs in measles case reports in England and Wales. Remarkably this power law holds over four orders of magnitude. We consider how the natural experiment of vaccination affects the slope of the power law. By examining simple generic models, we are able to predict the effects of stochasticity and coupling and we propose a new phenomenon associated with the critical community size.  (+info)

  • Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a vaccine-preventable respiratory illness caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis . (
  • Experts recommend that pregnant women receive the Tdap vaccine during their pregnancy in order to protect newborns from pertussis, also known as whooping cough. (
  • Modern vaccinations nearly wiped it out, but the stubborn disease, commonly known as whooping cough, has reemerged in recent years. (
  • Boren believed Brody had pertussis - commonly known as whooping cough, While doctors claimed it was unlikely due to the rarity of the disease, Borsen persevered - and doctors tested the child for it. (
  • But a combination of Andes' medical background (she's an assistant professor of global health at the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University ) and a mother's intuition told her something else was tormenting her son - pertussis, also known as whooping cough. (
  • Nearly twice as many cases of pertussis, commonly known as whooping cough, were reported in California during the first quarter this year compared to last year. (
  • Residents in Lake County and surrounding areas are being alerted by health officials to an outbreak of pertussis, commonly known as whooping cough. (
  • The 1,200 students in the Madison-Plains Local School District got an extra-long Thanksgiving break after officials confirmed 25 cases of pertussis, known as whooping cough. (
  • Despite high vaccine coverage in many developed countries, pertussis - otherwise known as whooping cough - has made a comeback in recent years. (
  • WEAU) - The Clark County Health Department says there have been 12 confirmed cases of pertussis, also known as whooping cough, in the Thorp area. (
  • Clinical laboratory sciences professor Delfina C. Domínguez, Ph.D., (left) and chemistry assistant professor XiuJun (James) Li, Ph.D., (right) have collaborated to develop a low-cost, paper-based biochip to detect pertussis, also known as whooping cough, in medically underserved or low-resource settings. (
  • Stay up to date on studies that support the safe and effective use of the Tdap vaccine in pregnant women and other strategies to prevent whooping cough in babies. (
  • But it wasn't until the late 1940s, scientists developed a vaccine effective enough to prevent whooping cough. (
  • Fortunately, a vaccine is available to prevent whooping cough. (
  • Caused by the Bordatella pertussis bacterium, pertussis sometimes is called the 100-day cough due to the prolonged illness it can cause. (
  • It's used to estimate antibody levels directed against a toxin produced by the bacterium and is suitable for assisting in the diagnosis of those patients who have been coughing for more than two weeks and are suspected of having whooping cough. (
  • Much of the illness around right now and being reported as whooping cough may be caused by a related bacterium called B. Parapertussis. (
  • The bacterium that causes whooping cough was first isolated in Belgium in 1906. (
  • The bacterium that causes whooping cough started to look a little different. (
  • But the cough rapidly progressed to the characteristic whoop or yelp in rapids succession or paroxysms. (
  • Later symptoms include the gradual onset of coughing, which develops into fits of rapid coughs, sometimes with a classic inspiratory whoop as the patient gasps for air, and sometimes with post-coughing vomiting and exhaustion. (
  • But a week or two later, an infected person may develop fits of rapid coughs followed by a loud 'whooping' sound. (
  • The disease then progresses to the paroxysmal stage, which can last one to six weeks, and often consists of numerous and rapid coughs with the classic 'whoop' sound . (
  • Later, at age 11 or 12, your child will get an additional dose of whooping cough protection as part of the TdaP vaccine. (
  • When the Tdap vaccine was first licensed in 2005, it was advised to be given after birth due to fears that newborns could inadvertently receive whooping cough from it. (
  • And then you're getting the Tdap shot which includes the whooping cough. (
  • The announcement was prompted by a confirmation of at least one case of whooping cough in a Flambeau student. (
  • The Cardinal School District in Eldon also reports a case of whooping cough at the high school. (
  • Dr. Granville states, "without presumption," that in almost every case of whooping-cough this medicine, given early, removes the disease (p. 64), and Dr. Hamilton Roe, in a special treatise (1838), records equally excellent results. (
  • A severe case of whooping cough or pneumonia in a young child could result in seizures, brain damage or death. (
  • Last year, Morrow County reported just one case of whooping cough, a 16-year-old. (
  • Call the doctor if you suspect that your child has whooping cough. (
  • you should always see your doctor if you think your child has whooping cough. (
  • Protection against whooping cough starts to weaken a few years after preschool children get their final shot, according to a U.S. study, meaning that some children may be at risk of developing the disease before they can get a booster shot. (
  • However, children who get DT will not receive any protection against whooping cough. (
  • Whooping cough is spread through the air, making it particularly infectious. (
  • The news that Ebola may have been allowed into Washington, DC and that a case of deadly whooping cough has been diagnosed in a DC suburb* would have been enough to shake any normal American government into following our existing health and infectious disease laws for all immigrants and visitors to the U.S. and closing our county s borders. (
  • Whooping cough is infectious from the first sneezes and throughout the course of the disease, which can last for up to eight weeks. (
  • Whooping cough is highly infectious and can be passed from one person to another very quickly and easily through droplets, which are expelled when you cough or sneeze. (
  • People are infectious from the start of symptoms until about three weeks into the coughing fits. (
  • During a 5-month period between September 2013 and January 2014, 26 preschoolers, two staff members and 11 family members of the students or staff at the facility in Leon County came down with whooping cough , according to a report of the outbreak published today (Jan. 13) in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases. (
  • Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases has audio of "whooping cough. (
  • If you have whooping cough you are infectious from 7 days after being exposed to the illness, and up until 3 weeks after severe coughing attacks began. (
  • Omar Gonzalez of North Richland Hills, Texas, has become a believer in the vaccine, even though his fully vaccinated 11-year-old son caught whooping cough three years ago. (
  • A mom's warning is going viral on social media after her unvaccinated son caught whooping cough. (
  • Physicians described the first outbreaks of whooping cough in the 16th century. (
  • This may partly explain recent outbreaks of whooping cough among the highly vaccinated U.S. population, in which 95 percent of children have received at least five doses of pertussis vaccine between two months and six years old. (
  • However, you're much less likely to get whooping cough if you've been vaccinated, and if you do catch it the symptoms are normally milder. (
  • An important thing to remember is the kids who do receive all five doses on time generally have milder (whooping cough) than those who are under-vaccinated or unvaccinated,' Tartof told Reuters Health. (
  • Children who have been vaccinated can still get whooping cough but it will usually be much milder than for a child who has not been vaccinated. (
  • Some very young children with whooping cough require treatment in the hospital because of slowed or stopped breathing, or pneumonia. (
  • Whooping cough can even lead to cracked ribs, pneumonia, or hospitalization. (
  • In Great Britain, immunization rates for whooping cough dropped from over 80 percent to 33 percent (and in some regions to less than 10 percent) from 1974 to 1977. (
  • In the past, whooping cough was largely controlled by infant and childhood immunization. (
  • Of the 621 people who got whooping so far this year, 527 were up-to-date, 67 were not, and the immunization status was unknown for 27. (
  • Within the next few years, the incidence of whooping cough started rising again, a pattern that has been repeated in several other counties-including England, Canada, Australia, Ireland, and Spain-that made the same switch. (
  • The star, who plays young Princess Diana, explained that the early end to filming finally gave her a chance to recover from whooping cough, which she battled throughout the production. (